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Sample records for aerobic conditions oxygen

  1. Microbial Degradation of Fuel Oxygenates under Aerobic Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    hydrogens . The carbon – oxygen – carbon structure is not easily broken (Dekant 2001). As a result, MTBE resists microbial degradation and has slow...alcohols and ethers. Alcohols are produced from aliphatic hydrocarbons by replacing one or more hydrogen with a hydroxyl group (Cunill 1993). They...ethylene and an acid catalyst. Alcohols are typically very soluble in water due to the polarity of the oxygen- hydrogen bond. This solubility can

  2. System-level approach to studying oxygen stress and acclimation of Shewanella oneidensis to growth under aerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliaev, A.

    2008-12-01

    Systems-level approaches have been proven extremely useful in elucidating the mechanisms involved in stress response and acclimation of microorganisms to different environments. Recent studies of Shewanella oneidensis, a dissimilatory metal reducer catalyzing biogeochemical cycling of Fe and Mn, demonstrate that this facultatively aerobic bacterium is inhibited by high concentrations of oxygen. Physiological and genomic studies demonstrated that growth under aerobic conditions triggers autoaggregation of S. oneidensis leading to significant physiological and morphological changes which are consistent with biofilm mode of growth. Global transcriptome profiling of the aggregates revealed coordinated upregulation of various attachment and adhesion factors which is governed through coordinate regulation by the RpoS, SpoIIA, and Crp transcription factors. The aerobic aggregated cells also revealed increased expression of putative anaerobic electron transfer and homologs of metal reduction genes. The experimental evidence indicates that aggregate formation in S. oneidensis may serve as an alternative or an addition to biochemical detoxification to reduce the oxidative stress associated with production of reactive oxygen species during aerobic metabolism while facilitating the development of hypoxic conditions within the aggregate interior.

  3. Influence of sludge retention time and temperature on the sludge removal in a submerged membrane bioreactor: comparative study between pure oxygen and air to supply aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Reboleiro-Rivas, P; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Poyatos, J M

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a bench-scale wastewater treatment plant, which consisted of a membrane bioreactor, was monitored daily using pure oxygen and air to supply aerobic conditions with the aim of studying the increases of the aeration and sludge removal efficiencies and the effect of the temperature. The results showed the capacity of membrane bioreactor systems for removing organic matter. The alpha-factors of the aeration were determined for six different MLSS concentrations in order to understand the system working when pure oxygen and air were used to supply aerobic conditions in the system. Aeration efficiency was increased between 30.7 and 45.9% when pure oxygen was used in the operation conditions (a hydraulic retention time of 12 h and MLSS concentrations between 4,018 and 11,192 mg/L). Sludge removal efficiency increased incrementally, from 0.2 to 1.5% when pure oxygen was used at low sludge retention time and from 1.5% to 15.4% at medium sludge retention time when temperature conditions were lower than 20°C. Moreover, the difference between calculated and experimental sludge retention time was lesser when pure oxygen was used to provide aerobic conditions, so the influence of the temperature decreased when the pure oxygen was used. These results showed the convenience of using pure oxygen due to the improvement in the performance of the system.

  4. Kinetic study and oxygen transfer efficiency evaluation using respirometric methods in a submerged membrane bioreactor using pure oxygen to supply the aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco A; Poyatos, José M; Reboleiro-Rivas, Patricia; Osorio, Francisco; González-López, Jesús; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2011-05-01

    The performance of a wastewater bench-scale ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment plant using pure oxygen to supply the aerobic conditions for 95 days was studied. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material under a hydraulic retention time of 12h and a sludge retention time of 39.91 days. Aeration represents its major power input; this is why the alpha-factor of the aeration and kinetic parameters (design parameters) were determined when the mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS) was increased from 3420 to 12,600 mg/l in order to understand the system. An alpha-factor in the range 0.462-0.022 and the kinetic parameters measured with the respirometric method (K(M) of 73.954-3.647 mg/l, k(d) of 0.0142-0.104 day(-1), k(H) of 0.1266-0.655 day(-1), and the yield mean coefficient of 0.941) were obtained. Our study suggested significant changes in the behaviour of the biological system when the concentration of MLSS was increased.

  5. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%.

  6. Aerobic Biodegradation of Fuel Oxygenates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    microbial attack. MTBE is a colorless flammable liquid with a distinct taste and odor (ATSDR, 1997). MTBE’s very low taste and odor threshold, at...based oxygenates chemical structure is characterized by the addition of a hydroxyl (O-H) group bonded to an alkyl group. This removal of a hydrogen and...OSHA, 1996). Once TBA reaches its melting point of 25.6o C (78.1o F) it forms a flammable, volatile, clear liquid . The presence of TBA in many

  7. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  8. The rise of oxygen and aerobic biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mak A

    2012-01-11

    Analysis of conserved protein folding domains across extant genomes by Kim et al. in this issue of Structure provides insights into the timing of some of the earliest aerobic metabolisms to arise on Earth.

  9. Degradation of toxaphene in water during anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    LacayoR, M; van Bavel, B; Mattiasson, B

    2004-08-01

    The degradation of technical toxaphene in water with two kinds of bioreactors operating in sequence was studied. One packed bed reactor was filled with Poraver (foam glass particles) running at anaerobic conditions and one suspended carrier biofilm reactor working aerobically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen, total toxaphene and specific toxaphene isomers were measured. After 6 weeks approx. 87% of the total toxaphene was degraded reaching 98% by week 39. The majority of the conversion took place in the anaerobic reactor. The concentrations of toxaphene isomers with more chlorine substituents decreased more rapidly than for isomers with less chlorine substituents.

  10. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  11. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  12. Biotransformation of phytosterols under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Christy M; Giles, Hamilton D; Banerjee, Sujit; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-07-01

    Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols present in pulp and paper wastewater and have been implicated in the endocrine disruption of aquatic species. Bioassays were performed to assess the effect of an additional carbon source and/or solubilizing agent on the aerobic biotransformation of a mixture of three common phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol). The aerobic biotransformation of the phytosterol mixture by a mixed culture developed from a pulp and paper wastewater treatment system was examined under three separate conditions: with phytosterols as the sole added carbon source, with phytosterols and dextrin as an additional carbon source, and with phytosterols added with ethanol as an additional carbon source and solubilizing agent. Significant phytosterol removal was not observed in assays set up with phytosterol powder, either with or without an additional carbon source. In contrast, all three phytosterols were aerobically degraded when added as a dissolved solution in ethanol. Thus, under the experimental conditions of this study, the bioavailability of phytosterols was limited without the presence of a solubilizing agent. The total phytosterol removal rate was linear for the first six days before re-spiking, with a rate of 0.47 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.998). After the second spiking, the total phytosterol removal rate was linear for seven days, with a rate of 0.32 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.968). Following the 7th day, the phytosterol removal rate markedly accelerated, suggesting two different mechanisms are involved in phytosterol biotransformation, more likely related to the production of enzyme(s) involved in phytosterol degradation, induced under different cell growth conditions. β-sitosterol was preferentially degraded, as compared to stigmasterol and campesterol, although all three phytosterols fell below detection limits by the 24th day of incubation.

  13. Butyrate production under aerobic growth conditions by engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Naoya; Vangnai, Alisa S; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2017-01-11

    Butyrate is an important industrial platform chemical. Although several groups have reported butyrate production under oxygen-limited conditions by a native producer, Clostridium tyrobutylicum, and by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, efforts to produce butyrate under aerobic growth conditions have met limited success. Here, we constructed a novel butyrate synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic growth conditions in E. coli, by modifying the 1-butanol synthetic pathway reported previously. The pathway consists of phaA (acetyltransferase) and phaB (NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) from Ralstonia eutropha, phaJ ((R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae, ter (trans-enoyl-CoA reductase) from Treponema denticola, and endogenous thioesterase(s) of E. coli. To evaluate the potential of this pathway for butyrate production, culture conditions, including pH, oxygen supply, and concentration of inorganic nitrogen sources, were optimized in a mini-jar fermentor. Under the optimal conditions, butyrate was produced at a concentration of up to 140 mM (12.3 g/L in terms of butyric acid) after 54 h of fed-batch culture.

  14. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  15. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  16. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  17. Effects of aerobic conditioning in lupus fatigue: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robb-Nicholson, L C; Daltroy, L; Eaton, H; Gall, V; Wright, E; Hartley, L H; Schur, P H; Liang, M H

    1989-12-01

    Fatigue, a complex symptom, significantly affects the quality of life in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To understand this phenomenon, 23 patients with SLE and fatigue were studied. Standardized tests of depression (NIMH), fatigue, exercise tolerance (ETT) on a bicycle ergometer, and SLE activity were obtained. At baseline, SLE patients had significantly lower maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) than normals (p less than 0.005). Adjusted for age and sex, SLE patients perform at 54% of their expected maximum VO2, which is similar to published data from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Depression by NIMH was not correlated with VO2 max or length of time on ETT. Fatigue measured by Profile of Mood States (POMS) was correlated with ETT time (r = 0.476, p less than 0.025) and with VO2 max (r = -0.402, p less than 0.07). After an 8-week aerobic conditioning programme the experimental group increased their aerobic capacity by 19% in contrast to 8% in controls. This change correlated with decreased fatigue as measured by visual analogue scales. Exercise did not exacerbate disease, and only two of 16 experimental subjects experienced transient joint symptoms during exercise.

  18. Hydrogen evolution by strictly aerobic hydrogen bacteria under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, M; Steinbüchel, A; Schlegel, H G

    1984-08-01

    When strains and mutants of the strictly aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus are grown heterotrophically on gluconate or fructose and are subsequently exposed to anaerobic conditions in the presence of the organic substrates, molecular hydrogen is evolved. Hydrogen evolution started immediately after the suspension was flushed with nitrogen, reached maximum rates of 70 to 100 mumol of H2 per h per g of protein, and continued with slowly decreasing rates for at least 18 h. The addition of oxygen to an H2-evolving culture, as well as the addition of nitrate to cells (which had formed the dissimilatory nitrate reductase system during the preceding growth), caused immediate cessation of hydrogen evolution. Formate is not the source of H2 evolution. The rates of H2 evolution with formate as the substrate were lower than those with gluconate. The formate hydrogenlyase system was not detectable in intact cells or crude cell extracts. Rather the cytoplasmic, NAD-reducing hydrogenase is involved by catalyzing the release of excessive reducing equivalents under anaerobic conditions in the absence of suitable electron acceptors. This conclusion is based on the following experimental results. H2 is formed only by cells which had synthesized the hydrogenases during growth. Mutants lacking the membrane-bound hydrogenase were still able to evolve H2. Mutants lacking the NAD-reducing or both hydrogenases were unable to evolve H2.

  19. Experimental Limiting Oxygen Concentrations for Nine Organic Solvents at Temperatures and Pressures Relevant to Aerobic Oxidations in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Applications of aerobic oxidation methods in pharmaceutical manufacturing are limited in part because mixtures of oxygen gas and organic solvents often create the potential for a flammable atmosphere. To address this issue, limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) values, which define the minimum partial pressure of oxygen that supports a combustible mixture, have been measured for nine commonly used organic solvents at elevated temperatures and pressures. The solvents include acetic acid, N-methylpyrrolidone, dimethyl sulfoxide, tert-amyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, methanol, acetonitrile, and toluene. The data obtained from these studies help define safe operating conditions for the use of oxygen with organic solvents. PMID:26622165

  20. Antibacterial Action of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Chitosan Oligosaccharides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reighard, Katelyn P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides were modified with N-diazeniumdiolates to yield biocompatible nitric oxide (NO) donor scaffolds. The minimum bactericidal concentrations and MICs of the NO donors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Differential antibacterial activities were primarily the result of NO scavenging by oxygen under aerobic environments and not changes in bacterial physiology. Bacterial killing was also tested against nonmucoid and mucoid biofilms and compared to that of tobramycin. Smaller NO payloads were required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Under oxygen-free environments, the NO treatment was 10-fold more effective at killing biofilms than tobramycin. These results demonstrate the potential utility of NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. PMID:26239983

  1. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sedlock, Darlene A; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Flynn, Michael G; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kamimori, Gary H

    2010-08-01

    Literature examining the effects of aerobic exercise training on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is sparse. In this study, 9 male participants (19-32 yr) trained (EX) for 12 wk, and 10 in a control group (CON) maintained normal activity. VO(2max), rectal temperature (T(re)), epinephrine, norepinephrine, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, glucose, blood lactate (BLA), and EPOC were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. EPOC at PRE was measured for 120 min after 30 min of treadmill running at 70% VO(2max). EX completed 2 EPOC trials at POST, i.e., at the same absolute (ABS) and relative (REL) intensity; 1 EPOC test for CON served as both the ABS and REL trial because no significant change in VO(2max) was noted. During the ABS trial, total EPOC decreased significantly (p < .01) from PRE (39.4 ± 3.6 kcal) to POST (31.7 ± 2.2 kcal). T(re), epinephrine, insulin, glucose, and BLA at end-exercise or during recovery were significantly lower and FFA significantly higher after training. Training did not significantly affect EPOC during the REL trial; however, epinephrine was significantly lower, and norepinephrine and FFA, significantly higher, at endexercise after training. Results indicate that EPOC varies as a function of relative rather than absolute metabolic stress and that training improves the efficiency of metabolic regulation during recovery from exercise. Mechanisms for the decreased magnitude of EPOC in the ABS trial include decreases in BLA, T(re), and perhaps epinephrine-mediated hepatic glucose production and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

  2. Degradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil, Prajeesh; Vijaya Nadaraja, Anupama; Bhasi, Arya; Khan, Sudheer; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2012-07-01

    Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyl diphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent present in a number of house hold consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from different inoculum sources. Biodegradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic (denitrifying and sulphate reducing conditions), and anaerobic conditions was studied in batch cultures with isolated pure strains and enrichment consortium developed. Under aerobic conditions, the isolated strains tolerated triclosan up to 1 g/L and degraded the compound in inorganic-mineral-broth and agar media. At 10 mg/L level triclosan, 95 ± 1.2% was degraded in 5 days, producing phenol, catechol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol as the degradation products. The strains were able to metabolize triclosan and its degradation products in the presence of monooxygenase inhibitor 1-pentyne. Under anoxic/anaerobic conditions highest degradation (87%) was observed in methanogenic system with acetate as co-substrate and phenol, catechol, and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were among the products. Three of the isolated strains tolerating 1 g/L triclosan were identified as Pseudomonas sp. (BDC 1, 2, and 3).

  3. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  4. Aerobic biosynthesis of hydrocinnamic acids in Escherichia coli with a strictly oxygen-sensitive enoate reductase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Lin, Yuheng; Shen, Xiaolin; Jain, Rachit; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    3-Phenylpropionic acid (3PPA) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (HPPA) are important commodity aromatic acids widely used in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Currently, 3PPA and HPPA are mainly manufactured through chemical synthesis, which contains multiple steps involving toxic solvents and catalysts harmful to environment. Therefore, replacement of such existing petroleum-derived approaches with simple and environmentally friendly biological processes is highly desirable for manufacture of these chemicals. Here, for the first time we demonstrated the de novo biosynthesis of 3PPA and HPPA using simple carbon sources in E. coli by extending the cinnamic acids biosynthesis pathways through biological hydrogenation. We first screened 11 2-enoate reductases (ER) from nine microorganisms, leading to efficient conversion of cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to 3PPA and HPPA, respectively. Surprisingly, we found a strictly oxygen-sensitive Clostridia ER capable of functioning efficiently in E. coli even under aerobic conditions. On this basis, reconstitution of the full pathways led to the de novo production of 3PPA and HPPA and the accumulation of the intermediates (cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid) with cell toxicity. To address this problem, different expression strategies were attempted to optimize individual enzyme׳s expression level and minimize intermediates accumulation. Finally, the titers of 3PPA and HPPA reached 366.77mg/L and 225.10mg/L in shake flasks, respectively. This study not only demonstrated the potential of microbial approach as an alternative to chemical process, but also proved the possibility of using oxygen-sensitive enzymes under aerobic conditions.

  5. Emission of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the aerobic decomposition of orange wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming

    2015-07-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted from orange wastes during aerobic decomposition were investigated in a laboratory-controlled incubator for a period of two months. Emission of total OVOCs (TOVOCs) from orange wastes reached 1714 mg/dry kg (330 mg/wet kg). Ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were the most abundant OVOC species with shares of 26.9%, 24.8%, 20.3%, 13.9%, 2.8% and 2.5%, respectively, in the TOVOCs released. The emission fluxes of the above top five OVOCs were quite trivial in the beginning but increased sharply to form one "peak emission window" with maximums at days 1-8 until leveling off after 10 days. This type of "peak emission window" was synchronized with the CO2 fluxes and incubation temperature of the orange wastes, indicating that released OVOCs were mainly derived from secondary metabolites of orange substrates through biotic processes rather than abiotic processes or primary volatilization of the inherent pool in oranges. Acetaldehyde instead had emission fluxes decreasing sharply from its initial maximum to nearly zero in about four days, suggesting that it was inherent rather than secondarily formed. For TOVOCs or all OVOC species except 2-butanone and acetone, over 80% of their emissions occurred during the first week, implying that organic wastes might give off a considerable amount of OVOCs during the early disposal period under aerobic conditions.

  6. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  7. Aerobic deterioration stimulates outgrowth of spore-forming Paenibacillus in corn silage stored under oxygen-barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Giorgio; Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spores in silage is of great concern to dairy producers because their spores can survive pasteurization and some strains are capable of subsequently germinating and growing under refrigerated conditions in pasteurized milk. The objectives of this study were to verify the role of aerobic deterioration of corn silage on the proliferation of Paenibacillus spores and to evaluate the efficacy of oxygen-barrier films used to cover silage during fermentation and storage to mitigate these undesirable bacterial outbreaks. The trial was carried out on whole-crop maize (Zea mays L.) inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium. A standard polyethylene film and a polyethylene-polyamide film with an enhanced oxygen barrier were used to produce the silage bags for this experiment. The silos were stored indoors at ambient temperature (18 to 22°C) and opened after 110 d. The silage was sampled after 0, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 d of aerobic exposure to quantify the growth of endospore-forming bacteria during the exposure of silages to air. Paenibacillus macerans (gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria) was able to develop during the aerobic exposure of corn silage. This species was present in the herbage at harvesting, together with clostridial spores, and survived ensiling fermentation; it constituted more than 60% of the anaerobic spore formers at silage opening. During silage spoilage, the spore concentration of P. macerans increased to values greater than 7.0 log10 cfu/g of silage. The use of different plastic films to seal silages affected the growth of P. macerans and the number of spores during aerobic exposure of silages. These results indicate that the number of Paenibacillus spores could greatly increase in silage after exposure to air, and that oxygen-barrier films could help to reduce the potential for silage contamination of this important group of milk spoilage

  8. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN.

  9. Silvering and swimming effects on aerobic metabolism and reactive oxygen species in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Amérand, Aline; Mortelette, Hélène; Belhomme, Marc; Moisan, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Silvering, the last metamorphosis in the eel life cycle induces morphological and physiological modifications in yellow eels (sedentary stage). It pre-adapts them to cope with the extreme conditions they will encounter during their 6000-km spawning migration. A previous study showed that silver eels are able to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-production linked to an increase in aerobic metabolism during sustained swimming, but the question remains as to whether this mechanism is associated with silvering. A sustained swimming session decreased red muscle in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption (MO2) but increased ROS production in both eel stages. The swimming exercise used here was perhaps too intense to induce a stimulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis even when antioxidant enzyme activities were unchanged. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance by lipid peroxidation increased in yellow but significantly decreased in silver eels. The silvering process therefore appears to allow a pre-adaptation of red muscle radical metabolism to the demands of spawning migration.

  10. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  11. Culturing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mammalian cells with a microfluidic differential oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond H W; Kim, Min-Cheol; Thorsen, Todd

    2009-07-15

    In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel network functioning as an oxygen-nitrogen mixer generates differential oxygen concentration. By controlling the relative flow rate of the oxygen and nitrogen input gases, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in proximal microchannels filled with culture media are precisely regulated by molecular diffusion. Sensors consisting of an oxygen-sensitive dye embedded in the fluid channels permit dynamic fluorescence-based monitoring of the DO concentration using low-cost light-emitting diodes. To demonstrate the general utility of the platform for both aerobic and anaerobic culture, three bacteria with differential oxygen requirements (E. coli, A. viscosus, and F. nucleatum), as well as a model mammalian cell line (murine embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3)), were cultured. Growth characteristics of the selected species were analyzed as a function of eight discrete DO concentrations, ranging from 0 ppm (anaerobic) to 42 ppm (fully saturated).

  12. Comparison of Proteomics Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Strain Bf under Microaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ramila C.; Haddad, Nabila; Chevret, Didier; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the clinical C. jejuni strain Bf was singled out for its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression, and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake, and regulation, and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection. PMID:27790195

  13. The interrelationship between muscle oxygenation, muscle activation, and pulmonary oxygen uptake to incremental ramp exercise: influence of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jan; Barstow, Thomas J; Celie, Bert; Prieur, Fabrice; Bourgois, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether muscle and ventilatory responses to incremental ramp exercise would be influenced by aerobic fitness status by means of a cross-sectional study with a large subject population. Sixty-four male students (age: 21.2 ± 3.2 years) with a heterogeneous peak oxygen uptake (51.9 ± 6.3 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1), range 39.7-66.2 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed an incremental ramp cycle test (20-35 W·min(-1)) to exhaustion. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was recorded, and muscle activation and oxygenation were measured with surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The integrated electromyography (iEMG), mean power frequency (MPF), deoxygenated [hemoglobin and myoglobin] (deoxy[Hb+Mb]), and total[Hb+Mb] responses were set out as functions of work rate and fitted with a double linear function. The respiratory compensation point (RCP) was compared and correlated with the breakpoints (BPs) (as percentage of peak oxygen uptake) in muscle activation and oxygenation. The BP in total[Hb+Mb] (83.2% ± 3.0% peak oxygen uptake) preceded (P < 0.001) the BP in iEMG (86.7% ± 4.0% peak oxygen uptake) and MPF (86.3% ± 4.1% peak oxygen uptake), which in turn preceded (P < 0.01) the BP in deoxy[Hb+Mb] (88.2% ± 4.5% peak oxygen uptake) and RCP (87.4% ± 4.5% peak oxygen uptake). Furthermore, the peak oxygen uptake was significantly (P < 0.001) positively correlated to the BPs and RCP, indicating that the BPs in total[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.66; P < 0.001), deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.76; P < 0.001), iEMG (r = 0.61; P < 0.001), MPF (r = 0.63; P < 0.001), and RCP (r = 0.75; P < 0.001) occurred at a higher percentage of peak oxygen uptake in subjects with a higher peak oxygen uptake. In this study a close relationship between muscle oxygenation, activation, and pulmonary oxygen uptake was found, occurring in a cascade of events. In subjects with a higher aerobic fitness level this cascade occurred at a higher relative intensity.

  14. Aerobic condition increases carotenoid production associated with oxidative stress tolerance in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that a part of lactic acid bacteria can produce carotenoid, little is known about the regulation of carotenoid production. The objective of this study was to determine whether aerobic growth condition influences carotenoid production in carotenoid-producing Enterococcus gilvus. Enterococcus gilvus was grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its growth was slower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. The decrease in pH levels and production of lactic acid were also lower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, the amount of carotenoid pigments produced by E. gilvus was significantly higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. Further, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression level of carotenoid biosynthesis genes crtN and crtM when E. gilvus was grown under aerobic conditions was 2.55-5.86-fold higher than when it was grown under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, after exposure to 16- and 32-mM H2O2, the survival rate of E. gilvus grown under aerobic conditions was 61.5- and 72.5-fold higher, respectively, than when it was grown under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic growth conditions significantly induced carotenoid production and the expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in E. gilvus, resulting in increased oxidative stress tolerance.

  15. pH-dependent degradation of p-nitrophenol by sulfidated nanoscale zerovalent iron under aerobic or anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Tang, Lin; Feng, Haopeng; Zeng, Guangming; Dong, Haoran; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Binbin; Deng, Yaocheng; Wang, Jiajia; Zhou, Yaoyu

    2016-12-15

    Sulfidated nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-NZVI) is attracting considerable attention due to its easy production and high reactivity to pollutants. We studied the reactivity of optimized S-NZVI (Fe/S molar ratio 6.9), comparing with pristine nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI), at various pH solutions (6.77-9.11) towards p-nitrophenol (PNP) under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Studies showed that the optimized extent of sulfidation could utterly enhance PNP degradation compared to NZVI. Batch experiments indicated that in anoxic S-NZVI systems the degradation rate constant increased with increasing pH up to 7.60, and then declined. However, in aerobic S-NZVI, and in anoxic or aerobic NZVI systems, it decreased as pH increased. It was manifested that anoxic S-NZVI systems preferred to weaker alkaline solutions, whereas aerobic S-NZVI systems performed better in acidic solutions. The highest TOC removal efficiency of PNP (17.59%) was achieved in the aerobic S-NZVI system at pH 6.77, revealing that oxygen improved the degradation of PNP by excessive amounts of hydroxyl radicals in slightly acidic conditions, and the TOC removal efficiency was supposed to be further improved in moderate acidic solutions. Acetic acid, a nontoxic ring opening by-product, confirms that the S-NZVI system could be a promising process for industrial wastewater containing sulfide ions.

  16. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Jiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor. During the operating period, it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly. Unlike the existing hypothesis, the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions. When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L, low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments. When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone, where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate, they underwent denitrification. However, when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions, denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation. Hence, in order to avoid filamentous bulking, the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L, or alternatively, the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO(3-)-N/g SS.

  17. A novel open-type biosensor for the in-situ monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand in an aerobic environment

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ookawa, Natsuki; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Harumi; Katayose, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a widely used index of water-quality assessment. Since bioelectrochemical BOD biosensors require anaerobic conditions for anodic reactions, they are not directly used in aerobic environments such as aeration tanks. Normally, the BOD biosensors are closed-type, where the anode is packed inside a closed chamber to avoid exposure to oxygen. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical open-type biosensor was designed for in-situ monitoring of BOD during intermittent aeration. The open-type anode, without any protection against exposure to oxygen, was directly inserted into an intermittently aerated tank filled with livestock wastewater. Anodic potential was controlled using a potentiostat. Interestingly, this novel biosensor generated similar levels of current under both aerating and non-aerating conditions, and showed a logarithmic correlation (R2 > 0.9) of current with BOD concentrations up to 250 mg/L. Suspended solids in the wastewater attached to and covered the whole anode, presumably leading to the production of anaerobic conditions inside the covered anode via biological oxygen removal. Exoelectrogenic anaerobes (Geobacter spp.) were detected inside the covered anode using the 16S-rRNA gene. This biosensor will have various practical applications, such as the automatic control of aeration intensity and the in-situ monitoring of natural water environments. PMID:27917947

  18. Presence of oxygen and aerobic communities from sea floor to basement in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Steven; Inagaki, Fumio; Zarikian, Carlos Alvarez; Abrams, Lewis J.; Dubois, Nathalie; Engelhardt, Tim; Evans, Helen; Ferdelman, Timothy; Gribsholt, Britta; Harris, Robert N.; Hoppie, Bryce W.; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kim, Jinwook; Lynch, Jill E.; McKinley, Claire C.; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Morono, Yuki; Murray, Richard W.; Pockalny, Robert; Sauvage, Justine; Shimono, Takaya; Shiraishi, Fumito; Smith, David C.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Steinsbu, Bjorn Olav; Suzuki, Yohey; Szpak, Michal; Toffin, Laurent; Uramoto, Goichiro; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ziebis, Wiebke

    2015-04-01

    The depth of oxygen penetration into marine sediments differs considerably from one region to another. In areas with high rates of microbial respiration, O2 penetrates only millimetres to centimetres into the sediments, but active anaerobic microbial communities are present in sediments hundreds of metres or more below the sea floor. In areas with low sedimentary respiration, O2 penetrates much deeper but the depth to which microbial communities persist was previously unknown. The sediments underlying the South Pacific Gyre exhibit extremely low areal rates of respiration. Here we show that, in this region, microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence to depths of at least 75 metres below sea floor. Based on the Redfield stoichiometry of dissolved O2 and nitrate, we suggest that net aerobic respiration in these sediments is coupled to oxidation of marine organic matter. We identify a relationship of O2 penetration depth to sedimentation rate and sediment thickness. Extrapolating this relationship, we suggest that oxygen and aerobic communities may occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global sea floor. Subduction of the sediment and basalt from these regions is a source of oxidized material to the mantle.

  19. Scaling matters: incorporating body composition into Weddell seal seasonal oxygen store comparisons reveals maintenance of aerobic capacities.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) haul-out on the ice in October/November (austral spring) for the breeding season and reduce foraging activities for ~4 months until their molt in the austral fall (January/February). After these periods, animals are at their leanest and resume actively foraging for the austral winter. In mammals, decreased exercise and hypoxia exposure typically lead to decreased production of O2-carrying proteins and muscle wasting, while endurance training increases aerobic potential. To test whether similar effects were present in marine mammals, this study compared the physiology of 53 post-molt female Weddell seals in the austral fall to 47 pre-breeding females during the spring in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Once body mass and condition (lipid) were controlled for, there were no seasonal changes in total body oxygen (TBO2) stores. Within each season, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were negatively correlated with animal size, and larger animals had lower mass-specific TBO2 stores. But because larger seals had lower mass-specific metabolic rates, their calculated aerobic dive limit was similar to smaller seals. Indicators of muscular efficiency, myosin heavy chain composition, myoglobin concentrations, and aerobic enzyme activities (citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) were likewise maintained across the year. The preservation of aerobic capacity is likely critical to foraging capabilities, so that following the molt Weddell seals can rapidly regain body mass at the start of winter foraging. In contrast, muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of anaerobic metabolism, exhibited seasonal plasticity in this diving top predator and was lowest after the summer period of reduced activity.

  20. Rapid detection of a gfp-marked Enterobacter aerogenes under anaerobic conditions by aerobic fluorescence recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui; Lou, Kai

    2005-08-15

    A gfp- and kanamycin-resistance gene-containing plasmid pUCGK was successfully constructed and transformed into Enterobacter aerogenes to develop a rapid GFP-based method for quantifying the bacterial concentration under anaerobic conditions for production of biohydrogen. Since the use of GFP as a molecular reporter is restricted by its requirement for oxygen in the development of the fluorophore, fluorescence detection for the fluorescent E. aerogenes grown anaerobically for hydrogen production was performed by developing a method of aerobic fluorescence recovery (AFR) of the anaerobically expressed GFP. By using this AFR method, rapid and non-disruptive cell quantification of E. aerogenes by fluorescence density was achieved for analyzing the hydrogen production process.

  1. Aerobic carboxydotrophy under extremely haloalkaline conditions in Alkalispirillum/Alkalilimnicola strains isolated from soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Kovaleva, Olga L; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2010-03-01

    Aerobic enrichments from soda lake sediments with CO as the only substrate resulted in the isolation of five bacterial strains capable of autotrophic growth with CO at extremely high pH and salinity. The strains belonged to the Alkalispirillum/Alkalilimnicola cluster in the Gammaproteobacteria, where the ability to oxidize CO, but not growth with CO, has been demonstrated previously. The growth with CO was possible only at an oxygen concentration below 5 % and CO concentration below 20 % in the gas phase. The isolates were also capable of growth with formate but not with H(2). The carboxydotrophic growth occurred within a narrow pH range from 8 to 10.5 (optimum at 9.5) and a broad salt concentration from 0.3 to 3.5 M total Na(+) (optimum at 1.0 M). Cells grown on CO had high respiration activity with CO and formate, while the cells grown on formate actively oxidized formate alone. In CO-grown cells, CO-dehydrogenase (CODH) activity was detectable both in soluble and membrane fractions, while the NAD-independent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) resided solely in membranes. The results of total protein profiling and the failure to detect CODH with conventional primers for the coxL gene indicated that the CO-oxidizing enzyme in haloalkaliphilic isolates might differ from the classical aerobic CODH complex. A single cbbL gene encoding the RuBisCO large subunit was detected in all strains, suggesting the presence of the Calvin cycle of inorganic carbon fixation. Overall, these results demonstrated the possibility of aerobic carboxydotrophy under extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  2. Aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation response to maximal exercise in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Oussaidene, Kahina; Prieur, Fabrice; Tagougui, Semah; Abaidia, Abdelbasset; Matran, Regis; Mucci, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether the aerobic fitness level modifies the cerebral oxygenation response to incremental ramp exercise, and more specifically the decline in cerebral oxygenation from heavy exercise up to maximal intensities. 11 untrained (VO2max 47.3±4.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) and 13 endurance-trained (VO2max 61.2±8.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) healthy men performed a maximal ramp cycle exercise. Left prefrontal cortex oxygenation (ΔHbO2) was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. A cerebral oxygenation threshold decline (ThCOx) during exercise was determined. ThCox occurred in all subjects but for higher VO2 (mL min(-1) kg(-1)) in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (P<0.01). At submaximal exercise intensity corresponding to ThCOx, ΔHbO2 was higher in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (P<0.05). VO2 at ThCox was related to VO2 at respiratory compensation point (n=24, r=0.93, P<0.001) and to VO2max (n=24, r=0.92, P<0.001). These findings indicate that above the respiratory compensation point the prefrontal O2 demand exceeds the supply in untrained and in endurance-trained subjects. In addition, the occurrence of ThCOx was delayed to higher absolute exercise intensities in endurance-trained in relation with their higher VO2max than untrained men. These results demonstrated that aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation during exercise.

  3. Estimating time-variable aerobic respiration in the streambed by combining electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, Michael; Kurz, Marie J.; Trauth, Nico; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Aerobic respiration is an important component of in-stream metabolism. The larger part occurs in the streambed, where it is difficult to directly determine actual respiration rates. Existing methods for determining respiration are based on indirect estimates from whole-stream metabolism or provide time invariant results estimated from oxygen consumption measurements in enclosed chambers that do not account for the influence of hydrological changes. In this study we demonstrate a simple method for determining time-variable hyporheic respiration. We use a windowed cross-correlation approach for deriving time-variable travel times from the naturally changing electrical conductivity signal that is transferred into the sediment. By combining the results with continuous in situ dissolved oxygen measurements, variable oxygen consumption rate coefficients in the streambed are obtained. An empirical temperature relationship is derived and used for standardizing the respiration rate coefficients to isothermal conditions. For demonstrating the method, we compare two independent measurement spots in the streambed, which were located upstream and downstream of an in-stream gravel bar and thus exposed strongly diverse travel times. The derived respiration rate results are in accordance with findings of other stream studies. By comparing the travel time and respiration rate coefficient (i.e., Damköhler number) we estimate the contribution of each to the oxygen consumption in the streambed.

  4. Effect of the process conditions of aerobic bioconversion on the characteristics of biologically processed brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-04-15

    The effect of the laboratory and pilot process conditions of the aerobic bioconversion of brown coals on the elemental composition and technical characteristics of the organic matter of the resulting biologically processed coals is reported.

  5. Microbial Dynamics during Aerobic Exposure of Corn Silage Stored under Oxygen Barrier or Polyethylene Films▿

    PubMed Central

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm3 m−2 per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log10 CFU g−1, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  6. Microbial dynamics during aerobic exposure of corn silage stored under oxygen barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm³ m⁻² per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure.

  7. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in the oxygen uptake during aerobic wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Avilés, Pabel; Brito, Elcia M. S.; Duran, Robert; Martínez, Arodí Bernal; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán

    2016-07-01

    The increased use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in everyday products indicates the importance of studying NPs release to the wastewater and its possible effect on biological process for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the presence of ZnO NPs in aerobic wastewater treatment. The results indicated that the oxygen uptake rate of microorganisms is inhibited for concentrations higher than 473 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs. The diversity of microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment was reduced in presence of ZnO NPs. Related to morphological interaction between ZnO NPs and suspended biomass, physical damage in flocs structure were observed in presence of ZnO NPs. However, the internalization of Zn compounds in microorganisms not presented mechanical damage in the membrane cell. These findings suggest that inhibition in oxygen uptake was caused for negative effect that ZnO NPs induces in aerobic microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment.

  8. Hexokinase II acts through UCP3 to suppress mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and maintain aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Dumouchel, Tyler; Aguer, Céline; deKemp, Rob; Beanlands, Rob; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2011-07-15

    UCP3 (uncoupling protein-3) mitigates mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies have also examined UCP3 effects, including decreased ROS production, during metabolic states when fatty acid oxidation is high (e.g. a fasting state). However, the role of UCP3 when carbohydrate oxidation is high (e.g. fed state) has remained largely unexplored. In the present study, we show that mitochondrial-bound HK (hexokinase) II curtails oxidative stress and enhances aerobic metabolism of glucose in the fed state in a UCP3-dependent manner. Genetic knockout or inhibition of UCP3 significantly decreased mitochondrial-bound HKII. Furthermore, UCP3 was required for the HKII-mediated decrease in mitochondrial ROS emission. Intriguingly, the UCP3-mediated modulation of mitochondria-associated HKII was only observed in cells cultured under high-glucose conditions. UCP3 was required to maintain high rates of aerobic metabolism in high-glucose-treated cells and in muscle of fed mice. Deficiency in UCP3 resulted in a metabolic shift that favoured anaerobic glycolytic metabolism, increased glucose uptake and increased sensitivity to oxidative challenge. PET (positron emission tomography) of [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake confirmed these findings in UCP3-knockout and wild-type mice. Collectively, our findings link the anti-oxidative and metabolic functions of UCP3 through a surprising molecular connection with mitochondrial-bound HKII.

  9. Microbial metabolism of pyridine, quinoline, acridine, and their derivatives under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, J P; Feng, Y; Bollag, J M

    1996-01-01

    Our review of the metabolic pathways of pyridines and aza-arenes showed that biodegradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds occurs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Depending upon the environmental conditions, different types of bacteria, fungi, and enzymes are involved in the degradation process of these compounds. Our review indicated that different organisms are using different pathways to biotransform a substrate. Our review also showed that the transformation rate of the pyridine derivatives is dependent on the substituents. For example, pyridine carboxylic acids have the highest transformation rate followed by mono-hydroxypyridines, methylpyridines, aminopyridines, and halogenated pyridines. Through the isolation of metabolites, it was possible to demonstrate the mineralization pathway of various heterocyclic aromatic compounds. By using 14C-labeled substrates, it was possible to show that ring fission of a specific heterocyclic compound occurs at a specific position of the ring. Furthermore, many researchers have been able to isolate and characterize the microorganisms or even the enzymes involved in the transformation of these compounds or their derivatives. In studies involving 18O labeling as well as the use of cofactors and coenzymes, it was possible to prove that specific enzymes (e.g., mono- or dioxygenases) are involved in a particular degradation step. By using H2 18O, it could be shown that in certain transformation reactions, the oxygen was derived from water and that therefore these reactions might also occur under anaerobic conditions. PMID:8840783

  10. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process at high carbon to nitrogen ratios under micro-aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Zhang, Ruo-Chen; Xu, Xi-Jun; Fang, Ning; Wang, Ai-Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-11

    The success of denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes, which simultaneously degrade sulfide, nitrate and organic carbon in the same reactor, counts on synergetic growths of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers. Feeding wastewaters at high C/N ratio would stimulate overgrowth of heterotrophic bacteria in the DSR reactor so deteriorating the growth of autotrophic denitrifiers. The DSR tests at C/N=1.26:1, 2:1 or 3:1 and S/N =5:6 or 5:8 under anaerobic (control) or micro-aerobic conditions were conducted. Anaerobic DSR process has <50% sulfide removal with no elemental sulfur transformation. Under micro-aerobic condition to remove <5% sulfide by chemical oxidation pathway, 100% sulfide removal is achieved by the DSR consortia. Continuous-flow tests under micro-aerobic condition have 70% sulfide removal and 55% elemental sulfur recovery. Trace oxygen enhances activity of sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria to accommodate properly the wastewater with high C/N ratios.

  11. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH4/CO2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3-1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0-2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH4+CO2% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  12. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2017-03-13

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  13. Basic Regulatory Principles of Escherichia coli's Electron Transport Chain for Varying Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Sebastian G.; Beek, Alexander Ter; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M. Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

  14. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  15. Predicting metal uptake by wetland plants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    van der Welle, Marlies E W; Roelofs, Jan G M; Op Den Camp, Huub J M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2007-04-01

    Metal pollution can be a serious threat to ecosystems at a global scale. Although the bioavailability of potentially toxic metals is determined by many biotic and abiotic factors, including pH and redox potential, total metal concentrations in the soil are used widely to assess or predict toxicity. In the present study we tested the effect of desiccation of soils differing in acidification potential and total heavy metal contamination on the growth and metal uptake of three typical, common wetland species: Caltha palustris, Juncus effusus, and Rumex hydrolapathum. We found that plant growth in wet soils mainly was determined by nutrient availability, though in dry soils the combined effects of acidification and increased metal availability prevailed. Metal uptake under anaerobic conditions was best predicted by the acidification potential (sediment S/[Ca + Mg] ratio), not by total metal concentrations. We propose that this is related to radial oxygen loss by wetland plant roots, which leads to acidification of the rhizosphere. Under aerobic conditions, plant metal uptake was best predicted by the amount of CaCl2-extractable metals. We conclude that total metal concentrations are not suitable for predicting bioavailability and that the above diagnostic parameters will provide insight into biogeochemical processes involved in toxicity assessment and soil policy.

  16. Quantitative proteome and transcriptome analysis of the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Pan, Cuiping; Nickell, Stephan; Mann, Matthias; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nagy, István

    2010-09-03

    A comparative proteome and transcriptome analysis of Thermoplasma acidophilum cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions has been performed. One-thousand twenty-five proteins were identified covering 88% of the cytosolic proteome. Using a label-free quantitation method, we found that approximately one-quarter of the identified proteome (263 proteins) were significantly induced (>2 fold) under anaerobic conditions. Thirty-nine macromolecular complexes were identified, of which 28 were quantified and 15 were regulated under anaerobiosis. In parallel, a whole genome cDNA microarray analysis was performed showing that the expression levels of 445 genes were influenced by the absence of oxygen. Interestingly, more than 40% of the membrane protein-encoding genes (145 out of 335 ORFs) were up- or down-regulated at the mRNA level. Many of these proteins are functionally associated with extracellular protein or peptide degradation or ion and amino acid transport. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome showed only a weak positive correlation between mRNA and protein expression changes, which is indicative of extensive post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in T. acidophilum. Integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data generated hypotheses for physiological adaptations of the cells to anaerobiosis, and the quantitative proteomics data together with quantitative analysis of protein complexes provide a platform for correlation of MS-based proteomics studies with cryo-electron tomography-based visual proteomics approaches.

  17. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  18. Alachlor transformation patterns in aquatic field mesocosms under variable oxygen and nutrient conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, D.W.; Miley, M.K.; Denoyelles, F.; Smith, V.H.; Thurman, E.M.; Carter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Alachlor is one of the most commonly used herbicides in both Europe and North America. Because of its toxic properties, its fate and attenuation in natural waters is practically important. This paper assesses factors that affect alachlor decay rate in aquatic systems using field-scale experimental units. In particular, we used field mesocosms (11.3 m3 outdoor fiberglass tanks) to examine the affect of oxygen level and other factors on decay rate in water columns. This is one of the first studies ever performed where diverse water column conditions have been successfully simulated using common mesocosm-scale facilities. Four treatments were assessed, including aerobic systems (aerobic); low nutrient, oxygen-stratified systems (stratified-LN); moderate nutrient, oxygen-stratified systems (stratified-HN); and anaerobic systems (anaerobic). The lowest half-lives were observed in the anaerobic units (9.7 days) followed by the aerobic (21 days), stratified-HN (22 days), and stratified-LN (46 days) units. Our results indicate that alachlor is transformed most rapidly under anaerobic conditions, although the ambient phosphorus level also appears to influence decay rate. In this study, two common alachlor breakdown products, ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid, were also monitored. Oxanilic acid was produced in greater quantities than ESA under all treatments with the highest levels being produced in the stratified-HN units. In general, our results suggest that previous laboratory data, which indicated that high rates of alachlor decay can occur under oxygen-free methanogenic conditions, is translatable to field-scale applications. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.Alachlor is one of the most commonly used herbicides in both Europe and North America. Because of its toxic properties, its fate and attenuation in natural waters is practically important. This paper assesses factors that affect alachlor decay rate in aquatic systems using field-scale experimental

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in oxygen minimum layer fishes: the role of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Joseph J; Grigsby, Michelle D; Clarke, M Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Zones of minimum oxygen form at intermediate depth in all the world's oceans as a result of global circulation patterns that keep the water at oceanic mid-depths out of contact with the atmosphere for hundreds of years. In areas where primary production is very high, the microbial oxidation of sinking organic matter results in very low oxygen concentrations at mid-depths. Such is the case with the Arabian Sea, with O(2) concentrations reaching zero at 200 m and remaining very low (<0.1 ml O(2)l(-1)) for hundreds of meters below this depth, and in the California borderland, where oxygen levels reach 0.2 ml O(2)l(-1) at 700 m with severely hypoxic (<1.0 ml O(2)l(-1)) waters at depths 300 m above and below that. Despite the very low oxygen, mesopelagic fishes (primarily lanternfishes: Mytophidae) inhabiting the Arabian Sea and California borderland perform a daily vertical migration into the low-oxygen layer, spending daylight hours in the oxygen minimum zone and migrating upward into normoxic waters at night. To find out how fishes were able to survive their daily sojourns into the minimum zone, we tested the activity of four enzymes, one (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) that served as a proxy for anaerobic glycolysis with a conventional lactate endpoint, a second (citrate synthase, CS) that is indicative of aerobic metabolism, a third (malate dehydrogenase) that functions in the Krebs' cycle and as a bridge linking mitochondrion and cytosol, and a fourth (alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH) that catalyzes the final reaction in a pathway where pyruvate is reduced to ethanol. Ethanol is a metabolic product easily excreted by fish, preventing lactate accumulation. The ADH pathway is rarely very active in vertebrate muscle; activity has previously been seen only in goldfish and other cyprinids capable of prolonged anaerobiosis. Activity of the enzyme suite in Arabian Sea and California fishes was compared with that of ecological analogs in the same family and with the same

  20. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  1. Investigating the nitrification and denitrification kinetics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by Paracoccus denitrificans ISTOD1.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Kristina; Singhal, Anjali; Chauhan, D K; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-03-16

    Municipal wastewater contains multiple nitrogen contaminants such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. Two heterotrophic nitrifier and aerobic denitrifiers, bacterial isolates ISTOD1 and ISTVD1 were isolated from domestic wastewater. On the basis of removal efficiency of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, ISTOD1 was selected and identified as Paracoccus denitrificans. Aerobically, NH4(+)-N had maximum specific nitrogen removal rate (Rxi) of 7.6g/gDCW/h and anaerobically, NO3(-)N showed Rxi of 2.5*10(-1)g/g DCW/h. Monod equation described the bioprocess kinetic coefficients, µmax and Ks, obtained by regression. Error functions were calculated to validate the Monod equation experimental data. Aerobic NO3(-)N showed the highest YW of 0.372mg DCW/mg NO3(-)N among the five conditions. ISTOD1 serves as a potential candidate for treating nitrogen rich wastewater using simultaneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification. It can be used in bioaugmentation studies under varied condition.

  2. Overestimate of relative aerobic contribution with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Niessen, M; Chen, X; Hartmann, U

    2015-05-01

    Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) is widely utilized in calculating energy production during supra-maximal exercises. Since its introduction by Medbo et al. in 1988, debate on MAOD existed. The purpose of this review was to summarize the development and description of MAOD and another method of calculating energy production (Pcr-La-O₂). We reviewed similar studies on relative aerobic contribution (O₂%) and analyzed various results of O₂% calculated using MAOD or Pcr-La-O₂. An overestimate of O₂% was found when using MAOD compared to Pcr-La-O₂. The overestimate when using MAOD is likely due to the linear extrapolation of oxygen uptake at supra-maximal intensity, the neglect of anaerobic energy release and the reduced duration of each step in sub-maximal incremental test. Since it is unknown which method provides a more reliable estimation of O₂%, an exponential regression function (y=22.404 * ex + 45.176, where y=O₂% in percentage, x=duration of the supra-maximal exercise in minute) was drawn from the existing data using both methods.

  3. Development of microorganisms in the chernozem under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyanskaya, L. M.; Gorbacheva, M. A.; Milanovskii, E. Yu.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-03-01

    A microbial succession was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by means of experiments with microcosms in different horizons of a chernozem. It was revealed that, under aerobic conditions, all the microorganisms grow irrespective of the soil horizon; fungi and bacteria grow at the first succession stages, and actinomycetes grow at the last stages. It was shown that, in the case of a simulated anaerobiosis commonly used to study anaerobic populations of bacteria, the mycelium of micromycetes grows in the upper part of the chernozem’s A horizon. Under anaerobic conditions, the peak of the mycelium development is shifted from the 3rd to 7th days (typical for aerobic conditions) to the 7th to 15th days of incubation. The level of mycelium length’s stabilization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions also differs: it is higher or lower than the initial one, respectively. Under anaerobic conditions, the growth of fungal mycelium, bacteria, and actinomycetes in the lower part of the A horizon and in the B horizon is extremely weak. There was not any observed growth of actinomycetes in all the chernozem’s horizons under anaerobic conditions.

  4. Nitrous oxide production by Alcaligenes faecalis under transient and dynamic aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, S.; Grobben, N.G.; Robertson, L.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Nitrous oxide production contributes to both greenhouse effect and ozone depletion in the stratosphere. A significant part of the global N2O emission can be attributed to microbial processes, especially nitrification and denitrification, used in biological wastewater treatment systems. This study looks at the efficiency of denitrification and the enzymes involved, with the emphasis on N2O production during the transient phase from aerobic to anaerobic conditions and vice versa. The effect of repetitive changing aerobic-anaerobic conditions on N2O was also studied. Alcaligenes faecalis was used as the model denitrofing organism. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Differential Isotopic Fractionation during Cr(VI) Reduction by an Aquifer-Derived Bacterium under Aerobic versus Denitrifying Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

    2012-01-27

    We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Finally, despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) cometabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε was ~2‰ aerobically and ~0.4‰ under denitrifying conditions).

  6. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  7. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  8. Construction of CoA-dependent 1-butanol synthetic pathway functions under aerobic conditions in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Naoya; Vangnai, Alisa S; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Tajima, Takahisa; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Kato, Junichi

    2015-06-20

    1-Butanol is an important industrial platform chemical and an advanced biofuel. While various groups have attempted to construct synthetic pathways for 1-butanol production, efforts to construct a pathway that functions under aerobic conditions have met with limited success. Here, we constructed a CoA-dependent 1-butanol synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic conditions in Escherichia coli, by expanding the previously reported (R)-1,3-butanediol synthetic pathway. The pathway consists of phaA (acetyltransferase) and phaB (NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) from Ralstonia eutropha, phaJ ((R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae, ter (trans-enoyl-CoA reductase) from Treponema denticola, bld (butylraldehyde dehydrogenase) from Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum, and inherent alcohol dehydrogenase(s) from E. coli. To evaluate the potential of this pathway for 1-butanol production, culture conditions, including volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) and pH were optimized in a mini-jar fermenter. Under optimal conditions, 1-butanol was produced at a concentration of up to 8.60gL(-1) after 46h of fed-batch cultivation.

  9. Availability of O2 as a substrate in the cytoplasm of bacteria under aerobic and microaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Arras, T; Schirawski, J; Unden, G

    1998-04-01

    The growth rates of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 and mt-2 on benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, or 4-methylbenzoate showed an exponential decrease with decreasing oxygen tensions (partial O2 tension [pO2] values). The oxygen tensions resulting in half-maximal growth rates were in the range of 7 to 8 mbar of O2 (corresponding to 7 to 8 microM O2) (1 bar = 10(5) Pa) for aromatic compounds, compared to 1 to 2 mbar for nonaromatic compounds like glucose or succinate. The decrease in the growth rates coincided with excretion of catechol or protocatechuate, suggesting that the activity of the corresponding oxygenases became limiting. The experiments directly establish that under aerobic and microaerobic conditions (about 10 mbar of O2), the diffusion of O2 into the cytoplasm occurs at high rates sufficient for catabolic processes. This is in agreement with calculated O2 diffusion rates. Below 10 mbar of O2, oxygen became limiting for the oxygenases, probably due to their high Km values, but the diffusion of O2 into the cytoplasm presumably should be sufficiently rapid to maintain ambient oxygen concentrations at oxygen tensions as low as 1 mbar of O2. The consequences of this finding for the availability of O2 as a substrate or as a regulatory signal in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells are discussed.

  10. Availability of O2 as a Substrate in the Cytoplasm of Bacteria under Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Arras, Tanja; Schirawski, Jan; Unden, Gottfried

    1998-01-01

    The growth rates of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 and mt-2 on benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, or 4-methylbenzoate showed an exponential decrease with decreasing oxygen tensions (partial O2 tension [pO2] values). The oxygen tensions resulting in half-maximal growth rates were in the range of 7 to 8 mbar of O2 (corresponding to 7 to 8 μM O2) (1 bar = 105 Pa) for aromatic compounds, compared to 1 to 2 mbar for nonaromatic compounds like glucose or succinate. The decrease in the growth rates coincided with excretion of catechol or protocatechuate, suggesting that the activity of the corresponding oxygenases became limiting. The experiments directly establish that under aerobic and microaerobic conditions (about 10 mbar of O2), the diffusion of O2 into the cytoplasm occurs at high rates sufficient for catabolic processes. This is in agreement with calculated O2 diffusion rates. Below 10 mbar of O2, oxygen became limiting for the oxygenases, probably due to their high Km values, but the diffusion of O2 into the cytoplasm presumably should be sufficiently rapid to maintain ambient oxygen concentrations at oxygen tensions as low as 1 mbar of O2. The consequences of this finding for the availability of O2 as a substrate or as a regulatory signal in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells are discussed. PMID:9555896

  11. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseini Salekdeh, Ghasem; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated. PMID:26725518

  12. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-04

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated.

  13. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, N. L.; Holt, K. A.; Flachbart, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    Current liquid oxygen feed systems waste propellant and use hardware, unnecessary during flight, to condition the propellant at the engine turbopumps prior to launch. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts are being sought for future launch vehicles. During a joint program, four alternative propellant conditioning options were studied: (1) passive recirculation; (2) low bleed through the engine; (3) recirculation lines; and (4) helium bubbling. The test configuration for this program was based on a vehicle design which used a main recirculation loop that was insulated on the downcomer and uninsulated on the upcomer. This produces a natural convection recirculation flow. The test article for this program simulated a feedline which ran from the main recirculation loop to the turbopump. The objective was to measure the temperature profile of this test article. Several parameters were varied from the baseline case to determine their effects on the temperature profile. These parameters included: flow configuration, feedline slope, heat flux, main recirculation loop velocity, pressure, bleed rate, helium bubbling, and recirculation lines. The heat flux, bleed rate, and recirculation configurations produced the greatest changes from the baseline temperature profile. However, the temperatures in the feedline remained subcooled. Any of the options studied could be used in future vehicles.

  14. Temperature dependent growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Simon, Cedric J; Smith, Gregory G; Carter, Chris G; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2017-05-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on the growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, in order to determine if temperature acclimated aerobic scope correlates with optimum for growth and to establish the thermal tolerance window for this emerging aquaculture species. Juvenile lobsters (initial weight=10.95±0.47g) were reared (n=7) at temperatures from 11.0 to 28.5°C for 145days. All lobsters survived from 14.5 to 25.0°C while survival was reduced at 11.0°C (86%) and all lobsters died at 28.5°C. Lobster specific growth rate and specific feed consumption displayed a unimodal response with temperature, peaking at 21.5°C. Lobster standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates, and aerobic scope all increased exponentially up to maximum non-lethal temperature. Optimum temperature for growth did not correspond to that for maximum aerobic scope suggesting that aerobic scope is not an effective predictor of the thermal optimum of spiny lobsters. Plateauing of specific feed consumption beyond 21.5°C suggests that temperature dependent growth of lobsters is limited by capacity to ingest or digest sufficient food to meet increasing maintenance metabolic demands at high temperatures. The nutritional condition of lobsters was not influenced by temperature and feed conversion ratio was improved at lower temperatures. These findings add to a growing body of evidence questioning the generality of aerobic scope to describe the physiological thermal boundaries of aquatic ectotherms and suggest that feed intake plays a crucial role in regulating performance at thermal extremes.

  15. Bioremediation of BTEX, naphthalene, and phenanthrene in aquifer material using mixed oxygen/nitrate electron acceptor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.P.; D`Adamo, P.C.; Bouwer, E.J.

    1997-10-01

    The primary goal of this research is to further present understanding of the effect of mixed oxygen/nitrate electron acceptor conditions on the biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene. Specific objectives include: (1) identify subsurface microbial cultures with the ability to biodegrade aromatic hydrocarbons under aerobic and anaerobic denitrifying conditions; (2) quantify the stoichiometry and kinetics of biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons under aerobic, anaerobic denitrifying and microaerophilic conditions; and (3) simulate various field bioremediation schemes using different nutrient/electron acceptor delivery schemes.

  16. Effects of aerobic fitness on oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity swimming.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana F; Alves, Francisco B; Bruno, Paula M; Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to characterise both the VO2 kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between VO2 kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), first ventilatory threshold (VT), and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO(2 max)) and (2) two square-wave transitions from rest to heavy-intensity exercise, to determine their VO2 kinetics. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of freestyle swimming using a swimming snorkel. VO2 kinetics was modelled with two exponential functions. The mean values for the incremental test were 56.0 ± 6.0 ml min(-1) kg(-1), 1.45 ± 0.08 m s(-1); and 42.1 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) for VO2 max, vVO(2 max) and VT, respectively. For the square-wave transition, the time constant of the primary phase (sp) averaged 17.3 ± 5.4 s and the relevant slow component (A'sc) averaged 4.8 ± 2.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) [representing 8.9% of the end-exercise VO2 (%A'sc)]. sp was correlated with vVO(2 max) (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), but not with either VO2max (r = 0.05, ns) or VT (r = 0.14, ns). The %A' sc did not correlate with either VO2max (r = -0.14, ns) or vVO(2 max) (r = 0.06, ns), but was inversely related with VT (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). This study was the first to describe the VO2 kinetics in heavy-intensity swimming using specific swimming exercise and appropriate methods. As has been demonstrated in cycling, faster VO2 kinetics allow higher aerobic power outputs to be attained. The slow component seems to be reduced in swimmers with higher ventilatory thresholds.

  17. The Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Fluxome under Various OxygenConditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Hwang, Judy S.; Wemmer, David E.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-03-17

    The central metabolic fluxes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1were examined under carbon-limited (aerobic) and oxygen-limited(micro-aerobic) chemostat conditions using 13C labeled lactate as thesole carbon source. The carbon labeling patterns of key amino acids inbiomass were probed using both GC-MS and 13C-NMR. Based on the genomeannotation, a metabolic pathway model was constructed to quantify thecentral metabolic flux distributions. The model showed that thetricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the major carbon metabolism route underboth conditions. The Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways weremainly utilized for biomass synthesis (flux below 5 percent of thelactate uptake rate). The anapleurotic reactions (pyruvate to malate andoxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate) and the glyoxylate shunt wereactive. Under carbon-limited conditions, a substantial amount of carbonwas oxidized via the highly reversible serine metabolic pathway. Fluxesthrough the TCA cycle were less whereas acetate production was more underoxygen limitation than under carbon limitation. Although fluxdistributions under aerobic, micro-aerobic, and shake-flask cultureconditions were dramatically different, the relative flux ratios of thecentral metabolic reactions did not vary significantly. Hence, S.oneidensis metabolism appears to be quite robust to environmentalchanges. Our study also demonstrates the merit of coupling GC-MS with 13CNMR for metabolic flux analysis to reduce the use of 13C labeledsubstrates and to obtain more accurate flux values.

  18. Expression of a functional oxygen-labile nitrogenase component in the mitochondrial matrix of aerobically grown yeast

    PubMed Central

    López-Torrejón, Gema; Jiménez-Vicente, Emilio; Buesa, José María; Hernandez, Jose A.; Verma, Hemant K.; Rubio, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The extreme sensitivity of nitrogenase towards oxygen stands as a major barrier to engineer biological nitrogen fixation into cereal crops by direct nif gene transfer. Here, we use yeast as a model of eukaryotic cell and show that aerobically grown cells express active nitrogenase Fe protein when the NifH polypeptide is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix together with the NifM maturase. Co-expression of NifH and NifM with Nif-specific Fe–S cluster biosynthetic proteins NifU and NifS is not required for Fe protein activity, demonstrating NifH ability to incorporate endogenous mitochondrial Fe–S clusters. In contrast, expression of active Fe protein in the cytosol requires both anoxic growth conditions and co-expression of NifH and NifM with NifU and NifS. Our results show the convenience of using mitochondria to host nitrogenase components, thus providing instrumental technology for the grand challenge of engineering N2-fixing cereals. PMID:27126134

  19. Expression of a functional oxygen-labile nitrogenase component in the mitochondrial matrix of aerobically grown yeast.

    PubMed

    López-Torrejón, Gema; Jiménez-Vicente, Emilio; Buesa, José María; Hernandez, Jose A; Verma, Hemant K; Rubio, Luis M

    2016-04-29

    The extreme sensitivity of nitrogenase towards oxygen stands as a major barrier to engineer biological nitrogen fixation into cereal crops by direct nif gene transfer. Here, we use yeast as a model of eukaryotic cell and show that aerobically grown cells express active nitrogenase Fe protein when the NifH polypeptide is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix together with the NifM maturase. Co-expression of NifH and NifM with Nif-specific Fe-S cluster biosynthetic proteins NifU and NifS is not required for Fe protein activity, demonstrating NifH ability to incorporate endogenous mitochondrial Fe-S clusters. In contrast, expression of active Fe protein in the cytosol requires both anoxic growth conditions and co-expression of NifH and NifM with NifU and NifS. Our results show the convenience of using mitochondria to host nitrogenase components, thus providing instrumental technology for the grand challenge of engineering N2-fixing cereals.

  20. Comparison of sludge digestion under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with a focus on the degradation of proteins at mesophilic temperature.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liming; Wang, Tianfeng; Li, Tianshui; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are popular methods for the treatment of waste activated sludge. However, the differences in degradation of sludge during aerobic and anaerobic digestion remain unclear. In this study, the sludge degradation during aerobic and anaerobic digestion was investigated at mesophilic temperature, focused on protein based on the degradation efficiency and degree of humification. The duration of aerobic and anaerobic digestion was about 90 days. The final degradation efficiency of volatile solid was 66.1 ± 1.6% and 66.4 ± 2.4% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The final degradation efficiency of protein was 67.5 ± 1.4% and 65.1 ± 2.6% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The degradation models of volatile solids were consistent with those of protein under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The solubility of protein under aerobic digestion was greater than that under anaerobic digestion. Moreover, the humification index of dissolved organic matter of aerobic digestion was greater than that during anaerobic digestion.

  1. Flexible bacterial strains that oxidize arsenite in anoxic or aerobic conditions and utilize hydrogen or acetate as alternative electron donors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2012-02-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic compound widely distributed in the groundwater around the world. The fate of arsenic in groundwater depends on the activity of microorganisms either by oxidizing arsenite (As(III)), or by reducing arsenate (As(V)). Because of the higher toxicity and mobility of As(III) compared to As(V), microbial-catalyzed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) can lower the environmental impact of arsenic. Although aerobic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria are well known, anoxic oxidation of As(III) with nitrate as electron acceptor has also been shown to occur. In this study, three As(III)-oxidizing bacterial strains, Azoarcus sp. strain EC1-pb1, Azoarcus sp. strain EC3-pb1 and Diaphorobacter sp. strain MC-pb1, have been characterized. Each strain was tested for its ability to oxidize As(III) with four different electron acceptors, nitrate, nitrite, chlorate and oxygen. Complete As(III) oxidation was achieved with both nitrate and oxygen, demonstrating the novel ability of these bacterial strains to oxidize As(III) in either anoxic or aerobic conditions. Nitrate was only reduced to nitrite. Different electron donors were used to study their suitability in supporting nitrate reduction. Hydrogen and acetate were readily utilized by all the cultures. The flexibility of these As(III)-oxidizing bacteria to use oxygen and nitrate to oxidize As(III) as well as organic and inorganic substrates as alternative electron donors explains their presence in non-arsenic-contaminated environments. The findings suggest that at least some As(III)-oxidizing bacteria are flexible with respect to electron-acceptors and electron-donors and that they are potentially widespread in low arsenic concentration environments.

  2. Modeling the influence of varying hydraulic conditions on aerobic respiration and denitrification in the hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, N.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Exchange of water and solutes across the stream-sediment interface is an important control for biogeochemical transformations in the hyporheic zone (HZ) with measurable impacts on nutrient cycling and solute attenuation in fluvial systems. Here we investigate the interplay between turbulent stream flow and HZ flow under various hydraulic conditions applied to two cases: a) three-dimensional generic pool-riffle sequences with different morphological properties, and b) a real mid-stream gravel-bar. Stream flow is simulated by the open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM which provides the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed. It is sequentially coupled to the top of the groundwater model code MIN3P, simulating flow, solute transport, aerobic respiration (AR) and denitrification (DN) in the HZ. Flow in the HZ is directly influenced by the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed surface and the ambient groundwater flow. Three reactive transport scenarios are considered: 1) stream water as the primary source of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 2) upwelling groundwater as an additionally source of NO3, and 3) upwelling groundwater as an additional source of DO in various concentrations. Results show an increase in hyporheic exchange flow for increasing stream discharge with a concurrent decrease in residence time. The fraction of circulating stream water through the HZ is in the range of 1x10-5 to 1x10-6 per unit stream length, decreasing with increasing discharge. Ambient groundwater flow in both the up- and downwelling direction diminishes significantly the hyporheic exchange flow and extent. Biogeochemical processes in the HZ are strongly controlled by ambient groundwater flow, even more so than by changes in stream discharge. AR and DN efficiencies of the HZ are significantly reduced by up- and downwelling groundwater and are positively correlated with median residence times. AR occurs in

  3. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψleaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψleaf. Ψleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep

  4. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Oxygen-Tolerant Strain Lactobacillus casei N87

    PubMed Central

    Ianniello, Rocco G.; Matera, Attilio; Genovese, Francesco; Parente, Eugenio; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic and respiratory cultivations provide benefits for some lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Growth, metabolites, enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase; pyruvate and NADH oxidases, NADH peroxidase; catalase), antioxidant capability and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus casei N87 were evaluated in anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory (aerobiosis with heme and menaquinone supplementation) batch cultivations with different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The expression of pox (pyruvate oxidase) and cydABCD operon (cytochrome bd oxidase complex) was quantified by quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction. Respiration increased biomass production compared to anaerobiosis and unsupplemented aerobiosis, and altered the central metabolism rerouting pyruvate away from lactate accumulation. All enzymatic activities, except lactate dehydrogenase, were higher in respiratory cultures, while unsupplemented aerobiosis with 60% of DO promoted H2O2 and free radical accumulation. Respiration improved the survival to oxidative and freeze-drying stresses, while significant numbers of dead, damaged and viable but not cultivable cells were found in unsupplemented aerobic cultures (60% DO). Analysis of gene expression suggested that the activation of aerobic and respiratory pathways occurred during the exponential growth phase, and that O2 and hemin induced, respectively, the transcription of pox and cydABCD genes. Respiratory cultivation might be a natural strategy to improve functional and technological properties of L. casei. PMID:27812097

  5. Unexpected ring-opening reactions of aziridines with aldehydes catalyzed by nucleophilic carbenes under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Kai; Li, Rui; Yue, Lei; Li, Bang-Jing; Chen, Ying-Chun; Wu, Yong; Ding, Li-Sheng

    2006-04-13

    [reaction: see text] The chemoselective ring opening of N-tosyl aziridines with aldehydes catalyzed by an N-heterocyclic carbene was investigated under aerobic conditions. Unexpected carboxylates of 1,2-amino alcohols from the corresponding aldehydes, rather than the acyl anion ring-opened beta-amino ketones, were exclusively obtained. A plausible mechanism for this unprecedented carbene-mediated reaction was also proposed.

  6. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  7. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria.

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  9. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p < 0.05), however, post hoc statistical tests did not reveal any differences (p > 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics of biodegradation of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanmei; Bao, Mutai; Yan, Miao; Lu, Jinren

    2016-09-01

    Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) biodegradation in anaerobic and aerobic activated sludge biochemical treatment systems were explored to determine the maximum rate and feasibility of HPAM biodegradation. The optimal nutrient proportions for HPAM biodegradation were determined to be 0.08g·L(-1) C6H12O6, 1.00g·L(-1) NH4Cl, 0.36g·L(-1) NaH2PO4 and 3.00g·L(-1) K2HPO4 using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the kinetics, the maximum HPAM biodegradation rates were 16.43385mg·L(-1)·d(-1) and 2.463mg·L(-1)·d(-1) in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The activation energy (Ea) of the aerobic biodegradation was 48.9897kJ·mol(-1). Entropy changes (ΔS) of biochemical treatment system decreased from 216.21J·K(-1) to 2.39J·K(-1). Thermodynamic windows of opportunity for HPAM biodegradation were drawn. And it demonstrated HPAM was biodegraded into acetic acid and CO2 under laboratory conditions. Growth-process equations for functional bacteria anaerobically grown on polyacrylic acid were constructed and it confirmed electron equivalence between substrate and product.

  11. Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Genomic Features of Campylobacter jejuni Bf, an Atypical Strain Able to Grow under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bronnec, Vicky; Turoňová, Hana; Bouju, Agnès; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Rodrigues, Ramila; Demnerova, Katerina; Tresse, Odile; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in Europe. Human campylobacteriosis cases are frequently associated to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To survive under environmental conditions encountered along the food chain, i.e., from poultry digestive tract its natural reservoir to the consumer’s plate, this pathogen has developed adaptation mechanisms. Among those, biofilm lifestyle has been suggested as a strategy to survive in the food environment and under atmospheric conditions. Recently, the clinical isolate C. jejuni Bf has been shown to survive and grow under aerobic conditions, a property that may help this strain to better survive along the food chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion capacity of C. jejuni Bf and its ability to develop a biofilm. C. jejuni Bf can adhere to abiotic surfaces and to human epithelial cells, and can develop biofilm under both microaerobiosis and aerobiosis. These two conditions have no influence on this strain, unlike results obtained with the reference strain C. jejuni 81-176, which harbors only planktonic cells under aerobic conditions. Compared to 81-176, the biofilm of C. jejuni Bf is more homogenous and cell motility at the bottom of biofilm was not modified whatever the atmosphere used. C. jejuni Bf whole genome sequence did not reveal any gene unique to this strain, suggesting that its unusual property does not result from acquisition of new genetic material. Nevertheless some genetic particularities seem to be shared only between Bf and few others strains. Among the main features of C. jejuni Bf genome we noticed (i) a complete type VI secretion system important in pathogenicity and environmental adaptation; (ii) a mutation in the oorD gene involved in oxygen metabolism; and (iii) the presence of an uncommon insertion of a 72 amino acid coding sequence upstream from dnaK, which is involved in stress resistance. Therefore, the atypical behavior of this strain under

  12. Transcript profiles in cortical cells of maize primary root during ethylene-induced lysigenous aerenchyma formation under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yamauchi, Takaki; Rajhi, Imene; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Nakazono, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Internal aeration is important for plants to survive during periods of waterlogging, and the ability to form aerenchyma contributes by creating a continuous gas space between the shoots and the roots. Roots of maize (Zea mays) react to prolonged waterlogging by forming aerenchyma in root cortical cells by programmed cell death (PCD) in response to ethylene. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of ethylene-induced aerenchyma formation by identifying genes that are either up- or downregulated by ethylene treatment in maize root cortical cells. Methods Three-day-old maize seedlings were treated with ethylene for several hours under aerobic conditions. Cortical cells were isolated from the primary roots using laser microdissection (LM), and transcript profiles with and without ethylene treatment were compared by microarray. In addition, the effect on ethylene-induced aerenchyma formation of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, was examined in order to assess the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Key Results A total of 223 genes were identified whose transcript levels were significantly increased or decreased by ethylene treatment in root cortical cells under aerobic conditions. Subsequent tissue-specific quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analyses revealed that ethylene increased the transcript levels of genes related to ethylene signalling in all of the root tissues examined (stelar cells, cortical cells and outer cell layers), whereas it increased the transcript levels of genes related to cell wall modification and proteolysis specifically in the cortical cells. DPI treatment inhibited the ethylene-induced aerenchyma formation and suppressed expression of some cell wall modification-related genes. Conclusions Several genes related to cell wall modification and proteolysis are specifically up- or downregulated in cortical cells during lysigenous aerenchyma formation under aerobic

  13. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between 4-AIT, CME, and 1-AIT. Total EPOC was highest after 4-AIT. These data suggest that exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise under different thermal conditions on human somatosensory processing.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Oshiro, Misaki; Namba, Mari; Shibasaki, Manabu

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on human somatosensory processing recorded by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) under temperate [TEMP, 20°C and 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (HOT, 35°C and 30% RH) environments. Fifteen healthy subjects performed 4 × 15-min bouts of a moderate cycling exercise [mean power output: 156.5 ± 7.7 (SE) W], with a 10-min rest period and received a posterior tibial nerve stimulation at the left ankle before and after each exercise bout; SEPs were recorded in five sessions; 1st (pre), 2nd (post-1st exercise bout), 3rd (post-2nd exercise bout), 4th (post-3rd exercise bout), and 5th (post-4th exercise bout). The peak latencies and amplitudes of the P37, N50, P60, and N70 components at Cz were evaluated. The latencies of P37, N50, P60, and N70 were significantly shorter with the repetition of aerobic exercise, and these shortened latencies were significantly greater in the HOT condition than in the TEMP condition (P37: 3rd, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.01; P60: 4th, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.01; N70: 4th, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the amplitudes of any SEP component under either thermal condition. These results suggest that the conduction velocity of the ascending somatosensory input was accelerated by increases in body temperature, and aerobic exercise did not alter the strength of neural activity in cortical somatosensory processing.

  15. The use of dissolved oxygen-controlled, fed-batch aerobic cultivation for recombinant protein subunit vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Patrick; Sun, Jacob; Champagne, Paul-Philippe; Lau, Heron; Gao, Meg; Sun, Hong; Zeiser, Arno; D'Amore, Tony

    2015-11-27

    A simple "off-the-shelf" fed-batch approach to aerobic bacterial cultivation for recombinant protein subunit vaccine manufacturing is presented. In this approach, changes in the dissolved oxygen levels are used to adjust the nutrient feed rate (DO-stat), so that the desired dissolved oxygen level is maintained throughout cultivation. This enables high Escherichia coli cell densities and recombinant protein titers. When coupled to a kLa-matched scale-down model, process performance is shown to be consistent at the 2L, 20L, and 200L scales for two recombinant E. coli strains expressing different protein subunit vaccine candidates. Additionally, by mining historical DO-stat nutrient feeding data, a method to transition from DO-stat to a pre-determined feeding profile suitable for larger manufacturing scales without using feedback control is demonstrated at the 2L, 20L, and 200L scales.

  16. Modelling aerobic biodegradation in vertical flow sand filters: impact of operational considerations on oxygen transfer and bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Laurent, J; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A

    2012-05-01

    Oxygen renewal, as a prominent phenomenon for aerobic bacterial activity, deeply impacts Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW) treatment efficiency. We introduce a multiphase model able to simulate multi-component transfer in VFCWs. It is based on a two-phase flow module, and a transport module. The flow module can quantify both water and air velocities throughout the filter during operation. The reactive transport module follows dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations, and the transport of solutes such as ammonium and readily biodegradable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). The consumption of components is governed by Monod-type kinetics. Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria, which are responsible for COD and ammonium degradation respectively, are part of the model components. The kinetics are based on the Constructed Wetlands Model 1. The results from the simulation tool were compared with existing experimental data, and two kinds of operation with VFCWs were investigated. The authors show strong interplay between oxygen renewal and bacterial consumption in case of sequential batch feeding with transient flooding of surface. Oxygen renewal is essentially convection mediated in such operation, while convection is not significant in non-flooding operation. Simulated bacterial patterns are impacted by the operation, both quantitatively and spatially. From a modelling point of view, the authors highlight some limitations of the biological model: the description of bacterial lysis processes needs to be enhanced, as well as ammonium adsorption to organic matter.

  17. Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G D; Mudhoo, A; Khadoo, P

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive control for both mediums. The composting process was monitored in terms of temperature, moisture and volatile solids and the biodegradation of the samples were monitored in terms of mass loss. Monitoring results showed a biodegradation of 27.1% on a dry basis for MB plastic within a period of 72 days of composting. Biodegradability under an anaerobic environment was monitored in terms of biogas production. A cumulative methane gas production of 245 ml was obtained for MB, which showed good degradation as compared to CFP (246.8 ml). However, EPI plastic showed a cumulative methane value of 7.6 ml for a period of 32 days, which was close to the blank (4.0 ml). The EPI plastic did not biodegrade under either condition. The cumulative carbon dioxide evolution after 32 days was as follows: CFP 4.406 cm3, MB 2.198 cm3 and EPI 1.328 cm3. The cumulative level of CO2 varying with time fitted sigmoid type curves with R2 values of 0.996, 0.996 and 0.995 for CFP, MB and EPI, respectively.

  18. Climatic thresholds for pedogenic iron oxides under aerobic conditions: Processes and their significance in paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxides are widely distributed across the surface of the Earth as a result of the aerobic weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals. Pedogenic iron oxides which consist mainly of hematite (Hm), goethite (Gt), maghemite (Mgh), are often concentrated synchronously in aerobic soils under low to moderate rainfall regimes. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) and redness, which respectively reflect the content of Mgh and Hm in soils, are considered reasonable pedogenic and climatic indicators in soil taxonomy and paleorainfall reconstruction. However, under high rainfall regimes, the grain growth of Mgh and transformation to Hm, combined with the prior formation of Gt under conditions of high relative humidity (RH), can result in magnetic reduction and dramatic yellowing of soils and sediments, which explains the existence of rainfall thresholds for Mgh and Hm at a large scale even before the pedogenic environment turns anaerobic. In order to capture the rainfall thresholds for Mgh and Hm occurring under aerobic conditions, we explored a tropical transect across a granitic region where the soil color turned from red to yellow under a wide rainfall range of 900-2200 mm/yr and a corresponding mean annual RH range of 77%-85%. We observed a lower rainfall threshold of ∼1500 mm/yr and a corresponding RH ∼80% for Mgh and Hm along this transect, as well as a higher rainfall threshold of ∼1700 mm/yr and a corresponding RH of ∼81% for Gt and total pedogenic iron oxides (citrate/bicarbonate/dithionite-extractable Fe, Fed). Cross-referencing with comparable studies in temperate and subtropical regions, we noted that the rainfall or RH thresholds for Fed and Hm or Mgh likewise increase with temperature. Moreover, the different thresholds for total and individual iron oxide phase indicates that a negative correlation between chemical weathering intensity and redness or χ in sediment sequences can occur under the prevalent climate regime just between their thresholds. Finally

  19. Activation of molecular oxygen by infrared laser radiation in pigment-free aerobic systems.

    PubMed

    Krasnovsky, A A; Drozdova, N N; Ivanov, A V; Ambartsumian, R V

    2003-09-01

    With the goal of mimicking the mechanisms of the biological effects of low energy laser irradiation, we have shown that infrared low intensity laser radiation causes oxygenation of the chemical traps of singlet oxygen dissolved in organic media and water saturated by air at normal atmospheric pressure. The photooxygenation rate was directly proportional to the oxygen concentration and strongly inhibited by the singlet oxygen quenchers. The maximum of the photooxygenation action spectrum coincided with the maximum of the oxygen absorption band at 1270 nm. The data provide unambiguous evidence that photooxygenation is determined by the reactive singlet (1)Delta(g )state formed as a result of direct laser excitation of molecular oxygen. Hence, activation of oxygen caused by its direct photoexcitation may occur in natural systems.

  20. DosR-regulon genes induction in Mycobacterium bovis BCG under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Flores Valdez, Mario Alberto; Schoolnik, Gary K

    2010-05-01

    In this report we demonstrated that under aerobic conditions, Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing an hsp60-driven second copy of the hypoxia-related transcriptional regulator DosR increased 2-fold or greater the expression of 38 out of the 48 genes belonging to the DosR regulon, including the latency antigens Rv1733c, Rv2029, Rv2627, and Rv2628. Expression of DosR under these conditions slightly delayed in vitro growth, but did not promote a non-replicating state as opposed to microaerobic and hypoxic adaptation. Our results suggest BCG producing DosR can be cultured under standard in vitro conditions, allowing evaluation of this strain as a latency-specific vaccine candidate.

  1. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  2. Isolation and identification of Sphingomonas sp. that yields tert-octylphenol monoethoxylate under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Wakayama, Manabu; Tamura, Hiroto; Morita, Shiro; Tomita, Yoshifumi

    2005-07-01

    Topsoil samples were collected from eight golf courses in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, and enrichment cultures were carried out with a basal-salt medium containing 0.2% 4-tert-octylphenol polyethoxylate (OPPEO) as sole carbon source. OPPEO-degrading activity was detected in one of the samples, from which a strain of OPPEO-degrading bacterium was isolated. The isolated bacterium grew on a nutritionally enriched medium (NE medium) containing 0.2% OPPEO as sole carbon source, and accumulated 4-tert-octylphenol diethoxylate (OP2EO) (63%), 4-tert-octylphenol triethoxylate (OP3EO) (14%), and 4-tert-octylphenol monoethoxylate (OP1EO) (2%) after 7 d cultivation under aerobic conditions. The addition of clay mineral (vermiculite) to the medium accelerated the degradation of OP2EO (40%) and OP3EO (4%) to OP1EO (23%). This is the first report about bacteria that can degrade OPPEO to OP1EO under aerobic conditions. The strain was identified as Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus, based on the homology of a 16S rDNA sequence.

  3. Constitutive expression of Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin CtrHb improves the growth of Escherichia coli cell under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ke; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Li; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xiu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria hemoglobin could bind to the oxygen, transfer it from the intracellular microenvironment to the respiration process and sustain the energy for the metabolism and reproduction of cells. Heterologous expression of bacteria hemoglobin gene could improve the capacity of the host on oxygen-capturing and allow it to grow even under microaerophilic condition. To develop a system based on hemoglobin to help bacteria cells overcome the oxygen shortage in fermentation, in this study, Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin (CtrHb) gene was synthesized and expressed under the control of constitutive expression promoters P2 and P(SPO1-II) in Escherichia coli. As showed by the growth curves of the two recombinants P2-CtrHb and P(SPO1-II)-CtrHb, constitutive expression of CtrHb improved cell growth under aerobic shaking-flasks, anaerobic capped-bottles and bioreactor conditions. According to the NMR analysis, this improvement might come from the expression of hemoglobin which could boost the metabolism of cells by supplying more oxygen to the respiratory chain processes. Through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and CO differential spectrum assays, we further discussed the connection between the growth patterns of the recombinants, the expression level of CtrHb and oxygen binding capacity of CtrHb in cells. Based on the growth patterns of these recombinants in bioreactor, a possible choice on different type of recombinants under specific fermentation conditions was also suggested in this study.

  4. Oxygen Respiration rates of benthic foraminifera measured under laboratory conditions using oxygen microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslin, Emmanuelle; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Langlet, D.; Metzger, E.; Jorissen, F.

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera are not well documented because of the difficulties to measure them. However, the determination of the respiration rates of benthic foraminifera is important in order: 1) to compare the metabolic rates of different species, of various size, and with different microhabitats in the sediment; 2) to estimate the contribution of benthic foraminifera in the aerobic mineralization of organic matter. Benthic foraminifera from 4 different natural environments were used: three species from the intertidal rocky shore of Yeu island, two species from the muddy Bay of Aiguillon, two species from the Bay of Biscay and eleven species from the Rhône prodelta (France). Living foraminifera were placed in a small tube, in which oxygen gradients were determined using oxygen microelectrodes. Respiration rates were calculated on the basis of the oxygen fluxes measured in the vivinity of the foraminiferal specimens. Foraminiferal biovolumes were estimated on the basis of the overall shape of the various species (for example, Ammonia is assimilated to a half sphere) and the width of the shell walls. The results show a wide range of respiration rates according to the species (around 90 to 5300 pmol. cell-1.day-1) and a clear correlation with the biovolume of the foraminifera. No clear relationship between respiration rates and microhabitat is observed. A comparison with previously published data shows that our estimations are generally lower for the small size species. For example, the respiration rate estimations published recently by Nomaki et al. (Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 37, 281-286, 2007) show a range of 900 to 10 000 pmol. cell-1.day-1. The total contribution of benthic foraminifera in the aerobic mineralization of organic matter is estimated for the studied areas. The first results suggest a minor role of benthic foraminifera in this process, which strongly contrasts with their strong contribution to anaerobic mineralisation

  5. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption is unaffected by the resistance and aerobic exercise order in an exercise session.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p < 0.05) in both exercise sessions. In the first 10 minutes of recovery, V(CO2) and RER declined to pre-exercise levels. Moreover, V(CO2) and RER values in A-R were significantly lower than in R-A. In conclusion, the main result of this study suggests that exercise mode order does not affect the EPOC magnitude and duration. Therefore, it is not necessary for an individual to consider the EPOC when making the decision as to which exercise mode is better to start a training session.

  6. Effect of thiamine pyrophosphate on levels of serum lactate, maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate in athletes performing aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Hernández, V M; López-Ascencio, R; Del Toro-Equihua, M; Vásquez, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on serum lactate levels, maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) and heart rate in male athletes performing aerobic activity. A double-blind, randomized, crossover study was performed in which lactate levels, Vo(2max) and heart rates in 27 male athletes were compared at rest and after exercise, following administration of placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) or TPP (1 mg/kg). At rest, serum lactate levels after placebo or TPP were similar; however, after exercise, the levels were lower in the athletes after taking TPP than after placebo. During exercise, Vo(2max) in athletes on TPP was higher than on placebo. At rest, heart rate after taking placebo or TPP was similar but, after exercise, heart rate was lower after taking TPP than after placebo. It is concluded that TPP caused serum lactate levels and heart rate to be lower than placebo and Vo(2max) to be higher in athletes performing aerobic physical activity.

  7. Aerobic induction of respiro-fermentative growth by decreasing oxygen tensions in the respiratory yeast Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Klinner, U; Fluthgraf, S; Freese, S; Passoth, V

    2005-04-01

    The fermentative and respiratory metabolism of Pichia stipitis wild-type strain CBS 5774 and the derived auxotrophic transformation recipient PJH53 trp5-10 his3-1 were examined in differentially oxygenated glucose cultures in the hermetically sealed Sensomat system. There was a good agreement of the kinetics of gas metabolism, growth, ethanol formation and glucose utilisation, proving the suitability of the Sensomat system for rapid and inexpensive investigation of strains and mutants for their respiratory and fermentative metabolism. Our study revealed respiro-fermentative growth by the wild-type strain, although the cultures were not oxygen-limited. The induction of respiro-fermentative behaviour was obviously due to the decrease in oxygen tension but not falling below a threshold of oxygen tension. The responses differed depending on the velocity of the decrease in oxygen tension. At high oxygenation (slow decrease in oxygen tension), ethanol production was induced but glucose uptake was not influenced. At low oxygenation, glucose uptake and ethanol formation increased during the first hours of cultivation. The transformation recipient PJH53 most probably carries a mutation that influences the response to a slow decrease in oxygen tension, since almost no ethanol formation was found under these conditions.

  8. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  9. Biodegradation of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under aerobic and denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, D.L.; Mihelcic, J.R.; Lueking, D.R.

    1998-09-01

    PAHs are thought to be particularly persistent in environments where anaerobic conditions exist. This study presents evidence for the biodegradation of three- and four-ringed PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) under strict anaerobic, denitrifying conditions. Three pseudomonad strains, isolated from contrasting environments, were used in this study. All three strains were known PAH degraders and denitrifiers. Degradation proceeded to nondetectable levels in 12--80 h for anthracene, 12--44 h for phenanthrene, and 24--72 h for pyrene. The rates of anaerobic degradation were typically slower than under aerobic conditions in almost all cases, except for strain SAG-R which had similar removal rates for all three and four-ring PAHs. Denitrification activity was verified by monitoring nitrate utilization and nitrous oxide production. Although none of the pseudomonads were adapted to the denitrifying conditions, only the pseudomonad isolated from a noncontaminated site consistently exhibited an adaptation period which approximated 12 h. This study supports growing evidence that the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to denitrification may be an important factor affecting the fate of these compounds in natural and engineered systems.

  10. Decolorization of azo dyes under batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Işik, Mustafa; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)/aerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were used to determine the color and COD removals under anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Two azo dyes namely "Reactive Black 5 (RB 5)," "Congo Red (CR)," and glucose as a carbon source were used for synthetic wastewater. The course of the decolorization process approximates to first order and zero order kinetics with respect to dye concentration for RB 5 and Congo Red azo dyes, respectively, in batch conditions. The decolorization kinetic constant (K0) values increased from 3.6 to 11.8 mg(L h)(-1) as increases in dye concentrations from 200 to 3200 mg L(-1) for CR. Increases in dye concentrations from 0 to 3200 mg L(-1) reduce the decolorization rate constant (k1) values from 0.0141 to 0.0019 h(-1) in batch studies performed with RB 5. Decolorization was achieved effectively under test conditions but ultimate decolorization of azo dyes was not observed at all dye concentrations in batch assay conditions. Dye concentrations of 100 mg L(-1) and 3000 mg L(-1) of glucose-COD containing basal medium were used for continuous studies. The effect of organic loadings and HRT, on the color removal efficiencies and methane gas productions were monitored. 94.1-45.4% COD and 79-73% color removal efficiencies were obtained at an organic system during decolorization of Reactive Black 5. 92.3-77.0% COD and 95.3-92.2% decolorization efficiencies were achieved at a organic loading rate of 1.03-6.65 kg (m3 day)(-1) and a HRT of 3.54-0.49 for Congo Red treatment. The results of this study showed that, although decolorization continued, COD removal efficiencies and methane gas production were depressed at high organic loadings under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, VFA accumulation, alkalinity consumption, and methane gas percentage were monitored at organic loading as high as 2.49-4.74 kg (m3 day)(-1) and 24.60-30.62 kg (m3 day)(-1), respectively, through the

  11. The influence of pyrite grain size on the final oxygen isotope difference between sulphate and water in aerobic pyrite oxidation experiments.

    PubMed

    Heidel, Claudia; Tichomirowa, Marion; Junghans, Manuela

    2009-12-01

    Oxidation experiments with different pyrite grain sizes (63-100, 100-140, 140-180 microm) were carried out to investigate the oxygen and sulphur isotope composition of sulphate produced under aerobic acid conditions, which may help to understand oxidation mechanisms and to interpret data from natural sites. Long-term experiments with grain size 63-100 microm showed that constant delta (18)O(SO4) values were not achieved before 100 days. The final oxygen isotope difference between water and sulphate indicates that a small proportion of molecular oxygen is incorporated into sulphate even in the later course of the oxidation due to sulphite oxidation by molecular oxygen. However, most of the sulphate oxygen derives from water. Similar delta (18)O(SO4) values from experiments with grain sizes 63-100, 100-140, and 140-180 microm indicate similar oxidation mechanisms for all three grain sizes. These results differed from previous results of identical experiments with grain size<63 microm, where higher delta (18)O(SO4) values were obtained. We propose that the greater proportion of molecular oxygen in sulphate from oxidised fine-grained pyrite is caused by an intensified adsorption of molecular oxygen on sulphur sites of ultrafine pyrite particles. Hence, the formation of sulphate from the (initial) reaction on sulphur sites of pyrite and from sulphite oxidation should be more dominant if ultrafine material is present. The delta (34)S(SO4) values (2.0-2.7) obtained from experiments with the coarser grain sizes agreed with the delta (34)S value of pyrite (2.4), whereas sulphur isotopes of sulphate obtained from previous experiments with fine-grained pyrite showed an initial (32)S enrichment compared with pyrite. Due to the lack of delta (34)S(SO4) values from the beginning of the experiments with coarser grain sizes, it remains speculative that sulphur isotopes indicate at least initial differences in oxidation mechanisms between fine and coarser pyrite grain sizes.

  12. Oxygen is required to restore flor strain viability and lipid biosynthesis under fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Zara, Giacomo; Angelozzi, Daniele; Belviso, Simona; Bardi, Laura; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Budroni, Marilena; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2009-03-01

    To further elucidate the biosynthesis of lipids in flor strains under fermentative conditions, the transcription levels of the lipid biosynthetic genes ACS1, ACS2, ACC1, OLE1, ERG1, ERG11, ARE1 and ARE2, as well as the lipid composition and cell viability of a flor strain were compared with that of a non-flor strain during hypoxic and aerobic fermentations in the absence of lipid nutrients. While no significant differences in transcription levels or lipid compositions were observed between the two strains when oxygen was not limiting, significant differences were seen during hypoxic fermentation. In this last condition, the flor strain, in spite of higher levels of transcription of hypoxic genes, lost the abilities to desaturate fatty acids and complete ergosterol biosynthesis, and showed a dramatic loss of viability. In contrast, the non-flor strain, which showed lower transcription levels, was able to reach a balanced lipid composition and maintained a higher cell viability. One possible explanation is that the flor strain requires a higher amount of oxygen than the non-flor strain in order to carry out the oxygen-dependent steps of lipid biosynthesis under fermentative conditions.

  13. Growth of lignocellulosic-fermenting fungi on different substrates under low oxygenation conditions.

    PubMed

    Pavarina, Erika C; Durrant, Lucia R

    2002-01-01

    Four soil fungi able to grow under low oxygenation conditions were selected and used in studies to determine the production of enzymes that promote the degradation of lignocellulosic materials. The capacity of these fungi to ferment such materials was also investigated. The fungi were grown in sugarcane bagasse and sawdust at final concentrations of 4 and 10%, as the carbon sources. The strains were cultivated under microaerophilic and combined conditions of oxygenation (aerobic followed by microaerophilic conditions). The results obtained with the basidiomycete specie, Trichocladium canadense, Geotrichum sp., and Fusarium sp. suggest that they prefer lower oxygen concentration for growth and enzyme production. Lignocellulolytic activities were detected in all strains but varied with the carbon source used. The highest levels of these activities were produced by the Basidiomycete specie and Fusarium sp. Ethanol and other nongaseous fermentation products were detected following high-performance liquid chromatography analysis using a supelcogel C-610H column, demonstrating the fermentative capability of these strains. In view of their ability to produce enzymes necessary for the breakdown of lignocellulosic materials and to utilize most of the degradation products for growth, these strains have a great potential for biotechnological application.

  14. Effects of oleic acid-induced lung injury on oxygen transport and aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Crocker, George H; Jones, James H

    2014-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that oleic-acid (OA) infusion impairs gas exchange, decreases total cardiopulmonary O2 delivery and lowers maximal aerobic capacity ( [Formula: see text] ). We infused 0.05ml OAkg(-1) (∼3ml) and ∼563ml saline into the right atria of four goats [59.1±14.0 (SD) kg] prior to running them on a treadmill at [Formula: see text] 2-h and 1-d following OA-induced acute lung injury, and with no lung injury. Acute lung injury decreased [Formula: see text] , O2 delivery, arterial O2 concentration and arterial O2 partial pressure compared to no lung injury. The [Formula: see text] positively correlated with O2 delivery and inversely correlated with alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference, suggesting that impaired pulmonary gas exchange decreased O2 delivery and uptake. Results indicate OA infusion may be a useful model for acutely impairing pulmonary gas exchange for exercise studies. Seven OA infusions induced smaller chronic gas exchange and arterial O2 partial pressure changes than acute infusion.

  15. Rhythm of carbon and nitrogen fixation in unicellular cyanobacteria under turbulent and highly aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Viswanathan, Ganesh A; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are being increasingly explored for nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production. Commercial success however will depend on the ability to grow these cultures at high cell densities. Photo-limitation at high cell densities leads to hindered photoautotrophic growth while turbulent conditions, which simulate flashing light effect, can lead to oxygen toxicity to the nitrogenase enzyme. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142, a known hydrogen producer, is reported to grow and fix nitrogen under moderately oxic conditions in shake flasks. In this study, we explore the growth and nitrogen fixing potential of this organism under turbulent conditions with volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KL a) values that are up to 20-times greater than in shake flasks. In a stirred vessel, the organism grows well in turbulent regime possibly due to a simulated flashing light effect with optimal growth at Reynolds number of approximately 35,000. A respiratory burst lasting for about 4 h creates anoxic conditions intracellularly with near saturating levels of dissolved oxygen in the extracellular medium. This is concomitant with complete exhaustion of intracellular glycogen storage and upregulation of nifH and nifX, the genes encoding proteins of the nitrogenase complex. Further, the rhythmic oscillations in exhaust gas CO2 and O2 profiles synchronize faithfully with those in biochemical parameters and gene expression thereby serving as an effective online monitoring tool. These results will have important implications in potential commercial success of nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production by cyanobacteria.

  16. Effect of particulate organic substrate on aerobic granulation and operating conditions of sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jamile; Weissbrodt, David Gregory; Manguin, Vincent; da Costa, Rejane Helena Ribeiro; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Derlon, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The formation and application of aerobic granules for the treatment of real wastewaters still remains challenging. The high fraction of particulate organic matter (XS) present in real wastewaters can affect the granulation process. The present study aims at understanding to what extent the presence of XS affects the granule formation and the quality of the treated effluent. A second objective was to evaluate how the operating conditions of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) reactor must be adapted to overcome the effects of the presence of XS. Two reactors fed with synthetic wastewaters were operated in absence (R1) or presence (R2) of starch as proxy for XS. Different operating conditions were evaluated. Our results indicated that the presence of XS in the wastewater reduces the kinetic of granule formation. After 52 d of operation, the fraction of granules reached only 21% in R2, while in R1 this fraction was of 54%. The granules grown in presence of XS had irregular and filamentous outgrowths in the surface, which affected the settleability of the biomass and therefore the quality of the effluent. An extension of the anaerobic phase in R2 led to the formation of more compact granules with a better settling ability. A high fraction of granules was obtained in both reactors after an increase of the selection pressure for fast-settling biomass, but the quality of the effluent remained low. Operating the reactors in a simultaneous fill-and-draw mode at a low selection pressure for fast-settling biomass showed to be beneficial for substrate removal efficiency and for suppressing filamentous overgrowth. Average removal efficiencies for total COD, soluble COD, ammonium, and phosphate were 87 ± 4%, 95 ± 1%, 92 ± 10%, and 87 ± 12% for R1, and 72 ± 12%, 86 ± 5%, 71 ± 12%, and 77 ± 11% for R2, respectively. Overall our study demonstrates that the operating conditions of AGS reactors must be adapted according to the wastewater composition. When treating effluents that

  17. Impact of ArcA loss in Shewanella oneidensis revealed by comparative proteomics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jie; Wei, Buyun; Lipton, Mary S.; Gao, Haichun

    2012-06-01

    Shewanella inhabit a wide variety of niches in nature and can utilize a broad spectrum of electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. How they modulate their gene expression to adapt is poorly understood. ArcA, homologue of a global regulator controlling hundreds of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in E. coli, was shown to be important in aerobiosis/anaerobiosis of S. oneidensis as well. Loss of ArcA, in addition to altering transcription of many genes, resulted in impaired growth under aerobic condition, which was not observed in E. coli. To further characterize the impact of ArcA loss on gene expression on the level of proteome under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomic approach was employed. Results show that ArcA loss led to globally altered gene expression, generally consistent with that observed with transcripts. Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data permitted identification of 17 high-confidence ArcA targets. Moreover, our data indicate that ArcA is required for regulation of cytochrome c proteins, and the menaquinone level may play a role in regulating ArcA as in E. coli. Proteomic-data-guided growth assay revealed that the aerobic growth defect of ArcA mutant is presumably due to impaired peptide utilization.

  18. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  19. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  20. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions in a sediment column

    SciTech Connect

    Enzien, M.V.; Picardal, F.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    This study investigated the bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in a sediment column. Biodegradation potentials of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene during aerobic methanotrophic biostimulation were studied at the Savannah River Site. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain.

  2. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

  3. Validity of Monod kinetics at different sludge ages--peptone biodegradation under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Orhon, Derin; Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Insel, Guclu; Karahan, Ozlem; Katipoglu, Tugce

    2009-12-01

    The study presented an evaluation of the effect of culture history (sludge age) on the growth kinetics of a mixed culture grown under aerobic conditions. It involved an experimental setup where a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was operated at steady-state at two different sludge ages (theta(X)) of 2 and 10 days. The system sustained a mixed culture fed with a synthetic substrate mainly consisting of peptone. The initial concentration of substrate COD was selected around 500 mg COD/L. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage occurred to a limited extent, around 30 mg COD/L for theta(X)=10 days and 15 mg COD/L for theta(X)=2 days. Evaluation of the experimental data based on calibration of two different models provided consistent and reliable evidence for a variable Monod kinetics where the maximum specific growth rate, was assessed as 6.1/day for theta(X)=2 days and 4.1/day for theta(X)=10 days. A similar variability was also applicable for the hydrolysis and storage kinetics. The rate of storage was significantly lower than the levels reported in the literature, exhibiting the ability of the microorganisms to regulate their metabolic mechanisms for adjusting the rate of microbial growth and storage competing for the same substrate. This adjustment evidently resulted in case-specific, variable kinetics both for microbial growth and substrate storage.

  4. Aerobic fitness and sympatho-adrenal response to short-term psycho-emotional stress under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wittels, P; Rosenmayr, G; Bischof, B; Hartter, E; Haber, P

    1994-01-01

    A possible relationship between aerobic fitness (AF), measured by maximal cycle ergometry (CE) and sympatho-adrenal response to acute, short lasting psycho-emotional stress was investigated by monitoring heart rate (fc) and excretion of catecholamines. The activation of the sympatho-adrenal system was characterised by the noradrenaline: adrenaline ratio. A group of 11 healthy men [22.8 (SD 2.52) years] lived under identical environmental conditions; their mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 47.1 (SD 3.9) ml.min-1.kg-1. After the physiological and psychological laboratory tests had been completed the fc of the subjects was monitored continuously during the "guerilla slide" and "parachute jump by night", two emotionally stressful military tasks. Maximal fc (fc, max) attained during these events was 84.5% and 83% of fc, max during CE (fc, max, CE), respectively. A significant relationship (r = -0.92, P < 0.0002) between fc, max reached during the stressful tasks and VO2max was found only for the guerilla slide, which was preceded by physical strain, sleep deprivation and energy deficit. One subject with some prior experience in parachuting showed the lowest fc response and the lowest sympatho-adrenal activation in both events, independent of the degree of AF. In conclusion, AF was found to influence the sympatho-adrenal and fc response to acute, short-lasting emotional stress when the stressful event was aggravated by preceding physical strain, the magnitude of the stress response depending largely on individual experience and effective mechanisms for coping with specific stimuli.

  5. Gill morphometrics of the thresher sharks (Genus Alopias): Correlation of gill dimensions with aerobic demand and environmental oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Thomas P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C

    2015-05-01

    Gill morphometrics of the three thresher shark species (genus Alopias) were determined to examine how metabolism and habitat correlate with respiratory specialization for increased gas exchange. Thresher sharks have large gill surface areas, short water-blood barrier distances, and thin lamellae. Their large gill areas are derived from long total filament lengths and large lamellae, a morphometric configuration documented for other active elasmobranchs (i.e., lamnid sharks, Lamnidae) that augments respiratory surface area while limiting increases in branchial resistance to ventilatory flow. The bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus, which can experience prolonged exposure to hypoxia during diel vertical migrations, has the largest gill surface area documented for any elasmobranch species studied to date. The pelagic thresher shark, A. pelagicus, a warm-water epi-pelagic species, has a gill surface area comparable to that of the common thresher shark, A. vulpinus, despite the latter's expected higher aerobic requirements associated with regional endothermy. In addition, A. vulpinus has a significantly longer water-blood barrier distance than A. pelagicus and A. superciliosus, which likely reflects its cold, well-oxygenated habitat relative to the two other Alopias species. In fast-swimming fishes (such as A. vulpinus and A. pelagicus) cranial streamlining may impose morphological constraints on gill size. However, such constraints may be relaxed in hypoxia-dwelling species (such as A. superciliosus) that are likely less dependent on streamlining and can therefore accommodate larger branchial chambers and gills.

  6. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  7. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  8. The influence of reactive oxygen species on local redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Redox conditions in natural waters are a fundamental control on biogeochemical processes and ultimately many ecosystem functions. While the dioxygen/water redox couple controls redox thermodynamics in oxygenated aquatic environments on geological timescales, it is kinetically inert in the extracellular environment on the much shorter timescales on which many biogeochemical processes occur. Instead, electron transfer processes on these timescales are primarily mediated by a relatively small group of trace metals and stable radicals, including the reactive oxygen species superoxide. Such processes are of critical biogeochemical importance because many of these chemical species are scarce nutrients, but may also be toxic at high concentrations. Furthermore, their bioavailability and potentially toxicity is typically strongly influenced by their redox state. In this paper, I examine to what extent redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters are expected to be reflected in the redox states of labile redox-active compounds that readily exchange electrons with the dioxygen/superoxide redox couple, and potentially with each other. Additionally, I present the hypothesis that that the relative importance of the dioxygen/superoxide and superoxide/hydrogen peroxide redox couples exerts a governing control on local redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters on biogeochemically important timescales. Given the recent discovery of widespread extracellular superoxide production by a diverse range of organisms, this suggests the existence of a fundamental mechanism for organisms to tightly regulate local redox conditions in their extracellular environment in oxygenated natural waters.

  9. Quantification of aerobic biodegradation and volatilization rates of gasoline hydrocarbons near the water table under natural attenuation conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation and volatilization near the water table constitute a coupled pathway that contributes significantly to the natural attenuation of hydrocarbons at gasoline spill sites. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation and volatilization were quantified by analyzing vapor transport in the unsaturated zone at a gasoline spill site in Beaufort, South Carolina. Aerobic biodegradation rates decreased with distance above the water table, ranging from 0.20 to 1.5g m-3 d-1 for toluene, from 0.24 to 0.38 g m-3 d-1 for xylene, from 0.09 to 0.24 g m-3 d-1 for cyclohexene, from 0.05 to 0.22 g m-3 d-1 for ethylbenzene, and from 0.02 to 0.08 g m-3 d-1 for benzene. Rates were highest in the capillary zone, where 68% of the total hydrocarbon mass that volatilized from the water table was estimated to have been biodegraded. Hydrocarbons were nearly completely degraded within 1 m above the water table. This large loss underscores the importance of aerobic biodegradation in limiting the transport of hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone and implies that vapor-plume migration to basements and other points of contact may only be significant if a source of free product is present. Furthermore, because transport of the hydrocarbon in the unsaturated zone can be limited relative to that of oxygen and carbon dioxide, soil, gas surveys conducted at hydrocarbon-spill sites would benefit by the inclusion of oxygen- and carbon-dioxide-gas concentration measurements. Aerobic degradation kinetics in the unsaturated zone were approximately first-order. First-order rate constants near the water table were highest for cyctohexene (0.21-0.65 d-1) and nearly equivalent for ethylbenzene (0.11-20.31 d-1), xylenes (0.10-0.31 d-1), toluene (0.09-0.30 d-1), and benzene (0.07,0.31 d-1). Hydrocarbon mass loss rates at the water table resulting from the coupled aerobic biodegradation and volatilization process were determined by extrapolating gas transport rates through the capillary zone. Mass

  10. Oxygen produced by cyanobacteria in simulated Archaean conditions partly oxidizes ferrous iron but mostly escapes-conclusions about early evolution.

    PubMed

    Rantamäki, Susanne; Meriluoto, Jussi; Spoof, Lisa; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2016-12-01

    The Earth has had a permanently oxic atmosphere only since the great oxygenation event (GOE) 2.3-2.4 billion years ago but recent geochemical research has revealed short periods of oxygen in the atmosphere up to a billion years earlier before the permanent oxygenation. If these "whiffs" of oxygen truly occurred, then oxygen-evolving (proto)cyanobacteria must have existed throughout the Archaean aeon. Trapping of oxygen by ferrous iron and other reduced substances present in Archaean oceans has often been suggested to explain why the oxygen content of the atmosphere remained negligible before the GOE although cyanobacteria produced oxygen. We tested this hypothesis by growing cyanobacteria in anaerobic high-CO2 atmosphere in a medium with a high concentration of ferrous iron. Microcystins are known to chelate iron, which prompted us also to test the effects of microcystins and nodularins on iron tolerance. The results show that all tested cyanobacteria, especially nitrogen-fixing species grown in the absence of nitrate, and irrespective of the ability to produce cyanotoxins, were iron sensitive in aerobic conditions but tolerated high concentrations of iron in anaerobicity. This result suggests that current cyanobacteria would have tolerated the high-iron content of Archaean oceans. However, only 1 % of the oxygen produced by the cyanobacterial culture was trapped by iron, suggesting that large-scale cyanobacterial photosynthesis would have oxygenated the atmosphere even if cyanobacteria grew in a reducing ocean. Recent genomic analysis suggesting that ability to colonize seawater is a secondary trait in cyanobacteria may offer a partial explanation for the sustained inefficiency of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Archaean aeon, as fresh water has always covered a very small fraction of the Earth's surface. If oxygenic photosynthesis originated in fresh water, then the GOE marks the adaptation of cyanobacteria to seawater, and the late-Proterozoic increase

  11. Oxygen consumption of animals under conditions of hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loginova, Y. N.; Volozhin, A. I.; Krasnyku, I. G.; Stroganova, Y. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of hypokinesia on the oxygen consumption of rats, dog, and squirrels was investigated. Three periods of gaseous exchange were revealed in rats under conditions of a limited motor activity. During the first 10-15 days O2 consumption displayed a sharp elevation; on the 20th-30th day, it became stabilized at a higher level (in comparison with control) and it sharply rose again on the 40th-100th day. In dogs, hypokinesia produced a reduction of O2 consumption and then a tendency to its elevation was seen. A short period of physical exercises in squirrels after hypokinesia led to increased oxygen consumption at rest.

  12. Chromium isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Bacillus sp. under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen; Ma, Teng; Zhou, Lian; Hu, Zhifang; Shi, Liu

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the fractionation of chromium isotopes during chromium reduction by Bacillus sp. under aerobic condition, variable carbon source (glucose) concentration (0, 0.1, 1, 2.5 and 10mM), and incubation temperatures (4, 15, 25 and 37°C). The results revealed that the δ(53)Cr values in the residual Cr(VI) increased with the degree of Cr reduction, and followed a Rayleigh fractionation model. The addition of glucose only slightly affected cell-specific Cr(VI) reduction rates (cSRR). However, the value of ε (2.00±0.21‰) in the experiments with different concentrations of glucose (0.1, 1, 2.5 and 10mM) was smaller than that from the experiment without glucose (3.74±0.16‰). The results indicated that the cell-specific reduction rate is not the sole control on the degree of isotopic fractionation, and different metabolic pathways would result in differing degrees of Cr isotopic fractionation. The cSRR decreased with decreasing temperature, showing that the values of ε were 7.62±0.36‰, 4.59±0.28‰, 3.09±0.16‰ and 1.99±0.23‰ at temperatures of 4, 15, 25 and 37°C, respectively. It shown that increasing cSRR linked to decreasing fractionations has been associated with increasing temperatures. Overall, our results revealed that temperature is a primary factor affecting Cr isotopic fractionation under microbial actions.

  13. A study of the thermal decomposition of adulterated cocaine samples under optimized aerobic pyrolytic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gostic, T; Klemenc, S; Stefane, B

    2009-05-30

    The pyrolysis behaviour of pure cocaine base as well as the influence of various additives was studied using conditions that are relevant to the smoking of illicit cocaine by humans. For this purpose an aerobic pyrolysis device was developed and the experimental conditions were optimized. In the first part of our study the optimization of some basic experimental parameters of the pyrolysis was performed, i.e., the furnace temperature, the sampling start time, the heating period, the sampling time, and the air-flow rate through the system. The second part of the investigation focused on the volatile products formed during the pyrolysis of a pure cocaine free base and mixtures of cocaine base and adulterants. The anaesthetics lidocaine, benzocaine, procaine, the analgesics phenacetine and paracetamol, and the stimulant caffeine were used as the adulterants. Under the applied experimental conditions complete volatilization of the samples was achieved, i.e., the residuals of the studied compounds were not detected in the pyrolysis cell. Volatilization of the pure cocaine base showed that the cocaine recovery available for inhalation (adsorbed on traps) was approximately 76%. GC-MS and NMR analyses of the smoke condensate revealed the presence of some additional cocaine pyrolytic products, such as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), benzoic acid (BA) and carbomethoxycycloheptatrienes (CMCHTs). Experiments with different cocaine-adulterant mixtures showed that the addition of the adulterants changed the thermal behaviour of the cocaine. The most significant of these was the effect of paracetamol. The total recovery of the cocaine (adsorbed on traps and in a glass tube) from the 1:1 cocaine-paracetamol mixture was found to be only 3.0+/-0.8%, versus 81.4+/-2.9% for the pure cocaine base. The other adulterants showed less-extensive effects on the recovery of cocaine, but the pyrolysis of the cocaine-procaine mixture led to the formation of some unique pyrolytic products

  14. Effects of oxygen on intrinsic radiation sensitivity: A test of the relationship between aerobic and hypoxic linear-quadratic (LQ) model parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, David J.; Stewart, Robert D.; Semenenko, Vladimir A.

    2006-09-15

    The poor treatment prognosis for tumors with high levels of hypoxia is usually attributed to the decreased sensitivity of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation. Mechanistic considerations suggest that linear quadratic (LQ) survival model radiosensitivity parameters for hypoxic (H) and aerobic (A) cells are related by {alpha}{sub H}={alpha}{sub A}/oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and ({alpha}/{beta}){sub H}=OER({alpha}/{beta}){sub A}. The OER parameter may be interpreted as the ratio of the dose to the hypoxic cells to the dose to the aerobic cells required to produce the same number of DSBs per cell. The validity of these expressions is tested against survival data for mammalian cells irradiated in vitro with low- and high-LET radiation. Estimates of hypoxic and aerobic radiosensitivity parameters are derived from independent and simultaneous least-squares fits to the survival data. An external bootstrap procedure is used to test whether independent fits to the survival data give significantly better predictions than simultaneous fits to the aerobic and hypoxic data. For low-LET radiation, estimates of the OER derived from the in vitro data are between 2.3 and 3.3 for extreme levels of hypoxia. The estimated range for the OER is similar to the oxygen enhancement ratios reported in the literature for the initial yield of DSBs. The half-time for sublethal damage repair was found to be independent of oxygen concentration. Analysis of patient survival data for cervix cancer suggests an average OER less than or equal to 1.5, which corresponds to a pO{sub 2} of 5 mm Hg (0.66%) in the in vitro experiments. Because the OER derived from the cervix cancer data is averaged over cells at all oxygen levels, cells irradiated in vivo under extreme levels of hypoxia (<0.5 mm Hg) may have an OER substantially higher than 1.5. The reported analyses of in vitro data, as well as mechanistic considerations, provide strong support for the expressions relating hypoxic and aerobic

  15. BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL TRIACYLGLYCEROLS UNDER AEROBIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerobic biodegradation of five triacylglycerols (TAGs), three liquids [triolein (OOO), trilinolein (LLL), and trilinolenin (LnLnLn)] and two solids [tripalmitin (PPP) and tristearin (SSS)] was studied in water. Respirometry tests were designed and conducted to determine the b...

  16. Catalytic epoxidation activity of keplerate polyoxomolybdate nanoball toward aqueous suspension of olefins under mild aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rezaeifard, Abdolreza; Haddad, Reza; Jafarpour, Maasoumeh; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2013-07-10

    Catalytic efficiency of a sphere-shaped nanosized polyoxomolybdate {Mo132} in the aerobic epoxidation of olefins in water at ambient temperature and pressure in the absence of reducing agent is exploited which resulted good-to-high yields and desired selectivity.

  17. EFFECTS OF AEROBIC CONDITIONING ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPATHETIC RESPONSE TO AND RECOVERY FROM CHALLENGE

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, M; Alex, C; Shapiro, PA; McKinley, PS; Brondolo, EN; Myers, MM; Choi, CJ; Lopez-Pintado, S; Sloan, RP

    2013-01-01

    Objective Exercise has widely-documented cardioprotective effects but the mechanisms behind these effects are still poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that aerobic training lowers cardiovascular sympathetic responses to and speeds recovery from challenge. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial contrasting aerobic versus strength training on indices of cardiac (pre-ejection period, PEP) and vascular (low-frequency blood pressure variability, LF-BPV) sympathetic responses to and recovery from psychological and orthostatic challenge in 149 young, healthy and sedentary adults. Results Aerobic and strength training did not alter PEP or LF-BPV reactivity to or recovery from challenge. Conclusions These findings, from a large randomized controlled trial using an intent-to-treat design, show that moderate aerobic exercise training has no effect on PEP and LF BPV reactivity to or recovery from psychological or orthostatic challenge. In healthy young adults, the cardioprotective effects of exercise training are unlikely to be mediated by changes in sympathetic activity. PMID:23889039

  18. Transcriptome and Multivariable Data Analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum under Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions in Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Guo, Wenwen; Wang, Fen; Peng, Feng; Yang, Yankun; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiuxia; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor in the fermentation process of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a widely used aerobic microbe in bio-industry. Herein, we described RNA-seq for C. glutamicum under different DO levels (50%, 30% and 0%) in 5 L bioreactors. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) models were used to analyze the RNA-seq and metabolism data to investigate the global effect of DO on the transcriptional distinction of the substance and energy metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results showed that there were 39 and 236 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under the 50% and 0% DO conditions, respectively, compared to the 30% DO condition. Key genes and pathways affected by DO were analyzed, and the result of the MVDA and RNA-seq revealed that different DO levels in the fermenter had large effects on the substance and energy metabolism and cellular redox balance of C. glutamicum. At low DO, the glycolysis pathway was up-regulated, and TCA was shunted by the up-regulation of the glyoxylate pathway and over-production of amino acids, including valine, cysteine and arginine. Due to the lack of electron-acceptor oxygen, 7 genes related to the electron transfer chain were changed, causing changes in the intracellular ATP content at 0% and 30% DO. The metabolic flux was changed to rebalance the cellular redox. This study applied deep sequencing to identify a wealth of genes and pathways that changed under different DO conditions and provided an overall comprehensive view of the metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results provide potential ways to improve the oxygen tolerance of C. glutamicum and to modify the metabolic flux for amino acid production and heterologous protein expression. PMID:27907077

  19. Influence of the aerobic fitness on time spent at high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake during a high-intensity intermittent running.

    PubMed

    Panissa, V L; Julio, U F; Pinto-E-Silva, C M; Andreato, L V; Schwartz, J; Franchini, E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate absolute and relative (%V.O2max) oxygen uptake (total, during effort and pause), and time spent above 90% of V.O2max during high-intensity intermittent running in subjects with different training status. Fourteen males were evaluated and divided (moderate and high aerobic power) according to their V.O2max obtained in an incremental treadmill test to volitional exhaustion. They were then submitted to high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise (1 min:1 min at maximum velocity attained during the treadmill test, totalling 4 km). A Student's t test for independent data was conducted to identify differences between groups. The moderate aerobic power group spent more time above 90% V.O2max compared to the high aerobic power group (30.2 ±9.1%; 7.3±6%, respectively, P=0.001). Moreover, the moderate aerobic power group presented lower V.O2total (P=0.011), V.O2effort (P=0.007), higher V.O2total (%V.O2), V.O2effort (P<0.001), V.O2pause (V.O2max%) (P=0.006) compared with the high aerobic power group. There was no difference in V.O2pause between groups (P=0.091), the difference between V.O2 effort and pause was greater for the high aerobic power group compared with the moderate group (4.4±2.1; 7.8±2 mL.kg-1.min-1; P=0.009) and the difference between V.O2 effort and pause (%V.O2max) was not different between groups. To conclude, these results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness spent less time above 90% of the V.O2max and that this response can be due to better capacity to recover during the pause.

  20. Differential effects of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid on the aerobic thermosensitivity of yeast cells grown under aerobic and anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Christos; Curran, Brendan P G

    2010-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in aerobically-grown cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increases and ascorbic acid decreases cellular thermosensitivity, as determined by the inducibility of a heat shock (HS)-reporter gene. In this work, we reveal that the aerobic thermosensitivity of anaerobically-grown yeast cells also increases in the presence of H(2)O(2), albeit differentially between cells with two different lipid profiles. In comparison to aerobically-grown fermenting cells treated with the same H(2)O(2) concentration, both these types of anaerobically-grown cells were found to be considerably less sensitive to aerobic heat shock and considerably more thermotolerant. Paradoxically, and in contrast to ascorbate-pretreated aerobically-grown yeast cells, when anaerobically-grown cells were heat-shocked aerobically in the presence of the same ascorbic acid concentration, they exhibited increased thermosensitivity and decreased intrinsic thermotolerance with respect to their untreated counterparts. These findings are discussed with respect to what is currently known about the redox and physiological status of yeast cells grown aerobically and cells reoxygenated following anoxic growth.

  1. A universal molecular clock of protein folds and its power in tracing the early history of aerobic metabolism and planet oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minglei; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Kim, Kyung Mo; Qu, Ge; Ji, Hong-Fang; Mittenthal, Jay E; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The standard molecular clock describes a constant rate of molecular evolution and provides a powerful framework for evolutionary timescales. Here, we describe the existence and implications of a molecular clock of folds, a universal recurrence in the discovery of new structures in the world of proteins. Using a phylogenomic structural census in hundreds of proteomes, we build phylogenies and time lines of domains at fold and fold superfamily levels of structural complexity. These time lines correlate approximately linearly with geological timescales and were here used to date two crucial events in life history, planet oxygenation and organism diversification. We first dissected the structures and functions of enzymes in simulated metabolic networks. The placement of anaerobic and aerobic enzymes in the time line revealed that aerobic metabolism emerged about 2.9 billion years (giga-annum; Ga) ago and expanded during a period of about 400 My, reaching what is known as the Great Oxidation Event. During this period, enzymes recruited old and new folds for oxygen-mediated enzymatic activities. Remarkably, the first fold lost by a superkingdom disappeared in Archaea 2.6 Ga ago, within the span of oxygen rise, suggesting that oxygen also triggered diversification of life. The implications of a molecular clock of folds are many and important for the neutral theory of molecular evolution and for understanding the growth and diversity of the protein world. The clock also extends the standard concept that was specific to molecules and their timescales and turns it into a universal timescale-generating tool.

  2. Metabolite analysis of Mycobacterium species under aerobic and hypoxic conditions reveals common metabolic traits.

    PubMed

    Drapal, Margit; Wheeler, Paul R; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    A metabolite profiling approach has been implemented to elucidate metabolic adaptation at set culture conditions in five Mycobacterium species (two fast- and three slow-growing) with the potential to act as model organisms for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Analysis has been performed over designated growth phases and under representative environments (nutrient and oxygen depletion) experienced by Mtb during infection. The procedure was useful in determining a range of metabolites (60-120 compounds) covering nucleotides, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides, fatty acids, glycerols, -esters, -phosphates and isoprenoids. Among these classes of compounds, key biomarker metabolites, which can act as indicators of pathway/process activity, were identified. In numerous cases, common metabolite traits were observed for all five species across the experimental conditions (e.g. uracil indicating DNA repair). Amino acid content, especially glutamic acid, highlighted the different properties between the fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria studied (e.g. nitrogen assimilation). The greatest similarities in metabolite composition between fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria were apparent under hypoxic conditions. A comparison to previously reported transcriptomic data revealed a strong correlation between changes in transcription and metabolite content. Collectively, these data validate the changes in the transcription at the metabolite level, suggesting transcription exists as one of the predominant modes of cellular regulation in Mycobacterium. Sectors with restricted correlation between metabolites and transcription (e.g. hypoxic cultivation) warrant further study to elucidate and exploit post-transcriptional modes of regulation. The strong correlation between the laboratory conditions used and data derived from in vivo conditions, indicate that the approach applied is a valuable addition to our understanding of cell regulation in these Mycobacterium species.

  3. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration. PMID:25633028

  4. Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in adult female northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Hassrick, J L; Crocker, D E; Teutschel, N M; McDonald, B I; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Costa, D P

    2010-02-15

    The range of foraging behaviors available to deep-diving, air-breathing marine vertebrates is constrained by their physiological capacity to breath-hold dive. We measured body oxygen stores (blood volume and muscle myoglobin) and diving behavior in adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, to investigate age-related effects on diving performance. Blood volume averaged 74.4+/-17.0 liters in female elephant seals or 20.2+/-2.0% of body mass. Plasma volume averaged 32.2+/-7.8 liters or 8.7+/-0.7% of body mass. Absolute plasma volume and blood volume increased independently with mass and age. Hematocrit decreased weakly with mass but did not vary with age. Muscle myoglobin concentration, while higher than previously reported (7.4+/-0.7 g%), did not vary with mass or age. Pregnancy status did not influence blood volume. Mean dive duration, a proxy for physiological demand, increased as a function of how long seals had been at sea, followed by mass and hematocrit. Strong effects of female body mass (range, 218-600 kg) on dive duration, which were independent of oxygen stores, suggest that larger females had lower diving metabolic rates. A tendency for dives to exceed calculated aerobic limits occurred more frequently later in the at-sea migration. Our data suggest that individual physiological state variables and condition interact to determine breath-hold ability and that both should be considered in life-history studies of foraging behavior.

  5. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  6. Bioconversion of 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene to a novel metabolite under anoxic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Gilcrease, P C; Murphy, V G

    1995-01-01

    Under nitrate-reducing, nongrowth conditions, a Pseudomonas fluorescens species reduced 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to aminodinitrotoluenes, which were then further reduced to diaminonitrotoluenes. 2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was further transformed to a novel metabolite, 4-N-acetylamino-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene (4-N-AcANT), while 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) was persistent. Efforts to further degrade 2,4-DANT and 2,6-DANT under aerobic, nitrogen-limited conditions were unsuccessful; 2,6-DANT remained persistent, and 2,4-DANT was again transformed to the 4-N-AcANT compound. PMID:8534088

  7. CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max – a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Poznań and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI−) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI−/− (GG) and NcoI−/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels. PMID:24511349

  8. CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-12-18

    The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max - a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Poznań and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI-) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI-/- (GG) and NcoI-/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels.

  9. Influence of the oxygen uptake slow component on the aerobic energy cost of high-intensity submaximal treadmill running in humans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Maddio, F; Ouattara, S; Jimenez, C; Charpenet, A; Melin, B; Bittel, J

    1998-11-01

    During high-intensity running, the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is characterised by a slow component which delays the attainment of the steady-state beyond the 3rd min of exercise. To assess if the aerobic energy cost of running measured at the 3rd min (C3) adequately reflects the variability of the true aerobic energy cost measured during the steady-state (Css), 13 highly-trained runners completed sessions of square-wave running at intensities above 80% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on a level treadmill. To evaluate the time at which the steady-state VO2 was attained (tss), the VO2 responses were described using a general double-exponential equation and tss was defined as the time at which VO2 was less than 1% below the asymptotic value given by the model. All the subjects achieved a steady state for intensities equal to or greater than 92% VO2max, and 8 out of 13 achieved it at 99% VO2max. In all cases, tss was less than 13 min. For intensities greater than 85% VO2max, Css was significantly higher than C3 and was positively related to %VO2 max (r=0.44; P < 0.001) while C3 remained constant. The C3 only explained moderately the variability of Css (0.39 < r2 < 0.72, depending on the velocity or the (relative intensity at which the relationship was calculated). Moreover, the excess aerobic energy cost of running the (difference between Css and C3) was well predicted by age (0.90 < r2 < 0.93). Therefore, when the aerobic profile of runners is evaluated, it is recommended that their running efficiencies at velocities which reflect their race intensities should be determined, with VO2 data being measured at the true steady-state.

  10. Cell density-correlated induction of pyruvate decarboxylase under aerobic conditions in the yeast Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Mergler, M; Klinner, U

    2001-01-01

    During the aerobic batch cultivation of P. stipitis CBS 5776 with glucose, pyruvate decarboxylase was activated in a cell number-correlated manner. Activation started when a cell number between 7 x 10(7) and x 10(8) cells ml(-1) was reached and the enzyme activity increased during further cultivation. This induction might have been triggered either by an unknown quorum sensing system or by a shortage of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA.

  11. Highly diastereoselective and regioselective copper-catalyzed nitrosoformate dearomatization reaction under aerobic-oxidation conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weibo; Huang, Long; Yu, Yang; Pflästerer, Daniel; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2014-04-01

    An unprecedented copper-catalyzed acylnitroso dearomatization reaction, which expands the traditional acylnitroso ene reaction and acylnitroso Diels-Alder reaction to a new type of transformation, has been developed under aerobic oxidation. Intermolecular and intra-/intermolecular reaction modes demonstrate an entirely different N- or O-acylnitroso selectivity. Hence, we can utilize this reaction as a highly diastereoselective access to a series of new pyrroloindoline derivatives, which are important structural motifs for natural-product synthesis.

  12. Molecular characterization of a microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification under micro-aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingjing; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Liang; Ju, Xi; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    Methane can be used as an alternative carbon source in biological denitrification because it is nontoxic, widely available and relatively inexpensive. A microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (MOD) was enriched with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors under micro-aerobic conditions. The 16S rRNA gene combined with pmoA phylogeny of methanotrophs and nirK phylogeny of denitrifiers were analysed to reveal the dominant microbial populations and functional microorganisms. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed high numbers of methanotrophs and denitrifiers in the enriched consortium. The 16S rRNA gene clone library revealed that Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae were the dominant populations in the MOD ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses of pmoA gene clone libraries indicated that all methanotrophs belonged to Methylococcaceae, a type I methanotroph employing the ribulose monophosphate pathway for methane oxidation. Methylotrophic denitrifiers of the Methylophilaceae that can utilize organic intermediates (i.e. formaldehyde, citrate and acetate) released from the methanotrophs played a vital role in aerobic denitrification. This study is the first report to confirm micro-aerobic denitrification and to make phylogenetic and functional assignments for some members of the microbial assemblages involved in MOD. PMID:24245852

  13. Whole-Genome Transcriptional Analysis of Chemolithoautotrophic Thiosulfate Oxidation by Thiobacillus denitrificans Under Aerobic vs. Denitrifying Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H R; Letain, T E; Chakicherla, A; Kane, S R; Legler, T C; Coleman, M A

    2006-04-22

    Thiobacillus denitrificans is one of the few known obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of energetically coupling thiosulfate oxidation to denitrification as well as aerobic respiration. As very little is known about the differential expression of genes associated with ke chemolithoautotrophic functions (such as sulfur-compound oxidation and CO2 fixation) under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions, we conducted whole-genome, cDNA microarray studies to explore this topic systematically. The microarrays identified 277 genes (approximately ten percent of the genome) as differentially expressed using Robust Multi-array Average statistical analysis and a 2-fold cutoff. Genes upregulated (ca. 6- to 150-fold) under aerobic conditions included a cluster of genes associated with iron acquisition (e.g., siderophore-related genes), a cluster of cytochrome cbb3 oxidase genes, cbbL and cbbS (encoding the large and small subunits of form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, or RubisCO), and multiple molecular chaperone genes. Genes upregulated (ca. 4- to 95-fold) under denitrifying conditions included nar, nir, and nor genes (associated respectively with nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitric oxide reductase, which catalyze successive steps of denitrification), cbbM (encoding form II RubisCO), and genes involved with sulfur-compound oxidation (including two physically separated but highly similar copies of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and of dsrC, associated with dissimilatory sulfite reductase). Among genes associated with denitrification, relative expression levels (i.e., degree of upregulation with nitrate) tended to decrease in the order nar > nir > nor > nos. Reverse transcription, quantitative PCR analysis was used to validate these trends.

  14. Influence of operational conditions on the stability of aerobic granules from the perspective of quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-01-25

    Integrated aerobic granules were first cultivated in two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) (A1 and A2). Then, A1's influent organic loading rate (OLR) was changed from alternating to constant (cycling time was still 6 h), while A2's cycling time varied from 6 to 4 h (influent OLR strategy remained alternating). After 30-day operation since the manipulative alternations, granule breakage happened in two reactors at different operational stages, along with the decrease of granule intensity. Granule diameter in A1 declined from the original 0.84 to 0.32 cm during the whole operation, while granules in A2 dwindled to 0.31 cm on day 22 with similar size to A1. Both the amount of total extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and the protein were declining throughout the operation, and the large molecular weight of protein was considered closely related to the stability of aerobic granules. The relative AI-2 level decreased at the same time, and influent OLR strategy might had more evident impact on quorum sensing (QS) ability of sludge compared with starvation period. Combined with microbial results, the decline of total EPS amount in two reactors could be concluded as follows: During the reactor operation, some functional bacteria gradually lost their dominance and were eliminated from the reactors, which finally caused granule disintegration. In summary, the results further confirmed that alternating OLR and proper starvation period were two major factors in effective cultivation and stability of aerobic granules from the perspective of QS.

  15. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  16. The preferential growth of branched GDGT source microorganisms under aerobic conditions in peat revealed by stable isotope probing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGTs) membrane lipids are widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial environments and are being increasingly used as temperature proxies. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the microorganisms that produce these lipids, which are found in especially high abundance in the anaerobic horizons of peat bogs. We initiated stable isotope probing incubations of peat samples from a Sphagnum-dominated peatland (Jura Mountains, France) to measure the incorporation of (D)-D2O and 13C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into brGDGTs, and thus gauge the activity, growth, and turnover times of their source organisms. Peat samples were collected from two adjacent sites with contrasting humidity levels (hereafter called "fen" and "bog" sites). For each site, samples from the surficial aerobic layer (acrotelm) and deeper anaerobic layer (catotelm) were collected and were incubated under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for the acrotelm samples and only anaerobic conditions for the catotelm. The incubations were performed at 12 ° C, consistent with the mean summer air temperature at the sampling site. After two months of incubation, there was no incorporation of 13C label in brGDGTs for samples incubated under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, showing that brGDGT-producing bacteria are heterotrophic microorganisms, as previously observed in organo-mineral soils (Weijers et al., 2011). Similarly, little to no deuterium incorporation was observed for brGDGTs isolated from anaerobically-incubated deep samples. In contrast, in the aerobic incubations of acrotelm samples from bog and fen, the weighted average δD of brGDGT core lipids (CLs) increased by up to 3332‰ and 933‰ after two months, respectively, indicating that fresh brGDGT CLs were biosynthesized at the peat surface. D incorporation into brGDGT CLs converted to production rates ranging from 30-106 ng cm-3y-1 in the aerobic acrotelm from bog and fen

  17. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture, 1995. Adaptation to life without oxygen.

    PubMed

    Guest, J R

    1995-11-29

    The Earth was populated by anaerobic organisms for at least a thousand million years before the atmosphere became oxygenated and aerobes could evolve. Many bacteria like Escherichia coli retain the ability to grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Recent studies have revealed some global regulatory mechanisms for activating or repressing the expression of relevant genes in response to oxygen availability. These mechanisms ensure that the appropriate metabolic mode is adopted when bacteria switch between aerobic and anaerobic environments.

  18. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  19. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: FT-IR spectroscopic studies of yeast grown under conditions of severe oxygen limitation.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Rozenfelde, Linda; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis is a unique state of living organisms when metabolism is temporarily and reversibly delayed in response to the extreme desiccation of cells. The production of dry active preparations of yeast grown under anaerobic conditions is not currently possible because preparations are extremely sensitive to the dehydration procedure, though they could be very helpful in different biotechnological processes, including bioethanol production. To characterize mechanisms responsible for such sensitivity to the dehydration procedure, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the composition of aerobically grown yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistant to dehydration and grown under conditions of severe oxygen limitation and sensitive to dehydration. Results indicated that significantly lower amounts of lipids in cells, grown under conditions of severe oxygen limitation, may be related to the mechanisms of sensitivity. Dehydration of both resistant and sensitive S. cerevisiae cells was accompanied by similar changes in main cellular compounds. Amounts of nucleic acids and proteins decreased slightly, whereas that of lipids and carbohydrates increased. Artificially reduced sensitivity to dehydration in S. cerevisiae cells, grown under conditions of severe oxygen limitation, led to the increase in the lipid concentration. The chemical composition of S. cerevisiae membranes is proposed to dictate the resistance to dehydration in resistant and sensitive cells.

  20. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, R.; Hauss, H.; Buchholz, F.; Melzner, F.

    2015-10-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  1. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies

    PubMed Central

    Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J. Scott; da Costa, Márcio Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve “Mangalarga Marchador” fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70–80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  2. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Luiza Mendes de; Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J Scott; Costa, Márcio Carvalho da; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo; Ferraz, Guilherme de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve "Mangalarga Marchador" fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70-80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  3. SBA-15-functionalized 3-oxo-ABNO as recyclable catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols under metal-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Babak; Farhangi, Elham; Vali, Hojatollah; Vahdati, Saleh

    2014-09-01

    The nitroxyl radical 3-oxo-9-azabicyclo [3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl (3-oxo-ABNO) has been prepared using a simple protocol. This organocatalyst is found to be an efficient catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide variety of alcohols under metal-free conditions. In addition, the preparation and characterization of a supported version of 3-oxo-ABNO on ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 (SABNO) is described for the first time. The catalyst has been characterized using several techniques including simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen sorption analysis. This catalyst exhibits catalytic performance comparable to its homogeneous analogue and much superior catalytic activity in comparison with (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of almost the same range of alcohols under identical reaction conditions. It is also found that SABNO can be conveniently recovered and reused at least 12 times without significant effect on its catalytic efficiency.

  4. Advanced liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Suter, J. D.; Turner, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced methods of liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning were studied as part of an effort for increasing reliability and operability while reducing cost of future heavy lift launch vehicles. The most promising conditioning concept evaluated was no-bleed (passive recirculation) followed by low-bleed, helium injection, and use of a recirculation line. Full-scale cryogenic testing was performed with a sloped feedline test article to validate models of behavior of LO2 in the feedline and to prove no-bleed feasibility. Test data are also intended to help generate design guidelines for the development of a main propulsion system feed duct. A design-of-experiments matrix of over 100 tests was developed to test all four propellant conditioning concepts and the impact of design parameters on the concepts. Liquid nitrogen was used as the test fluid. The work for this project was conducted from October 1992 through January 1994 at the hydrogen cold flow facility of the west test area of MSFC. Test data have shown that satisfactory temperatures are being obtained for the no-bleed conditioning concept.

  5. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens L; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Lund, Marianne N

    2014-06-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90 days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial concentrate with 60% barley (Control, n=8), (2) concentrate with 35% barley and 24% citrus pulp (Cp24, n=9), or (3) concentrate with 23% barley and 35% citrus pulp (Cp35, n=9). Slices from the longissimus thoracis et lomborum muscle were packed aerobically and stored for up to 6days at 4°C in the dark. The citrus pulp groups, Cp24 and Cp35, significantly decreased protein radicals and carbonyls, and preserved more thiols within six days of storage compared to the Control group. The citrus pulp groups significantly slowed down the rate of protein oxidation, indicating that dietary citrus pulp reduced oxidative changes in meat proteins.

  6. Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

  7. QuadraPure-Supported Palladium Nanocatalysts for Microwave-Promoted Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction under Aerobic Condition

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Poh Lee; Juan, Joon Ching; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Yusop, Rahimi M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd) was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4–10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25054185

  8. QuadraPure-supported palladium nanocatalysts for microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reaction under aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kin Hong; Loh, Poh Lee; Juan, Joon Ching; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Yusop, Rahimi M

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd) was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4-10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  9. Guidelines for Aerobic Fitness Training in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-06

    b. Anemia c. Carbon monoxide from tcbacco smoking or pollution d. High a ltitude exposure (oxygen lack) e. Illness or disease Much of the decrease in...carry oxygen will also reduce ones aerobic fitness. Anemia is a condition of reduced oxygen carrying hemoglobin while carbon nmonoxide blocks hemo...and analyzed for oxygen content and the oxygen consurption is cxcuputed. Such a tesi - is obviously only suited for a laboratory and, therefore, one must

  10. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, N B; Sloth, K H; Højberg, O; Spliid, N H; Jensen, C; Thøgersen, R

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2 corn silage inoculation strategies (homofermentative vs. heterofermentative inoculation) under field conditions and to monitor responses in silage variables over the feeding season from January to August. Thirty-nine commercial dairy farms participated in the study. Farms were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control (nonactive carrier; Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark), Lactisil (inoculation with 1 x 10(5)Lactobacillus pentosus and 2.5 x 10(4)Pediococcus pentosaceus per gram of fresh matter; Chr. Hansen A/S), and Lalsil Fresh (inoculation with 3 x 10(5)Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 per gram of fresh matter; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Blagnac, France). Inoculation with Lactisil had no effects on fermentation variables and aerobic stability. On the contrary, inoculation with Lalsil Fresh doubled the aerobic stability: 37, 38, and 80+/-8h for control, Lactisil, and Lalsil Fresh, respectively. The effect of Lalsil Fresh on aerobic stability tended to differ between sampling times, indicating a reduced difference between treatments in samples collected in April. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased silage pH and contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, propanol, propyl acetate, 2-butanol, propylene glycol, ammonia, and free AA. The contents and ratios of DL-lactic acid, L-lactic acid relative to DL-lactic acid, free glucose, and DL-lactic acid relative to acetic acid decreased with Lalsil Fresh inoculation. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased the silage counts of total lactic acid bacteria and reduced yeast counts. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were detected in all silages at all collections, but the contents were not affected by ensiling time or by inoculation treatment. The effect of inoculation treatments on milk production was assessed by collecting test-day results from the involved farms and comparing the actual milk production with predicted milk production

  11. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  12. Oxygen isotopes in calcite grown under cave-analogue conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, C. C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2011-07-01

    Speleothem oxygen isotopes and growth rates are valuable proxies for reconstructing climate history. There is debate, however, about the conditions that allow speleothems to grow in oxygen isotope equilibrium, and about the correct equilibrium fractionation factors. We report results from a series of carbonate growth experiments in karst-analogue conditions in the laboratory. The setup closely mimics natural processes (e.g. precipitation driven by CO 2-degassing, low ionic strength solution, thin solution film) but with a tight control on growth conditions (temperature, pCO 2, drip rate, calcite saturation index and the composition of the initial solution). Calcite is dissolved in water in a 20,000 ppmV pCO 2 environment. This solution is dripped onto glass plates (coated with seed-carbonate) in a lower pCO 2 environment (<2500 ppmV), where degassing leads to calcite growth. Experiments were performed at 7, 15, 25 and 35 °C. At each temperature, calcite was grown at three drip rates (2, 6 and 10 drips per minute) on separate plates. The mass of calcite grown in these experiments varies with temperature ( T in K) and drip rate ( d_ r in drips min -1) according to the relationship daily growth mass = 1.254 + 1.478 ∗ 10 -9 ∗ e0.0679 T + ( e0.00248 T - 2) ∗ (-0.779 d_ r2 + 10.05 d_ r + 11.69). This relationship indicates a substantial increase of growth mass with temperature, a smaller influence of drip rate on growth mass at low temperature and a non-linear relationship between drip rate and growth mass at higher temperatures. Low temperature, fast dripping conditions are found to be the most favourable for reducing effects associated with evaporation and rapid depletion of the dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir (rapid DIC-depletion). The impact of evaporation can be large so caves with high relative humidity are also preferable for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Even allowing for the maximum offsets that may have been induced by evaporation and rapid DIC

  13. Effects of dissolved oxygen on performance and microbial community structure in a micro-aerobic hydrolysis sludge in situ reduction process.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tianhao; Zhou, Zhen; Shen, Xuelian; Qiao, Weimin; Jiang, Lu-Man; Pan, Wei; Zhou, Jijun

    2016-03-01

    A sludge process reduction activated sludge (SPRAS), with a sludge process reduction module composed of a micro-aerobic tank and a settler positioned before conventional activated sludge process, showed good performance of pollutant removal and sludge reduction. Two SPRAS systems were operated to investigate effects of micro-aeration on sludge reduction performance and microbial community structure. When dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the micro-aerobic tank decreased from 2.5 (SPH) to 0.5 (SPL) mg/L, the sludge reduction efficiency increased from 42.9% to 68.3%. Compared to SPH, activated sludge in SPL showed higher contents of extracellular polymeric substances and dissolved organic matter. Destabilization of floc structure in the settler, and cell lysis in the sludge process reduction module were two major reasons for sludge reduction. Illumina-MiSeq sequencing showed that microbial diversity decreased under high DO concentration. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi were the most abundant phyla in the SPRAS. Specific comparisons down to the class and genus level showed that fermentative, predatory and slow-growing bacteria in SPL community were more abundant than in SPH. The results revealed that micro-aeration in the SPRAS improved hydrolysis efficiency and enriched fermentative and predatory bacteria responsible for sludge reduction.

  14. BIODEGRADATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS UNDER MIXED OXYGEN/DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater and sediments is often limited by dissolved oxygen. Many aromatic hydrocarbons degrade very slowly or not at all under anaerobic conditions. Nitrate is a good alternative electron acceptor to oxygen, and denitrifying bacteria...

  15. Enhanced Adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni to Abiotic Surfaces Is Mediated by Membrane Proteins in Oxygen-Enriched Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sulaeman, Sheiam; Hernould, Mathieu; Schaumann, Annick; Coquet, Laurent; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Dé, Emmanuelle; Tresse, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the major foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. In contradiction with its fastidious growth requirements, this microaerobic pathogen can survive in aerobic food environments, suggesting that it must employ a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. For the first time, C. jejuni 81–176 inner and outer membrane subproteomes were analyzed separately using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis (2-DE) of oxygen-acclimated cells and microaerobically grown cells. LC-MS/MS analyses successfully identified 42 and 25 spots which exhibited a significantly altered abundance in the IMP-enriched fraction and in the OMP-enriched fraction, respectively, in response to oxidative conditions. These spots corresponded to 38 membrane proteins that could be grouped into different functional classes: (i) transporters, (ii) chaperones, (iii) fatty acid metabolism, (iv) adhesion/virulence and (v) other metabolisms. Some of these proteins were up-regulated at the transcriptional level in oxygen-acclimated cells as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Downstream analyses revealed that adhesion of C. jejuni to inert surfaces and swarming motility were enhanced in oxygen-acclimated cells or paraquat-stressed cells, which could be explained by the higher abundance of membrane proteins involved in adhesion and biofilm formation. The virulence factor CadF, over-expressed in the outer membrane of oxygen-acclimated cells, contributes to the complex process of C. jejuni adhesion to inert surfaces as revealed by a reduction in the capability of C. jejuni 81–176 ΔCadF cells compared to the isogenic strain. Taken together, these data demonstrate that oxygen-enriched conditions promote the over-expression of membrane proteins involved in both the biofilm initiation and virulence of C. jejuni. PMID:23029510

  16. Paragonimus westermani possesses aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria in different tissues, adapting to fluctuating oxygen tension in microaerobic habitats.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Fukuda, Koich; Nakamura, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2010-12-01

    We previously showed that adult Paragonimus westermani, the causative agent of paragonimiasis and whose habitat is the host lung, possesses both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains, i.e., cyanide-sensitive succinate oxidase and NADH-fumarate reductase systems, in isolated mitochondria (Takamiya et al., 1994). This finding raises the intriguing question as to whether adult Paragonimus worms possess two different populations of mitochondria, one having an aerobic succinate oxidase system and the other an anaerobic fumarate reductase system, or whether the worms possess a single population of mitochondria possessing both respiratory chains (i.e., mixed-functional mitochondria). Staining of trematode tissues for cytochrome c oxidase activity showed three types of mitochondrial populations: small, strongly stained mitochondria with many cristae, localised in the tegument and tegumental cells; and two larger parenchymal cell mitochondria, one with developed cristae and the other with few cristae. The tegumental and parenchymal mitochondria could be separated by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation and showed different morphological characteristics and respiratory activities, with low-density tegumental mitochondria having cytochrome c oxidase activity and high-density parenchymal mitochondria having fumarate reductase activity. These results indicate that Paragonimus worms possess three different populations of mitochondria, which are distributed throughout trematode tissues and function facultatively, rather than having mixed-functional mitochondria.

  17. Pesticides water decontamination in oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Ferrari, Federico; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Merli, Annalisa; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a laboratory bioreactor, with a functioning principle similar with that of biobed systems but working in oxygen-limited conditions, suitable for decontaminating wastewater mixtures with pesticides. The system is composed by two cylindrical plastic containers. The first one, where the pesticides solution is collected, is open, whereas the second one, where the biomass is disposed, is closed. The pesticides solution was pumped at the biomass surface and subsequently recollected and disposed in the first container. Four pesticides with different physical-chemical characteristics were tested. The results obtained showed a relatively good capacity of the developed prototype to decontaminate waste water containing the mixture of pesticides. The time of the experiment, the number of cycles that the solution made in the system and the environmental temperature have a significantly influence for the decontamination of acetochlor and chlorpyrifos whereas for the decontamination of terbuthylazine and metalaxyl no significant influence was observed. Even if the present prototype could represent a valid solution to manage the water pesticides residues in a farm and to increase the confidence of bystanders and residents, the practical difficulties when replacing the biomass could represent a limit of the system.

  18. Nitrous oxide production during nitrification from organic solid waste under temperature and oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei

    2016-11-01

    Landfill aeration can accelerate the biological degradation of organic waste and reduce methane production; however, it induces nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Nitrification is one of the pathways of N2O generation as a by-product during aerobic condition. This study was initiated to demonstrate the features of N2O production rate from organic solid waste during nitrification under three different temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C) and three oxygen concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20%) with high moisture content and high substrates' concentration. The experiment was carried out by batch experiment using Erlenmeyer flasks incubated in a shaking water bath for 72 h. A duplicate experiment was carried out in parallel, with addition of 100 Pa of acetylene as a nitrification inhibitor, to investigate nitrifiers' contribution to N2O production. The production rate of N2O ranged between 0.40 × 10(-3) and 1.14 × 10(-3) mg N/g-DM/h under the experimental conditions of this study. The rate of N2O production at 40°C was higher than at 20°C and 30°C. Nitrification was found to be the dominant pathway of N2O production. It was evaluated that optimization of O2 content is one of the crucial parameters in N2O production that may help to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and N turnover during aeration.

  19. Liquid Oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Gretchen L. E.; Orth, Michael S.; Mehta, Gopal K.

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and industry contractors have undertaken activities to develop a simplified liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept for future expendable launch vehicles. The objective of these activities is to reduce operations costs and timelines and to improve safety of these vehicles. The approach followed has been to identify novel concepts through system level studies and demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts through small-scale and full-scale testing. Testing will also provide data for design guidelines and validation of analytical models. Four different concepts are being investigated: no-bleed, low-bleed, use of a recirculation line, and helium (He) bubbling. This investigation is being done under a Joint Institutional Research and Development (JIRAD) program currently in effect between MSFC and General Dynamics Space Systems (GDSS). A full-scale test article, which is a facsimile of a propellant feed duct with an attached section to simulate heat input from a LO2 turbopump, will be tested at the Cold Flow Facility at MSFC's West Test Area. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), which has similar properties to LO2, will be used in place of LO2 for safety and budget reasons. Work to date includes design and fabrication of the test article, design of the test facility and initial fabrication, development of a test matrix and test procedures, initial predictions of test output, and heat leak calibration and heat exchanger tests on the test article. The tests for all propellant conditioning concepts will be conducted in the summer of 1993, with the final report completed by October, 1993.

  20. Evaluating the anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. axenically under reducing oxygen conditions and in intracellular assays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In tuberculosis (TB), the steadily increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and latent TB continue to be major concerns. A combination of conventional drugs and plant derived therapeutics can serve to expand the antimicrobial spectrum, prevent the emergence of drug resistant mutants and minimize toxicity. Alpinia galanga, used in various traditional medicines, possesses broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The study was undertaken to assess the antimycobacterial potential of A. galanga in axenic (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and intracellular assays. Methods Phytochemical analysis was done using HPTLC. The acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) of A. galanga were tested axenically using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) H37Rv and three drug sensitive and three multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The activity of the extracts was also evaluated intracellularly in A549 cell line against these strains. The extracts active under intracellular conditions were further tested in an axenic setup under reducing oxygen concentrations using only H37Rv. Results 1´ acetoxychavicol acetate, the reference standard used, was present in all the three extracts. The acetone and ethanolic extracts were active in axenic (aerobic and anaerobic) and intracellular assays. The aqueous extract did not demonstrate activity under the defined assay parameters. Conclusion A. galanga exhibits anti M.tb activity with multiple modes of action. Since the activity of the extracts was observed under reducing oxygen concentrations, it may be effective in treating the dormant and non-replicating bacteria of latent TB. Though the hypothesis needs further testing, A. galanga being a regular dietary component may be utilized in combination with the conventional TB therapy for enhanced efficacy. PMID:24592852

  1. TBA biodegradation in surface-water sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for [U-14C] TBA biodegradation was examined in laboratory microcosms under a range of terminal electron accepting conditions. TBA mineralization to CO2 was substantial in surface-water sediments under oxic, denitrifying, or Mn(IV)-reducing conditions and statistically significant but low under SO4-reducing conditions. Thus, anaerobic TBA biodegradation may be a significant natural attenuation mechanism for TBA in the environment, and stimulation of in situ TBA bioremediation by addition of suitable terminal electron acceptors may be feasible. No degradation of [U-14C] TBA was observed under methanogenic or Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  2. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  3. [Hypothermic storage under aerobic conditions--the effect of different flushing solutions on kidney functional recovery].

    PubMed

    Fischer, J H; Miyata, M; Isselhard, W; Casser, H R

    1979-01-01

    Canine kidneys (n = 17) were flushed with COLLINS (C2), SACKS II, LAMBOTTE (KMgS), ROSS (hypertonic citrate), or RINGER glucose-mannitol solution following a 30-min period of normothermic ischemia. After 24 h hypothermic preservation with retrograde oxygen persufflation (ROP) and autotransplantation, the immediate functional recovery was determined using inulin and PAH clearance methods and compared with the normal contralateral kidney. While a good functional recovery was found in the COLLINS group, significantly exceeding results from hypothermic ischemic storage preservation, in experiments using other flush solutions ROP preservation resulted in only a small immediate function. Thus the experiments indicate that COLLINS solution C2 is the optimal flush solution for ROP preservation.

  4. Methods to study the tumor microenvironment under controlled oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Matthew B.; Leslie, Matthew T.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Kenis, Paul J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex heterogeneous assembly composed of a variety of cell types and physical features. One such feature, hypoxia, is associated with metabolic reprogramming, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and therapeutic resistance. Many questions remain regarding the effects of hypoxia on these outcomes, yet only few experimental methods enable both precise control over oxygen concentration and real-time imaging of cell behavior. Recent efforts with microfluidic platforms offer a promising solution to these limitations. We discuss conventional methods and tools used to control oxygen concentration for cell studies then highlight recent advances in microfluidic-based approaches for controlling oxygen in engineered platforms. PMID:25282035

  5. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-02-17

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species.

  6. Oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation depends on metabolic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David L; Brookes, Paul S

    2009-06-12

    The mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a central role in many cell signaling pathways, but debate still surrounds its regulation by factors, such as substrate availability, [O2] and metabolic state. Previously, we showed that in isolated mitochondria respiring on succinate, ROS generation was a hyperbolic function of [O2]. In the current study, we used a wide variety of substrates and inhibitors to probe the O2 sensitivity of mitochondrial ROS generation under different metabolic conditions. From such data, the apparent Km for O2 of putative ROS-generating sites within mitochondria was estimated as follows: 0.2, 0.9, 2.0, and 5.0 microM O2 for the complex I flavin site, complex I electron backflow, complex III QO site, and electron transfer flavoprotein quinone oxidoreductase of beta-oxidation, respectively. Differential effects of respiratory inhibitors on ROS generation were also observed at varying [O2]. Based on these data, we hypothesize that at physiological [O2], complex I is a significant source of ROS, whereas the electron transfer flavoprotein quinone oxidoreductase may only contribute to ROS generation at very high [O2]. Furthermore, we suggest that previous discrepancies in the assignment of effects of inhibitors on ROS may be due to differences in experimental [O2]. Finally, the data set (see supplemental material) may be useful in the mathematical modeling of mitochondrial metabolism.

  7. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  8. Model based evaluation of a contaminant plume development under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in 2D bench-scale tank experiments.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, E; Beyer, C; Bauer, R D; Griebler, C; Bauer, S

    2014-06-01

    The influence of transverse mixing on competitive aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume was investigated using a two-dimensional, bench-scale flow-through laboratory tank experiment. In the first part of the experiment aerobic degradation of increasing toluene concentrations was carried out by the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1. Successively, ethylbenzene (injected as a mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopologues) substituted toluene; nitrate was added as additional electron acceptor and the anaerobic denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was inoculated to study competitive degradation under aerobic /anaerobic conditions. The spatial distribution of anaerobic degradation was resolved by measurements of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation induced by the anaerobic strain as well as compound concentrations. A fully transient numerical reactive transport model was employed and calibrated using measurements of electron donors, acceptors and isotope fractionation. The aerobic phases of the experiment were successfully reproduced using a double Monod kinetic growth model and assuming an initial homogeneous distribution of P. putida F1. Investigation of the competitive degradation phase shows that the observed isotopic pattern cannot be explained by transverse mixing driven biodegradation only, but also depends on the inoculation process of the anaerobic strain. Transient concentrations of electron acceptors and donors are well reproduced by the model, showing its ability to simulate transient competitive biodegradation.

  9. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes aerobic growth of Salmonella Typhimurium under nitrosative stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Mee; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kook, Joong-Ki; Choy, Hyon E; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Bang, Iel Soo

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inactivates iron-sulfur enzymes in bacterial amino acid biosynthetic pathways, causing amino acid auxotrophy. We demonstrate that exogenous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can restore the NO resistance of hmp mutant Salmonella Typhimurium lacking principal NO-metabolizing enzyme flavohemoglobin, and of mutants further lacking iron-sulfur enzymes dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (IlvD) and isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) that are essential for BCAA biosynthesis, in an oxygen-dependent manner. BCAA supplementation did not affect the NO consumption rate of S. Typhimurium, suggesting the BCAA-promoted NO resistance independent of NO metabolism. BCAA supplementation also induced intracellular survival of ilvD and leuCD mutants at wild-type levels inside RAW 264.7 macrophages that produce constant amounts of NO regardless of varied supplemental BCAA concentrations. Our results suggest that the NO-induced BCAA auxotrophy of Salmonella, due to inactivation of iron-sulfur enzymes for BCAA biosynthesis, could be rescued by bacterial taking up exogenous BCAA available in oxic environments.

  10. Conditional independence mapping of DIGE data reveals PDIA3 protein species as key nodes associated with muscle aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kenyani, Jenna; Gray, Donna; Guadagnin, Eleonora; Jarman, Ian H.; Cobley, James N.; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Lisboa, Paulo J.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Profiling of protein species is important because gene polymorphisms, splice variations and post-translational modifications may combine and give rise to multiple protein species that have different effects on cellular function. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is one of the most robust methods for differential analysis of protein species, but bioinformatic interrogation is challenging because the consequences of changes in the abundance of individual protein species on cell function are unknown and cannot be predicted. We conducted DIGE of soleus muscle from male and female rats artificially selected as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively). In total 696 protein species were resolved and LC–MS/MS identified proteins in 337 spots. Forty protein species were differentially (P < 0.05, FDR < 10%) expressed between HCR and LCR and conditional independence mapping found distinct networks within these data, which brought insight beyond that achieved by functional annotation. Protein disulphide isomerase A3 emerged as a key node segregating with differences in aerobic capacity and unsupervised bibliometric analysis highlighted further links to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which were confirmed by western blotting. Thus, conditional independence mapping is a useful technique for interrogating DIGE data that is capable of highlighting latent features. PMID:24769234

  11. Lon-Mediated Proteolysis of the FeoC Protein Prevents Salmonella enterica from Accumulating the Fe(II) Transporter FeoB under High-Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunkeun; Lee, Hwiseop

    2014-01-01

    The Salmonella Feo system consists of the FeoA, FeoB, and FeoC proteins and mediates ferrous iron [Fe(II)] import. FeoB is an inner membrane protein that, along with contributions from two small hydrophilic proteins, FeoA and FeoC, transports Fe(II). We previously reported that FeoC binds to and protects the FeoB transporter from FtsH-mediated proteolysis. In the present study, we report proteolytic regulation of FeoC that occurs in an oxygen-dependent fashion. While relatively stable under low-oxygen conditions, FeoC was rapidly degraded by the Lon protease under high-oxygen conditions. The putative Fe-S cluster of FeoC seemed to function as an oxygen sensor to control FeoC stability, as evidenced by the finding that mutation of the putative Fe-S cluster-binding site greatly increased FeoC stability under high-oxygen conditions. Salmonella ectopically expressing the feoB and feoC genes was able to accumulate FeoB and FeoC only under low-oxygen conditions, suggesting that FeoC proteolysis prevents Salmonella from accumulating the FeoB transporter under high-oxygen conditions. Finally, we propose that Lon-mediated FeoC proteolysis followed by FtsH-mediated FeoB proteolysis helps Salmonella to avoid uncontrolled Fe(II) uptake during the radical environmental changes encountered when shifting from low-iron anaerobic conditions to high-iron aerobic conditions. PMID:25313398

  12. Vampires, Pasteur and reactive oxygen species. Is the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism a preventive antioxidant defence in blood-feeding parasites?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro L; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2002-08-14

    Several species of parasites show a reduction of their respiratory activity along their developmental cycles after they start to feed on vertebrate blood, relying on anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates to achieve their energy requirements. Usually, these parasites choose not to breathe despite of living in an environment of high oxygen availability such as vertebrate blood. Absence of the 'Pasteur effect' in most of these parasites has been well documented. Interestingly, together with the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in these parasites, there is clear evidence pointing to an increase in their antioxidant defences. As the respiratory chain in mitochondria is a major site of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we propose here that the arrest of respiration constitutes an adaptation to avoid the toxic effects of ROS. This situation would be especially critical for blood-feeding parasites because ROS produced in mitochondria would interact with pro-oxidant products of blood digestion, such as haem and/or iron, and increase the oxidative damage to the parasite's cells.

  13. Improving the simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand and terephthalic acid in a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong-Xue; Tian, Yu; Chen, Zhao-Bo; Ge, Hui; Cui, Yu-Bo; Ran, Chun-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were implemented to optimize the operational parameters for a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor (CFASR) in remedying mixed printing and dyeing wastewater (MPDW). The individual and interactive effects of three variables, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH and sludge loading rate (SLR), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid (TA) removal rates were evaluated. For HRT of 15.3-19.8 hours, pH of 7.2-8.1 and SLR of 0.4-0.6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per kg mixed liquor suspended solids per day, COD and TA removal rates of the CFASR exceeded 85% and 90%, respectively. The check experiment revealed that the effluent from the optimized CFASR was stable below the limitation of 100 mg COD/L and the TA concentration decreased by 6.0% compared to the usual CFASR. The results verified that the RSM was useful for optimizing the operation parameters of the CFASR in remedying MPDW.

  14. Effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, R; Gibbs, P; Burchett, S; Misselbrook, T

    2004-01-01

    Cattle manure from stock bedded on straw was aerobically composted under ambient conditions, turning with either a tractor-mounted front-end loader or a rear discharge manure spreader. Three composting experiments, each of approximately four months duration, were conducted to investigate the effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure. Manure stacks of 12-15 m(3) initial volume were constructed in separate 5 x 5 m concrete compartments. Experiment 1 (January-April 1999) compared manure heaps turned once (T1) or three times (T3) using a front-end loader with an unturned static (S) control manure stack. Experiment 2 (June-September 1999) compared the same treatments as Experiment 1. Experiment 3 (September-December 1999) compared T1 and T3 turning regimes using a front end loader with turning by a rear-discharge spreader (TR1 and TR1T2) for more effective aeration of the manure. Turning took place at 6 weeks for the one turn treatments, and after 2, 6 and 10 weeks for the three turn treatments. Leachate losses were dominated by NH(4)-N during the first three weeks of composting, after which time NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in leachates were approximately the same, in the range 0-20 mg N l(-1). The concentrations of both NH4-N and NO3-N in leachate were higher after turning. Molybdate-reactive P concentrations in leachate tended not to be significantly influenced by turning regime. Gaseous losses of NH3 and N2O rose quickly during the initial phases of composting, peaking at 152 g N t(-1) d(-1) for the T3 treatment. Mean NH3 emission rate (25-252 g N t(-1) d(-1)) for the first two weeks of Experiment 2 conducted during the period June-September were an order of magnitude greater (1-10 g N t(-1) d(-1)) than Experiment 3, conducted during the colder, wetter autumn period (September-December). Nitrous oxide emission rates ranged between 1-14 g N t(-1) d(-1) and showed little

  15. Mathematic Modeling for Optimum Conditions on Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by the Aerobic Bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qing; Zhai, Cuiping; Guan, Bin; Li, Chunjuan; Shan, Shihua; Yu, Jiujiang

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the degradation conditions of AFB1 by Rhodococcus erythropolis in liquid culture. The most important factors that influence the degradation, as identified by a two-level Plackett-Burman design with six variables, were temperature, pH, liquid volume, inoculum size, agitation speed and incubation time. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface analysis were used to further investigate the interactions between these variables and to optimize the degradation efficiency of R. erythropolis based on a second-order model. The results demonstrated that the optimal parameters were: temperature, 23.2 °C; pH, 7.17; liquid volume, 24.6 mL in 100-mL flask; inoculum size, 10%; agitation speed, 180 rpm; and incubation time, 81.9 h. Under these conditions, the degradation efficiency of R. erythropolis could reach 95.8% in liquid culture, which was increased by about three times as compared to non-optimized conditions. The result by mathematic modeling has great potential for aflatoxin removal in industrial fermentation such as in food processing and ethanol production. PMID:23202311

  16. Effects of epinephrine and lactate on the increase in oxygen consumption of non-exercising skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Motohide; Katsumura, Toshihito; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Osada, Takuya; Sako, Takayuki; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Kime, Ryotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure O2 consumption of nonexercising skeletal muscles (VO2nonex) at rest and after aerobic exercise and to investigate the stimulant factors of O2 consumption. In experiment 1, we measured the resting metabolic rate of the finger flexor muscles in seven healthy males by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 15 min arterial occlusion. In experiment 2, the VO2nonex of the finger flexor muscles was measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy at rest, immediate postexercise, and 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min following a cycling exercise at a workload corresponding to 50% of peak pulmonary O2 uptake for 20 min. We also monitored deep tissue temperature in the VO2nonex measurement area and determined catecholamines and lactate concentrations in the blood at rest and immediate postexercise. VO2nonex at rest was 1.1 +/- 0.1 (mu) M O2/s (mean +/- standard error) and VO2nonex after exercise increased 59.6 +/- 7.2% (p < 0.001) from the resting values. There were significant correlations between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01), and between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in lactate concentration (p < 0.05). These results suggest that epinephrine and lactate concentrations are important VO2nonex stimulant factors.

  17. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption following acute aerobic and resistance exercise in women who are lean or obese.

    PubMed

    Crommett, April D; Kinzey, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    Seventeen women were divided into lean (19.5 +/- 0.5 years; 22.2 +/- 0.6 kg.m(-2)) and obese (20.4 +/- 0.5 years; 34.9 +/- 2.1 kg.m(-2)) groups. On completion of a submax cycle ergometer test and 10-repetition maximum (10RM) of 5 exercises on a Smith machine, subjects returned for 2 exercise sessions during menses. Session 1 consisted of performing 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of the predetermined 10RM for the following exercises: squat, calf raises, bench press, upright row, and shoulder press. Session 2 consisted of cycling at 60-65% VO2max for a duration that would expend the same number of calories as the resistance session. Postexercise respiratory exchange ratio and EPOC magnitude/duration were similar for both groups. These findings indicate that women who are lean or obese will respond similarly to exercise at similar relative intensities and that aerobic and resistance exercise of equal caloric expenditure will elicit similar EPOC responses.

  18. Waiting to inhale: HIF-1 modulates aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Johnson, Randall S

    2007-04-06

    The hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1 is known to promote anaerobic respiration during low oxygen conditions (hypoxia). In this issue, Fukuda et al. (2007) expand the range of HIF-1's functions by showing that it modulates aerobic respiration as well.

  19. Laboratory Study of Chemical Speciation of Mercury in Lake Sediment and Water under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Regnell, Olof; Tunlid, Anders

    1991-01-01

    Chemical speciation and partitioning of radiolabeled HgCl2 were studied in model aquatic systems consisting of undisturbed eutrophic lake sediment and water in plastic cylinders. The cylinders were either gradually made anaerobic by a gentle flow of N2-CO2 or kept aerobic by air flow. The proportion of methylated 203Hg was significantly higher, in both water and sediment, in the anaerobic systems than in the aerobic systems. The composition and total concentration of fatty acids originating from bacterial phospholipids, as well as the concentration of vitamin B12, including related cobalamins, were similar in sediments from the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Bacterial cell numbers were, on average, 3.6 times higher in the anaerobic water columns than in the aerobic ones. Volatilization of 203Hg occurred in all systems except in an autoclaved control and was of similar magnitudes in the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Incorporation of 203Hg into the sediment was significantly faster in the aerobic systems than in the anaerobic systems. These results suggest that episodes of anoxia in bottom waters and sediment cause an increase in net mercury methylation and, hence, an increase in bioavailable mercury. PMID:16348444

  20. Microbial community structure and dynamics in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor aerobically treating domestic wastewater under real operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Molina-Muñoz, M; Poyatos, J M; Sánchez-Peinado, M; Hontoria, E; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

    2009-06-15

    A pilot scale submerged ultra-filtration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater over 9 months of year 2006 (28th March to 21st December). The MBR was installed at a municipal wastewater facility (EMASAGRA, Granada, Spain) and was fed with real wastewater. The experimental work was divided in 4 stages run under different sets of operation conditions. Operation parameters (total and volatile suspended solids, dissolved oxygen concentration) and environmental variables (temperature, pH, COD and BOD(5) of influent water) were daily monitored. In all the experiments conducted, the MBR generated an effluent of optimal quality complying with the requirements of the European Law (91/271/CEE 1991). A cultivation-independent approach (polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-TGGE) was used to analyze changes in the structure of the bacterial communities in the sludge. Cluster analysis of TGGE profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure related to variations of the operation parameters and environmental factors. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that temperature, hydraulic retention time and concentration of volatile suspended solids were the factors mostly influencing community structure. 23 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, allowing gaining insight into the identities of predominantly present bacterial populations in the sludge. Retrieved partial 16S-rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to the alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria classes. The community established in the MBR in each of the four stages of operation significantly differed in species composition and the sludge generated displayed dissimilar rates of mineralization, but these differences did not influence the performance of the bioreactor (quality of the permeate). These data indicate that the flexibility of the bacterial community

  1. Dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon, during winter flow conditions, 1991 and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the winter period, November through April, wastewater treatment plants in the Tualatin River Basin discharge from 10,000 to 15,000 pounds per day of biochemical oxygen demand to the river. These loads often increase substantially during storms when streamflow is high. During the early winter season, when streamflow is frequently less than the average winter flow, the treatment plants discharge about 2,000 pounds per day of ammonia. This study focused on the capacity of the Tualatin River to assimilat oxygen-demanding loads under winter streamflow conditions during the 1992 water year, with an emphasis on peak-flow conditions in the river, and winter-base-flow conditions during November 1992. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen throughout the main stem of the river during the winter remained generally high relative to the State standard for Oregon of 6 milligrams per liter. The most important factors controlling oxygen consumption during winter-low-flow conditions were carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and input of oxygen-depleted waters from tributaries. During peak-flow conditions, reduced travel time and increased dilution associated with the increased streamflow minimized the effect of increased oxygen-demanding loads. During the base-flow period in November 1992, concentrations of dissolved oxygen were consistently below 6 milligrams per liter. A hydrodynamic water-quality model was used to identify the processes depleting dissolved oxygen, including sediment oxygen demand, nitrification, and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand. Sediment oxygen demand was the most significant factor; nitrification was also important. Hypothetical scenarios were posed to evaluate the effect of different wastewater treatment plant loads during winter-base-flow conditions. Streamflow and temperature were significant factors governing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the main-stem river.

  2. Muscle oxygenation during exercise under hypoxic conditions assessed by spatially resolved broadband NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, Dmitri; Platen, Petra; Franke, Julia; Andre, Christiane; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2005-08-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used for the non-invasive measurement of muscle oxygenation during an incremental cycle test in healthy volunteers. A broad band spatially resolved system is used that allows the reliability of current algorithms to be inspected with the main emphasis on tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentrations. Physiological conditions were modulated by changing oxygen supply from normal (21 % O2 in inspired air) to conditions corresponding to 2000 and 4000 m altitude above sea level (15.4 and 11.9 % O2). Under these hypoxic conditions the decrease in SO2 with increased exercise power is highly correlated with the oxygen content of the inspired air. There is a clear correlation with physiological parameters (heart rate, pulse oxymetry, blood gas, lactate, spirometric data). Skin oxygenation parameters are compared to those of muscle.

  3. Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts for ethanol production from renewable sources under oxygen-limited and low-pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Silvia; Merico, Annamaria; Pizza, Francesca; Hellborg, Linda; Molinari, Francesco; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2011-08-01

    Industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol requires microorganisms able to utilise a broad range of carbon sources and generate ethanol at high yield and productivity. D. bruxellensis has recently been reported to contaminate commercial ethanol processes, where it competes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4, 26]. In this work Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts were studied to explore their potential to produce ethanol from renewable sources under conditions suitable for industrial processes, such as oxygen-limited and low-pH conditions. Over 50 strains were analysed for their ability to utilise a variety of carbon sources, and some strains grew on cellobiose and pentoses. Two strains of D. bruxellensis were able to produce ethanol at high yield (0.44 g g(-1) glucose), comparable to those reported for S. cerevisiae. B. naardenensis was shown to be able to produce ethanol from xylose. To obtain ethanol from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysates we developed a two-step fermentation strategy: the first step under aerobic conditions for fast production of biomass from mixtures of hexoses and pentoses, followed by a second step under oxygen limitation to promote ethanol production. Under these conditions we obtained biomass and ethanol production on synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with ethanol yields ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 g g(-1) sugar. Hexoses, xylose and arabinose were consumed at the end of the process, resulting in 13 g l(-1) of ethanol, even in the presence of furfural. Our studies showed that Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts have clear potential for further development for industrial processes aimed at production of ethanol from renewable sources.

  4. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater.

  5. Development and validation of a mathematical model to describe the growth of Pseudomonas spp. in raw poultry stored under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Silvia A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2007-12-15

    Poultry meat spoils quickly unless it is processed, stored, and distributed under refrigerated conditions. Research has shown that the microbial spoilage rate is predominantly controlled by temperature and the spoilage flora of refrigerated, aerobically-stored poultry meat is generally dominated by Pseudomonas spp. The objective of our study was to develop and validate a mathematical model that predicts the growth of Pseudomonas in raw poultry stored under aerobic conditions over a variety of temperatures. Thirty-seven Pseudomonas growth rates were extracted from 6 previously published studies. Objectives, methods and data presentation formats varied widely among the studies, but all the studies used either naturally contaminated meat or poultry or Pseudomonas isolated from meat or poultry grown in laboratory media. These extracted growth rates were used to develop a model relating growth rate of Pseudomonas to storage or incubation temperature. A square-root equation [Ratkowsky, D.A., Olley, J., McMeekin, T.A., and Ball, A., 1982. Relationship between temperature and growth rate of bacterial cultures. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 149, 1-5.] was used to model the data. Model predictions were then compared to 20 Pseudomonas and 20 total aerobes growth rate measurements collected in our laboratory. The growth rates were derived from more than 600 bacterial concentration measurements on raw poultry at 10 temperatures ranging from 0 to 25 degrees C. Visual inspection of the data and the indices of bias and accuracy factors proposed by Baranyi et al. [Baranyi, J., Pin, C., and Ross, T., 1999. Validating and comparing predictive models. Int. J. Food Micro. 48, 159-166.] were used to analyze the performance of the model. The experimental data for Pseudomonas showed a 4.8% discrepancy with the predictions and a bias of +3.6%. Percent discrepancies show close agreement between model predictions and observations, and the positive bias factor demonstrates that the proposed model over

  6. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of Shewanella oneidensis cultured under aerobic and suboxic conditions by accurate mass and time tag approach.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ruihua; Elias, Dwayne A; Monroe, Matthew E; Shen, Yufeng; McIntosh, Martin; Wang, Pei; Goddard, Carrie D; Callister, Stephen J; Moore, Ronald J; Gorby, Yuri A; Adkins, Joshua N; Fredrickson, Jim K; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D

    2006-04-01

    We describe the application of LC-MS without the use of stable isotope labeling for differential quantitative proteomic analysis of whole cell lysates of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultured under aerobic and suboxic conditions. LC-MS/MS was used to initially identify peptide sequences, and LC-FTICR was used to confirm these identifications as well as measure relative peptide abundances. 2343 peptides covering 668 proteins were identified with high confidence and quantified. Among these proteins, a subset of 56 changed significantly using statistical approaches such as statistical analysis of microarrays, whereas another subset of 56 that were annotated as performing housekeeping functions remained essentially unchanged in relative abundance. Numerous proteins involved in anaerobic energy metabolism exhibited up to a 10-fold increase in relative abundance when S. oneidensis was transitioned from aerobic to suboxic conditions.

  7. Investigation of oxidative phosphorylation in continuous cultures. A non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach to energy transduction for Escherichia coli in aerobic condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafuri, Mohazabeh; Nosrati, Mohsen; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2015-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in living cells is very important. Different researches have shown that in terms of mathematical modeling, the domain of these investigations is essentially restricted. Recently the thermodynamic models have been suggested for calculation of the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation process and rate of energy loss in animal cells using chemiosmotic theory and non-equilibrium thermodynamics equations. In our previous work, we developed a mathematical model for mitochondria of animal cells. In this research, according to similarities between oxidative phosphorylation process in microorganisms and animal cells, Golfar's model was developed to predict the non-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior of the oxidative phosphorylation process for bacteria in aerobic condition. With this model the rate of energy loss, P/O ratio, and efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were calculated for Escherichia coli in aerobic condition. The results then were compared with experimental data given by other authors. The thermodynamic model had an acceptable agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Differential Label-free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Shewanella oneidensis Cultured under Aerobic and Suboxic Conditions by Accurate Mass and Time Tag Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ruihua; Elias, Dwayne A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Shen, Yufeng; McIntosh, Martin; Wang, Pei; Goddard, Carrie D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-04-01

    We describe the application of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) without the use of stable isotope labeling for differential quantitative proteomics analysis of whole cell lysates of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultured under aerobic and sub-oxic conditions. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to initially identify peptide sequences, and LC coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR) was used to confirm these identifications, as well as measure relative peptide abundances. 2343 peptides, covering 668 proteins were identified with high confidence and quantified. Among these proteins, a subset of 56 changed significantly using statistical approaches such as SAM, while another subset of 56 that were annotated as performing housekeeping functions remained essentially unchanged in relative abundance. Numerous proteins involved in anaerobic energy metabolism exhibited up to a 10-fold increase in relative abundance when S. oneidensis is transitioned from aerobic to sub-oxic conditions.

  9. Oxygen-Poor Microzones as Potential Sites of Microbial N2 Fixation in Nitrogen-Depleted Aerobic Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Prufert, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen-deficient coastal waters of North Carolina contain suspended bacteria potentially able to fix N2. Bioassays aimed at identifying environmental factors controlling the development and proliferation of N2 fixation showed that dissolved organic carbon (as simple sugars and sugar alcohols) and particulate organic carbon (derived from Spartina alterniflora) additions elicited and enhanced N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity) in these waters. Nitrogenase activity occurred in samples containing flocculent, mucilage-covered bacterial aggregates. Cyanobacterium-bacterium aggregates also revealed N2 fixation. In all cases bacterial N2 fixation occurred in association with surficial microenvironments or microzones. Since nitrogenase is oxygen labile, we hypothesized that the aggregates themselves protected their constituent microbes from O2. Microelectrode O2 profiles revealed that aggregates had lower internal O2 tensions than surrounding waters. Tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyl-3-tetrazolium chloride) reduction revealed that patchy zones existed both within microbes and extracellularly in the mucilage surrounding microbes where free O2 was excluded. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction also strongly inhibited nitrogenase activity. These findings suggest that N2 fixation is mediated by the availability of the appropriate types of reduced microzones. Organic carbon enrichment appears to serve as an energy and structural source for aggregate formation, both of which were required for eliciting N2 fixation responses of these waters. Images PMID:16347337

  10. Enhancement of acute ethanol hepatotoxicity under conditions of low oxygen supply and ischemia/reperfusion. The role of oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Wagner, H; Strubelt, O

    1989-10-15

    Using isolated hemoglobin-free perfused rat livers we studied the effect of low oxygen supply on ethanol hepatotoxicity in two models. In the first model resembling low blood supply, perfusion rate was lowered from 60 to 10 ml/min after a 30 min-equilibration phase and kept low for 60 min. As a consequence, oxygen consumption fell from 1.76 +/- 0.15 mumol/min/g to 0.51 +/- 0.02 mumol/min/g. In the second model, total ischemia was accomplished by interruption of the perfusion for 30 min and was followed by reperfusion at a perfusion rate of 60 ml/min for a further 30 min. In this model, oxygen consumption returned immediately to normal values upon reperfusion. In both models, low oxygen supply had no toxic effects of its own on livers from fed rats. While ethanol (3 g/l) given under normoxic conditions led to a moderate hepatotoxicity, its application in both models of partial as well as total ischemia and reperfusion resulted in a marked liver damage as evidenced by a strong release of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione, as well as by an increase in hepatic calcium content. Inhibition of ethanol metabolism by 4-methylpyrazol prevented liver damage in both models indicating that metabolism of ethanol is a prerequisite for its toxicity to occur. Also, hepatotoxicity was inhibited partially by catalase and superoxide dismutase and nearly totally by deferrioxamine and allopurinol. Thus, reactive oxygen species which are produced during ethanol metabolism as well as under conditions of low oxygen supply are mediators of hepatic damage in both models employed.

  11. Loss of SigB in Listeria monocytogenes Strains EGD-e and 10403S Confers Hyperresistance to Hydrogen Peroxide in Stationary Phase under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boura, Marcia; Keating, Ciara; Royet, Kevin; Paudyal, Ranju; O'Donoghue, Beth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT SigB is the main stress gene regulator in Listeria monocytogenes affecting the expression of more than 150 genes and thus contributing to multiple-stress resistance. Despite its clear role in most stresses, its role in oxidative stress is uncertain, as results accompanying the loss of sigB range from hyperresistance to hypersensitivity. Previously, these differences have been attributed to strain variation. In this study, we show conclusively that unlike for all other stresses, loss of sigB results in hyperresistance to H2O2 (more than 8 log CFU ml−1 compared to the wild type) in aerobically grown stationary-phase cultures of L. monocytogenes strains 10403S and EGD-e. Furthermore, growth at 30°C resulted in higher resistance to oxidative stress than that at 37°C. Oxidative stress resistance seemed to be higher with higher levels of oxygen. Under anaerobic conditions, the loss of SigB in 10403S did not affect survival against H2O2, while in EGD-e, it resulted in a sensitive phenotype. During exponential phase, minor differences occurred, and this result was expected due to the absence of sigB transcription. Catalase tests were performed under all conditions, and stronger catalase results corresponded well with a higher survival rate, underpinning the important role of catalase in this phenotype. Furthermore, we assessed the catalase activity in protein lysates, which corresponded with the catalase tests and survival. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed no differences in transcription between the wild type and the ΔsigB mutant in various oxidative stress genes. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism behind this phenotype and its possible consequences for the overall phenotype of L. monocytogenes are under way. IMPORTANCE SigB is the most important stress gene regulator in L. monocytogenes and other Gram-positive bacteria. Its increased expression during stationary phase results in resistance to multiple stresses. However

  12. Oxygen consumption along bed forms under losing and gaining streamflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that bed forms are the most significant geomorphological structure that drives hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes in stream networks. Other studies also demonstrated that due to the hyporheic flow patterns within bed form, biogeochemical processes do not occur uniformly along and within the bed forms. The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate how losing or gaining flow conditions affect oxygen consumption by biofilm along sandy bed forms. We measured the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions on oxygen consumption by combining modeling and experiments in a novel laboratory flume system that enable the control of losing and gaining fluxes. Oxygen consumption was measured after growing a benthic biofilm fed with Sodium Benzoate (as a carbon source) and measuring the distribution of oxygen in the streambed with microelectrodes. The experimental results were analyzed using a novel code that calculates vertical profiles of reaction rates in the presence of hyporheic water fluxes. These experimental observations and modeling revealed that oxygen distribution varied along the bed forms. The zone of oxygen consumption (i.e. depth of penetration) was the largest at the upstream side of the bed form and the smallest in the lee side (at the lowest part of the bed form), regardless of the flow conditions. Also, the zone of oxygen consumption was the largest under losing conditions, the smallest under gaining conditions, and in-between under neutral conditions. The distribution of oxygen consumption rates determined with our new model will be also discussed. Our preliminary results enable us to show the importance of the coupling between flow conditions and oxygen consumption along bed forms and are expected to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling in streams.

  13. Rapid Sampling of Escherichia coli After Changing Oxygen Conditions Reveals Transcriptional Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    von Wulffen, Joachim; Ulmer, Andreas; Jäger, Günter; Sawodny, Oliver; Feuer, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is able to shift between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism by adapting its gene expression, e.g., of metabolic genes, to the new environment. The dynamics of gene expression that result from environmental shifts are limited, amongst others, by the time needed for regulation and transcription elongation. In this study, we examined gene expression dynamics after an anaerobic-to-aerobic shift on a short time scale (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 min) by RNA sequencing with emphasis on delay times and transcriptional elongation rates (TER). Transient expression patterns and timing of differential expression, characterized by delay and elongation, were identified as key features of the dataset. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed early upregulation of respiratory and iron-related gene sets. We inferred specific TERs of 89 operons with a mean TER of 42.0 nt/s and mean delay time of 22.4 s. TERs correlate with sequence features, such as codon bias, whereas delay times correlate with the involvement of regulators. The presented data illustrate that at very short times after a shift in oxygenation, extensional changes of the transcriptome, such as temporary responses, can be observed. Besides regulation, TERs contribute to the dynamics of gene expression. PMID:28264512

  14. Hexavalent chromium removal and bioelectricity generation by Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 under different oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Chen, Ching-Kuo; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Lin, Ssu-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Ying; Li, Jo-Wei; Lin, Chia-Pei; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Bioremediation is an environmentally friendly method of reducing heavy metal concentration and toxicity. A chromium-reducing bacterial strain, isolated from the vicinity of an electroplate factory, was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. YC211. The efficiency and capacity per time of Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal under anaerobic conditions were superior to those under aerobic conditions. An acceptable removal efficiency (96.5 ± 0.6%) corresponding to 30.2 ± 0.8 mg-Cr (g-dry cell weight-h)(-1) was achieved by Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 at 300 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). A temperature of 30°C and pH 7 were the optimal parameters for Cr(VI) removal. By examining reactivated cells, permeabilized cells, and cell-free extract, we determined that Cr(VI) removal by Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 under anaerobic conditions mainly occurred in the soluble fraction of the cell and can be regarded as an enzymatic reaction. The results also indicated that an Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an anaerobic anode was considerably superior to that with an aerobic anode in bioelectricity generation and Cr(VI) removal. The maximum power density and Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the MFC were 445 ± 3.2 mW m(-2) and 97.2 ± 0.3%, respectively. Additionally, the effects of coexisting ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) in the anolyte on the MFC performance and Cr(VI) removal were nonsignificant (P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report to compare Cr(VI) removal by different cells and MFC types under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  15. Oxygen and Biological Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the evolution of aerobic organisms from anaerobic organisms and the accompanying biochemistry that developed to motivate and enable this evolution. Uses of oxygen by aerobic organisms are described. (CW)

  16. Advanced liquid Oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasting, J. H.; Perry, G. L. E.; Mehta, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive testing was performed on the promising L02 propellant conditioning concept of passive recirculation (no-bleed). Data from the project is being used to further anchor models in L02 conditioning behavior and broaden the data base of no-bleed and low-bleed conditioning. Data base expansion includes results from testing the limits of no-bleed and low-bleed conditioning with various configuration changes to the test facility and designed test article. Configuration changes include low velocity effects in the recirculation loop above the test article, test article internal constriction impacts, test article out-of-plane effects, impact from an actual Titan L02 pump attachment, feed duct slope effects, and up-leg booster effects. LN2 was used as the test fluid. The testing was conducted between July 1994 and January 1995 at the west test area of Marshall Space Flight Center. Data have shown that in most cases passive recirculation was demonstrated when the aforementioned limits were applied.

  17. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND SULFUR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS: STUDIES WITH AQUIFER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for anaerobic biodegradation of 12 heterocyclic model compounds was studied. Nine of the model compounds were biotransformed in aquifer slurries under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. The nitrogen and oxygen heterocyclic compounds were more susceptible t...

  18. Experimental study on ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Dong, P.

    2016-08-01

    The high-temperature oxygen ignition technology of pulverized coal, which can replace the oil gun and achieve oil-free pulverized coal ignition by mixing the high- temperature oxygen and the pulverized coal stream directly, was proposed and a relevant ignition experimental system was built. The ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition were investigated: the ignition process was described and analyzed, the influence of relevant parameters on the pulverized coal stream ignition were obtained and analyzed. The results showed: when the oxygen heating temperature is over 750 °C, the pulverized coal stream could be ignited successfully by high-temperature oxygen; increasing the pulverized coal concentration, primary air temperature and oxygen volume flow rate or decreasing the primary air velocity is helpful for the ignition and combustion of the pulverized coal stream.

  19. Liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Gretchen L. E.; Orth, Michael S.; Mehta, Gopal K.

    1993-01-01

    Testing of a simplified LO2 propellant conditioning concept for future expendable launch vehicles is discussed. Four different concepts are being investigated: no-bleed, low-bleed, use of a recirculation line, and He bubbling. A full-scale test article, which is a facsimile of a propellant feed duct with an attached section to simulate heat input from an LO2 turbopump, is to be tested at the Cold Flow Facility of the Marshall Space Flight Center West Test Area. Work to date includes: design and fabrication of the test article, design of the test facility and initial fabrication, development of a test matrix and test procedures, initial predictions of test output, and heat leak calibration and heat exchanger tests on the test articles.

  20. System for measuring oxygen consumption rates of mammalian cells in static culture under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Miyahara, Hirotaka; Ota, Yuri; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) of mammalian cells in hypoxic environments is essential for designing and developing a three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture system. However, OCR measurements under hypoxic conditions are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we developed a system for measuring OCRs at low oxygen levels. The system injects nitrogen gas into the environment and measures the oxygen concentration by an optical oxygen microsensor that consumes no oxygen. The developed system was applied to HepG2 cells in static culture. Specifically, we measured the spatial profiles of the local dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium, then estimated the OCRs of the cells. The OCRs, and also the pericellular oxygen concentrations, decreased nonlinearly as the oxygen partial pressure in the environment decreased from 19% to 1%. The OCRs also depended on the culture period and the matrix used for coating the dish surface. Using this system, we can precisely estimate the OCRs of various cell types under environments that mimic 3-D culture conditions, contributing crucial data for an efficient 3-D culture system design.

  1. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  2. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Tailings by Reductive Dissolution under Aerobic Conditions Using Acidithiobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Marrero, J; Coto, O; Goldmann, S; Graupner, T; Schippers, A

    2015-06-02

    Biomining of sulfidic ores has been applied for almost five decades. However, the bioprocessing of oxide ores such as laterites lags commercially behind. Recently, the Ferredox process was proposed to treat limonitic laterite ores by means of anaerobic reductive dissolution (AnRD), which was found to be more effective than aerobic bioleaching by fungi and other bacteria. We show here that the ferric iron reduction mediated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can be applied to an aerobic reductive dissolution (AeRD) of nickel laterite tailings. AeRD using a consortium of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans extracted similar amounts of nickel (53-57%) and cobalt (55-60%) in only 7 days as AnRD using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The economic and environmental advantages of AeRD for processing of laterite tailings comprise no requirement for an anoxic atmosphere, 1.8-fold less acid consumption than for AnRD, as well as nickel and cobalt recovered in a ferrous-based pregnant leach solution (PLS), facilitating the subsequent metal recovery. In addition, an aerobic acid regeneration stage is proposed. Therefore, AeRD process development can be considered as environmentally friendly for treating laterites with low operational costs and as an attractive alternative to AnRD.

  3. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  4. New data on the process of circulation and blood oxygenation in the lungs under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P

    2013-02-01

    Blood flow through the human lungs weighing 600 g is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Blood capacity of human lung is about 500 ml. Therefore, 500 ml blood is oxygenated for 5 sec. Questions arise how such a large volume of blood passes through such a small mass of the lungs and what causes very rapid blood oxygenation. Since the structure of the lungs in mammals is almost the same, the work was carried out on rats (in rats 20-22 ml of blood per minute passes through the lungs weighing 1.5-2.0 g). Intensive blood circulation was proved to be linked with a large diameter pulmonary arterioles and high blood flow velocity in them. The oxygenation rate is explained by special structure of the alveoli and special blood flow conditions, which creates ideal conditions for oxygen diffusion.

  5. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems.

  6. General review of maximal aerobic velocity measurement at laboratory. Proposition of a new simplified protocol for maximal aerobic velocity assessment.

    PubMed

    Berthon, P; Fellmann, N

    2002-09-01

    The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.

  7. Modeling microbial ethanol production by E. coli under aerobic/anaerobic conditions: applicability to real postmortem cases and to postmortem blood derived microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2013-10-10

    The mathematical modeling of the microbial ethanol production under strict anaerobic experimental conditions for some bacterial species has been proposed by our research group as the first approximation to the quantification of the microbial ethanol production in cases where other alcohols were produced simultaneously with ethanol. The present study aims to: (i) study the microbial ethanol production by Escherichia coli under controlled aerobic/anaerobic conditions; (ii) model the correlation between the microbial produced ethanol and the other higher alcohols; and (iii) test their applicability in: (a) real postmortem cases that had positive BACs (>0.10 g/L) and co-detection of higher alcohols and 1-butanol during the original ethanol analysis and (b) postmortem blood derived microbial cultures under aerobic/anaerobic controlled experimental conditions. The statistical evaluation of the results revealed that the formulated models were presumably correlated to 1-propanol and 1-butanol which were recognized as the most significant descriptors of the modeling process. The significance of 1-propanol and 1-butanol as descriptors was so powerful that they could be used as the only independent variables to create a simple and satisfactory model. The current models showed a potential for application to estimate microbial ethanol - within an acceptable standard error - in various tested cases where ethanol and other alcohols have been produced from different microbes.

  8. Homeostasis of metabolites in Escherichia coli on transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and the transient secretion of pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Yasid, Nur Adeela; Rolfe, Matthew D.; Green, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapid quenching of samples taken from chemostat cultures of Escherichia coli that gives reproducible and reliable measurements of extracellular and intracellular metabolites by 1H NMR and have applied it to study the major central metabolites during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic growth. Almost all metabolites showed a gradual change after perturbation with air, consistent with immediate inhibition of pyruvate formate-lyase, dilution of overflow metabolites and induction of aerobic enzymes. Surprisingly, although pyruvate showed almost no change in intracellular concentration, the extracellular concentration transiently increased. The absence of intracellular accumulation of pyruvate suggested that one or more glycolytic enzymes might relocate to the cell membrane. To test this hypothesis, chromosomal pyruvate kinase (pykF) was modified to express either PykF-green fluorescent protein or PykF-FLAG fusion proteins. Measurements showed that PykF-FLAG relocates to the cell membrane within 5 min of aeration and then slowly returns to the cytoplasm, suggesting that on aeration, PykF associates with the membrane to facilitate secretion of pyruvate to maintain constant intracellular levels. PMID:27853594

  9. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  10. Proof of Concept to Isolate and Culture Primary Muscle Cells from Northern Elephant Seals to Study the Mechanisms that Maintain Aerobic Metabolism Under the Hypoxic Conditions of Breath-hold Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Cells from Northern Elephant Seals to Study the Mechanisms that Maintain Aerobic Metabolism Under the Hypoxic Conditions of Breath-hold Diving...To isolate and culture primary muscle cells from the swimming muscles of northern elephant seals . OBJECTIVES Objective 1. To test the...Proof of Concept to Isolate and Culture Primary Muscle Cells from Northern Elephant Seals to Study the Mechanisms that Maintain Aerobic Metabolism Under

  11. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion.

  12. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  13. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  14. Cognitive Impairment of School Children at High Altitude: The Case for Oxygen Conditioning in Schools.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-09-01

    West, John B. Cognitive impairment of school children at high altitude: the case for oxygen conditioning in schools. High Alt Med Biol. 17:203-207, 2016.-The hypoxia of high altitude frequently affects cognitive function. Recent work has shown that high altitude impairs the neuropsychological function of children of school age when compared with a similar control group of children at low altitude. This implies that the learning process is compromised at high altitude. One option is to bus children down to a lower altitude for schooling, but this is generally impracticable. Recently the new technique of oxygen conditioning has been introduced. The procedure is similar to air conditioning except that instead of altering the temperature of the air, the oxygen concentration is increased, thus raising the PO2 in the inspired air of classrooms. The result is that the children are physiologically at a lower altitude. Just as in very hot or cold climates, it is now unacceptable to have schools that are not air conditioned; in the future the same may apply to schools at high altitude that are not oxygen conditioned.

  15. Mathematical Model for Predicting the Growth Probability of Staphylococcus aureus in Combinations of NaCl and NaNO2 under Aerobic or Evacuated Storage Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Gwak, Eunji; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Oh, Nam Su; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the growth patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in combinations of NaCl and NaNO2, using a probabilistic model. A mixture of S. aureus strains (NCCP10826, ATCC13565, ATCC14458, ATCC23235, and ATCC27664) was inoculated into nutrient broth plus NaCl (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%) and NaNO2 (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm). The samples were then incubated at 4, 7, 10, 12 and 15℃ for up to 60 d under aerobic or vacuum conditions. Growth responses [growth (1) or no growth (0)] were then determined every 24 h by turbidity, and analyzed to select significant parameters (p<0.05) by a stepwise selection method, resulting in a probabilistic model. The developed models were then validated with observed growth responses. S. aureus growth was observed only under aerobic storage at 10-15℃. At 10-15℃, NaCl and NaNO2 did not inhibit S. aureus growth at less than 1.25% NaCl. Concentration dependency was observed for NaCl at more than 1.25%, but not for NaNO2. The concordance percentage between observed and predicted growth data was approximately 93.86%. This result indicates that S. aureus growth can be inhibited in vacuum packaging and even aerobic storage below 10℃. Furthermore, NaNO2 does not effectively inhibit S. aureus growth. PMID:28115886

  16. The determination of the real nano-scale sizes of bacteria in chernozem during microbial succession by means of hatching of a soil in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbacheva, M.

    2012-04-01

    M.A. Gorbacheva,L.M. Polyanskaya The Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow,119991,Russia In recent years there's been particular attention paid to the smallest life's forms- bacteria which size can be measured in nanometer. These are the forms of bacteria with diameter of 5-200 nm. Theoretical calculations based on the content of the minimum number of DNA, enzyme, lipids in and ribosome in cells indicates impossibility of existence of a living cells within diameter less than 300 nm. It is theoretically possible for a living cell to exist within possible diameter of approximately 140 nm. Using a fluorescence microscope there's been indicated in a number of samples from lakes, rivers, soil, snow and rain water that 200 nm is the smallest diameter of a living cell. Supposingly, such a small size of bacteria in soil is determined by natural conditions which limit their development by nutritious substances and stress-factors. Rejuvenescence of nanobacteria under unfavourable natural conditions and stress-factors is studied in laboratory environment. The object of the current study has become the samples of typical arable chernozem of the Central Chernozem State Biosphere Reserve in Kursk. The detailed morphological description of the soil profile and its basic analytical characteristics are widely represented in scientific publications. The soil is characterized by a high carbon content which makes up 3,96% ,3,8% , and 2,9% for the upper layers of the A horizon, and 0,79% for the layer of the B horizon. A microbial succession was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by means of experiments with microcosms in upper A horizons and B horizon of a chernozem. The final aim is to identify the cells size of bacteria in aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions in chernozem during the microbial succession, by dampening and application of chitin by means of «cascade filtration» method. The study of the microcosms is important for

  17. Brief inhalation method to measure cerebral oxygen extraction fraction with PET: Accuracy determination under pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.I.; Lich, L.L.; Powers, W.J. )

    1991-09-01

    The initial validation of the brief inhalation method to measure cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in non-human primates with predominantly normal cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2). Sensitivity analysis by computer simulation, however, indicated that this method may be subject to increasing error as CMRO2 decreases. Accuracy of the method under pathologic conditions of reduced CMRO2 has not been determined. Since reduced CMRO2 values are observed frequently in newborn infants and in regions of ischemia and infarction in adults, we determined the accuracy of the brief inhalation method in non-human primates by comparing OEF measured with PET to OEF measured by arteriovenous oxygen difference (A-VO2) under pathologic conditions of reduced CMRO2 (0.27-2.68 ml 100g-1 min-1). A regression equation of OEF (PET) = 1.07 {times} OEF (A-VO2) + 0.017 (r = 0.99, n = 12) was obtained. The absolute error in oxygen extraction measured with PET was small (mean 0.03 {plus minus} 0.04, range -0.03 to 0.12) and was independent of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, CMRO2, or OEF. The percent error was higher (19 {plus minus} 37), particularly when OEF is below 0.15. These data indicate that the brief inhalation method can be used for measurement of cerebral oxygen extraction and cerebral oxygen metabolism under pathologic conditions of reduced cerebral oxygen metabolism, with these limitations borne in mind.

  18. The neutral oxygen spectrum. 1: Collisionally excited level populations and line intensities under optically thin conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    This is the first paper in a projected program to produce quantitative information on the spectrum of the neutral oxygen atom under a variety of excitation conditions. Radiative rates and effective collision strengths are assembled from the recent literature where available, or are calculated for as yet untreated transitions using the University College superstructure/distorted-wave computer package, to produce a complete set of atomic data for a 13 hybrid level model of neutral oxygen. Level populations and relative intensities for 28 allowed, inter-combination, and forbidden oxygen lines are computed, under optically thin conditions, for the electron density range 4.0 less than log N(sub e) less than 12.0 and the electron temperature values T(sub e) = 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, and 100,000 K. Preliminary applications to observed intercombination/allowed and forbidden/allowed line ratios are discussed.

  19. BIODEGRADATION OF MONOAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BY AQUIFER MICROORGANISMS USING OXYGEN, NITRATE, OR NITROUS OXIDE AS THE TERMINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms were prepared from aquifer material, spiked with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, and amended with oxygen, nitrate, and nitrous oxide. Benzene and alkylbenzenes were degraded to concentrations below 5 µg/liter within 7 days under aerobic conditions, whereas only the alkylbe...

  20. Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Biodegradation of Multiple Contaminants Including Chlorinated Ethylenes, Benzene, Toluene, and Dichloromethane.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests. Microbial communities involved in the biodegradation tests were analyzed to characterize the major bacteria that may contribute to biodegradation. The results demonstrated that integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation was capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentration of each VOC less than 30 mg/L. Benzene and toluene were degraded within 8 days, and DCM was degraded within 20 to 27 days under aerobic conditions when initial oxygen concentrations in the headspaces of test bottles were set to 5.3% and 21.0%. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, survived aerobic conditions for 28 days and was activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. However, degradation of cis-DCE was suppressed after oxygen exposure for more than 201 days, suggesting the loss of viability of Dehalococcoides sp., as they are the only known anaerobic bacteria that can completely biodegrade chlorinated ethylenes to ethylene. Anaerobic degradation of DCM following previous aerobic degradation was complete, and yet-unknown microbes may be involved in the process. The findings may provide a scientific and practical basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ and a subject for further exploration.

  1. Microvascular oxygen tension and flow measurements in rodent cerebral cortex during baseline conditions and functional activation

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Sakadžić, Sava; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Gorczynska, Iwona; Wu, Weicheng; Fujimoto, James G; Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Measuring cerebral oxygen delivery and metabolism microscopically is important for interpreting macroscopic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and identifying pathological changes associated with stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and brain injury. Here, we present simultaneous, microscopic measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cortical microvessels of anesthetized rats under baseline conditions and during somatosensory stimulation. Using a custom-built imaging system, we measured CBF with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and vascular pO2 with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy. Cerebral blood flow and pO2 measurements displayed heterogeneity over distances irresolvable with fMRI and positron emission tomography. Baseline measurements indicate O2 extraction from pial arterioles and homogeneity of ascending venule pO2 despite large variation in microvessel flows. Oxygen extraction is linearly related to flow in ascending venules, suggesting that flow in ascending venules closely matches oxygen demand of the drained territory. Oxygen partial pressure and relative CBF transients during somatosensory stimulation further indicate arteriolar O2 extraction and suggest that arterioles contribute to the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent response. Understanding O2 supply on a microscopic level will yield better insight into brain function and the underlying mechanisms of various neuropathologies. PMID:21179069

  2. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Songyue; Xue, Jin; Sun, Haidan; Wen, Bo; Wang, Quanhui; Perkins, Guy; Zhao, Huiwen W; Ellisman, Mark H; Hsiao, Yu-hsin; Yin, Liang; Xie, Yingying; Hou, Guixue; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Haddad, Gabriel G; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively), examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional) in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of glucose and xylose metabolism in Escherichia coli under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Long, Christopher P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2017-01-01

    Glucose and xylose are the two most abundant sugars derived from the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass. While aerobic glucose metabolism is relatively well understood in E. coli, until now there have been only a handful of studies focused on anaerobic glucose metabolism and no (13)C-flux studies on xylose metabolism. In the absence of experimentally validated flux maps, constraint-based approaches such as MOMA and RELATCH cannot be used to guide new metabolic engineering designs. In this work, we have addressed this critical gap in current understanding by performing comprehensive characterizations of glucose and xylose metabolism under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using recent state-of-the-art techniques in (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA). Specifically, we quantified precise metabolic fluxes for each condition by performing parallel labeling experiments and analyzing the data through integrated (13)C-MFA using the optimal tracers [1,2-(13)C]glucose, [1,6-(13)C]glucose, [1,2-(13)C]xylose and [5-(13)C]xylose. We also quantified changes in biomass composition and confirmed turnover of macromolecules by applying [U-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]xylose tracers. We demonstrated that under anaerobic growth conditions there is significant turnover of lipids and that a significant portion of CO2 originates from biomass turnover. Using knockout strains, we also demonstrated that β-oxidation is critical for anaerobic growth on xylose. Quantitative analysis of co-factor balances (NADH/FADH2, NADPH, and ATP) for different growth conditions provided new insights regarding the interplay of energy and redox metabolism and the impact on E. coli cell physiology.

  4. Development of a predictive model for the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population on pomegranate marinated chicken breast fillets under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Lytou, Anastasia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a model to describe the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population of chicken breast fillets marinated in pomegranate juice under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions. Moreover, the effect of pomegranate juice on the extension of the shelf life of the product was investigated. Samples (10 g) of chicken breast fillets were immersed in marinades containing pomegranate juice for 3 h at 4 °C following storage under aerobic conditions at 4, 10, and 15 °C for 10 days. Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were enumerated, in parallel with sensory assessment (odor and overall appearance) of marinated and non-marinated samples. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of TVC to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) that was further modeled as a function of temperature using a square root-type model. The validation of the model was conducted under dynamic temperature conditions based on two fluctuating temperature scenarios with periodic changes from 6 to 13 °C. The shelf life was determined both mathematically and with sensory assessment and its temperature dependence was modeled by an Arrhenius type equation. Results showed that the μmax of TVC of marinated samples was significantly lower compared to control samples regardless temperature, while under dynamic temperature conditions the model satisfactorily predicted the growth of TVC in both control and marinated samples. The shelf-life of marinated samples was significantly extended compared to the control (5 days extension at 4 °C). The calculated activation energies (Ea), 82 and 52 kJ/mol for control and marinated samples, respectively, indicated higher temperature dependence of the shelf life of control samples compared to marinated ones. The present results indicated that pomegranate juice could be used as an alternative ingredient in marinades to prolong the shelf life of chicken.

  5. Protective role of the RpoE (σE) and Cpx envelope stress responses against gentamicin killing of nongrowing Escherichia coli incubated under aerobic, phosphate starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Patrice L

    2014-08-01

    The viability of Escherichia coli starved of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) decreased by up to seven orders of magnitude during prolonged incubation under aerobic conditions when exposed to high levels of the antibiotic gentamicin, whereas viability of cells starved of carbon (C) was barely affected. However, the initial rate of killing was lower for P-starved cells than for N-starved cells. The transient resistance of P-starved cells was partially dependent upon the expression of the phosphate (Pho) and Cpx responses. Constitutive activity of the Cpx and RpoE (σ(E)) envelope stress regulons increased the resistance of P- and N-starved cells. The level of expression of the RpoE regulon was fourfold higher in P-starved cells than in N-starved cell at the time gentamicin was added. Gentamicin killing of nongrowing cells may thus require ongoing aerobic glucose metabolism and faulty synthesis of structural membrane proteins. However, membrane protein damage induced by gentamicin can be eliminated or repaired by RpoE- and Cpx-dependent mechanisms pre-emptively induced in P-starved cells, which reveals a novel mechanism of resistance to gentamicin that is active in certain circumstances.

  6. Evidence for polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO)-mediated phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms under alternating aerobic/anaerobic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient in freshwater ecosystems and excessive inputs can lead to eutrophication. In-stream cycling of P involves complex biological, chemical, and physical processes that are not fully understood. Microbial metabolisms are suspected to control oxygen-dependent up...

  7. Lab scale experiments using a submerged MBR under thermophilic aerobic conditions for the treatment of paper mill deinking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Simstich, Benjamin; Beimfohr, Claudia; Horn, Harald

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory experiments using a thermophilic aerobic MBR (TMBR) at 50 °C. An innovative use of submerged flat-sheet MBR modules to treat circuit wastewater from the paper industry was studied. Two experiments were conducted with a flux of 8-13 L/m(2)/h without chemical membrane cleaning. COD and BOD(5) elimination rates were 83% and 99%, respectively. Calcium was reduced from 110 to 180 mg/L in the inflow to 35-60 mg/L in the permeate. However, only negligible membrane scaling occurred. The observed sludge yield was very low and amounted to 0.07-0.29 g MLSS/g COD(eliminated). Consequently, the nutrient supply of ammonia and phosphate can be lower compared to a mesophilic process. Molecular-biological FISH analysis revealed a likewise high diversity of microorganisms in the TMBR compared to the mesophilic sludge used for start-up. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidising bacteria were detected at thermophilic operation.

  8. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  9. Differential responses of choroidal melanocytes and uveal melanoma cells to low oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Cindy; Pomerleau, Jade; Trudel-Vandal, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tissue culture is traditionally performed at atmospheric oxygen concentration (21%), which induces hyperoxic stress, as endogenous physiologic oxygen tension found in tissues varies between 2% and 9%. This discrepancy may lead to misinterpretation of results and may explain why effects observed in vitro cannot always be reproduced in vivo and vice versa. Only a few studies have been conducted in low physiologic oxygen conditions to understand the development and differentiation of cells from the eye. Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the growth and gene expression profile of melanocytes from the choroid permanently exposed to 21% (hyperoxic) or 3% (physiologic) oxygen with proliferation assays and DNA microarray. The cellular behavior of the melanocytes was then compared to that of cancer cells. Results The gross morphology and melanin content of choroidal melanocytes changed slightly when they were exposed to 3% O2, and the doubling time was statistically significantly faster. There was an increase in the percentage of choroidal melanocytes in the active phases of the cell cycle as observed by using the proliferation marker Ki67. The caveolin-1 senescence marker was not increased in choroidal melanocytes or uveal melanoma cells grown in hyperoxia. In comparison, the morphology of the uveal melanoma cells was similar between the two oxygen levels, and the doubling time was slower at 3% O2. Surprisingly, gene expression profiling of the choroidal melanocytes did not reveal a large list of transcripts considerably dysregulated between the two oxygen concentrations; only the lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter (MCT4) was statistically significantly upregulated at 3% O2. Conclusions This study showed that the oxygen concentration must be tightly controlled in experimental settings, because it influences the subsequent cellular behavior of human choroidal melanocytes. PMID:28356703

  10. Quantitative metabolomics analysis of amino acid metabolism in recombinant Pichia pastoris under different oxygen availability conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental and intrinsic stress factors can result in the global alteration of yeast physiology, as evidenced by several transcriptional studies. Hypoxia has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris growing on glucose. Furthermore, transcriptional profiling analyses revealed that oxygen availability was strongly affecting ergosterol biosynthesis, central carbon metabolism and stress responses, in particular the unfolded protein response. To contribute to the better understanding of the effect and interplay of oxygen availability and foreign protein secretion on central metabolism, a first quantitative metabolomic analysis of free amino acids pools in a recombinant P. pastoris strain growing under different oxygen availability conditions has been performed. Results The values obtained indicate significant variations in the intracellular amino acid pools due to different oxygen availability conditions, showing an overall increase of their size under oxygen limitation. Notably, even while foreign protein productivities were relatively low (about 40–80 μg Fab/gDCW·h), recombinant protein production was found to have a limited but significant impact on the intracellular amino acid pools, which were generally decreased in the producing strain compared with the reference strain. However, observed changes in individual amino acids pools were not correlated with their corresponding relative abundance in the recombinant protein sequence, but to the overall cell protein amino acid compositional variations. Conclusions Overall, the results obtained, combined with previous transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide a systematic metabolic fingerprint of the oxygen availability impact on recombinant protein production in P. pastoris. PMID:22704468

  11. Oxygen metabolism under various bypass flow conditions during cardiopulmonary support in awake goats.

    PubMed

    Takewa, Y; Tatsumi, E; Taenaka, Y; Takano, H

    2001-02-01

    Despite its wide clinical application, patient recovery from cardiopulmonary support (CPS) is not necessarily satisfactory. To clarify what influence CPS has on organ perfusion, we investigated the oxygen metabolism under various bypass flow (BF) conditions in a series of chronic animal CPS experiments. The CPS system, which consists of a pulsatile ventricular assist device and a compact artificial lung was installed without anesthesia in 6 adult goats weighing 49-51 kg. BF was adjusted stepwise from 0% to 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% of total systemic blood flow (TSF) by balancing the pulmonary arterial flow. The animals' TSF and oxygen delivery (DO2) were sufficiently maintained throughout the experiments. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and the oxygen extraction rate (ExO2) increased from 178+/-14 to 342+/-19 ml/min, and from 28+/-2% to 64+/-1%, respectively, in proportion to the increase of CPBF dependency from 0% to 100%. The blood lactate level did not change appreciably even at 90% BF from 5.7+/-0.3 to 11.2+/-1.2 mg/dl, but drastically elevated to 23.5+/-4.6 mg/dl at the total bypass. This indicates that CPS leads to a relative lack of oxygen and can induce organ dysfunction due to increasing VO2 and ExO2 in proportion to the increase of BF dependence even if TSF and DO2 are sufficiently maintained.

  12. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurston, R.S.; Mandernack, K.W.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate chalcopyrite oxidation under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the absence or presence of the bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Experiments were carried out with 3 different oxygen isotope values of water (??18OH2O) so that approach to equilibrium or steady-state isotope fractionation for different starting conditions could be evaluated. The contribution of dissolved O2 and water-derived oxygen to dissolved sulfate formed by chalcopyrite oxidation was unambiguously resolved during the aerobic experiments. Aerobic oxidation of chalcopyrite showed 93 ?? 1% incorporation of water oxygen into the resulting sulfate during the biological experiments. Anaerobic experiments showed similar percentages of water oxygen incorporation into sulfate, but were more variable. The experiments also allowed determination of sulfate-water oxygen isotope fractionation, ??18OSO4-H2O, of ~ 3.8??? for the anaerobic experiments. Aerobic oxidation produced apparent ??SO4-H2O values (6.4???) higher than the anaerobic experiments, possibly due to additional incorporation of dissolved O2 into sulfate. ??34SSO4 values are ~ 4??? lower than the parent sulfide mineral during anaerobic oxidation of chalcopyrite, with no significant difference between abiotic and biological processes. For the aerobic experiments, a small depletion in ??34SSO4 of ~- 1.5 ?? 0.2??? was observed for the biological experiments. Fewer solids precipitated during oxidation under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions, which may account for the observed differences in sulfur isotope fractionation under these contrasting conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Brain natriuretic peptide predicts forced vital capacity of the lungs, oxygen pulse and peak oxygen consumption in physiological condition.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Dejana; Ostojic, Miodrag C; Popovic, Bojana; Petrovic, Milan; Vujisic-Tesic, Bosiljka; Kocijancic, Aleksandar; Banovic, Marko; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Stojiljkovic, Stanimir; Markovic, Vidan; Damjanovic, Svetozar S

    2013-05-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) is used as marker of cardiac and pulmonary diseases. However, the predictive value of circulating NT-pro-BNP for cardiac and pulmonary performance is unclear in physiological conditions. Standard echocardiography, tissue Doppler and forced spirometry at rest were used to assess cardiac parameters and forced vital capacity (FVC) in two groups of athletes (16 elite male wrestlers (W), 21 water polo player (WP)), as different stress adaptation models, and 20 sedentary subjects (C) matched for age. Cardiopulmonary test on treadmill (CPET), as acute stress model, was used to measure peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), maximal heart rate (HRmax) and peak oxygen pulse (peak VO2/HR). NT-pro-BNP was measured by immunoassey sandwich technique 10min before the test - at rest, at the beginning of the test, at maximal effort, at third minute of recovery. FVC was higher in athletes and the highest in W (WP 5.60±0.29 l; W 6.57±1.00 l; C 5.41±0.29 l; p<0.01). Peak VO2 and peak VO2/HR were higher in athletes and the highest in WP. HRmax was not different among groups. In all groups, NT-pro-BNP decreased from rest to the beginning phase, increased in maximal effort and stayed unchanged in recovery. NT-pro-BNP was higher in C than W in all phases; WP had similar values as W and C. On multiple regression analysis, in all three groups together, ΔNT-pro-BNP from rest to the beginning phase independently predicted both peak VO2 and peak VO2/HR (r=0.38, 0.35; B=37.40, 0.19; p=0.007, 0.000, respectively). NT-pro-BNP at rest predicted HRmax (r=-0.32, B=-0.22, p=0.02). Maximal NT-pro-BNP predicted FVC (r=-0.22, B=-0.07, p=0.02). These results show noticeable predictive value of NT-pro-BNP for both cardiac and pulmonary performance in physiological conditions suggesting that NT-pro-BNP could be a common regulatory factor coordinating adaptation of heart and lungs to stress condition.

  14. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  15. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  16. Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis clades enriched under cyclic anaerobic and microaerobic conditions simultaneously use different electron acceptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lab- and pilot-scale simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal-sequencing batch reactors were operated under cyclic anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions. The use of oxygen, nitrite, and nitrate as electron acceptors by Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphat...

  17. Precise control over the oxygen conditions within the Boyden chamber using a microfabricated insert.

    PubMed

    Oppegard, Shawn C; Blake, Alexander J; Williams, Justin C; Eddington, David T

    2010-09-21

    Cell migration is a hallmark of cancer cell metastasis and is highly correlated with hypoxia in tumors. The Boyden chamber is a porous membrane-based migration platform that has seen a great deal of use for both in vitro migration and invasion assays due to its adaptability to common culture vessels and relative ease of use. The hypoxic chamber is a current tool that can be implemented to investigate the cellular response to oxygen paradigms. Unfortunately, this method lacks the spatial and temporal precision to accurately model a number of physiological phenomena. In this article, we present a newly developed microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device that easily adapts to the Boyden chamber, and provides more control over the oxygenation conditions exposed to cells. The device equilibrates to 1% oxygen in about 20 min, thus demonstrating the capabilities of a system for researchers to establish both short-term continuous and intermittent hypoxia regimes. A Parylene-C thin-film coating was used to prevent ambient air penetration through the bulk PDMS and was found to yield improved equilibration times and end-point concentrations. MDA-MD-231 cells, an invasive breast cancer line, were used as a model cell type to demonstrate the effect of oxygen concentration on cell migration through the Boyden chamber porous membrane. Continuous hypoxia downregulated migration of cells relative to the normoxic control, as did an intermittent hypoxia regime (IH) cycling between 0% and 21% oxygen (0-21% IH). However, cells exposed to 5-21% IH exhibited increased migration compared to the other conditions, as well as relative to the normoxic control. The results presented here show the device can be utilized for experiments implementing the Boyden chamber for in vitro hypoxic studies, allowing experiments to be conducted faster and with more precision than currently possible.

  18. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  19. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  20. Evaluation of oxygen transfer efficiency under process conditions using the dynamic off-gas method.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, A; Libra, J A; Sahlmann, C; Wiesmann, U; Gnirss, R

    2007-05-01

    The off-gas method can be used to investigate standard oxygen transfer efficiencies under process conditions (alphaSOTE) over the operating life of an aeration system. A method to evaluate alphaSOTE is described in detail by US and German standards. The standards, however, do not describe how to evaluate dynamic changes in aSOTE over a day, which can be useful to uncover problems and unfavourable process conditions. Based on over three years experience gained in off-gas testing in Berlin wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under operating conditions, a method to evaluate and interpret the dynamic changes in oxygen transfer is presented. The application of the dynamic off-gas method brings important additional information, which can be used to increase operational efficiency of the aeration basin and to increase process reliability, with a relatively small increase in effort. This paper shows how to perform dynamic measurements under process conditions. Some results of such measurements under dynamic process conditions, performed in a Berlin WWTP, are discussed.

  1. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  2. Promoted oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution using molecular oxygen at mild conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, F.; Harf, J.; Hug, A.; Rohr, P.R. von

    1999-05-01

    Wet oxidation with molecular oxygen at mild conditions (temperature < 200 C, pressure {le} 2 MPa) is an economically attractive pretreatment step for non-biodegradable aqueous waste streams. In order to overcome the low reactivity of molecular oxygen towards organic molecules at these mild process conditions, an initiator was used in combination with ferrous ions in the acidic range. The promoted oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution was investigated in a 4 liters stirred autoclave. It was possible to degrade the phenol at temperatures as low as 100 C without observing an induction time. The remaining solution contained mainly acetic and formic acid and was well biodegradable. The oxidative behavior of the oxygen/phenol system could be explained using the well-known autoxidation mechanism for aliphatic molecules. 4-hydroperoxy-phenol is suggested as a key intermediate. Measured products are p-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, catechol, maleic, oxalic, pyruvic, formic, and acetic acid. Dimers could also be identified in sample extracts. A global pathway including all identified products is presented.

  3. Multiple electron transfer systems in oxygen reducing biocathodes revealed by different conditions of aeration/agitation.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Bergel, Alain; Erable, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen reducing biocathodes were formed at -0.2V/SCE (+0.04V/SHE) from compost leachate. Depending on whether aeration was implemented or not, two different redox systems responsible for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction were evidenced. System I was observed at low potential (-0.03V/SHE) on cyclic voltammetries (CVs). It appeared during the early formation of the biocathode (few hours) and resisted the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the aeration. System II was observed at higher potential on CV (+0.46V/SHE); it required a longer lag time (up to 10days) and quiescent conditions to produce an electrochemical signal. The hydrodynamic effects produced by the forced aeration led to its extinction. From their different behaviors and examples in the literature, system I was identified as being a membrane-bound cytochrome-related molecule, while system II was identified as a soluble redox mediator excreted by the biofilm. This study highlighted the importance of controlling the local hydrodynamics to design efficient oxygen reducing biocathodes able to operate at high potential.

  4. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  5. Correlation changes in EEG, conditioned and behavioral reactions with various degrees of oxygen insufficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Zakharova, I. N.; Kalyuzhnyy, L. V.; Dvorzhak, I. I.; Moravek, M.; Tsmiral, Y. I.

    1974-01-01

    The dynamics of change in bioelectric activity of the brain during acute hypoxia are studied for the time that working capacity and active consciousness are preserved, and to establish the correlation between EEG changes and behavioral reactions under oxygen starvation. Changes in body functions and behavioral disturbances are related to the degree of oxygen saturation in the blood, to bioelectric activity of the brain, and to an increase in conditioned reflexes. The capacity for adequate reaction to external signals and for coordinated psychomotor activity after loss of consciousness returns to man after 30 seconds. Repeated effects of hypoxia produce changes in the physiological reactions of the body directed toward better adaptation to changing gaseous environments.

  6. Conditions for economic benefit by using lunar oxygen for earth-moon transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, M.; Lingner, S.; Seboldt, W.

    1992-08-01

    The paper considers the use of MOONLOX, lunar oxygen, for an earth-moon transportation system consisting of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle and a lunar bus for lunar descent/ascent. Conditions for economic benefit are discussed, and the processing concept of a lunar oxygen plant based on fluorination is presented. It is contended that the necessary supply rate from earth from MOONLOX production must be smaller than a critical number for each considered MOONLOX-utilization scenario to yield a saving of mass launched into LEO (compared to a 'reference scenario' with an earth-derived propellant. The MOONLOX production costs must fall below the calculated upper limits (parametrically dependent of launch costs). It is inferred that for the MOONLOX production process by fluorination, fluorine recycling is highly desirable.

  7. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  8. Influence of dissolved oxygen conditions on toxicity of ammonium nitrate to larval natterjack toads.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Marco, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    Temporary ponds, where many amphibians from temperate regions breed, show an annual cycle with a maximum water volume in spring followed by a progressive desiccation throughout late spring and summer. This desiccation leads to a decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in nitrogen levels, which can additionally increase because of anthropogenic sources such as chemical fertilizers. We analyzed the toxicity posed by environmentally relevant levels of a common nitrogenous fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, at different conditions of oxygen availability to Bufo calamita tadpoles, which typically develop in ephemeral ponds. Ammonium nitrate (90.3 mg N-NO3NH4/l) and hypoxic conditions (initial dissolved oxygen 4.53 ± 0.40 mg/l) caused significant lethal effects after 7 and 12 days of exposure, respectively. At the end of experiment (16 days), mortality rates were 32.5 % in individuals exposed to the fertilizer and 15 % in those growing under hypoxic conditions. When both stressors were combined, they showed an additive effect on tadpole survival. Malformations, such as oedemas and spinal curvatures, and locomotory abnormalities, were detected after 12 days of experiment in >90 % of individuals exposed to 45.2 mg N-NO3NH4/l under hypoxic conditions, whereas none of these stressors by separate related to abnormality rates >35 %. Delayed development was also observed in tadpoles exposed to ammonium nitrate with hypoxia affecting developmental rate only after 12 days of exposure. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms linking negative effects of both factors as well as in terms of potential alterations of the ecological plasticity that often allows amphibians to survive in unpredictable environments.

  9. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline- contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS Imaging evidences spatial differences in the degradation of solid polycaprolactone diol in water under aerobic and denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Daniel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Pérez, Sandra; Quero, Carmen; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-01

    Degradation of solid polymers in the aquatic environment encompasses a variety of biotic and abiotic processes giving rise to heterogeneous patterns across the surface of the material, which cannot be investigated using conventional Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that only renders an "average" picture of the sample. In that context, MALDI-TOF MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) provides a rapid and efficient tool to study 2D spatial changes occurred in the chemical composition of the polymer surface. Commercial polycaprolactone diol (average molecular weight of 1250Da) was selected as test material because it had been previously known to be amenable to biological degradation. The test oligomer probe was incubated under aerobic and denitrifying conditions using synthetic water and denitrifying mixed liquor obtained from a wastewater treatment plant respectively. After ca. seven days of exposure the mass spectra obtained by MALDI MSI showed the occurrence of chemical modifications in the sample surface. Observed heterogeneity across the probe's surface indicated significant degradation and suggested the contribution of biotic processes. The results were investigated using different image processing tools. Major changes on the oligomer surface were observed when exposed to denitrifying conditions.

  11. In vivo analysis of NH4+ transport and central N-metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic N-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Maleki Seifar, R; Ten Pierick, A; van Helmond, W; Pieterse M, M; Heijnen, J J; Wahl, S A

    2016-09-16

    Ammonium is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations. Although, its transport and assimilation mechanisms are well documented, there have been only few attempts to measure the in vivo intracellular concentration of ammonium and assess its impact on gene expression. Using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-based method we were able to measure the intracellular ammonium concentration in N-limited aerobic chemostat cultivations using three different N-sources (ammonium, urea and glutamate) at the same growth rate (0.05 h(-1)). The experimental results suggest that, at this growth rate, a similar concentration of intracellular ammonium, about 3.6 mmol NH4(+)/LIC, is required to supply the reactions in the central N-metabolism independent of the N-source. Based on the experimental results and different assumptions, the vacuolar and cytosolic ammonium concentrations were estimated. Furthermore, we identified a futile cycle caused by NH3 leakage to the extracellular space, which can cost up to 30% of the ATP production of the cell under N-limited conditions, and a futile redox cycle between reactions Gdh1 and Gdh2. Finally, using shotgun proteomics with labeled reference-relative protein expression, differences between the various environmental conditions were identified and correlated with previously identified N-compound sensing mechanisms.

  12. Microbial aerobic and anaerobic degradation of acrylamide in sludge and water under environmental conditions--case study in a sand and gravel quarry.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, A G; Michel, C; Ozturk, S; Togola, A; Guzzo, J; Desroche, N

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are used in sand and gravel quarries as water purification flocculants for recycling process water in a recycling loop system where the flocculants remove fine particles in the form of sludge. The PAM-based flocculants, however, contain residual amounts of acrylamide (AMD) that did not react during the polymerization process. This acrylamide is released into the environment when the sludge is discharged into a settling basin. Here, we explore the microbial diversity and the potential for AMD biodegradation in water and sludge samples collected in a quarry site submitted to low AMD concentrations. The microbial diversity, analyzed by culture-dependent methods and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, reveals the presence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, among which some species are known to have an AMD biodegradation activity. Results also show that the two main parts of the water recycling loop-the washing process and the settling basin-display significantly different bacterial profiles. The exposure time with residual AMD could, thus, be one of the parameters that lead to a selection of specific bacterial species. AMD degradation experiments with 0.5 g L(-1) AMD showed a high potential for biodegradation in all parts of the washing process, except the make-up water. The AMD biodegradation potential in samples collected from the washing process and settling basin was also analyzed taking into account on-site conditions: low (12 °C) and high (25 °C) temperatures reflecting the winter and summer seasons, and AMD concentrations of 50 μg L(-1). Batch tests showed rapid (as little as 18 h) AMD biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at both the winter and summer temperatures, although there was a greater lag time before activity started with the AMD biodegradation at 12 °C. This study, thus, demonstrates that bacteria present in sludge and water samples exert an in situ and rapid

  13. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  14. Oxygen Generating Biomaterials Preserve Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis under Hypoxic and Ischemic Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-26

    peroxidation) that occurred following ~30 minutes of hypoxia in primarily resting (duty cycle = 0.2 s train/120 s contraction interval ɘ.002) rat...contractile fatigue testing (3 bouts of 25 100 Hz tetanic contractions; duty cycle = 0.2 s/2 s = 0.1) under oxygenated conditions in vitro (95% O –5...mg, it is assumed that during the course of a 30-minute organ bath contractile protocol (described below) with a duty cycle approximating 0, the muscle

  15. Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rintala, Eija; Toivari, Mervi; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

    2009-01-01

    Background The industrially important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen. However, the regulation of its metabolism in conditions of intermediate oxygen availability is not well characterised. We assessed the effect of oxygen provision on the transcriptome and proteome of S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and with three intermediate (0.5, 1.0 and 2.8% oxygen) levels of oxygen in the feed gas. Results The main differences in the transcriptome were observed in the comparison of fully aerobic, intermediate oxygen and anaerobic conditions, while the transcriptome was generally unchanged in conditions receiving different intermediate levels (0.5, 1.0 or 2.8% O2) of oxygen in the feed gas. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome data suggested post-transcriptional regulation was important, especially in 0.5% oxygen. In the conditions of intermediate oxygen, the genes encoding enzymes of the respiratory pathway were more highly expressed than in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A similar trend was also seen in the proteome and in enzyme activities of the TCA cycle. Further, genes encoding proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery were present at higher levels in all oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions, compared to fully aerobic conditions. Conclusion Global upregulation of genes encoding components of the respiratory pathway under conditions of intermediate oxygen suggested a regulatory mechanism to control these genes as a response to the need of more efficient energy production. Further, cells grown in three different intermediate oxygen levels were highly similar at the level of transcription, while they differed at the proteome level, suggesting post-transcriptional mechanisms leading to distinct physiological modes of respiro-fermentative metabolism. PMID:19804647

  16. Compartment model of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yul; Tojo, Yasumasa; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2007-12-01

    The mathematical formulations in a one-dimensional compartment model of the biodegradation of organic landfill components are described. The model is designed to switch between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, depending on the local oxygen concentration. The model also includes the effect of environmental factors, such as moisture content, pH, and temperature, on reaction rates. The model includes not only biodegradation processes for carbon compounds (acetate, CO2, CH4), but also for nitrogen compounds involved in nitrification and denitrification due to their significance in landfills. Two example runs to simulate anaerobic and aerobic waste were conducted for a single landfill unit cell by changing the organic content and diffusion coefficient.

  17. Base-catalyzed efficient tandem [3 + 3] and [3 + 2 + 1] annulation-aerobic oxidative benzannulations.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Aboubacar; Zhao, Yu-Long; Wang, He; Li, Sha-Sha; Ren, Chuan-Qing; Liu, Qun

    2012-11-16

    An efficient synthesis of substituted benzenes via a base-catalyzed [3 + 3] aerobic oxidative aromatization of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with dimethyl glutaconate was reported. All the reactions were carried out under mild, metal-free conditions to afford the products in high to excellent yields with molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant and water as the sole byproduct. Furthermore, a more convenient tandem [3 + 2 + 1] aerobic oxidative aromatization reaction was developed through the in situ generation of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from aldehydes and ketones.

  18. Biodegradability of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/Bacterial Cellulose Composites under Aerobic Conditions, Measured via Evolution of Carbon Dioxide and Spectroscopic and Diffraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Ruka, Dianne R; Sangwan, Parveen; Garvey, Christopher J; Simon, George P; Dean, Katherine M

    2015-08-18

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bacterial cellulose (BC) are both natural polymeric materials that have the potential to replace traditional, nonrenewable polymers. In particular, the nanofibrillar form of bacterial cellulose makes it an effective reinforcement for PHB. Neat PHB, bacterial cellulose, and a composite of PHB/BC produced with 10 wt % cellulose were composted under accelerated aerobic test conditions, with biodegradability measured by the carbon dioxide evolution method, in conjunction with spectroscopic and diffraction methods to assess crystallinity changes during the biodegradation process. The PHB/BC composite biodegraded at a greater rate and extent than that of PHB alone, reaching 80% degradation after 30 days, whereas PHB did not reach this level of degradation until close to 50 days of composting. The relative crystallinity of PHB and PHB in the PHB/BC composite was found to increase in the initial weeks of degradation, with degradation occurring primarily in the amorphous region of the material and some recrystallization of the amorphous PHB. Small angle X-ray scattering indicates that the change in PHB crystallinity is accompanied by a change in morphology of semicrystalline lamellae. The increased rate of biodegradability suggests that these materials could be applicable to single-use applications and could rapidly biodegrade in compost on disposal.

  19. A 22,000 year record of changing redox conditions from the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ): benthic foraminifera approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Z.; Schönfeld, J.; Glock, N.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic foraminifera have been used as proxies for the prevailing conditions at the sediment-water interface. Their distribution patterns are thought to facilitate reconstruction of past environmental conditions. Variations of bottom water oxygenation can be traced by the downcore distribution of benthic foraminifera and some of their morphological characters. Being one of the strongest and most pronounced OMZs in today's world oceans, the Peruvian OMZ is a key area to study such variations in relation with changing climate. Spatial changes or an extension of the OMZ through time and space are investigated using sediment cores from the lower OMZ boundary. We focus on time intervals Late Holocene, Early Holocene, Bølling Allerød, Heinrich-Stadial 1 and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to investigate changes in bottom-water oxygen and redox conditions. The recent distributions of benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide background data for an interpretation of the past conditions. Living benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Peruvian margin are structured with the prevailing bottom-water oxygen concentrations today (Mallon et al., 2012). Downcore distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages showed fluctuations in the abundance of the indicator species depicting variations and a decreasing trend in bottom water oxygen conditions since the LGM. In addition, changes in bottom-water oxygen and nitrate concentrations are reconstructed for the same time intervals by the pore density in tests of Planulina limbata and Bolivina spissa (Glock et al., 2011), respectively. The pore densities also indicate a trend of higher oxygen and nitrate concentrations in the LGM compared to the Holocene. Combination of both proxies provide information on past bottom-water conditions and changes of oxygen concentrations for the Peruvian margin. Glock et al., 2011: Environmental influences on the pore density of Bolivina spissa (Cushman), Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 41, no. 1, p

  20. Comparative investigation on microbial community and electricity generation in aerobic and anaerobic enriched MFCs.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Quan, Yan-ping; Tao, Kun; Jiang, Xiao-man

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in microbial community and power generation capacity of air-cathode MFCs enriched under anode aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results showed that MFCs successfully started with continuous air inputting to anode chamber. The aerobic enriched MFC produced comparable and even more electricity with the fuels of acetate, glucose and ethanol compared to the anaerobic MFC when returning to anaerobic condition. The two MFCs showed a slightly different microbial community for anode biofilms (a similarity of 77%), but a highly similar microbial community (a similarity of 97%) for anolyte microbes. The anode biofilm of aerobic enriched MFC showed the presence of some specific bacteria closely related to Clostridium sticklandii, Leucobacter komagatae and Microbacterium laevaniformans. The anaerobic enriched MFC found the presence of a large number of yeast Trichosporon sp. This research demonstrates that it is possible to enrich oxygen-tolerant anode respiring bacteria through purposely aeration in anode chamber.

  1. Hydrogen Photoproduction by Nutrient-Deprived Chalamydomonas reinhardtii Cells Immobilized Within Thin Alginate Films Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kosourov, S. N.; Seibert, M.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique for immobilizing H{sub 2}-photoproducing green algae within a thin (<400 {micro}m) alginate film has been developed. Alginate films with entrapped sulfur/phosphorus-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, strain cc124, cells demonstrate (a) higher cell density (up to 2,000 {micro}g Chl mL{sup -1} of matrix), (b) kinetics of H{sub 2} photoproduction similar to sulfur-deprived suspension cultures, (c) higher specific rates (up to 12.5 {micro}mol mg{sup -1} Chl h{sup -1}) of H{sub 2} evolution, (d) light conversion efficiencies to H{sub 2} of over 1% and (e) unexpectedly high resistance of the H{sub 2}-photoproducing system to inactivation by atmospheric O{sub 2}. The algal cells, entrapped in alginate and then placed in vials containing 21% O{sub 2} in the headspace, evolved up to 67% of the H{sub 2} gas produced under anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that the lower susceptibility of the immobilized algal H{sub 2}-producing system to inactivation by O{sub 2} depends on two factors: (a) the presence of acetate in the medium, which supports higher rates of respiration and (b) the capability of the alginate polymer itself to effectively separate the entrapped cells from O{sub 2} in the liquid and headspace and restrict O{sub 2} diffusion into the matrix. The strategy presented for immobilizing algal cells within thin polymeric matrices shows the potential for scale-up and possible future applications.

  2. Hyperstoichiometric Oxygen in Fluorite-type U3O8 Formed at Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuxiang; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rod; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences Team

    2014-03-01

    U3O8 was obtained by annealing UO3 in a reducing atmosphere at 200 °C. Powder sample of β-U3O8 was pressurized at room temperature up to 37.5 GPa and XRD patterns clearly indicated that a phase transition occurred between 3-11 GPa. The high-pressure phase is a fluorite-like structure. The high-pressure phase was then laser heated to over 1700 K in the diamond anvil cell at high pressure conditions. No phase transition was found at high pressure/ temperature conditions, and the fluorite-like structure of U3O8 is even fully quenchable. The lattice parameter of the fluorite-like high-pressure phase is 5.425 Å at ambient conditions, which is smaller than that of the stoichiometric UO2. Previous experiments have shown that the stoichiometric uranium dioxide (UO2) is not stable at high pressure conditions and starts to transform to a cotunnite structure at ~ 30 GPa. When heating the sample at high pressure, the critical transition pressure is greatly reduced. However, the fluorite-like high-pressure phase of U3O8 is very stable at high pressure/high temperature conditions. The enhanced phase stability is believed to be related to the presence of extra oxygen (or U vacancies) in the structure.

  3. Importance of mitochondria in survival of Cryptococcus neoformans under low oxygen conditions and tolerance to cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Ingavale, Susham S; Chang, Yun C; Lee, Hyeseung; McClelland, Carol M; Leong, Madeline L; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2008-09-19

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungal pathogen that requires atmospheric levels of oxygen for optimal growth. For the fungus to be able to establish an infection, it must adapt to the low oxygen concentrations in the host environment compared to its natural habitat. In order to investigate the oxygen sensing mechanism in C. neoformans, we screened T-DNA insertional mutants for hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride (CoCl(2))-sensitive mutants. All the CoCl(2)-sensitive mutants had a growth defect under low oxygen conditions at 37 degrees C. The majority of mutants are compromised in their mitochondrial function, which is reflected by their reduced rate of respiration. Some of the mutants are also defective in mitochondrial membrane permeability, suggesting the importance of an intact respiratory system for survival under both high concentrations of CoCl(2) as well as low oxygen conditions. In addition, the mutants tend to accumulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and all mutants show sensitivity to various ROS generating chemicals. Gene expression analysis revealed the involvement of several pathways in response to cobalt chloride. Our findings indicate cobalt chloride sensitivity and/or sensitivity to low oxygen conditions are linked to mitochondrial function, sterol and iron homeostasis, ubiquitination, and the ability of cells to respond to ROS. These findings imply that multiple pathways are involved in oxygen sensing in C. neoformans.

  4. Dissolved oxygen: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senn, David; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Novick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration serves as an important indicator of estuarine habitat condition, because all aquatic macro-organisms require some minimum DO level to survive and prosper. The instantaneous DO concentration, measured at a specific location in the water column, results from a balance between multiple processes that add or remove oxygen (Figure 6.1): primary production produces O2; aerobic respiration in the water column and sediments consumes O2; abiotic or microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions utilize O2 as an oxidant (e.g., oxidation of ammonium, sulfide, and ferrous iron); O2 exchange occurs across the air:water interface in response to under- or oversaturated DO concentrations in the water column; and water currents and turbulent mixing transport DO into and out of zones in the water column. If the oxygen loss rate exceeds the oxygen production or input rate, DO concentration decreases. When DO losses exceed production or input over a prolonged enough period of time, hypoxia ((<2-3 mg/L) or anoxia can develop. Persistent hypoxia or anoxia causes stress or death in aquatic organism populations, or for organisms that can escape a hypoxic or anoxic area, the loss of habitat. In addition, sulfide, which is toxic to aquatic organisms and causes odor problems, escapes from sediments under low oxygen conditions. Low dissolved oxygen is a common aquatic ecosystem response to elevated organic

  5. Aerobic biotransformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, B.H.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Respirometric mineralization studies of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted with microorganisms isolated from a site contaminated with munitions waste in Illinois. Nine aerobic bacterial species were isolated under a carbon- and nitrogen-limited condition and tentatively identified as: one Pseudomonas species; one Enterobacter species; and seven Alcaligenes species. Experiments were performed using each of the nine organisms individually and with a consortium of all nine bacterial species. The aerobic microorganisms were cultured in a sterile nutrient solution with glucose and 20 mg/L TNT. Mineralization was determined using uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-TNT in a respirometer that trapped the evolved CO{sub 2}. Biodegradation behavior was characterized based on oxygen consumption, distribution of {sup 14}C activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of TNT and its transformation products.

  6. Influence of aeration intensity on mature aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Aeration intensity is well known as an important factor in the formation of aerobic granules. In this research, two identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with aeration intensity of 0.8 (R1) and 0.2 m(3)/h (R2) were operated to investigate the characteristics and kinetics of matured aerobic granules. Results showed that both aeration intensity conditions induced granulation, but they showed different effects on the characteristics of aerobic granules. Compared with the low aeration intensity (R2), the aerobic granules under the higher aeration intensity (R1) had better physical characteristics and settling ability. However, the observed biomass yield (Y obs) in R1 [0.673 kg mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)] was lower than R2 (0.749 kg MLVSS/kg COD). In addition, the maximum specific COD removal rates (q max) and apparent half rate constant (K) of mature aerobic granular sludge under the two aeration intensities were at a similar level. Therefore, the matured aerobic granule system does not require to be operated in a higher aeration intensity, which will reduce the energy consumption.

  7. Treatment of real coal gasification wastewater using a novel integrated system of anoxic hybrid two stage aerobic processes: performance and the role of pure oxygen microbubble.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Shan, Shengdao

    2016-06-01

    A novel integrated system of anoxic-pure oxygen microbubble-activated sludge reactor-moving bed biofilm reactor was employed in treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed the integrated system had efficient performance of pollutants removal in short hydraulic retention time. While pure oxygen microbubble with the flow rate of 1.5 L/h and NaHCO3 dosage ratio of 2:1 (amount NaHCO3 to NH4 (+)-N ratio, mol: mol) were used, the removal efficiencies of COD, total phenols (TPh) and NH4 (+)-N reached 90, 95, and 95 %, respectively, with the influent loading rates of 3.4 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.81 kg TPh/(m(3) d), and 0.28 kg NH4 (+)-N/(m(3) d). With the recycle ratio of 300 %, the concentrations of NO2 (-)-N and NO3 (-)-N in effluent decreased to 12 and 59 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, pure oxygen microbubble significantly improved the enzymatic activities and affected the effluent organic compositions and reduced the foam expansion. Thus, the novel integrated system with efficient, stable, and economical advantages was suitable for engineering application.

  8. Growth condition dependence of unintentional oxygen incorporation in epitaxial GaN

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Felix; Wirth, Steffen; Zimmermann, Friederike; Heitmann, Johannes; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schmult, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Growth conditions have a tremendous impact on the unintentional background impurity concentration in gallium nitride (GaN) synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy and its resulting chemical and physical properties. In particular for oxygen identified as the dominant background impurity we demonstrate that under optimized growth stoichiometry the growth temperature is the key parameter to control its incorporation and that an increase by 55 °C leads to an oxygen reduction by one order of magnitude. Quantitatively this reduction and the resulting optical and electrical properties are analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, photoluminescence, capacitance versus voltage measurements, low temperature magneto-transport and parasitic current paths in lateral transistor test structures based on two-dimensional electron gases. At a growth temperature of 665 °C the residual charge carrier concentration is decreased to below 1015 cm−3, resulting in insulating behavior and thus making the material suitable for beyond state-of-the-art device applications. PMID:27877874

  9. Composite Hydrogels with Engineered Microdomains for Optical Glucose Sensing at Low Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R.; Biswas, Aniket; McShane, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing need for advanced tools that enable frequent monitoring of biomarkers for precision medicine. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-based system providing real-time optical bioanalyte monitoring. The responsive material, alginate-in-alginate (AnA), is comprised of an alginate hydrogel with embedded bioactive, nanofilm-coated phosphorescent microdomains; palladium tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin serves as an optical indicator, glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, and layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as the diffusion barrier. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the nanofilms resulted in a dramatic reduction in glucose diffusion (179%) while oxygen transport was not significantly affected. The responses of the AnA hydrogels to step changes of glucose at both ambient and physiological oxygen levels were evaluated, revealing controlled tuning of sensitivity and dynamic range. Stability, assessed by alternately exposing the responsive AnA hydrogels to extremely high and zero glucose concentrations, resulted in no significant difference in the response over 20 cycles. These AnA hydrogels represent an attractive approach to biosensing based on biocompatible materials that may be used as minimally-invasive, implantable devices capable of optical interrogation. The model glucose-responsive composite material studied in this work will serve as a template that can be translated for sensing additional analytes (e.g., lactate, urea, pyruvate, cholesterol) and can be used for monitoring other chronic conditions. PMID:28117762

  10. Composite Hydrogels with Engineered Microdomains for Optical Glucose Sensing at Low Oxygen Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Biswas, Aniket; McShane, Michael J

    2017-01-22

    There is a growing need for advanced tools that enable frequent monitoring of biomarkers for precision medicine. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-based system providing real-time optical bioanalyte monitoring. The responsive material, alginate-in-alginate (AnA), is comprised of an alginate hydrogel with embedded bioactive, nanofilm-coated phosphorescent microdomains; palladium tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin serves as an optical indicator, glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, and layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as the diffusion barrier. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the nanofilms resulted in a dramatic reduction in glucose diffusion (179%) while oxygen transport was not significantly affected. The responses of the AnA hydrogels to step changes of glucose at both ambient and physiological oxygen levels were evaluated, revealing controlled tuning of sensitivity and dynamic range. Stability, assessed by alternately exposing the responsive AnA hydrogels to extremely high and zero glucose concentrations, resulted in no significant difference in the response over 20 cycles. These AnA hydrogels represent an attractive approach to biosensing based on biocompatible materials that may be used as minimally-invasive, implantable devices capable of optical interrogation. The model glucose-responsive composite material studied in this work will serve as a template that can be translated for sensing additional analytes (e.g., lactate, urea, pyruvate, cholesterol) and can be used for monitoring other chronic conditions.

  11. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  12. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  13. Impact of oxygen cut off and starvation conditions on biological activity and physico-chemical properties of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Villain, Maud; Clouzot, Ludiwine; Guibaud, Gilles; Marrot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and biological parameters were monitored both throughout different oxygen cut off and starvation (OCS) times (6 h-72 h) and after the restoration of normal operational conditions. Sludge apparent viscosity and soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics were measured to determine the activated sludge (AS) properties. Oxygen transfer, biological activity with specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) measurements during endogenous/exogenous conditions (without any external substrate/with external substrate consumption) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were measured to assess the AS performances. During the different stress times, AS deflocculated as a decrease of apparent viscosity was observed and microorganisms biodegraded the released EPS to survive. After aeration return, and under endogenous conditions, size exclusion chromatographic fingerprints of soluble EPS were modified and macromolecules probably of type humic-like substances appeared in significant quantities. These new macromolecules presumably acted as biosurfactants. Consequently, the liquid surface tension, as well as the oxygen transfer rate (OTR), decreased. Under exogenous conditions, high biological activity (SOUR = 11.8 +/- 2.1 mg(O2 x g(MLVSS)(-1) x h(-1)) compensated the decrease of oxygen transfer. Finally, AS biomass maintained a constant COD degradation rate (15.7 +/- 1.9 mg(O2) x g(MLVSS)(-1) x h(-1)) before and after the disturbances for all times tested. This work demonstrates that AS microorganisms can counteract concomitant oxygen and nutrients shortage when the duration of such a condition does not exceed 72 h. Dissociation of endogenous/exogenous conditions appears to offer an ideal laboratory model to study EPS and biomass activity effects on oxygen transfer.

  14. Heazlewoodite, Ni3S2: A Potent Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction to Water under Benign Conditions.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Joseph M; Concannon, Nolan M; Yan, Bing; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2015-07-01

    Electrodeposited thin films and nanoparticles of Ni3S2 are highly active, poison- and corrosion-resistant catalysts for oxygen reduction to water at neutral pH. In pH 7 phosphate buffer, Ni3S2 displays catalytic onset at 0.8 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, a Tafel slope of 109 mV decade(-1), and high faradaic efficiency for four-electron reduction of O2 to water. Under these conditions, the activity and stability of Ni3S2 exceeds that of polycrystalline platinum and manganese, nickel, and cobalt oxides, illustrating the catalytic potential of pairing labile first-row transition metal active sites with a more covalent sulfide host lattice.

  15. Evaluation of Containment Boxes as a Fire Mitigation Method in Elevated Oxygen Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana; Perez, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    NASA performed testing to evaluate the efficacy of fire containment boxes without forced ventilation. Configurational flammability testing was performed on a simulation avionics box replicating critical design features and filled with materials possessing representative flammability characteristics. This paper discusses the box's ability, under simulated end-use conditions, to inhibit the propagation of combustion to surrounding materials. Analysis was also performed to evaluate the potential for the fire containment box to serve as an overheat/ignition source to temperature sensitive equipment (such as items with lithium-ion batteries). Unrealistically severe combustion scenarios were used as a means to better understand the fire containment mechanism. These scenarios were achieved by utilizing materials/fuels not typically used in space vehicles due to flammability concerns. Oxygen depletion, during combustion within the fire containment boxes, drove self-extinguishment and proved an effective method of fire containment

  16. Blood circulation in rat lungs under conditions of reduced oxygen level in inhaled air.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P; Mel'nikova, N N

    2012-12-01

    According to some authors, reduction in oxygen level in the lung alveoli results in constriction of afferent vessels, while others observed no vessel constriction. The issue is of principle importance in relation to the lung involvement in body adaptation to hypoxia. Conventional methods are inefficient to solve it, therefore we used a contact microscope allowing observation of lung circulatory system structure and condition of the lung circulatory system in whole, virtually intact animal, on whole undamaged lungs in situ, at normal physiological lung position in the thorax. We found that large vessels carrying blood to the alveoli do not constrict or dilate at reduced Po(2)in lung alveoli. These vessels with a diameter of 15 to 40 μ and more are the only blood source for alveoli.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of an n-Dodecane Spray Flame Under Different Ambient Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Yuanjiang; Hu, Bing; Som, Sibendu

    2015-01-01

    An n-dodecane spray flame was simulated using a dynamic structure large eddy simulation (LES) model coupled with a detailed chemistry combustion model to understand the ignition processes and the quasi-steady state flame structure at different ambient oxygen concentrations, 13\\%, 15\\% and 21\\% at ambient temperature of 900 K and ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3, which are typical diesel-engine relevant conditions with different levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The liquid spray was treated with a traditional Lagrangian method. A 103-species skeletal mechanism was used for n-dodecane chemical kinetic model. It is observed that the main ignitions occur in rich mixture and the flames are thickened around 35 to 40 mm off the spray axis due to the enhanced turbulence induced by the strong recirculation upstream just behind the head of the flames at different oxygen concentrations. At 1 ms after start of injection, the soot production is dominated by the broader region of high temperature in rich mixture instead of the stronger oxidation of the high peak temperature. Multiple realizations were performed for the 15\\% O$_2$ condition to understand the realization to realization variation and to establish best practices for ensemble-averaging diesel spray flames. Two indexes are defined. The structure-similarity index analysis suggests at least 5 realizations are needed to obtain 99\\% similarity for mixture fraction if average of 16 realizations are used as the target at 0.8 ms. However, this scenario may be different for different scalars of interest. It is found that 2 realizations would be enough to reach 99\\% of similarity for temperature, while 8 and 14 realizations are required to achieve 99\\% similarity for soot and OH mass fraction, respectively. Similar findings are noticed at 1 ms. More realizations are needed for the magnitude-similarity index for the similar level of similarity as the structure-similarity index.

  18. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation.

  19. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (< 11 days) of organic carbon, nitrogen and nutritional demands of foraminifera at different oxygen concentrations on the continental margin in the eastern Arabian Sea. For the experiments, a single pulse of isotopically labeled phytodetritus was added to the sediment along a depth transect (540-1100 m) on the Indian Margin, covering the OMZ core and the lower OMZ boundary region. Uptake of phytodetritus within 4 days shows the relevance of phytodetritus as food source for foraminifera. Lower content of phytodetrital carbon recorded in foraminifera from more oxygenated depths shows greater food uptake by foraminifera in the OMZ core than in the OMZ boundary region. The foraminiferal assemblage living under almost anoxic conditions in the OMZ core is dominated by species typically found in eutroph environments (such as Uvigerinids) that are adapted to high flux of organic matter. The elevated carbon uptake can also result from missing food competition by macrofauna or from greater energy demand in foraminifera to sustain metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content

  20. Generating controlled reducing environments in aerobic recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations: effects on cell growth, oxygen uptake, heat shock protein expression, and in vivo CAT activity.

    PubMed

    Gill, R T; Cha, H J; Jain, A; Rao, G; Bentley, W E

    1998-07-20

    The independent control of culture redox potential (CRP) by the regulated addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT) was demonstrated in aerated recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations. Moderate levels of DTT addition resulted in minimal changes to specific oxygen uptake, growth rate, and dissolved oxygen. Excessive levels of DTT addition were toxic to the cells resulting in cessation of growth. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity (nmoles/microgram total protein min.) decreased in batch fermentation experiments with respect to increasing levels of DTT addition. To further investigate the mechanisms affecting CAT activity, experiments were performed to assay heat shock protein expression and specific CAT activity (nmoles/microgram CAT min.). Expression of such molecular chaperones as GroEL and DnaK were found to increase after addition of DTT. Additionally, sigma factor 32 (sigma32) and several proteases were seen to increase dramatically during addition of DTT. Specific CAT activity (nmoles/microgram CAT min. ) varied greatly as DTT was added, however, a minimum in activity was found at the highest level of DTT addition in E. coli strains RR1 [pBR329] and JM105 [pROEX-CAT]. In conjunction, cellular stress was found to reach a maximum at the same levels of DTT. Although DTT addition has the potential for directly affecting intracellular protein folding, the effects felt from the increased stress within the cell are likely the dominant effector. That the effects of DTT were measured within the cytoplasm of the cell suggests that the periplasmic redox potential was also altered. The changes in specific CAT activity, molecular chaperones, and other heat shock proteins, in the presence of minimal growth rate and oxygen uptake alterations, suggest that the ex vivo control of redox potential provides a new process for affecting the yield and conformation of heterologous proteins in aerated E. coli fermentations.

  1. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  2. The effects of aerobic training on children's creativity, self-perception, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Herman-Tofler, L R; Tuckman, B W

    1998-10-01

    The article examines whether participation in an aerobic exercise program (AE), as compared with a traditional physical education class (PE), significantly increased children's perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth; increased their figural creativity; and improved aerobic power as measured by an 800-meter run around a track. Further research on the effects of different types of AE is discussed, as well as the need for aerobic conditioning in the elementary school.

  3. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  4. Effects of low-oxygen conditions on embryo growth in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Gerardo A; Karnatz, Matthew L; Svendsen, Jon C; Gangloff, Eric J

    2017-03-01

    Low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia; <21% O2 ) are considered unfavorable for growth; yet, embryos of many vertebrate taxa develop successfully in hypoxic subterranean environments. Although enhanced tolerance to hypoxia has been demonstrated in adult reptiles, such as in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta), its effects on sensitive embryo life stages warrant attention. We tested the hypothesis that short-term hypoxia negatively affects growth during day 40 of development in C. picta, when O2 demands are highest in embryos. A brief, but severe, hypoxic event (5% O2 for 0.5 h) moderately affected embryo growth, causing a 13% reduction in mass (relative to a normoxic control). The same condition had no effect during day 27; instead, a nearly anoxic event (1% O2 for 72 h) caused a 5% mass reduction. All embryos survived the egg incubation period. Our study supports the assumption that reptilian embryos are resilient to intermittently low O2 in subterranean nests. Further work is needed to ascertain responses to suboptimal O2 levels while undergoing dynamic changes in developmental physiology.

  5. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  6. Growth of praseodymium oxide on Si(111) under oxygen-deficient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, A.; Zielasek, V.; Baeumer, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Schowalter, M.; Schulz, Ch.; Rosenauer, A.; Falta, J.; Sandell, A.; Seifarth, O.; Schroeder, T.; Wollschlaeger, J.

    2009-07-15

    Surface science studies of thin praseodymium oxide films grown on silicon substrates are of high interest in view of applications in such different fields as microelectronics and heterogeneous catalysis. In particular, a detailed characterization of the growth and the final structure of the films are mandatory to achieve a fundamental understanding of such topics as oxygen mobility and defect structure, and their role for the electronic and chemical properties. In this paper, the MBE growth of praseodymium oxide films on Si(111) substrates was investigated at low-deposition rates (0.06 nm/min) and low-oxygen partial pressures (p(O{sub 2})<1x10{sup -10} mbar). To obtain insight into the structure and chemical composition of the growing film, spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED), transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were applied. SPA-LEED reveals the formation of an initial closed layer followed by continuous roughening and formation of ordered three-dimensional structures. This result is in contrast to observations at higher-deposition rates, were a layer-by-layer growth was reported. XAS and XPS provide evidence that a continuous reaction takes place in the growing Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} film leading to the formation of silicate and silicide structures within the film. Combining all data, a consistent picture of the deposition of praseodymium oxide on Si(111) emerges which clearly shows that in contrast to higher-throughput molecular beam epitaxy conditions the reactivity of the growing film strongly influences the growth behavior at low-deposition rates and low pressures.

  7. The importance of knowing the home conditions of patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Ilda; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Hernández, Carme; Godoy, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is one of the main treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients receiving LTOT may have less than optimal home conditions and this may interfere with treatment. The objective of this study was, through home visits, to identify the characteristics of patients receiving LTOT and to develop knowledge regarding the home environments of these patients. Methods Ninety-seven patients with a mean age of 69 plus or minus 10.5 years were evaluated. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. Data were collected during an initial home visit, using a questionnaire standardized for the study. The results were analyzed retrospectively. Results Seventy-five percent of the patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 11% were active smokers. The patients’ mean pulse oximetry values were 85.9% plus or minus 4.7% on room air and 92% plus or minus 3.9% on the prescribed flow of oxygen. Most of the patients did not use the treatment as prescribed and most used a humidifier. The extension hose had a mean length of 5 plus or minus 3.9 m (range, 1.5–16 m). In the year prior to the visit, 26% of the patients received emergency medical care because of respiratory problems. Few patients reported engaging in leisure activities. Conclusion The home visit allowed us to identify problems and interventions that could improve the way LTOT is used. The most common interventions related to smoking cessation, concentrator maintenance and cleaning, use of a humidifier, and adjustments of the length of the connector hose. Therefore, the home visit is a very important tool in providing comprehensive care to patients receiving LTOT, especially those who show lack of adequate progress and those who show uncertainty about the treatment method. PMID:22848155

  8. Modeling of simultaneous denitrification--anaerobic digestion--organic matter aerobic oxidation and nitrification in an anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic compact filter reactor.

    PubMed

    Moya, Jaime; Huiliñir, César; Peredo, Karol; Aspé, Estrella; Roeckel, Marlene

    2012-08-31

    A mathematical model was developed for a compact anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic filter reactor with liquid recirculation for the treatment of fishing effluents. The model includes denitrification, anaerobic digestion, aerobic carbon oxidation and nitrification steps, as well as an evaluation of the liquid gas mass transfer and pH. The model was calibrated using one experimental condition at a recycling ratio (R)=10, and was validated with R equal to 2 and 0, with an organic concentration of 554±24 mg TOCL(-1), salinity of 24 g L(-1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 d. Carbon total removal is higher than 98%, while maximum nitrogen removal is 62% using total nitrification in the aerobic zone, due to a higher quantity of NO(x) produced which were recirculated to the anoxic zone. In the aerobic zone, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes occur, because the diffusion limitations cause a low oxygen penetration in the biofilm. In the anoxic-anaerobic zone, denitrification or methanogenesis inhibition by DO (caused by the recycled oxygen) is not observed.

  9. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise.

  10. Viscosity of carbonate-rich melts under different oxygen fugacity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental property of many materials and its changes affects the fluid dynamics of natural system as well as industrial processes. The mobility of carbonatitic melts, which are carbonate-rich and very fluid melts, has attracted renewed interest in both earth science and industry. In fact, these melts are considered the main transport agent of carbon from the mantle to the crust and may be intimately linked to the generation of kimberlites. At the same time lithium, potassium and sodium carbonate are used as electrolytes in molten carbonate fuel cells which operate at high temperatures (~650° C) for the production of electricity without CO2 emissions. Accurate measurement of the transport property (i.e. viscosity) of carbonatitic melts is a priority in order to understand the carbonatite mobility and reaction rates. Additionally, obtaining accurate viscosity measurements of such low viscosity melts is however an experimental challenge due to volatility, very low torques and chemical melt instability in the viscometer. To overcome these limitations we have customized a Modular Compact Rheometer (MCR 502 from Anton Paar) ad hoc equipped with 2 narrow gap concentric-cylinder geometries of steel and Pt-Au. The rheometer is characterized by an air-bearing-supported synchronous motor with torque ranging between 0.01 μNm and 230 mNm (resolution of 0.1 nNm), achieving very low viscosity measurements in the order of mPa s, temperatures up to 1000° C and shear rates ranging between 1 and 100 sec-1. These experimental conditions well match the temperature-viscosity-shear rate window relevant for carbonate melts. Here we present the calibration of the rheometer and the results of a rheological characterization study on a series of very low viscous synthetic and natural carbonatitic melts at different oxygen fugacity (air and CO2 saturated atmosphere). Viscosity measurements on carbonate melts have been performed in the temperature range between ~650 and 1000

  11. Bench Evaluation of Four Portable Oxygen Concentrators Under Different Conditions Representing Altitudes of 2438, 4200, and 8000 m.

    PubMed

    Bunel, Vincent; Shoukri, Amr; Choin, Frederic; Roblin, Serge; Smith, Cindy; Similowski, Thomas; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    Bunel, Vincent, Amr Shoukri, Frederic Choin, Serge Roblin, Cindy Smith, Thomas Similowski, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, and Jésus Gonzalez. Bench evaluation of four portable oxygen concentrators under different conditions representing altitudes of 2438, 4200, and 8000 m. High Alt Med Biol. 17:370-374, 2016.-Air travel is responsible for a reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (O2) as a result of the decreased barometric pressure. This hypobaric hypoxia can be dangerous for passengers with respiratory diseases, requiring initiation or intensification of oxygen therapy during the flight. In-flight oxygen therapy can be provided by portable oxygen concentrators, which are less expensive and more practical than oxygen cylinders, but no study has evaluated their capacity to concentrate oxygen under simulated flight conditions. We tested four portable oxygen concentrators during a bench test study. The O2 concentrations (FO2) produced were measured under three different conditions: in room air at sea level, under hypoxia due to a reduction of the partial pressure of O2 (normobaric hypoxia, which can be performed routinely), and under hypoxia due to a reduction of atmospheric pressure (hypobaric hypoxia, using a chamber manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space). The FO2 obtained under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia (chamber) was lower than that measured in room air (0.92 [0.89-0.92] vs. 0.93 [0.92-0.94], p = 0.029), but only one portable oxygen concentrator was unable to maintain an FO2 ≥ 0.90 (0.89 [0.89-0.89]). In contrast, under conditions of normobaric hypoxia (tent) simulating an altitude of 2438 m, none of the apparatuses tested was able to achieve an FO2 greater than 0.76. (0.75 [0.75-0.76] vs. 0.93 [0.92-0.94], p = 0.029). Almost all portable oxygen concentrators were able to generate a sufficient quantity of O2 at simulated altitudes of 2438 m and can therefore be used in the aircraft cabin. Unfortunately, verification of the reliability and

  12. Effect of Hydrologic and Geochemical Conditions on Oxygen-Enhanced Bioremediation in a Gasoline-Contaminated Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of pre-existing factors, e.g., hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological properties, on the results of oxygen addition to a reformulated gasoline-contaminated groundwater system was studied. Oxygen addition with an oxygen-release compound (a proprietary form of magnesium peroxide produced different results with respect to dissolved oxygen (DO) generation and contaminant decrease in the two locations. Oxygen-release compound injected at the former UST source area did not significantly change measured concentrations of DO, benzene, toluene, or MTBE. Conversely, oxygen-release compound injected 200 m downgradient of the former UST source area rapidly increased DO levels, and benzene, toluene, and MTBE concentrations decreased substantially. The different results could be related to differences in hydrologic and geochemical conditions that characterized the two locations prior to oxygen addition. The lack of recharge to ground water in the paved UST source area led to a much larger geochemical sink for DO compared to ground water in the unpaved area.

  13. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving a predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7 pct to 60 pct of dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 9 to 35 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20 pct to 60 pct. The dependence of oxygen desorption with flow rate could not be determined. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures when flashing occurred, 75 pct to 95 pct of dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The uncertainty in results is larger than one would desire. These uncertainties are attributed to the uncertainties and difficulties in the dissolved oxygen measurements. Methods to improve the measurements for future gas desorption studies for warm surface and cold deep seawater under OC-OTEC conditions are recommended.

  14. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving a predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7% to 60% of dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 9 to 35 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20% to 60%. The dependence of oxygen desorption with flow rate could not be determined. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures when flashing occurred, 75% to 95% of dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The uncertainty in results is larger than one would desire. These uncertainties are attributed to the uncertainties and difficulties in the dissolved oxygen measurements. Methods to improve the measurements for future gas desorption studies for warm surface and cold deep seawater under OC-OTEC conditions are recommended. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Ultra-oxidized redox conditions in subduction mélanges? Decoupling between oxygen fugacity and oxygen availability in a metasomatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumiati, Simone; Poli, Stefano; Godard, Gaston; Martin, Silvana; Malaspina, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    The manganese ore of Praborna (Italian Western Alps) is embedded within a metasedimentary sequence belonging to a subduction mélange equilibrated at high-pressure conditions (~2 GPa) during the Alpine orogenesis and record environmental conditions typical for a subducting slab setting. The pervasive veining of the ore and the growth of "pegmatoid" HP minerals suggest an open system with large fluid/rock ratio and a strong interaction with slab-derived fluids. This natural case provides an excellent natural laboratory for the study of the oxygen mobility in subducting oceanic slab mélanges at high-P, fluid-present conditions. The Mn-rich rocks in contact with the underlying sulphide- and magnetite-bearing metabasites, in textural and chemical equilibrium with the veins, contain braunite (Mn2+Mn3+6SiO12) + quartz + pyroxmangite (Mn2+SiO3), and minor hematite, omphacite, the epidote piemontite and spessartine-rich garnet. Similarly to Fe-bearing systems, Mn oxides and silicates can be regarded as natural redox-sensors, capable to monitor a process of fluid infiltration that could fix externally the intensive variable fO2 (or μO2). Sulphides are absent in these Mn-rich rocks, sulphates (barite, celestine) occurring instead together with As- and Sb oxides and silicates. On the basis of the observed assemblages, new thermodynamic calculations show that these mélange rocks are characterized by unrealistic ultra-oxidized states (ΔFMQ up to +12) if the chemical potential of oxygen (or the oxygen fugacity) is accounted for. However, if the molar quantity of oxygen in excess with reference to with reference to a system where all iron and manganese are considered to be ferrous, the ore appears only moderately oxidized, and comparable to typical subduction-slab mafic eclogites. Therefore, oxygen can be hardly considered a perfectly mobile component, even in the most favourable conditions. In the Earth's interior redox reactions take place mainly among solid oxides and

  16. Dissolved-oxygen regimen of the Willamette River, Oregon, under conditions of basinwide secondary treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Delayed formation of zero-valent selenium nanoparticles by Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 as a consequence of selenite reduction under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenite (SeO32−) oxyanion shows severe toxicity to biota. Different bacterial strains exist that are capable of reducing SeO32− to non-toxic elemental selenium (Se0), with the formation of Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). These SeNPs might be exploited for technological applications due to their physico-chemical and biological characteristics. The present paper discusses the reduction of selenite to SeNPs by a strain of Bacillus sp., SeITE01, isolated from the rhizosphere of the Se-hyperaccumulator legume Astragalus bisulcatus. Results Use of 16S rRNA and GyrB gene sequence analysis positioned SeITE01 phylogenetically close to B. mycoides. On agarized medium, this strain showed rhizoid growth whilst, in liquid cultures, it was capable of reducing 0.5 and 2.0 mM SeO32− within 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The resultant Se0 aggregated to form nanoparticles and the amount of Se0 measured was equivalent to the amount of selenium originally added as selenite to the growth medium. A delay of more than 24 hours was observed between the depletion of SeO32 and the detection of SeNPs. Nearly spherical-shaped SeNPs were mostly found in the extracellular environment whilst rarely in the cytoplasmic compartment. Size of SeNPs ranged from 50 to 400 nm in diameter, with dimensions greatly influenced by the incubation times. Different SeITE01 protein fractions were assayed for SeO32− reductase capability, revealing that enzymatic activity was mainly associated with the membrane fraction. Reduction of SeO32− was also detected in the supernatant of bacterial cultures upon NADH addition. Conclusions The selenite reducing bacterial strain SeITE01 was attributed to the species Bacillus mycoides on the basis of phenotypic and molecular traits. Under aerobic conditions, the formation of SeNPs were observed both extracellularly or intracellullarly. Possible mechanisms of Se0 precipitation and SeNPs assembly are suggested. SeO32− is proposed to be enzimatically reduced to

  18. Genome Sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii, an Obligate Aerobe Specialized To Support Diverse Anaerobic Metabolic Processes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Setubal, João C.; dos Santos, Patricia; Goldman, Barry S.; Ertesvåg, Helga; Espin, Guadelupe; Rubio, Luis M.; Valla, Svein; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Balasubramanian, Divya; Cromes, Lindsey; Curatti, Leonardo; Du, Zijin; Godsy, Eric; Goodner, Brad; Hellner-Burris, Kaitlyn; Hernandez, José A.; Houmiel, Katherine; Imperial, Juan; Kennedy, Christina; Larson, Timothy J.; Latreille, Phil; Ligon, Lauren S.; Lu, Jing; Mærk, Mali; Miller, Nancy M.; Norton, Stacie; O'Carroll, Ina P.; Paulsen, Ian; Raulfs, Estella C.; Roemer, Rebecca; Rosser, James; Segura, Daniel; Slater, Steve; Stricklin, Shawn L.; Studholme, David J.; Sun, Jian; Viana, Carlos J.; Wallin, Erik; Wang, Baomin; Wheeler, Cathy; Zhu, Huijun; Dean, Dennis R.; Dixon, Ray; Wood, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium related to the Pseudomonas genus that fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions while simultaneously protecting nitrogenase from oxygen damage. In response to carbon availability, this organism undergoes a simple differentiation process to form cysts that are resistant to drought and other physical and chemical agents. Here we report the complete genome sequence of A. vinelandii DJ, which has a single circular genome of 5,365,318 bp. In order to reconcile an obligate aerobic lifestyle with exquisitely oxygen-sensitive processes, A. vinelandii is specialized in terms of its complement of respiratory proteins. It is able to produce alginate, a polymer that further protects the organism from excess exogenous oxygen, and it has multiple duplications of alginate modification genes, which may alter alginate composition in response to oxygen availability. The genome analysis identified the chromosomal locations of the genes coding for the three known oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases, as well as genes coding for other oxygen-sensitive enzymes, such as carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. These findings offer new prospects for the wider application of A. vinelandii as a host for the production and characterization of oxygen-sensitive proteins. PMID:19429624

  19. Physiological response in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to variable salinity and oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Lundgreen, Kim; Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Madsen, Steffen S; Jensen, Frank B

    2008-09-01

    Physiological mechanisms involved in acclimation to variable salinity and oxygen levels and their interaction were studied in European flounder. The fish were acclimated for 2 weeks to freshwater (1 per thousand salinity), brackish water (11 per thousand) or full strength seawater (35 per thousand) under normoxic conditions (water Po(2) = 158 mmHg) and then subjected to 48 h of continued normoxia or hypoxia at a level (Po(2) = 54 mmHg) close to but above the critical Po(2). Plasma osmolality, [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] increased with increasing salinity, but the rises were limited, reflecting an effective extracellular osmoregulation. Muscle water content was the same at all three salinities, indicating complete cell volume regulation. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity did not change with salinity, but hypoxia caused a 25% decrease in branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at all three salinities. Furthermore, hypoxia induced a significant decrease in mRNA levels of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1-subunit, signifying a reduced expression of the transporter gene. The reduced ATPase activity did not influence extracellular ionic concentrations. Blood [Hb] was stable with salinity, and it was not increased by hypoxia. Instead, hypoxia decreased the erythrocytic nucleoside triphosphate content, a common mechanism for increasing blood O(2) affinity. It is concluded that moderate hypoxia induced an energy saving decrease in branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, which did not compromise extracellular osmoregulation.

  20. Inactivation of nitric oxide by cytochrome c oxidase under steady-state oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Unitt, David C; Hollis, Veronica S; Palacios-Callender, Miriam; Frakich, Nanci; Moncada, Salvador

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a respiration chamber that allows intact cells to be studied under controlled oxygen (O(2)) conditions. The system measures the concentrations of O(2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cell suspension, while the redox state of cytochrome c oxidase is continuously monitored optically. Using human embryonic kidney cells transfected with a tetracycline-inducible NO synthase we show that the inactivation of NO by cytochrome c oxidase is dependent on both O(2) concentration and electron turnover of the enzyme. At a high O(2) concentration (70 microM), and while the enzyme is in turnover, NO generated by the NO synthase upon addition of a given concentration of l-arginine is partially inactivated by cytochrome c oxidase and does not affect the redox state of the enzyme or consumption of O(2). At low O(2) (15 microM), when the cytochrome c oxidase is more reduced, inactivation of NO is decreased. In addition, the NO that is not inactivated inhibits the cytochrome c oxidase, further reducing the enzyme and lowering O(2) consumption. At both high and low O(2) concentrations the inactivation of NO is decreased when sodium azide is used to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and decrease electron turnover.

  1. Study of atomic oxygen greenline dayglow emission in thermosphere during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, T.; Singh, Vir; Sunil Krishna, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of geomagnetic storms on the atomic oxygen greenline (557.7 nm) dayglow emission in thermosphere is studied during solar active and solar quiet conditions. This study is primarily based on the photochemical model with inputs obtained from experimental observations and empirical models. The updated rate coefficients, quantum yields and related cross-sections have been used from experimental results and theoretical studies. This study is presented for a low latitude station Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E), India. The volume emission rate (VER) has been calculated using densities and temperatures from the empirical models. The modeled VER shows a positive correlation with the Dst index. The VER also shows a negative correlation with the number densities of O, O2, and N2. The VER, calculated at peak emission altitude, exhibits depletion during the main phase of the storm. The altitude of peak emission rate is unaffected by the geomagnetic storm activity. The study also reveals that the peak emission altitude depends on the F10.7 solar index. The peak emission altitude moves upward as the value of F10.7 solar index increases.

  2. FeO2 and FeOOH under deep lower-mantle conditions and Earth's oxygen-hydrogen cycles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingyang; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Wenge; Yang, Liuxiang; Meng, Yue; Zhang, Li; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2016-06-09

    The distribution, accumulation and circulation of oxygen and hydrogen in Earth's interior dictate the geochemical evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. The oxygen-rich atmosphere and iron-rich core represent two end-members of the oxygen-iron (O-Fe) system, overlapping with the entire pressure-temperature-composition range of the planet. The extreme pressure and temperature conditions of the deep interior alter the oxidation states, spin states and phase stabilities of iron oxides, creating new stoichiometries, such as Fe4O5 (ref. 5) and Fe5O6 (ref. 6). Such interactions between O and Fe dictate Earth's formation, the separation of the core and mantle, and the evolution of the atmosphere. Iron, in its multiple oxidation states, controls the oxygen fugacity and oxygen budget, with hydrogen having a key role in the reaction of Fe and O (causing iron to rust in humid air). Here we use first-principles calculations and experiments to identify a highly stable, pyrite-structured iron oxide (FeO2) at 76 gigapascals and 1,800 kelvin that holds an excessive amount of oxygen. We show that the mineral goethite, FeOOH, which exists ubiquitously as 'rust' and is concentrated in bog iron ore, decomposes under the deep lower-mantle conditions to form FeO2 and release H2. The reaction could cause accumulation of the heavy FeO2-bearing patches in the deep lower mantle, upward migration of hydrogen, and separation of the oxygen and hydrogen cycles. This process provides an alternative interpretation for the origin of seismic and geochemical anomalies in the deep lower mantle, as well as a sporadic O2 source for the Great Oxidation Event over two billion years ago that created the present oxygen-rich atmosphere.

  3. Macrophages Under Low Oxygen Culture ConditionsRespond to Ion Parametric Resonance Magnetic Fields

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrophages, when entering inflamed tissue, encounter low oxygen tension due to the impairment of blood supply and/or the massive infiltration of cells that consume oxygen. Previously, we showed that such macrophages release more bacteriotoxic hydrogen peroxide (H202) when expose...

  4. Macrophages Under Low Oxygen Culture Conditions Respond to Ion Parametric Resonance Magnetic Fields

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrophages, when entering inflamed tissue, encounter low oxygen tension due to the impairment of blood supply and/or the massive infiltration of cells that consume oxygen. Previously, we showed that such macrophages release more bacteriotoxic hydrogen peroxide (H202) when expose...

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. Noninvasive Oxygen Monitoring in Three-Dimensional Tissue Cultures Under Static and Dynamic Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Birgit; Nöhre, Mariel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Stolz, Marvin; Israelowitz, Meir; Gille, Christoph; von Schroeder, Herb P.; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a new method for noninvasive real-time oxygen measurement inside three-dimensional tissue-engineered cell constructs in static and dynamic culture settings in a laminar flow bioreactor. The OPAL system (optical oxygen measurement system) determines the oxygen-dependent phosphorescence lifetime of spherical microprobes and uses a two-frequency phase-modulation technique, which fades out the interference of background fluorescence from the cell carrier and culture medium. Higher cell densities in the centrum of the scaffolds correlated with lower values of oxygen concentration obtained with the OPAL system. When scaffolds were placed in the bioreactor, higher oxygen values were measured compared to statically cultured scaffolds in a Petri dish, which were significantly different at day 1–3 of culture. This technique allows the use of signal-weak microprobes in biological environments and monitors the culture process inside a bioreactor. PMID:26309802

  7. High catalytic activity of palladium(II)-exchanged mesoporous sodalite and NaA zeolite for bulky aryl coupling reactions: reusability under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkee; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Na, Kyungsu; Yu, Byung-Woo; Ryoo, Ryong

    2009-01-01

    Exchange for the better: Mesoporous sodalite and NaA zeolite exchanged with Pd(2+) exhibit remarkably high activity and reusability in C-C coupling reactions under aerobic atmosphere. It is proposed that the catalytic reactions are mediated by a molecular Pd(0) species generated in situ within the pores (see picture), which is oxidized back to Pd(2+) by O(2), preventing the formation of catalytically inactive Pd(0) agglomerates.

  8. Effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-08-01

    The effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on the structure and activity of aerobic granules was studied. Aerobic granular sludge treating abattoir wastewater and achieving high levels of nutrient removal was subjected to 4-5 week starvation under anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Microscopic pictures of granules at the beginning of the starvation period presented a round and compact surface morphology with a much defined external perimeter. Under both starvation conditions, the morphology changed at the end of starvation with the external border of the granules surrounded by floppy materials. The loss of granular compactness was faster and more pronounced under anaerobic/aerobic starvation conditions. The release of Ca(2+) at the onset of anaerobic/aerobic starvation suggests a degradation of extracellular polymeric substances. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was reduced by 20 and 36% during anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation, respectively. When fresh wastewater was reintroduced, the granules recovered their initial morphology within 1 week of normal operation and the nutrient removal activity recovered fully in 3 weeks. The results show that both anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions are suitable for maintaining granule structure and activity during starvation.

  9. Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration.

  10. Unraveling characteristics of simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) in an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    He, Qiulai; Zhang, Shilu; Zou, Zhuocheng; Zheng, Li-An; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-11-01

    An aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on an aerobic/oxic/anoxic (AOA) mode was operated for 50days with acetate sodium as the sole carbon source for simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Excellent removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94.46±3.59%), nitrogen (96.56±3.44% for ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and 93.88±6.78% for total inorganic nitrogen (TIN)) and phosphorus (97.71±3.63%) were obtained over operation. Mechanisms for simultaneous nutrients removal were explored and the results indicated that simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) under aerobic conditions was mainly responsible for most of nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Identification and quantification of the granular AOA SBR revealed that higher rates of nutrients removal and more potentials were to be exploited by optimizing the operating conditions including time durations for AOA mode and the feeding compositions.

  11. Sticking probability of CO on an oxygen covered Pd(110) surface under reaction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goschnick, J.; Grunze, M.; Loboda-Cackovic, J.; Block, J. H.

    1987-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide into an oxygen overlayer on a Pd(110) surface and its conversion to CO 2 was studied by quantitative mass spectrometric methods and video recorded LEED. For temperatures with negligible desorption of CO ( T≤420 K) the sticking probability of CO into the oxygen adsorbate is reduced by approximately 1/2 compared to a CO adsorbate on a clean Pd(110) surface of the same coverage. The evaluation reveals that each oxygen adatom effectively blocks more than ten sites for CO adsorption, which is explained by the influence of adsorbed oxygen on the transition probability of the CO precursor to the chemisorbed state. Initially due to a locally higher sticking probability CO is adsorbed at defects of the c(2×4) oxygen overlayer. After consumption of less ordered oxygen regions further reaction is restricted to the domain boundaries of the reactands and propagates preferably in an unidirectional fashion along the surface troughs with a constant turnover number until whole domains of oxygen have been consumed by the reaction.

  12. [Application of Micro-aerobic Hydrolysis Acidification in the Pretreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Fu, Xiao-yong; Chen, Xue-min; Qiu, Yan-bo; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    Micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification technology was applied in the reconstruction of ananaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank in a north petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. After put into operation, the monitoring results showed that the average removal rate of COD was 11.7% when influent COD was 490.3-673.2 mg x L(-1), hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 0.2-0.35 mg x L(-1). In addition, the BOD5/COD value was increased by 12.4%, the UV254 removal rate reached 11.2%, and the VFA concentration was increased by 23.0%. The relative molecular weight distribution (MWD) results showed that the small molecule organic matter (< 1 x 10(3)) percentage was increased from 59.5% to 82.1% and the high molecular organic matter ( > 100 x 10(3)) percentage was decreased from 31.8% to 14.0% after micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The aerobic biodegradation batch test showed that the degradation of petrochemical wastewater was significantly improved by the pretreatment of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The COD of influent can be degraded to 102.2 mg x L(-1) by 48h aerobic treatment while the micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification effluent COD can be degraded to 71.5 mg x L(-1) on the same condition. The effluent sulfate concentration of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification tank [(930.7 ± 60.1) mg x L(-1)] was higher than that of the influent [(854.3 ± 41.5) mg x L(-1)], indicating that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was inhibited. The toxic and malodorous gases generation was reduced with the improvement of environment.

  13. Light-Dependent Aerobic Methane Oxidation Reduces Methane Emissions from Seasonally Stratified Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Kirsten; Milucka, Jana; Brand, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Wehrli, Bernhard; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are a natural source of methane to the atmosphere and contribute significantly to total emissions compared to the oceans. Controls on methane emissions from lake surfaces, particularly biotic processes within anoxic hypolimnia, are only partially understood. Here we investigated biological methane oxidation in the water column of the seasonally stratified Lake Rotsee. A zone of methane oxidation extending from the oxic/anoxic interface into anoxic waters was identified by chemical profiling of oxygen, methane and δ13C of methane. Incubation experiments with 13C-methane yielded highest oxidation rates within the oxycline, and comparable rates were measured in anoxic waters. Despite predominantly anoxic conditions within the zone of methane oxidation, known groups of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea were conspicuously absent. Instead, aerobic gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs were identified as the active methane oxidizers. In addition, continuous oxidation and maximum rates always occurred under light conditions. These findings, along with the detection of chlorophyll a, suggest that aerobic methane oxidation is tightly coupled to light-dependent photosynthetic oxygen production both at the oxycline and in the anoxic bottom layer. It is likely that this interaction between oxygenic phototrophs and aerobic methanotrophs represents a widespread mechanism by which methane is oxidized in lake water, thus diminishing its release into the atmosphere. PMID:26193458

  14. Potential effects of recurrent low oxygen conditions on the Illinois Cave amphipod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Kelly, W.R.; Hwang, H.-H.; Wilhelm, F.M.; Taylor, S.J.; Stiff, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    The caves of Illinois' sinkhole plain are the sole habitat of the Illinois Cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes), a federally endangered species. The sinkhole plain is a hydrologically-connected sequence of karstified limestone that constitutes an extensive karst aquifer which serves as an important source of potable water for area residents. During this investigation, we examined the ground-water quality in caves within two ground-water basins: 1) Illinois Caverns, where the amphipod is now present after previously reported to have been extirpated from the lower reaches, and 2) Stemler Cave, where the amphipod is reported to have been extirpated. The chemical composition of cave streams in Illinois Caverns and Stemler Cave were compared to determine which parameters, if any, could have contributed to the loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave. Stream water in Stemler Cave contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, potassium, silica, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, iron and manganese than Illinois Caverns. Perhaps most importantly, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Stemler Cave were, during periods of low flow, substantially lower than in Illinois Caverns. Based on land use, there are probably at least eight times more private septic systems in the Stemler Cave ground-water basin than in the Illinois Caverns ground-water basin. Low DO concentrations were likely the result of microbial breakdown of soil organic matter and wastewater treatment system effluent, and the oxidation of pyrite in bedrock. The near-hypoxic DO in Stemler Cave that occurred during low-flow conditions, and, we speculate, a limited range of G. acherondytes within the Stemler Cave ground-water basin due to a metabolic advantage of the stygophilic aquatic invertebrates over the stygobitic G. acherodytes, resulted in the apparent loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave.

  15. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning.

  16. A novel method for generating molecular mixtures at extreme conditions: The case of fluorine and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravica, Michael; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    We have successfully created a segregated mixture of molecular fluorine and oxygen at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) via useful hard x-ray photochemistry. A keyhole-like sample chamber was created in a stainless steel gasket to hold two segregated powders of potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4) respectively in each hole at a pressure of ˜3.0 GPa. Both holes were individually irradiated with synchrotron hard x-rays to release molecular fluorine and molecular oxygen, respectively. Upon irradiation of the hole containing KBF4 molecular fluorine appeared (as evidenced via Raman spectroscopy) near the region of irradiation. The second hole containing KClO4 was then irradiated and reddish-orange O2 was observed to form. Oxygen was observed to diffuse throughout both holes. There is some evidence that oxygen difluoride (OF2) was formed in the hole originally containing the KBF4.

  17. Evaluation of sampling strategies to characterize dissolved oxygen conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Engle, V.D.

    1993-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen was continuously monitored in eight sites of northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries in August, 1990. Monte Carlo analyses on subsamples of the data were used to evaluate several commonly used monitoring strategies. Monitoring strategies which involve single point sampling of dissolved oxygen may often misclassify an estuary as having good water quality. In the case of shallow, often well-mixed estuaries that experience diurnal cycles, such monitoring often does not occur at night, during the time of lowest dissolved oxygen concentration. The authors' objective was to determine the minimum sampling effort required to correctly classify a site in terms of the observed frequency of hypoxia. Tests concluded that the most successful classification strategy used the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration from a continuously sampled 24-hour period. (Copyright (c) 199e Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  18. Comparative studies of S-layer proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus strains expressed during growth in continuous culture under oxygen-limited and non-oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1994-01-01

    The specific properties of S-layer proteins from three different Bacillus stearothermophilus strains revealing oblique, square, or hexagonal lattice symmetry were preserved during growth in continuous culture on complex medium only under oxygen-limited conditions in which glucose was used as the sole carbon source. When oxygen limitation was relieved, amino acids became metabolized, cell density increased, and different S-layer proteins from wild-type strains became rapidly replaced by a new common type of S-layer protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 97,000 which assembled into an identical oblique (p2) lattice type. During switching from wild-type strains to variants, patches of the S-layer lattices characteristics for wild-type strains, granular regions, and areas with oblique lattice symmetry could be observed on the surface of individual cells from all organisms. The granular regions apparently consisted of mixtures of the S-layer proteins from the wild-type strains and the newly synthesized p2 S-layer proteins from the variants. S-layer proteins from wild-type strains possessed identical N-terminal regions but led to quite different cleavage products upon peptide mapping, indicating that they are encoded by different genes. Chemical analysis including N-terminal sequencing and peptide mapping showed that the oblique S-layer lattices synthesized under increased oxygen supply were composed of identical protein species. Images PMID:7961489

  19. 5-Carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin, in Addition to 8-oxo-7,8-Dihydroguanine, Is the Major Product of the Iron-Fenton or X-ray Radiation-Induced Oxidation of Guanine under Aerobic Reducing Conditions in Nucleoside and DNA Contexts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exogenously and endogenously produced reactive oxygen species attack the base and sugar moieties of DNA showing a preference for reaction at 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG) sites. In the present work, dG was oxidized by HO• via the Fe(II)-Fenton reaction or by X-ray radiolysis of water. The oxidized lesions observed include the 2′-deoxynucleosides of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (dOG), spiroiminodihydantoin (dSp), 5-guanidinohydantoin (dGh), oxazolone (dZ), 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (d2Ih), 5′,8-cyclo-2′-deoxyguanosine (cyclo-dG), and the free base guanine (Gua). Reactions conducted with ascorbate or N-acetylcysteine as a reductant under aerobic conditions identified d2Ih as the major lesion formed. Studies were conducted to identify the role of O2 and the reductant in product formation. From these studies, mechanisms are proposed to support d2Ih as a major oxidation product detected under aerobic conditions in the presence of the reductant. These nucleoside observations were then validated in oxidations of oligodeoxynucleotide and λ-DNA contexts that demonstrated high yields of d2Ih in tandem with dOG, dSp, and dGh. These results identify dG oxidation to d2Ih to occur in high yields leading to a hypothesis that d2Ih could be found from in cells stressed with HO•. Further, the distorted ring structure of d2Ih likely causes this lesion to be highly mutagenic. PMID:26092110

  20. Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium.

  1. Methane excess production in oxygen-rich polar water and a model of cellular conditions for this paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Kattner, G.

    2015-09-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on an excess of methane in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79°N oceanographic transect, in the western part of the Fram Strait and in Northeast Water Polynya region off Greenland. Between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitations occurred and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences between both water masses and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. We show that in this region methane is in situ produced while DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for the methane formation. The methane production occured despite high oxygen concentrations in this water masses. As the metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  2. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri LN4637 and Lactobacillus buchneri LN40177 on the aerobic stability, fermentation products, and microbial populations of corn silage under farm conditions.

    PubMed

    Tabacco, E; Piano, S; Revello-Chion, A; Borreani, G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined the efficacy of the use of 2 commercial inoculants containing Lactobacillus buchneri alone or in combination with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria in improving aerobic stability of corn silage stored in commercial farm silos in northern Italy. In the first survey, samples were collected from 10 farms that did not inoculate their silages and from 10 farms that applied a Pioneer 11A44 inoculant (L. buchneri strain LN4637; Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Des Moines, IA). In the second survey, corn silage samples were collected from 11 farms that did not inoculate their silages and from 11 farms that applied a Pioneer 11CFT inoculant (L. buchneri strain LN40177; Pioneer Hi-Bred International). Inoculants were applied directly through self-propelled forage harvesters, at the recommended rate of 1 g/t of fresh forage, to achieve a final application rate of 1.0 × 10(5) cfu/g of L. buchneri. One corn bunker silo, which had been open for at least 10 d, was examined in detail on each farm. The silages inoculated with L. buchneri had lower concentrations of lactic acid, a lower lactic-to-acetic acid ratio, a lower yeast count, and higher aerobic stability compared with the untreated silages. Unexpectedly, concentrations of acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol, 2 hallmarks of L. buchneri activity, did not differ between treatments and were only numerically higher in the inoculated silages compared with untreated ones, in both surveys. Aerobic stability, on average, was 107 and 121 h in the inoculated silages and 64 and 74 h in the untreated silages, for surveys 1 and 2, respectively, and decreased exponentially as the yeast count in the silage at the time of sampling increased, regardless of treatment. Inoculation with L. buchneri proved to be effective in reducing the yeast count to <2 log cfu/g of silage in 16 of 21 of the studied farm silages, confirming the ability of this inoculum to enhance the aerobic stability of corn silages in farm bunker silos.

  4. Measuring Oxygen Consumption Rate in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Palikaras, Konstantinos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2017-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption is a vital marker indicating cellular function during lifetime under normal or metabolically challenged conditions. It is used broadly to study mitochondrial function (Artal-Sanz and Tavernarakis, 2009; Palikaras et al., 2015; Ryu et al., 2016) or investigate factors mediating the switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Chen et al., 2015; Vander Heiden et al., 2009). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of oxygen consumption rates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:28239622

  5. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  6. Protection against SR 4233 (tirapazamine) aerobic cytotoxicity by the metal chelators desferrioxamine and tiron

    SciTech Connect

    Herscher, L.L.; Krishna, M.C.; Cook, J.A.

    1994-11-15

    Metal chelating agents and antioxidants were evaluated as potential protectors against aerobic SR 4233 cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster V79 cells. The differential protection of aerobic and hypoxic cells by two metal chelators, desferrrioxamine and Tiron, is discussed in the context of their potential use in the on-going clinical trials with SR 4233. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using clonogenic assay. SR 4233 exposure was done in glass flasks as a function of time either alone or in the presence of the following agents: superoxide dismutase, catalase, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline, Trolox, ICRF-187, desferrioxamine, Tiron (1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonate), and ascorbic acid. Experiments done under hypoxic conditions were carried out in specially designed glass flasks that were gassed with humidified nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture and with a side-arm reservoir from which SR 4233 was added to cell media after hypoxia was obtained. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies were also performed. Electron paramagnetic resonance and spectrophotometry experiments suggest that under aerobic conditions SR 4233 undergoes futile redox cycling to produce superoxide. Treatment of cells during aerobic exposure to SR 4233 with the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, the spin trapping agent DMPO, the water-soluble vitamin E analog Trolox, and the metal chelator ICRF-187 provided little or no protection against aerobic SR 4233 cytotoxicity. However, two other metal chelators, desferrioxamine and Tiron afforded significant protection against minimal protection to hypoxic cells treated with SR 4233. One potential mechanism of aerobic cytotoxicity is redox cycling of SR 4233 with molecular oxygen resulting in several potentially toxic oxidative species that overburden the intrinsic intracellular detoxification systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. II. Radiosensitivity of hypoxic or aerobic Chinese hamster fibroblasts in the presence of cysteamine and misonidazole: implications for the oxygen effect (with Appendix on calculation of dose-modifying factors. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, C.J.; Howell, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    Experiments have been done to test whether a hypoxic cell radiosensitizing agent (misonidazole) can be combined with a radioprotecting agent (cysteamine) to equalize partially the radiation response of hypoxic and aerobic mammalian cells in tissue culture. The results indicate that cysteamine will protect against the radiosensitization of a hypoxic cell sensitizing drug (2.5 mM misonidazole) at much lower concentration than it will protect against the radiosensitization of oxygen (350 ..mu..M). Thus the addition of a radiation-protective drug tends to cancel the drug benefit of the radiosensitizer and therefore increases the differential response of hypoxic and aerobic cells rather than equalizing this response. The data suggest that even in situations where tumor tissue absorbs far less radioprotective drug than normal tissue (e.g., WR 2721), one might expect difficulties with the simultaneous administration of radiosensitizing and radioprotecting drugs.

  8. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of a petrochemical wastewater from two aromatic transformation processes by fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B; Ramirez-Camperos, Esperanza; Moeller-Chavez, Gabriela E; García-Sanchez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been employed as the treatment for petrochemical industry wastewaters with high organic matter and aromatic compounds, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The system was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2.7 and 2.2 h in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor, respectively. The degree of fluidization in the beds was 30%. This system showed a high performance on the removal of organic matter and aromatic compounds. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the anaerobic reactor was close to 85% and removals of the COD up to 94% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. High removals of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene were achieved in this study.

  9. Resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine influence redox balance in equine articular chondrocytes under acidic and very low oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John A.; Moots, Robert J.; Clegg, Peter D.; Milner, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Mature articular cartilage is an avascular tissue characterized by a low oxygen environment. In joint disease, acidosis and further reductions in oxygen levels occur, compromising cartilage integrity.This study investigated how acidosis and very low oxygen levels affect components of the cellular redox system in equine articular chondrocytesand whether the antioxidants resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine could modulate this system. We used articular chondrocytes isolated from nondiseased equine joints and cultured them in a 3-D alginate bead system for 48 h in <1, 2, 5, and 21% O2 at pH 7.2 or 6.2 in the absence or presence of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (10 ng/ml).In addition, chondrocytes were cultured with resveratrol (10 µM) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (2 mM).Cell viability, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reactive oxygen species (ROS), GSH:GSSG ratio, and SOD1 and SOD2 protein expression were measured. Very low levels of oxygen (<1%), acidosis (pH 6.2), and exposure to IL-1β led to reductions in cell viability, increased GAG release, alterations in ΔΨm and ROS levels, and reduced GSH:GSSG ratio. In addition, SOD1 and SOD2 protein expressions were reduced. Both resveratrol and NAC partially restored ΔΨm and ROS levels and prevented GAG release and cell loss and normalized SOD1 and SOD2 protein expression. In particular NAC was highly effective at restoring the GSH:GSSG ratio.These results show that the antioxidants resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine can counteract the redox imbalance in articular chondrocytes induced by low oxygen and acidic conditions. PMID:25998424

  10. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  11. Adventitious roots of wheat seedlings that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions have increased root diameters with highly developed lysigenous aerenchyma.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takaki; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Exposing roots of plants to hypoxic conditions is known to greatly improve their anoxic stress tolerance. We previously showed that pre-treatment of wheat seedlings with an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), enhanced their tolerance of oxygen-deficient conditions. Although ACC-pretreated seminal roots of wheat seedlings grown under oxygen-deficient conditions avoided root tip death, they elongated very little. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ethylene on the responses of adventitious roots of wheat seedlings to oxygen-deficient conditions. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the adventitious roots of wheat seedlings pretreated with ACC appeared to reduce tip death under oxygen-deficient conditions, but the adventitious roots, like the seminal roots, hardly elongated. We also found that adventitious roots that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions continued to elongate even under such conditions. The adventitious roots emerged in oxygen-deficient conditions were found to have thicker root diameters than those emerged in aerated conditions. These results suggest that the adventitious roots with thicker root diameters can better cope with oxygen-deficient conditions. Measurements of the area of the lysigenous aerenchyma confirmed that the increased root diameters have a greater amount of air space generated by lysigenous aerenchyma formation.

  12. Estimates of Optimal Operating Conditions for Hydrogen-Oxygen Cesium-Seeded Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    The value of percent seed, oxygen to fuel ratio, combustion pressure, Mach number, and magnetic field strength which maximize either the electrical conductivity or power density at the entrance of an MHD power generator was obtained. The working fluid is the combustion product of H2 and O2 seeded with CsOH. The ideal theoretical segmented Faraday generator along with an empirical form found from correlating the data of many experimenters working with generators of different sizes, electrode configurations, and working fluids, are investigated. The conductivity and power densities optimize at a seed fraction of 3.5 mole percent and an oxygen to hydrogen weight ratio of 7.5. The optimum values of combustion pressure and Mach number depend on the operating magnetic field strength.

  13. A multi-level study of recombinant Pichia pastoris in different oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yeasts are attractive expression platforms for many recombinant proteins, and there is evidence for an important interrelation between the protein secretion machinery and environmental stresses. While adaptive responses to such stresses are extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little is known about their impact on the physiology of Pichia pastoris. We have recently reported a beneficial effect of hypoxia on recombinant Fab secretion in P. pastoris chemostat cultivations. As a consequence, a systems biology approach was used to comprehensively identify cellular adaptations to low oxygen availability and the additional burden of protein production. Gene expression profiling was combined with proteomic analyses and the 13C isotope labelling based experimental determination of metabolic fluxes in the central carbon metabolism. Results The physiological adaptation of P. pastoris to hypoxia showed distinct traits in relation to the model yeast S. cerevisiae. There was a positive correlation between the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic fluxes adaptation of P. pastoris core metabolism to hypoxia, yielding clear evidence of a strong transcriptional regulation component of key pathways such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle. In addition, the adaptation to reduced oxygen revealed important changes in lipid metabolism, stress responses, as well as protein folding and trafficking. Conclusions This systems level study helped to understand the physiological adaptations of cellular mechanisms to low oxygen availability in a recombinant P. pastoris strain. Remarkably, the integration of data from three different levels allowed for the identification of differences in the regulation of the core metabolism between P. pastoris and S. cerevisiae. Detailed comparative analysis of the transcriptomic data also led to new insights into the gene expression profiles of several cellular processes that are not only susceptible to low oxygen

  14. Spectroscopy and imaging of oxygen delivery to tissue under strenuous conditions (NIR in athletes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton; Nioka, Shoko; Long, Hong; Xie, Chunhua; Ma, XuHui; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Luo, Qingming

    2000-04-01

    It was demonstrated that the dynamics of muscle oxygen utilization can readily be measured using dual wavelength hemoglobin oximetry. This method can be used for muscle training exercise and also for evaluation of exercise performance where the anaerobic threshold must be avoided. It was shown that CW imaging technology gives images along the surface of the muscle while the time resolved spectroscopy gives images transverse to the muscle.

  15. Monitoring of oxygen condition in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Newton, Alice; Oliveira, Pedro S; Icely, John D; Foster, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important environmental variables of water quality, especially for marine life. Consequently, oxygen is one of the Chemical Quality Elements required for the implementation of European Union Water Framework Directive. This study uses the example of the Ria Formosa, a meso-tidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal to demonstrate how monitoring of water quality for coastal waters must be well designed to identify symptoms of episodic hypoxia. New data from the western end of the Ria Formosa were compared to values in a database of historical data and in the published literature to identify long-term trends. The dissolved oxygen concentration values in the database and in the literature were generally higher than those found in this study, where episodic hypoxia was observed during the summer. Analysis of the database showed that the discrepancy was probably related with the time and the sites where the samples had been collected, rather than a long-term trend. The most problematic situations were within the inner lagoon near the city of Faro, where episodic hypoxia (<2 mg dm(-3) DO) occurred regularly in the early morning. These results emphasise the need for a balanced sampling strategy for oxygen monitoring which includes all periods of the day and night, as well as a representative range of sites throughout the lagoon. Such a strategy would provide adequate data to apply management measures to reduce the risk of more persistent hypoxia that would impact on the ecological, economic and leisure uses of this important natural resource.

  16. Modeling Approach for Oxygen Exchange in the Human Lung under Hypobaric Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    and well- trained persons. For people with a pulmonary disorder, already a stay at moderate altitude, or transportation by air (e.g. in case of...therefore of the arterial blood (Pa,0 2) drops substantially. For healthy people - if at rest - this causes no considerable problems because their arterial...oxygen saturation at such altitudes still will be at the horizontal part of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve. Problem area Patients with COPD and

  17. Reactive oxygen species: role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Waris, Gulam; Ahsan, Haseeb

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen derived species such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are well known to be cytotoxic and have been implicated in the etiology of a wide array of human diseases, including cancer. Various carcinogens may also partly exert their effect by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their metabolism. Oxidative damage to cellular DNA can lead to mutations and may, therefore, play an important role in the initiation and progression of multistage carcinogenesis. The changes in DNA such as base modification, rearrangement of DNA sequence, miscoding of DNA lesion, gene duplication and the activation of oncogenes may be involved in the initiation of various cancers. Elevated levels of ROS and down regulation of ROS scavengers and antioxidant enzymes are associated with various human diseases including various cancers. ROS are also implicated in diabtes and neurodegenerative diseases. ROS influences central cellular processes such as proliferation a, apoptosis, senescence which are implicated in the development of cancer. Understanding the role of ROS as key mediators in signaling cascades may provide various opportunities for pharmacological intervention. PMID:16689993

  18. Oxygen consumption and chloride secretion in rat distal colon isolated mucosa.

    PubMed

    Saraví, Fernando D; Saldeña, Teobaldo A; Carrera, Cristian A; Ibañez, Jorge E; Cincunegui, Liliana M; Carra, Graciela E

    2003-09-01

    The aerobic metabolic cost of chloride secretion was studied in rat distal colon isolated mucosa under several conditions by simultaneous measurement of short-circuit current and oxygen consumption under conditions that preserve vectorial ion transport. A low-chloride solution and the presence of bumetanide plus diphenylamine-2-carboxylate reduced short-circuit current by 75% and oxygen consumption by 25%. Ouabain decreased short-circuit current by 93% and oxygen consumption by 32%. Serotonin increased both variables by 59% and 33%, respectively. Bumetanide and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate reduced but did not abolish the effect of serotonin on short-circuit current and oxygen consumption. Changes in short-circuit current and oxygen consumption were linearly correlated under all conditions tested. It is concluded that, in the unstimulated rat distal colon epithelium, chloride secretion accounts for about 75% of ouabain-sensitive short-circuit current and oxygen consumption. Stimulated chloride secretion may demand over 40% of total oxygen consumption.

  19. Mechanistic study on the palladium(II)-catalyzed synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoles under aerobic conditions: anion effects and the development of a low-catalyst-loading process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2014-09-15

    As a result of detailed mechanistic and kinetic studies, we have proposed that PdX2-catalyzed oxidative coupling of o-alkynylanilines 1 with terminal alkynes 2 under aerobic conditions is initiated by aminopalladation of 1 followed by ligand exchange of the resulting σ-indolylpalladium(II) complex with 2, reductive elimination and N-demethylation. Side reactions associated with intermediates on the way to 2,3-disubstituted indoles 3 were identified, and the roles of acetate and iodide in channeling the reaction towards the desired product were established. Based on kinetic and spectroscopic studies, the soluble iodide-ligated Pd(0) species was proposed to be the resting state of the catalyst and its oxidation to active Pd(II) species was the turnover-limiting step. Catalytic conditions with low loading of Pd(OAc)2 (0.0005 to 0.001 equiv) were subsequently developed.

  20. Aerobic dive limit does not decline in an aging pinniped.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Horning, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Apneustic hunters such as diving mammals exploit body oxygen stores while submerged; therefore, any decline in oxygen handling at advanced life stages could critically impair foraging ability. We calculated the aerobic dive limit (cADL = 17.9 ± 4.4  min SD) from blood and muscle oxygen stores and published metabolic rates of Weddell seals within (9-16 years, n = 24) and beyond peak-reproductive age (17-27 years, n = 26), to investigate (1) senescent constraints in apneustic hunting, and (2) whether mass or age primarily determines oxygen stores and ADL in older seals. We compared cADL with behavioral ADL from 5,275 free-ranging dives (bADL = 24.0 ± 5.3 min, n = 18 females). We observed no changes in Weddell seal oxygen stores, its determinants, or in ADLs late in life. Oxygen stores were better predicted by mass than age, consistent with published findings for young adults. Hematological panels (n = 6) were consistent across mass and age, though hematocrit (females > males, 6% elevation) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (females < males, 8% reduction) varied by sex. Whole blood viscosity was decreased with increasing mass in females and was higher than in males overall (+18%). This was largely due to elevated hematocrit in females, although plasma viscosity also varied under some conditions. Females had higher blood volume and elevated blood oxygen stores (vol% body mass), which did not translate into significantly higher cADL (18.1 vs. 17.1 min for males). Neither cADL nor bADL were mass- or age-dependent.

  1. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  2. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition.

  3. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of the organic oxygen content in anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Dong, Lei; Dou, Haipeng; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to measure the organic oxygen content in pulverized anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions. Special spectral processing including the optimal O(I) emission-line selection by comparing the spectral correlation coefficients with the N(I) line, internal normalization with the N(I) line, and temperature correction are proposed and employed to satisfy the multi-line analysis method and yield the most accurate quantitative results. The calibration method for determining the organic oxygen content of coal is presented, with an accuracy of 1.15-1.37% and an average relative error of 19.39% being evaluated through an experiment performed on six anthracite coal samples. The relative measurement error distribution has also been studied.

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of the organic oxygen content in anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Dong, L.; Dou, H.P.; Yin, W.B.; Jia, S.T.

    2008-04-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to measure the organic oxygen content in pulverized anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions. Special spectral processing including the optimal O(I) emission-line selection by comparing the spectral correlation coefficients with the N(I) line, internal normalization with the N(I) line, and temperature correction are proposed and employed to satisfy the multi-line analysis method and yield the most accurate quantitative results. The calibration method for determining the organic oxygen content of coal is presented, with an accuracy of 1.15-1.37% and an average relative error of 19.39% being evaluated through an experiment performed on six anthracite coal samples. The relative measurement error distribution has also been studied.

  5. Photocatalytic organic transformation by layered double hydroxides: highly efficient and selective oxidation of primary aromatic amines to their imines under ambient aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Bin; Li, Xu-Bing; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2014-06-25

    We report the first application of layered double hydroxide as a photocatalyst in the transformation of primary aromatic amines to their corresponding imines with high efficiency and selectivity by using oxygen in an air atmosphere as a terminal oxidant under light irradiation.

  6. Quantification of the inert chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater and evaluation of soluble microbial product production in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors under different operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Sergio F; Gloria, Roberto M; Silva, Silvana Q; Chernicharo, Carlos A L

    2009-06-01

    This paper investigates the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in demonstration-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors operated under different conditions and fed with raw wastewater. The results showed that 9.2 +/- 1.3% of the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be considered inert to anaerobic treatment and that the amount of COD produced by biomass varied from 30 to 70 mg x L(-1), accounting for 45 to 63% of the soluble effluent COD. The accumulation of SMP appeared to be dependent on the hydraulic retention time (HRT) applied to the reactors, with a larger accumulation of SMP observed at the lowest HRT (5 hours); this may have been due to stress conditions caused by high upflow velocity (1.1 m x h(-1)). In terms of residual COD characterization, ultrafiltration results showed that higher amounts of high molecular weight compounds were found when HRT was the lowest (5 hours), and that the molecular weight distribution depended on the operational condition of the reactors. Biodegradability tests showed that the low and high molecular weight SMPs were only partially degraded anaerobically (10 to 60%) and that the high molecular weight SMPs were difficult to degrade aerobically.

  7. Guanosine controls inflammatory pathways to afford neuroprotection of hippocampal slices under oxygen and glucose deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Dal-Cim, Tharine; Ludka, Fabiana K; Martins, Wagner C; Reginato, Charlise; Parada, Esther; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G; Tasca, Carla I

    2013-08-01

    Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous modulator of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and has been shown to promote neuroprotection in in vivo and in vitro models of neurotoxicity. This study was designed to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of GUO against oxidative damage promoted by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD). GUO (100 μM) reduced reactive oxygen species production and prevented mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by OGD. GUO also exhibited anti-inflammatory actions as inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation and reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase induction induced by OGD. These GUO neuroprotective effects were mediated by adenosine A1 receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and MAPK/ERK. Furthermore, GUO recovered the impairment of glutamate uptake caused by OGD, an effect that occurred via a Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled signaling, blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R), but not via A1 receptor. The modulation of glutamate uptake by GUO also involved MAPK/ERK activation. In conclusion, GUO, by modulating adenosine receptor function and activating MAPK/ERK, affords neuroprotection of hippocampal slices subjected to OGD by a mechanism that implicates the following: (i) prevention of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (ii) reduction of oxidative stress, (iii) regulation of inflammation by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and (iv) promoting glutamate uptake.

  8. Empirical oxygen abundances and physical conditions for relatively low abundance H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, E.D. )

    1989-12-01

    The utility of the emission-line ratio (3727 + 4959 + 5007 A)/H-beta as an estimate of the total oxygen abundance in H II regions of low abundance (less than 10 percent of the solar value) is discussed. Using both observational data where the 4363A line is measured and model H II regions it is concluded that, for low abundance systems, total oxygen abundances can be determined with an accuracy of + or - 0.2 dex in the absence of a 4363A measurement. An attempt is made to study the average behavior of the stellar effective temperature (Teff) and ionization parameter (U) with changing abundance in low abundance systems. It is shown that some diagnostic methods which are viable for high abundance systems are not capable of uniquely determining Teff and U in low abundance systems. The most promising method of determining Teff and U requires measuring emission lines of forbidden O II, O III, S II, and S III. 53 refs.

  9. A method for manufacturing superior set yogurt under reduced oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, H; Inoue, N; Liu, E; Fukui, M; Sasaki, Y; Sasaki, T

    2009-09-01

    The yogurt starters Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are well-known facultatively anaerobic bacteria that can grow in oxygenated environments. We found that they removed dissolved oxygen (DO) in a yogurt mix as the fermentation progressed and that they began to produce acid actively after the DO concentration in the yogurt mix was reduced to 0 mg/kg, suggesting that the DO retarded the production of acid. Yogurt fermentation was carried out at 43 or 37 degrees C both after the DO reduction treatment and without prior treatment. Nitrogen gas was mixed and dispersed into the yogurt mix after inoculation with yogurt starter culture to reduce the DO concentration in the yogurt mix. The treatment that reduced DO concentration in the yogurt mix to approximately 0 mg/kg beforehand caused the starter culture LB81 used in this study to enter into the exponential growth phase earlier. Furthermore, the combination of reduced DO concentration in the yogurt mix beforehand and incubation at a lower temperature (37 degrees C) resulted in a superior set yogurt with a smooth texture and strong curd structure.

  10. Photooxidation of the Antimicrobial, Nonribosomal Peptide Bacitracin A by Singlet Oxygen under Environmentally Relevant Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Rachel A; Chu, Chiheng; Sander, Michael; McNeill, Kristopher

    2016-08-16

    Bacitracin is a mixture of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) that is extensively used as an antibiotic in both human and veterinary medicine. Despite its widespread use over the past six decades, very few studies have addressed the environmental fate of bacitracin and zinc-bacitracin complexes. In this study, the photochemical transformation of bacitracin components (i.e., cyclic dodecapeptides) in the aquatic environment was investigated. A high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)-based approach enabled monitoring of the photochemical degradation kinetics of individual bacitracin components, investigation of the relative contribution of reactive oxygen species (e.g., singlet oxygen, (1)O2) in dissolved organic matter-sensitized photoreactions, and identification of oxidative modifications in bacitracin photoproducts. The results of this study support the hypothesis that indirect photochemical oxidation of the histidine (His) residue by (1)O2 is a major degradation pathway for bacitracin A, the most potent congener of the mixture. Furthermore, the photooxidation rate of bacitracin A with (1)O2 decreased upon bacitracin A coordination with Zn(2+), demonstrating that the photochemistry of metal-bound His is different from that of metal-free His. Overall, these results provide insight into the fate of bacitracin components in the aquatic environment and highlight the potential of utilizing this HRMS-based methodology to study transformations of other environmentally relevant NRPs.

  11. Silver(I) as a widely applicable, homogeneous catalyst for aerobic oxidation of aldehydes toward carboxylic acids in water—“silver mirror”: From stoichiometric to catalytic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Haining; Zeng, Huiying; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The first example of a homogeneous silver(I)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes in water is reported. More than 50 examples of different aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, including natural products, were tested, and all of them successfully underwent aerobic oxidation to give the corresponding carboxylic acids in extremely high yields. The reaction conditions are very mild and greener, requiring only a very low silver(I) catalyst loading, using atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant and water as the solvent, and allowing gram-scale oxidation with only 2 mg of our catalyst. Chromatography is completely unnecessary for purification in most cases. PMID:26601150

  12. Copper(II)-Catalyzed Benzylic C(sp(3))-H Aerobic Oxidation of (Hetero)Aryl Acetimidates: Synthesis of Aryl-α-ketoesters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Jaiswal, Yogesh; Kumar, Amit

    2016-12-16

    A straightforward method is developed in this paper for the synthesis of α-ketoesters through copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of (hetero)aryl acetimidates using molecular oxygen as a sustainable oxidant. The reaction represents the first example of the direct synthesis of aryl-α-ketoesters from arylacetimidates through the aerobic oxidation of a benzylic C(sp3)-H (C═O) bond in moderate to good yield. This transformation occurs under mild reaction conditions with a wide range of substrates and utilizes a readily available oxidant and catalyst. The synthetic utility of this transformation is demonstrated through scaled-up synthesis. A plausible reaction mechanism is also proposed.

  13. Oxygenation of intensive cell-culture system.

    PubMed

    Emery, A N; Jan, D C; al-Rubeai, M

    1995-11-01

    The abilities of various methods of oxygenation to meet the demands of high-cell-density culture were investigated using a spin filter perfusion system in a bench-top bioreactor. Oxygen demand at high cell density could not be met by sparging with air inside a spin filter (oxygen transfer values in this condition were comparable with those for surface aeration). Sparging with air outside a spin filter gave adequate oxygen transfer for the support of cell concentrations above 10(7) ml-1 in fully aerobic conditions but the addition of antifoam to control foaming caused blockage of the spinfilter mesh. Bubble-free aeration through immersed silicone tubing with pure oxygen gave similar oxygen transfer rates to that of sparging with air but without the problems of bubble damage and fouling of the spin filter. A supra-optimal level of dissolved oxygen (478% air saturation) inhibited cell growth. However, cells could recover from this stress and reach high density after reduction of the dissolved oxygen level to 50% air saturation.

  14. Oxygen glucose deprivation post-conditioning protects cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury: role of HSP70 and inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Meng, Xian-li; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yong-li; Li, Yue-juan; Fan, Zhe-ming

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) post-conditioning (PostC) on neural cell apoptosis in OGD-PostC model and the protective effect on primary cortical neurons against OGD injury in vitro. Four-h OGD was induced by OGD by using a specialized and humidified chamber. To initiate OGD, culture medium was replaced with de-oxygenated and glucose-free extracellular solution-Locke's medium. After OGD treatment for 4 h, cells were then allowed to recover for 6 h or 20 h. Then lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to detect cell death, protein levels and apoptotic cells, respectively. For the PostC treatment, three cycles of 15-min OGD, followed by 15 min normal cultivation, were applied immediately after injurious 4-h OGD. Cells were then allowed to recover for 6 h or 20 h, and cell death was assessed by LDH release assay. Apoptotic cells were flow cytometrically evaluated after 4-h OGD, followed by re-oxygenation for 20 h (O4/R20). In addition, Western blotting was used to examine the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), Bcl-2 and Bax. The ratio of Bcl-2 expression was (0.44±0.08)% and (0.76±0.10)%, and that of Bax expression was (0.51±0.05)% and (0.39±0.04)%, and that of HSP70 was (0.42±0.031)% and (0.72±0.045)% respectively in OGD group and PostC group. After O4/R6, the rate of neuron death in PostC group and OGD groups was (28.96±3.03)% and (37.02±4.47)%, respectively. Therefore, the PostC treatment could up-regulate the expression of HSP70 and Bcl-2, but down-regulate Bax expression. As compared with OGD group, OGD-induced neuron death and apoptosis were significantly decreased in PostC group (P<0.05). These findings suggest that PostC inhibited OGD-induced neuron death. This neuro-protective effect is likely achieved by anti-apoptotic mechanisms and is associated with over-expression of HSP70.

  15. Engineering of a modular and synthetic phosphoketolase pathway for photosynthetic production of acetone from CO2 in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under light and aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Chwa, Jun-Won; Kim, Wook Jin; Sim, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min

    2016-08-01

    Capture and conversion of CO2 to valuable chemicals is intended to answer global challenges on environmental issues, climate change and energy security. Engineered cyanobacteria have been enabled to produce industry-relevant chemicals from CO2 . However, the final products from cyanobacteria have often been mixed with fermented metabolites during dark fermentation. In this study, our engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 enabled continuous conversion of CO2 to volatile acetone as sole product. This process occurred during lighted, aerobic culture via both ATP-driven malonyl-CoA synthesis pathway and heterologous phosphoketolase (PHK)-phosphotransacetylase (Pta) pathway. Because of strong correlations between the metabolic pathways of acetate and acetone, supplying the acetyl-CoA directly from CO2 in the engineered strain, led to sole production of acetone (22.48 mg/L ± 1.00) without changing nutritional constraints, and without an anaerobic shift. Our engineered S. elongatus strains, designed for acetone production, could be modified to create biosolar cell factories for sustainable photosynthetic production of acetyl-CoA-derived biochemicals.

  16. The influence of dissolved oxygen level and medium on biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni survival in aerobic environments has been suggested to be mediated by biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions in different broths (Mueller-Hinton (MH), Bolton and Brucella) was quantified. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the broths under both incubation atmospheres was determined. Biofilm formation for all strains was highest in MH broth under both incubation atmospheres. Four strains had lower biofilm formation in MH under aerobic as compared to microaerobic incubation, while biofilm formation by the other four strains did not differ under the 2 atm. Two strains had higher biofilm formation under aerobic as compared to microaerobic atmospheres in Bolton broth. Biofilm formation by all other strains in Bolton, and all strains in Brucella broth, did not differ under the 2 atm. Under aerobic incubation DO levels in MH > Brucella > Bolton broth. Under microaerobic conditions levels in MH = Brucella > Bolton broth. Levels of DO in MH and Brucella broth were lower under microaerobic conditions but those of Bolton did not differ under the 2 atm. Experimental conditions and especially the DO of broth media confound previous conclusions drawn about aerobic biofilm formation by C. jejuni.

  17. Reduced swim performance and aerobic capacity in adult zebrafish exposed to waterborne selenite.

    PubMed

    Massé, Anita J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2013-04-01

    Although dietary exposure of adult fish to organoselenium in contaminated aquatic ecosystems has been reported to bioaccumulate and cause larval deformities in offspring, subtle physiological effects produced through low level waterborne selenium exposure in fish such as swim performance and aerobic capacity have not been investigated. To evaluate potential effects of selenite on these responses, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to nominal aqueous concentrations of 0, 10 or 100 μg/L sodium selenite for 14 days. Upon completion of the exposure period, fish underwent two successive swim trials in a swim tunnel respirometer to determine critical swim speed (Ucrit), oxygen consumption (MO2), standard and active metabolic rates, aerobic scope (AS) and cost of transport (COT) followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride and glycogen concentrations. Selenite exposure had a significant negative effect on Ucrit and aerobic capacity. Active metabolic rates and AS significantly decreased in both selenite exposure groups after the second swim trial. No significant effect was observed in MO2, standard metabolic rate, COT, triglyceride and glycogen levels, or condition factor between groups. These results suggest that aqueous selenite exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces adverse effects on aerobic capacity that can diminish endurance and maximum swim speeds, which may lower fish survivability.

  18. Induction of E. coli oh8Gua endonuclease by oxidative stress: its significance in aerobic life.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Park, Y W; Kasai, H; Nishimura, S; Park, C W; Choi, K H; Chung, M H

    1996-06-12

    The induction of 8-hydroxyguanine (oh8Gua) endonuclease, a DNA repair enzyme for an oxidatively modified guanine, oh8Gua was studied in various growth conditions in Escherichia coli (AB1157). Anaerobically grown E. coli were found to have a very low activity of this enzyme while aerobically grown cells showed activity about 20 times that of the anaerobic level. Under the same condition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed about 6-fold increase in activity. A shift in growth conditions from anaerobic to aerobic resulted in rapid induction of this enzyme, and this induction was blocked (but not completely) by chloramphenicol. It is indicated that molecular oxygen is an effective stimulator to the induction of this enzyme and its induction depends partly on protein synthesis. Superoxide-producing compounds such as paraquat and menadione also increased the activity of endonuclease as well as SOD, but H2O2 showed no effect. Thus, superoxides are also implied as a stimulator. In contrast, hyperoxia induced only SOD not the endonuclease. This induction of the endonuclease by hyperoxia was only observed in a SOD-deficient strain (QC774). The aerobic activity of the endonuclease in QC774 was the same as that of wild types (AB1157, GC4468). It is implied that the responsiveness of oh8Gua endonuclease to superoxides is less sensitive than that of SOD. The endonuclease was also induced by a temperature shift from 30 to 43 degrees C and treatment with nalidixic acid. Among the stimuli used, molecular oxygen seems to be most effective for its induction. The inducible nature of this enzyme will serve as an important mechanism for the protection of oxidative DNA damage in the aerobic environment.

  19. Effects of cascaded vgb promoters on poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis by recombinant Escherichia coli grown micro-aerobically.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Huan; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Micro-aeration is a situation that will be encountered in bacterial cell growth especially when the saturated dissolved oxygen level cannot match the demand from cells grown to a high density. Therefore, it is desirable to separate aerobic growth and micro-aerobic product formation into two stages using methods including anaerobic or micro-aerobic promoters that are inducible under low aeration intensity. Eleven potential low aeration-inducible promoters were cloned and studied for their induction strengths under micro-aerobic conditions. Of them, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promoter (P vgb ) was found to be the strongest among all 11 promoters. At the same time, six E. coli hosts harboring poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis operon phaCAB were compared for their ability to accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA). E. coli S17-1 was demonstrated to be the best host achieving a 70 % (mass fraction) PHB in the cell dry weigh (CDW) after 48 h under micro-aerobic growth. Cascaded P vgb repeats (P nvgb ) were investigated for enhanced expression level under micro-aerobic growth. The highest PHA production was obtained when a promoter containing eight cascaded P vgb repeats (P 8vgb ) was used, 5.37 g/l CDW containing 90 % PHB was obtained from recombinant in E. coli S17-1. Cells grew further to 6.30 g/l CDW containing 91 % PHB when oxygen-responsive transcription factor ArcA (arcA) was deleted in the same recombinant E. coli S17-1. This study revealed that vgb promoter containing cascaded P vgb repeats (P 8vgb ) is useful for product formation under low aeration intensity.

  20. High-quality and high-purity homoepitaxial diamond (100) film growth under high oxygen concentration condition

    SciTech Connect

    Teraji, Tokuyuki

    2015-09-21

    Defect formation during diamond homoepitaxial growth was sufficiently inhibited by adding oxygen simultaneously in the growth ambient with high concentration of 2%. A 30-μm thick diamond films with surface roughness of <2 nm were homoepitaxially deposited on the (100) diamond single crystal substrates with reasonable growth rate of approximately 3 μm h{sup −1} under the conditions of higher methane concentration of 10%, higher substrate temperature of ∼1000 °C, and higher microwave power density condition of >100 W cm{sup −3}. Surface characteristic patterns moved to an identical direction with growth thickness, indicating that lateral growth was dominant growth mode. High chemical purity represented by low nitrogen concentration of less than 1 ppb and the highest {sup 12}C isotopic ratio of 99.998% of the obtained homoepitaxial diamond (100) films suggest that the proposed growth condition has high ability of impurity control.

  1. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor.

  2. Faraday rotation spectroscopy based on permanent magnets for sensitive detection of oxygen at atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Brumfield, Brian; Wysocki, Gerard

    2012-12-31

    A low-power Faraday rotation spectroscopy system that uses permanent rare-earth magnets has been developed for detection of O₂ at 762 nm. The experimental signals are generated using laser wavelength modulation combined with a balanced detection scheme that permits quantum shot noise limited performance. A noise equivalent polarization rotation angle of 8 × 10⁻⁸ rad/Hz¹/² is estimated from the experimental noise, and this agrees well with a theoretical model based on Jones calculus. A bandwidth normalized minimum detection limit to oxygen of 6 ppmv/Hz¹/² with an ultimate minimum of 1.3 ppmv at integration times of ~1 minute has been demonstrated.

  3. Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.; Wille, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

  4. Communication: A novel method for generating molecular mixtures at extreme conditions: the case of hydrogen and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-09-07

    We have successfully created a segregated mixture of hydrogen and oxygen at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell using hard x-ray photochemistry. A keyhole (two holes connected by an opening) sample chamber was created in a metallic gasket to support two segregated powders of ammonia borane and potassium perchlorate, respectively, in each hole at a pressure of ~5.0 GPa. Both holes were separately irradiated with synchrotron hard x-rays to release molecular oxygen and molecular hydrogen, respectively. Upon irradiation of the first KClO4-containing hole, solid reddish-orange O2 appeared in the region of irradiation and molecular oxygen was found to diffuse throughout the entire sample region. The second ammonia borane-containing hole was then irradiated and H2 was observed to form via Raman spectroscopy. Water also was observed in the ammonia borane-containing hole and possibly (in the form of ice VII) in the second hole. This unique experiment demonstrates the ability to easily create solid mixtures of simple molecular systems via x-ray irradiation and then react them via further irradiation which will aid the study of chemistry under extreme conditions.

  5. Adsorption/desorption of low concentration of carbonyl sulfide by impregnated activated carbon under micro-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Qiu, Juan; Ning, Ping; Ren, Xiaoguang; Li, Ziyan; Yin, Zaifei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2012-08-30

    Activated carbon modified with different impregnants has been studied for COS removal efficiency under micro-oxygen conditions. Activated carbon modified with Cu(NO(3))(2)-CoPcS-KOH (denoted as Cu-Co-KW) is found to have markedly enhanced adsorption purification ability. In the adsorption purification process, the reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, and relative humidity of the gas are determined to be three crucial factors. A breakthrough of 43.34 mg COS/g adsorbent at 60°С and 30% relative humidity with 1.0% oxygen is shown in Cu-Co-KW for removing COS. The structures of the activated carbon samples are characterized using nitrogen adsorption, and their surface chemical structures are analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Modification of Cu(NO(3))(2)-CoPcS-KOH appears to improve the COS removal capacity significantly, during which, SO(4)(2-) is presumably formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the micropores ranging from 0.7 to 1.5 nm. TPD is used to identify the products containing sulfur species on the carbon surface, where SO(2) and COS are detected in the effluent gas generated from exhausted Cu-Co-KW (denoted Cu-Co-KWE). According to the current study results, the activated carbon impregnated with Cu(NO(3))(2)-CoPcS-KOH promises a good candidate for COS adsorbent, with the purified gas meeting requirements for desirable chemical feed stocks.

  6. Communication: A novel method for generating molecular mixtures at extreme conditions: The case of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-09-07

    We have successfully created a segregated mixture of hydrogen and oxygen at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell using hard x-ray photochemistry. A keyhole (two holes connected by an opening) sample chamber was created in a metallic gasket to support two segregated powders of ammonia borane and potassium perchlorate, respectively, in each hole at a pressure of ∼5.0 GPa. Both holes were separately irradiated with synchrotron hard x-rays to release molecular oxygen and molecular hydrogen, respectively. Upon irradiation of the first KClO{sub 4}-containing hole, solid reddish-orange O{sub 2} appeared in the region of irradiation and molecular oxygen was found to diffuse throughout the entire sample region. The second ammonia borane-containing hole was then irradiated and H{sub 2} was observed to form via Raman spectroscopy. Water also was observed in the ammonia borane-containing hole and possibly (in the form of ice VII) in the second hole. This unique experiment demonstrates the ability to easily create solid mixtures of simple molecular systems via x-ray irradiation and then react them via further irradiation which will aid the study of chemistry under extreme conditions.

  7. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies on diesel soot from oxygenated fuel under various engine load conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Andreas; Shah, N.; Huggins, Frank E.; Kelly, K.E.; Sarofim, A.; Jacobsen, C.; Wirick, S.; Francis, H.; Ilavsky, J.; Thomas, G.E.; Huffman, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Diesel soot from reference diesel fuel and oxygenated fuel under idle and load engine conditions was investigated with X-ray scattering and X-ray carbon K-edge absorption spectroscopy. Up to five characteristic size ranges were found. Idle soot was generally found to have larger primary particles and aggregates but smaller crystallites, than load soot. Load soot has a higher degree of crystallinity than idle soot. Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel enhanced differences in the characteristics of diesel soot, or even reversed them. Aromaticity of idle soot from oxygenated diesel fuel was significantly larger than from the corresponding load soot. Carbon near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was applied to gather information about the presence of relative amounts of carbon double bonds (CC, CO) and carbon single bonds (C-H, C-OH, COOH). Using scanning X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM), the relative amounts of these carbon bond states were shown to vary spatially over distances approximately 50 to 100 nm. The results from the X-ray techniques are supported by thermo-gravimetry analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Putative ABC Transporter Permease Is Necessary for Resistance to Acidified Nitrite and EDTA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Aerobic and Anaerobic Planktonic and Biofilm Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Cameron; Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Lau, Gee W.; Browne, Tristan; Cox, Kevin; Paul, Andrew T.; Ko, Seung-Hyun B.; Mortensen, Joel E.; Lam, Joseph S.; Muruve, Daniel A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an important airway pathogen of cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive disease patients. Multiply drug resistant PA is becoming increasing prevalent and new strategies are needed to combat such insidious organisms. We have previously shown that a mucoid, mucA22 mutant PA is exquisitely sensitive to acidified nitrite (A-NO2−, pH 6.5) at concentrations that are well tolerated in humans. Here, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to identify PA mutants that are hypersensitive to A-NO2−. Among greater than 10,000 mutants screened, we focused on PA4455, in which the transposon was found to disrupt the production of a putative cytoplasmic membrane-spanning ABC transporter permease. The PA4455 mutant was not only highly sensitive to A-NO2−, but also the membrane perturbing agent, EDTA and the antibiotics doxycycline, tigecycline, colistin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Treatment of bacteria with A-NO2− plus EDTA, however, had the most dramatic and synergistic effect, with virtually all bacteria killed by 10 mM A-NO2−, and EDTA (1 mM, aerobic, anaerobic). Most importantly, the PA4455 mutant was also sensitive to A-NO2− in biofilms. A-NO2− sensitivity and an anaerobic growth defect was also noted in two mutants (rmlC and wbpM) that are defective in B-band LPS synthesis, potentially indicating a membrane defect in the PA4455 mutant. Finally, this study describes a gene, PA4455, that when mutated, allows for dramatic sensitivity to the potential therapeutic agent, A-NO2− as well as EDTA. Furthermore, the synergy between the two compounds could offer future benefits against antibiotic resistant PA strains. PMID:27064218

  9. The effects of mutation of the anr gene on the aerobic respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Williams, H D

    1997-11-15

    The anr gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a transcriptional regulator of anaerobic gene expression, homologous to the Fnr protein of Escherichia coli. We report here that Anr has a role in regulating the activity of the aerobic respiratory chain of P. aeruginosa. Strains with internal deletions in their anr gene had lowered levels of membrane bound cytochromes whilst the activity of the cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome co (likely to be a cytochrome cbb3-type oxidase), and the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway was markedly higher than in the wild-type strains. These data, and the finding that provision of multiple copies of the anr gene led to severe repression of these respiratory activities, suggest that Anr is a repressor of aerobic respiratory pathways and possibly the terminal oxidases themselves. In contrast, Anr activated cytochrome c peroxidase, a respiratory chain linked enzyme induced under low oxygen conditions.

  10. Review of aerobic glycolysis and its key enzymes – new targets for lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-bing; Gu, Jun-dong; Zhou, Qing-hua

    2015-01-01

    Most tumor cells show different metabolic pathways than normal cells. Even under the conditions of sufficient oxygen, they produce energy by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol, which is known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with one of the highest incidence and mortality rates in the world at present. However, the exact mechanisms underlying lung cancer development remain unclear. The three key enzymes of glycolysis are hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase. Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the transfer of pyruvate to lactate. All four enzymes have been reported to be overexpressed in tumors, including lung cancer, and can be regulated by many oncoproteins to promote tumor proliferation, migration, and metastasis with dependence or independence of glycolysis. The discovery of aerobic glycolysis in the 1920s has provided new means and potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer. PMID:26273330

  11. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. M.; Aravena, R.; Davis, G. B.; Furness, A. J.; Bastow, T. P.; Bouchard, D.

    2013-10-01

    rates were independent of substrate (VC and/or oxygen) concentration. The high correlation (R = 0.962 to 0.975) between CO2 concentrations and temperature suggested that aerobic biodegradation of VC was controlled by bacterial activity that was regulated by the temperature within the vadose zone. When assessing a contaminated site for possible vapour intrusion into buildings, accounting for environmental conditions for aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone should improve the assessment of environmental risk of VC intrusion into buildings, enabling better identification and prioritisation of contaminated sites to be remediated.

  12. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Aravena, R; Davis, G B; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P; Bouchard, D

    2013-10-01

    biodegradation rates were independent of substrate (VC and/or oxygen) concentration. The high correlation (R=0.962 to 0.975) between CO₂ concentrations and temperature suggested that aerobic biodegradation of VC was controlled by bacterial activity that was regulated by the temperature within the vadose zone. When assessing a contaminated site for possible vapour intrusion into buildings, accounting for environmental conditions for aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone should improve the assessment of environmental risk of VC intrusion into buildings, enabling better identification and prioritisation of contaminated sites to be remediated.

  13. Investigation of the phosphorus removal capacities of basic oxygen furnace slag under variable conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Wangjin; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF-slag) dosage and size, and temperature on the phosphorus removal capacities (PRCs) of BOF-slag have been investigated in detail through batch tests. Weakly bound phosphorus, Fe- and Al-associated phosphorus, and Ca-associated phosphorus from fresh and reacted BOF-slag were analysed using sequential chemical extraction processes. It was determined that the PRCs of BOF-slag increased with the increase of initial phosphorus concentration and temperature while it decreased with the increase of BOF-slag dosage and size. The phosphorus removed by BOF-slag was primarily assigned to weakly bound phosphorus and Ca-associated phosphorus. Weakly bound phosphorus showed a significant decrease with the increase in all experimental parameter values. However, Ca-associated phosphorus exhibited a prominent increase with increasing reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, and temperature. These demonstrate that experimental parameters can simultaneously affect the PRCs of BOF-slag and the ways of phosphorus removal by BOF-slag.

  14. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke. Design A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Databases searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched. Inclusion criteria Design: randomized controlled trials; Participants: individuals with stroke; Interventions: aerobic exercise training aimed at improving aerobic capacity; Outcomes Primary outcomes: aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2), peak workload); Secondary outcomes: walking velocity, walking endurance. Data Analysis The methodological quality was assessed by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were performed for all primary and secondary outcomes. Results Nine articles (seven RCTs) were identified. The exercise intensity ranged from 50% to 80% heart rate reserve. Exercise duration was 20–40 minutes for 3–5 days a week. The total number of subjects included in the studies was 480. All studies reported positive effects on aerobic capacity, regardless of the stage of stroke recovery. Meta-analysis revealed a significant homogeneous standardized effect size (SES) in favour of aerobic exercise to improve peak VO2 (SES, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.15 to 0.69; p=0.001) and peak workload (SES, 0.50; 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.73; p<0.001). There was also a significant homogeneous SES in favour of aerobic training to improve walking velocity (SES, 0.26; 95%CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p=0.008) and walking endurance (SES, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.06to 0.55; p=0.008). Conclusions There is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. PMID:16541930

  15. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bisschops, Markus M.; Vos, Tim; Martínez-Moreno, Rubén; Cortés, Pilar T.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Stationary-phase (SP) batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability. PMID:28357268

  16. The UbiI (VisC) Aerobic Ubiquinone Synthase Is Required for Expression of Type 1 Pili, Biofilm Formation, and Pathogenesis in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Mitchell, Courtney A.; Eberly, Allison R.; Colling, Spencer J.; Zhang, Ellisa W.; DePas, William; Chapman, Matthew R.; Conover, Matthew; Rogers, Bridget R.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTI), uses pilus-mediated adherence to initiate biofilm formation in the urinary tract. Oxygen gradients within E. coli biofilms regulate expression and localization of adhesive type 1 pili. A transposon mutant screen for strains defective in biofilm formation identified the ubiI (formerly visC) aerobic ubiquinone synthase gene as critical for UPEC biofilm formation. In this study, we characterized a nonpolar ubiI deletion mutant and compared its behavior to that of wild-type bacteria grown under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Consistent with its function as an aerobic ubiquinone-8 synthase, deletion of ubiI in UPEC resulted in reduced membrane potential, diminished motility, and reduced expression of chaperone-usher pathway pili. Loss of aerobic respiration was previously shown to negatively impact expression of type 1 pili. To determine whether this reduction in type 1 pili was due to an energy deficit, wild-type UPEC and the ubiI mutant were compared for energy-dependent phenotypes under anoxic conditions, in which quinone synthesis is undertaken by anaerobic quinone synthases. Under anoxic conditions, the two strains exhibited wild-type levels of motility but produced diminished numbers of type 1 pili, suggesting that the reduction of type 1 pilus expression in the absence of oxygen is not due to a cellular energy deficit. Acute- and chronic-infection studies in a mouse model of UTI revealed a significant virulence deficit in the ubiI mutant, indicating that UPEC encounters enough oxygen in the bladder to induce aerobic ubiquinone synthesis during infection. IMPORTANCE The majority of urinary tract infections are caused by uropathogenic E. coli, a bacterium that can respire in the presence and absence of oxygen. The bladder environment is hypoxic, with oxygen concentrations ranging from 4% to 7%, compared to 21% atmospheric oxygen. This work provides evidence

  17. Photopromoted Ru-catalyzed asymmetric aerobic sulfide oxidation and epoxidation using water as a proton transfer mediator.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Haruna; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uchida, Tatsuya; Katsuki, Tsutomu

    2010-09-01

    Ru(NO)-salen complexes were found to catalyze asymmetric aerobic oxygen atom transfer reactions such as sulfide oxidation and epoxidation in the presence of water under visible light irradiation at room temperature. Oxidation of sulfides including alkyl aryl sulfides and 2-substituted 1,3-dithianes using complex 2 as the catalyst proceeded with moderate to high enantioselectivity of up to 98% ee, and epoxidation of conjugated olefins using complex 3 as the catalyst proceeded with good to high enantioselectivity of 76-92% ee. Unlike biological oxygen atom transfer reactions that need a proton and electron transfer system, this aerobic oxygen atom transfer reaction requires neither such a system nor a sacrificial reductant. Although the mechanism of this oxidation has not been completely clarified, some experimental results support the notion that an aqua ligand coordinated with the ruthenium ion serves as a proton transfer agent for the oxygen activation process, and it is recycled and used as the proton transfer mediator during the process. Thus, we have achieved catalytic asymmetric oxygen atom transfer reaction using molecular oxygen that can be carried out under ambient conditions.

  18. Aerobic vs. anaerobic scope: sibling species of fish indicate that temperature dependence of hypoxia tolerance can predict future survival.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Christina; Munday, Philip L; Nilsson, Göran E

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of aerobic scope has been suggested to be a major determinant of how marine animals will cope with future rises in environmental temperature. Here, we present data suggesting that in some animals, the temperature dependence of anaerobic scope (i.e., the capacity for surviving severe hypoxia) may determine present-day latitudinal distributions and potential for persistence in a warmer future. As a model for investigating the role of anaerobic scope, we studied two sibling species of coral-dwelling gobies, Gobiodon histrio, and G. erythrospilus, with different latitudinal distributions, but which overlap in equal abundance at Lizard Island (14°40'S) on the Great Barrier Reef. These species did not differ in the temperature dependence of resting oxygen consumption or critical oxygen concentration (the lowest oxygen level where resting oxygen consumption can be maintained). In contrast, the more equatorial species (G. histrio) had a better capacity to endure anaerobic conditions at oxygen levels below the critical oxygen concentration at the high temperatures (32-33 °C) more likely to occur near the equator, or in a warmer future. These results suggest that anaerobic scope, in addition to aerobic scope, could be important in determining the impacts of global warming on some marine animals.

  19. Oxygen promotes biofilm formation of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 through a diguanylate cyclase and an adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Hao; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Zhou, Xian-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Ping; Tian, Li-Jiao; Han, Jun-Cheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Although oxygen has been reported to regulate biofilm formation by several Shewanella species, the exact regulatory mechanism mostly remains unclear. Here, we identify a direct oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase (DosD) and reveal its regulatory role in biofilm formation by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 under aerobic conditions. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the activity of DosD culminates to synthesis of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) in the presence of oxygen. DosD regulates the transcription of bpfA operon which encodes seven proteins including a large repetitive adhesin BpfA and its cognate type I secretion system (TISS). Regulation of DosD in aerobic biofilms is heavily dependent on an adhesin BpfA and the TISS. This study offers an insight into the molecular mechanism of oxygen-stimulated biofilm formation by S. putrefaciens CN32. PMID:23736081

  20. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have better adaptability in oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Hu, Baolan; He, Zhanfei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Guangming; Zheng, Ping; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia oxidation is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Few studies compared the adaptability of AOA and AOB for oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions in water-level-fluctuating zones. Here, using qPCR and 454 high-throughput sequencing of functional amoA genes of AOA and AOB, we examined the changes of abundances, diversities, and community structures of AOA and AOB in periodically flooded soils compared to the non-flooded soils in Three Gorges Reservoir. The increased AOA operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers and the higher ratios of abundance (AOA:AOB) in the periodically flooded soils suggested AOA have better adaptability for oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions in the water-level-fluctuating zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir and probably responsible for the ammonia oxidation there. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) had the most significant effect on the community distribution of AOA (p < 0.01). Pearson analysis also indicated that ORP was the most important factor influencing the abundances and diversities of ammonia-oxidizing microbes. ORP was significantly negatively correlated with AOA OTU numbers (p < 0.05), ratio of OTU numbers (AOA:AOB) (p < 0.01), and ratio of amoA gene abundances (AOA:AOB) (p < 0.05). ORP was also significantly positively correlated with AOB abundance (p < 0.05).

  1. Quantitative assessment of the toxic effects of heavy metals on 1,2-dichloroethane biodegradation in co-contaminated soil under aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Olaniran, Ademola Olufolahan; Balgobind, Adhika; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2011-10-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is one of the most hazardous pollutant of soil and groundwater, and is produced in excess of 5.44×10⁹ kg annually. Owing to their toxicity, persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, there is a growing interest in technologies for their removal. Heavy metals are known to be toxic to soil microorganisms at high concentrations and can hinder the biodegradation of organic contaminants. In this study, the inhibitory effect of heavy metals, namely; arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, on the aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-DCA by autochthonous microorganisms was evaluated in soil microcosm setting. The presence of heavy metals was observed to have a negative impact on the biodegradation of 1,2-DCA in both soil samples tested, with the toxic effect being more pronounced in loam soil, than in clay soil. Generally, 75 ppm As³⁺, 840 ppm Hg²⁺, and 420 ppm Pb²⁺ resulted in 34.24%, 40.64%, and 45.94% increase in the half live (t½) of 1,2-DCA, respectively, in loam soil, while concentrations above 127.5 ppm Cd²⁺, 840 ppm Hg²⁺ and 420 ppm of Pb²⁺ and less than 75 ppm As³⁺ was required to cause a >10% increase in the t½ of 1,2-DCA in clay soil. A dose-dependent relationship between degradation rate constant (k₁) of 1,2-DCA and metal ion concentrations was observed for all the heavy metals tested, except for Hg²⁺. This study demonstrated that different heavy metals have different impacts on the degree of 1,2-DCA degradation. Results also suggest that the degree of inhibition is metal specific and is also dependent on several factors including; soil type, pH, moisture content and available nutrients.

  2. The effect of oxygen on chemical dechlorination of dieldrin using iron sulphides.

    PubMed

    Hara, Junko

    2011-02-01

    The degradation of dieldrin by ferric sulphide (FeS(2)) in aqueous solution was investigated when shielded against sunlight. An oxidative dechlorination process was observed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; oxygen volume changed the degradation rate of dieldrin and the generation rate of reaction products. The dechlorination rate under microaerophilic conditions was fastest among the anaerobic to air oxygen concentrations. For this experiment, over 99% of the dieldrin was degraded, and 90% of the released chloride was detected after 30 d under 10 μ mol oxygen. The major reaction products were different depending on the dose of oxygen. In the case of aerobic conditions, low molecular weight organic acids, such as formic acid, lactic acid, and oxalic acid, were generated as major reaction products. However, under anaerobic conditions, C(16)H(22)O(4) (dibutyl phthalate) and C(6)H(13)ClO (3-chloro-4-methyl-2-pentanol) were detected as reaction intermediates, and small amounts of succinic acid, malonic acid, and formic acid were also generated. These reactions proceed by FeS(2) interface reactions with H(2)O under anaerobic condition, or O(2) under aerobic condition.

  3. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 sensory box protein involved in aerobic and anoxic growth.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, A; Kurowski, J; Yan, T; Klingeman, D M; Joachimiak, M P; Zhou, J; Naranjo, B; Gralnick, J A; Fields, M W

    2011-07-01

    Although little is known of potential function for conserved signaling proteins, it is hypothesized that such proteins play important roles to coordinate cellular responses to environmental stimuli. In order to elucidate the function of a putative sensory box protein (PAS domains) in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, the physiological role of SO3389 was characterized. The predicted open reading frame (ORF) encodes a putative sensory box protein that has PAS, GGDEF, and EAL domains, and an in-frame deletion mutant was constructed (ΔSO3389) with approximately 95% of the ORF deleted. Under aerated conditions, wild-type and mutant cultures had similar growth rates, but the mutant culture had a lower growth rate under static, aerobic conditions. Oxygen consumption rates were lower for mutant cultures (1.5-fold), and wild-type cultures also maintained lower dissolved oxygen concentrations under aerated growth conditions. When transferred to anoxic conditions, the mutant did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as electron acceptors. Biochemical assays demonstrated the expression of different c-type cytochromes as well as decreased fumarate reductase activity in the mutant transferred to anoxic growth conditions. Transcriptomic studies showed the inability of the mutant to up-express and down-express genes, including c-type cytochromes (e.g., SO4047/SO4048, SO3285/SO3286), reductases (e.g., SO0768, SO1427), and potential regulators (e.g., SO1329). The complemented strain was able to grow when transferred from aerobic to anoxic growth conditions with the tested electron acceptors. The modeled structure for the SO3389 PAS domains was highly similar to the crystal structures of FAD-binding PAS domains that are known O2/redox sensors. Based on physiological, genomic, and bioinformatic results, we suggest that the sensory box protein, SO3389, is an O2/redox sensor that is involved in optimization of aerobic growth and transitions to anoxia in S

  4. In Situ Biotreatment of TBA with Recirculation/Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    North, Katharine P.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Kayne, Julian S.; Petersen, Daniel; Rasa, Ehsan; Rastegarzadeh, Laleh; Holland, Reef B.; Scow, Kate M.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for in situ biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) by creation of aerobic conditions in the subsurface with recirculating well pairs was investigated in two field studies conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). In the first experiment, a single recirculating well pair with bromide tracer and oxygen amendment successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 42 days. TBA concentrations were reduced from approximately 500 μg/L to below the detection limit within the treatment zone and the treated water was detected in a monitoring transect several meters downgradient. In the second experiment, a site-calibrated model was used to design a double recirculating well pair with oxygen amendment, which successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 291 days and also decreased TBA concentrations to below the detection limit. Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1, a known TBA-degrading bacterium, was detectable at the study site but addition of oxygen had little impact on the already low baseline population densities, suggesting that there was not enough carbon within the groundwater plume to support significant new growth in the PM1 population. Given favorable hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions, the use of recirculating well pairs to introduce dissolved oxygen into the subsurface is a viable method to stimulate in situ biodegradation of TBA or other aerobically-degradable aquifer contaminants. PMID:23358537

  5. Anaerobic versus aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in anoxic freshwater sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lomans, B.P.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Pol, A.; Vogels, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    Degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in slurries prepared from sediments of minerotrophic peatland ditches were studied under various conditions. Maximal aerobic dimethyl sulfide-degrading capacities, measured in bottles shaken under an air atmosphere, were 10-fold higher than the maximal anaerobic degrading capacities determined from bottles shaken under N{sub 2} or H{sub 2} atmosphere. Incubations under experimental conditions which mimic the in situ conditions, however, revealed that aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in freshwater sediments is low due to oxygen limitation. Inhibition studies with bromoethanesulfonic acid and sodium tungstate demonstrated that the degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in these incubations originated mainly from methanogenic activity. Prolonged incubation under a H{sub 2} atmosphere resulted in lower dimethyl sulfide degradation rates. Kinetic analysis of the data resulted in apparent K{sub m} values (6 to 8 {micro}M) for aerobic dimethyl sulfide degradation which are comparable to those reported for Thiobacillus spp., Hyphomicrobium spp., and other methylotrophs. Apparent K{sub m} values determined for anaerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide were of the same order of magnitude. The low apparent K{sub m} values obtained explain the low dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol concentrations in freshwater sediments that they reported previously. The observations point to methanogenesis as the major mechanism of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol consumption in freshwater sediments.

  6. Anaerobic versus aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in anoxic freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Lomans, B P; den Camp, H J; Pol, A; Vogels, G D

    1999-02-01

    Degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in slurries prepared from sediments of minerotrophic peatland ditches were studied under various conditions. Maximal aerobic dimethyl sulfide-degrading capacities (4.95 nmol per ml of sediment slurry. h-1), measured in bottles shaken under an air atmosphere, were 10-fold higher than the maximal anaerobic degrading capacities determined from bottles shaken under N2 or H2 atmosphere (0.37 and 0. 32 nmol per ml of sediment slurry. h-1, respectively). Incubations under experimental conditions which mimic the in situ conditions (i. e., not shaken and with an air headspace), however, revealed that aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in freshwater sediments is low due to oxygen limitation. Inhibition studies with bromoethanesulfonic acid and sodium tungstate demonstrated that the degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in these incubations originated mainly from methanogenic activity. Prolonged incubation under a H2 atmosphere resulted in lower dimethyl sulfide degradation rates. Kinetic analysis of the data resulted in apparent Km values (6 to 8 microM) for aerobic dimethyl sulfide degradation which are comparable to those reported for Thiobacillus spp., Hyphomicrobium spp., and other methylotrophs. Apparent Km values determined for anaerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (3 to 8 microM) were of the same order of magnitude. The low apparent Km values obtained explain the low dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol concentrations in freshwater sediments that we reported previously. Our observations point to methanogenesis as the major mechanism of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol consumption in freshwater sediments.

  7. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  8. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  9. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    DOE PAGES

    Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2016-03-24

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half ofmore » the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (DCJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 DCJ and 0.95 DCJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity

  10. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2016-03-24

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half of the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (DCJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 DCJ and 0.95 DCJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis

  11. Effect of Aerobic Priming on the Response of Echinochloa crus-pavonis to Anaerobic Stress (Protein Synthesis and Phosphorylation).

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J. J.; Fox, T. C.; Mujer, C. V.; Rumpho, M. E.; Kennedy, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Echinochloa species differ in their ability to germinate and grow in the absence of oxygen. Seeds of Echinochloa crus-pavonis (H.B.K.) Schult do not germinate under anoxia but remain viable for extended periods (at least 30 d) when incubated in an anaerobic environment. E. crus-pavonis can be induced to germinate and grow in an anaerobic environment if the seeds are first subjected to a short (1-18 h) exposure to aerobic conditions (aerobic priming). Changes in polypeptide patterns (constitutive and de novo synthesized) and protein phosphorylation induced by aerobic priming were investigated. In the absence of aerobic priming protein degradation was not evident under anaerobic conditions, although synthesis of a 20-kD polypeptide was induced. During aerobic priming, however, synthesis of 37- and 55-kD polypeptides was induced and persisted upon return of the seeds to anoxia. Furthermore, phosphorylation of two 18-kD polypeptides was observed only in those seeds that were labeled with 32PO4 during the aerobic priming period. Subsequent chasing in an anaerobic environment resulted in a decrease in phosphorylation of these polypeptides. Likewise, phosphorylation of the 18-kD polypeptides was not observed if the seeds were labeled in an anaerobic atmosphere. These results suggest that the regulated induction of the 20-, 37-, and 55- kD polypeptides may be important for anaerobic germination and growth of E. crus-pavonis and that the specific phosphorylation of the 18-kD polypeptides may be a factor in regulating this induction. PMID:12232272

  12. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product.

  13. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  14. Performance of a fixed-bed biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Junliang; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Jingliang

    2016-01-01

    Microbubble aeration is supposed to be highly efficient for oxygen supply in aerobic wastewater treatment. In the present study, the performance of a fixed-bed biofilm reactor microbubble-aerated using a Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane system was investigated when treating synthetic municipal wastewater. The biofilm formation on the carriers was enhanced with microbubble aeration due to the strong adhesion of microbubbles to the solid surface. The dissolved oxygen concentration, the removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen, and the oxygen utilization efficiency were influenced by the organic loading rate at a certain oxygen supply capacity. The relatively optimal organic loading rate was determined as 0.82 kgCOD/(m(3)d) when the oxygen supply capacity was 0.93 kgO(2)/(m(3)d), where COD and ammonia removal efficiencies were 91.7% and 53.9%, respectively. The corresponding SPG membrane area-based COD removal capacity was 6.88 kgCOD/(m(2)d). The oxygen utilization efficiency of microbubble aeration was obviously higher compared to conventional bubble aeration. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in the biofilm reactor and the total nitrogen removal efficiency of 50.4% was achieved under these conditions. In addition, the increase in air supply capacity of the SPG membrane system was suggested to improve its energy utilization efficiency.

  15. Effects of nutritional and ambient oxygen condition on biofilm formation in Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis via altered glycolipid expression

    PubMed Central

    Totani, Takahiro; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Tateishi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Yutaka; Kitanaka, Hiromi; Niki, Mamiko; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Matsumoto, Sohkichi

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the representative case of environment-related infectious diseases the incidence of which is increasing in industrialized countries. MAH is found in biofilm in drinking water distribution system and residential environments. We investigated the effect of gaseous and nutritional conditions, and the role of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) on biofilm-like pellicle formation in MAH. Pellicle formation was observed under 5% oxygen in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 0.2% glycerol and 10% albumin-dextrose-catalase enrichment but not under normoxia or in nutrient-poor media. An analysis of 17 environmental isolates revealed that hypoxia (5% oxygen) preferentially enhanced pellicle formation both in plastic plates and in glass tubes, compared with hypercapnia (5% carbon dioxide). Wild-type strains (WT) developed much thicker pellicles than GPL-deficient rough mutants (RM). WT bacterial cells distributed randomly and individually in contrast to that RM cells positioned linearly in a definite order. Exogenous supplementation of GPLs thickened the pellicles of RM, resulting in a similar morphological pattern to WT. These data suggest a significant implication of eutrophication and hypoxia in biofilm-like pellicle formation, and a functional role of GPLs on development of pellicles in MAH. PMID:28155911

  16. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A; Pihl, Josh A; Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  17. Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor: the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Piayda, Arndt; Werner, Christiane

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen isotope signature of water is a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale. However, little is known about the short-term variability of oxygen isotopes leaving the ecosystem via transpiration, as high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes in order to evaluate the short-term variability of the isotopic composition of transpiration (δE ) and to investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in cork-oak trees (Quercus suber) during distinct Mediterranean seasons. The measured δ(18) O of transpiration (δE ) deviated from isotopic steady state throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites was near isotopic steady state. High agreement was found between estimated and modeled δE values assuming non-steady-state enrichment of leaf water. Isoforcing, that is, the influence of the transpirational δ(18) O flux on atmospheric values, deviated from steady-state calculations but daily means were similar between steady state and non-steady state. However, strong daytime isoforcing on the atmosphere implies that short-term variations in δE are likely to have consequences for large-scale applications, for example, partitioning of ecosystem fluxes or satellite-based applications.

  18. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  19. Intracellular azo decolorization is coupled with aerobic respiration by a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Tian; Hu, Jin-Mei; Wang, Shi; Li, Wen-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Reduction of azo dye methyl red coupled with aerobic respiration by growing cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 was investigated. In liquid media containing dye and 0.6 % glucose in a mineral salts base, 100 mg l(-1) of the dye are completely removed in 3 h under shaking conditions. The dye cannot be aerobically decolorized by strain GS-4-08 without extra carbon sources, indicating a co-metabolism process. Higher initial dye concentration prolonged the lag phase of the cell growth, but final cell concentrations of each batches reached a same level with range from 6.3 to 7.6 mg l(-1) after the dye adaption period. This strain showed stronger dye tolerance and decolorization ability than many reported strains. Furthermore, a new intracellular oxygen-insensitive azoreductase was isolated from this strain, and the specific activity of enzyme was 0.846 and 0.633 U mg(-1) protein in the presence of NADH and NADPH, respectively. N,N dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and anthranilic acid were stoichiometrically released from MR dye, indicating the breakage of azo bonds accounts for the intracellular decolorization. Combining the characteristics of azoreductase, the stoichiometry of EMP, and TCA cycle, the electron transfer chain theory of aerobic respiration, and the possible mechanism of aerobic respiration coupled with azo reduction by K. oxytoca GS-4-08 are proposed. This study is expected to provide a sound theoretical basis for the development of the K. oxytoca strain in aerobic process for azo dye containing wastewaters.

  20. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  1. Benzoate-induced stress enhances xylitol yield in aerobic fed-batch culture of Candida mogii TISTR 5892.

    PubMed

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Chisti, Yusuf

    2015-01-20

    Production of the natural sweetener xylitol from xylose via the yeast Candida mogii TISTR 5892 was compared with and without the growth inhibitor sodium benzoate in the culture medium. Sodium benzoate proved to be an uncompetitive inhibitor in relatively poorly oxygenated shake flask aerobic cultures. In a better controlled aerobic environment of a bioreactor, the role of sodium benzoate could equally well be described as competitive, uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibitor of growth. In intermittent fed-batch fermentations under highly aerobic conditions, the presence of sodium benzoate at 0.15gL(-1) clearly enhanced the xylitol titer relative to the control culture without the sodium benzoate. The final xylitol concentration and the average xylitol yield on xylose were nearly 50gL(-1) and 0.57gg(-1), respectively, in the presence of sodium benzoate. Both these values were substantially higher than reported for the same fermentation under microaerobic conditions. Therefore, a fed-batch aerobic fermentation in the presence of sodium benzoate is promising for xylitol production using C. mogii.

  2. The action of oxygen on chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and absorption spectra in pea thylakoid membranes under the steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Garstka, Maciej; Nejman, Patrycja; Rosiak, Małgorzata

    2004-12-02

    The effect of oxygen concentration on both absorption and chlorophyll fluorescence spectra was investigated in isolated pea thylakoids at weak actinic light under the steady-state conditions. Upon the rise of oxygen concentration from anaerobiosis up to 412 microM a gradual absorbance increase around both 437 and 670 nm was observed, suggesting the disaggregation of LHCII and destacking of thylakoids. Simultaneously, an increase in oxygen concentration resulted in a decline in the Chl fluorescence at 680 nm to about 60% of the initial value. The plot of normalized Chl fluorescence quenching, F(-O(2))/F(+O(2)), showed discontinuity above 275 microM O(2), revealing two phases of quenching, at both lower and higher oxygen concentrations. The inhibition of photosystem II by DCMU or atrazine as well as that of cyt b(6)f by myxothiazol attenuated the oxygen-induced quenching events observed above 275 microM O(2), but did not modify the first phase of oxygen action. These data imply that the oxygen mediated Chl fluorescence quenching is partially independent on non-cyclic electron flow. The second phase of oxygen-induced decline in Chl fluorescence is diminished in thylakoids with poisoned PSII and cyt b(6)f activities and treated with rotenone or N-ethylmaleimide to inhibit NAD(P)H-plastoquinone dehydrogenase. The data suggest that under weak light and high oxygen concentration the Chl fluorescence quenching results from interactions between oxygen and PSI, cyt b(6)f and Ndh. On the contrary, inhibition of non-cyclic electron flow by antimycin A or uncoupling of thylakoids by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone did not modify the steady-state oxygen effect on Chl fluorescence quenching. The addition of NADH protected thylakoids against oxygen-induced Chl fluorescence quenching, whereas in the presence of exogenic duroquinone the decrease in Chl fluorescence to one half of the initial level did not result from the oxygen effect, probably due to oxygen action as a

  3. Optimal cultivation of simultaneous ammonium and phosphorus removal aerobic granular sludge in A/O/A sequencing batch reactor and the assessment of functional organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiya; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic operating mode was used to culture granular sludge. Optimal adjustment of cycle duration was achieved by the direction ofpH, oxidation reduction potential and dissolved oxygen parameters. The results showed that the treating efficiency was significantly improved as the cycle was shortened from 450 to 360 min and further to 200 min. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were nearly quantitative after 50 days operation and maintained stable to the end of the study period. The typical cycle tests revealed that simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus removal occurred when aerobic granules were gradually formed. The nitrite effect tests showed that less than 4.8 mg N/L of the nitrite could enhance superficial specific aerobic phosphate uptake rate (SAPUR) under aerobic condition, indicating that the traditional method to evaluate the capability of total phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was inaccurate. Additionally, a high level of nitrite was detrimental to PAOs. A novel method was developed to determine the activity of each kind of PAOs and other denitrifying organisms. The results showed that (1) nitrate, besides nitrite, could also enhance SAPUR and (2) aerobic granular sludge could perform denitrification even when phosphate was not supplied under anoxic condition, suggesting that other denitrifying organisms besides denitrifying phosphate-accumulating organisms also contributed to denitrification.

  4. Mineralization and kinetics of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by a combined anaerobic-aerobic bioprocess inoculated with the coculture of fungus and bacterium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengnan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Ang; Zhou, Jiti; Qu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by a combined anaerobic-aerobic process which was inoculated with the co-culture of Penicillium sp. QQ and Exiguobacterium sp. TL was studied. The optimal conditions of decolorization were investigated by response surface methodology as follows: 132.67 g/L of strain QQ wet spores, 1.09 g/L of strain TL wet cells, 2.25 g/L of glucose, 2.10 g/L of yeast extract, the initial dye concentration of 235.14 mg/L, pH 6.5, and 33 °C. The maximal decolorization rate was about 96 % within 12 h under the above conditions. According to the Haldane kinetic equation, the maximal specific decolorization rate was 89.629 mg/g˙h. It was suggested that in the anaerobic-aerobic combined process, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic unit and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was mainly removed in the aerobic one. Inoculation of fungus QQ in the anaerobic unit was important for mineralization of X-3B. Besides, the divided anaerobic-aerobic process showed better performance of COD removal than the integrated one. It was suggested that the combined anaerobic-aerobic process which was inoculated with co-culture was potentially useful for the field application.

  5. Efficiency of some soil bacteria for chemical oxygen demand reduction of synthetic chlorsulfuron solutions under agiated culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Erguven, G O; Yildirim, N

    2016-05-30

    This study searches the efficiency of certain soil bacteria on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of synthetic chlorsulfuron solutions under agitated culture conditions. It also aims to determine the turbidity of liquid culture medium with chlorsulfuron during bacterial incubation for 120 hours. As a result the highest and lowest COD removal efficiency of bacteria was determined for Bacillus simplex as 94% and for Micrococcus luteus as 70%, respectively at the end of the 96th hour. It was found that COD removal efficiency showed certain differences depend on the bacterial species. It was also observed that B. simplex had the highest COD removal efficiency and it was a suitable bacterium species for bioremediation of a chlorsulfuron contaminated soils.

  6. Regeneration of elemental sulfur in a simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal reactor under different dissolved oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Mingxiang

    2015-04-01

    A continuous reactor in microaerobic conditions was adopted for sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing and elemental sulfur (S(0)) regenerating, simultaneously. The results showed that appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) enhanced S(0) regeneration efficiency, sulfide oxidation efficiency, and nitrate reduction efficiency. When the DO concentration was 0.1-0.3 mg L(-1), the microaerobic bioreactor simultaneously converted 8.16 kg-Sm(-3)d(-1) of sulfide to S(0) and 2.48 kg-Nm(-3)d(-1) of nitrate to nitrogen with the sulfide and nitrate removal efficiency of 100% and 90% respectively. Compared with anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal process previously reported, the loading sulfide was higher and more S(0) was generated during the operation in microaerobic reactor. Analysis using the 16S rDNA gene clone library revealed that Azoarcus, Thauera, Paracoccus, Sulfurospirillum, Arcobacter and Clostridium were the dominant microorganisms in the sulfide and nitrate removal system.

  7. TIMP1 in conditioned media of human adipose stromal cells protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury.

    PubMed

    Du, Shiwei; Mao, Gengsheng; Zhu, Timothy; Luan, Zuo; Du, Yansheng; Gu, Huiying

    2015-01-01

    Adipose stromal cells (ASC) can protect neurons when administered to brains due to secreted trophic factors. Our previous studies demonstrated that several neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ASC conditioned media (ASC-CM) can protect brains against hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in neonatal rats. In this study, we demonstrated that human ASC-CM potently blockeds caspase-3 mediated cortical neuronal apoptosis under in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Interestingly, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), a non neurotrophic factor, played a significant role in the ASC-CM-induced neural protection against OGD. Thus, this study establishes the therapeutic potential of TIMP1 together with other neurotrophic factors in ASC-CM for treating cerebral HI disorders.

  8. BH3-only protein Bim is upregulated and mediates the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under glucose and oxygen-deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chahua; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Xia, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2015-03-01

    Bim is a potent pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 member. However, the expression of Bim and its role in cardiac injury induced by ischemia remain unclear. H9c2 cells were subjected to a glucose and oxygen-deprived (GOD) condition in vitro, mimicking ischemia environment in vivo. GOD treatment augmented the expression of Bim and induced the apoptosis of H9c2 cells. Silencing of Bim by RNAi significantly attenuated GOD-induced cytotoxicity, suppressed mitochondrial membrane potential △Ψm loss, inhibited caspase 3 activation and reduced apoptosis. The data demonstrate that Bim is upregulated by GOD in a time-dependent manner in H9c2 cells, and enhances mitochondrial apoptosis dependent on the activation of caspase 3. Silencing of Bim may be a promising therapeutic strategy in ischemia related heart diseases.

  9. Aerobic response to exercise of the fastest land crab.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Herreid, C F

    1983-04-01

    To view the aerobic response to exercise, the ghost crab Ocypode guadichaudii was run in a treadmill respirometer at three velocities (0.13, 0.19, and 0.28 km/h) while oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored. A steady-state VO2 that increased linearly with velocity was attained. VO2 transient periods at the beginning and end of exercise were extremely rapid with half times from 50 to 150 s. The magnitude of oxygen deficit and debt were small and both showed increases with an increase in velocity. Oxygen debt was measured at each velocity after 4-, 10-, and 20-min exercise bouts. No change in the magnitude of oxygen debt was observed with respect to exercise duration. Maximal VO2 was 11.9 times the average resting VO2. Oxygen uptake kinetics have shown only very sluggish and reduced rates in five other more sedentary crab species previously tested. The aerobic response pattern observed in the present study is more comparable to that of exercising mammals and highly aerobic ectothermic vertebrates. This suggests that the ghost crab meets the energy demand of sustained exercise by aerobic ATP production in contrast to many other crab species.

  10. Improvement of the Redox Balance Increases l-Valine Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum under Oxygen Deprivation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Suda, Masako; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Production of l-valine under oxygen deprivation conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum lacking the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA and overexpressing the l-valine biosynthesis genes ilvBNCDE was repressed. This was attributed to imbalanced cofactor production and consumption in the overall l-valine synthesis pathway: two moles of NADH was generated and two moles of NADPH was consumed per mole of l-valine produced from one mole of glucose. In order to solve this cofactor imbalance, the coenzyme requirement for l-valine synthesis was converted from NADPH to NADH via modification of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase encoded by ilvC and introduction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus leucine dehydrogenase in place of endogenous transaminase B, encoded by ilvE. The intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and l-valine production drastically improved. Moreover, l-valine yield increased and succinate formation decreased concomitantly with the decreased intracellular redox state. These observations suggest that the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio, i.e., reoxidation of NADH, is the primary rate-limiting factor for l-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions. The l-valine productivity and yield were even better and by-products derived from pyruvate further decreased as a result of a feedback resistance-inducing mutation in the acetohydroxy acid synthase encoded by ilvBN. The resultant strain produced 1,470 mM l-valine after 24 h with a yield of 0.63 mol mol of glucose−1, and the l-valine productivity reached 1,940 mM after 48 h. PMID:22138982

  11. Mid-Holocene paleoceanographic conditions in the Limfjord region from gastropod (Littorina littorea) oxygen and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, J.; Schmitz, B.

    2003-04-01

    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope intrashell transects of common intertidal gastropods Littorina littorea have been used to reconstruct environmental conditions in the Limfjord region during the mid-Holocene (late Atlantic time). The subfossil specimens studied are from the excavated Stone Age Kitchenmidden in Ertebølle, northern Denmark, dated between 5970±95 to 5070±90 B.P. In addition recent specimens were studied from different coastal localities within the Limfjord, along a salinity gradient from the west to east. These modern shells were used as control samples, in order to construct an oceanographic model for the Limfjord, in which the seasonal isotopic range from the Littorina subfossils could be interpreted. The coastal marine climate in the Ertebølle region during the mid-Holocene indicates summer-SST close to 22^oC and 4-5 ppm reduced salinity compared to fully marine conditions. The mid-Holocene central Limfjord can be described as a coastal area, which experienced similar salinity conditions (c. 30.5 PSU) that prevail in the western part (Odden area) today. In terms of summer-SST as compared with a 10-year average (1989-1998) for the Limfjord region, temperatures were 2-3^oC above recent climatic settings. These results point towards a mid-Holocene Limfjord in contact with the North Sea/Skagerrak with possibly more pronounced water exchange with the North Sea than today.

  12. Thermal substitution and aerobic efficiency: measuring and predicting effects of heat balance on endotherm diving energetics.

    PubMed

    Lovvorn, J R

    2007-11-29

    For diving endotherms, modelling costs of locomotion as a function of prey dispersion requires estimates of the costs of diving to different depths. One approach is to estimate the physical costs of locomotion (Pmech) with biomechanical models and to convert those estimates to chemical energy needs by an aerobic efficiency (eta=Pmech/Vo2) based on oxygen consumption (Vo2) in captive animals. Variations in eta with temperature depend partly on thermal substitution, whereby heat from the inefficiency of exercising muscles or the heat increment of feeding (HIF) can substitute for thermogenesis. However, measurements of substitution have ranged from lack of detection to nearly complete use of exercise heat or HIF. This inconsistency may reflect (i) problems in methods of calculating substitution, (ii) confounding mechanisms of thermoregulatory control, or (iii) varying conditions that affect heat balance and allow substitution to be expressed. At present, understanding of how heat generation is regulated, and how heat is transported among tissues during exercise, digestion, thermal challenge and breath holding, is inadequate for predicting substitution and aerobic efficiencies without direct measurements for conditions of interest. Confirming that work rates during exercise are generally conserved, and identifying temperatures at those work rates below which shivering begins, may allow better prediction of aerobic efficiencies for ecological models.

  13. (Per)Chlorate-Reducing Bacteria Can Utilize Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathways of Aromatic Degradation with (Per)Chlorate as an Electron Acceptor

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Loutey, Dana; Bauer, Stefan; Clark, Iain C.; Rohde, Robert A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Lucas, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathways involved in aromatic compound oxidation under perchlorate and chlorate [collectively known as (per)chlorate]-reducing conditions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that these are oxygenase-dependent pathways involving O2 biogenically produced during (per)chlorate respiration. Recently, we described Sedimenticola selenatireducens CUZ and Dechloromarinus chlorophilus NSS, which oxidized phenylacetate and benzoate, two key intermediates in aromatic compound catabolism, coupled to the reduction of perchlorate or chlorate, respectively, and nitrate. While strain CUZ also oxidized benzoate and phenylacetate with oxygen as an electron acceptor, strain NSS oxidized only the latter, even at a very low oxygen concentration (1%, vol/vol). Strains CUZ and NSS contain similar genes for both the anaerobic and aerobic-hybrid pathways of benzoate and phenylacetate degradation; however, the key genes (paaABCD) encoding the epoxidase of the aerobic-hybrid phenylacetate pathway were not found in either genome. By using transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as by monitoring metabolic intermediates, we investigated the utilization of the anaerobic and aerobic-hybrid pathways on different electron acceptors. For strain CUZ, the results indicated utilization of the anaerobic pathways with perchlorate and nitrate as electron acceptors and of the aerobic-hybrid pathways in the presence of oxygen. In contrast, proteomic results suggest that strain NSS may use a combination of the anaerobic and aerobic-hybrid pathways when growing on phenylacetate with chlorate. Though microbial (per)chlorate reduction produces molecular oxygen through the dismutation of chlorite (ClO2−), this study demonstrates that anaerobic pathways for the degradation of aromatics can still be utilized by these novel organisms. PMID:25805732

  14. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  15. MicroRNA-135b suppresses extravillous trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion by directly down regulating CXCL12 under low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tochigi, Hideno; Kajihara, Takeshi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Okagaki, Ryugo; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Ishihara, Osamu; Itakura, Atsuo

    2015-05-29

    The expression of numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) in the trophoblasts changes under low oxygen conditions. However, little is known regarding the regulation of the trophoblast invasion by miRNAs under low oxygen conditions. The aim of this study was to identify those miRNAs and their target genes associated with the trophoblast invasion under low oxygen conditions. Culturing the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, at 2% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen suppressed trophoblast invasion that correlated with increased expression of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) and decreased expression of the its predicted target gene CXCL12. Overexpression of miR-135b suppressed CXCL12 mRNA expression and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Adding a neutralizing antibody against CXCL12 to the culture medium suppressed HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion. Reporter assays showed that the 3'UTR sequence of CXCL12 was directly targeted by miR-135b. Our results suggest that miR-135b and CXCL12 play important roles in modulating the EVT invasion under low oxygen conditions.

  16. Systems analysis of transcription factor activities in environments with stable and dynamic oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Matthew D; Ocone, Andrea; Stapleton, Melanie R; Hall, Simon; Trotter, Eleanor W; Poole, Robert K; Sanguinetti, Guido; Green, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Understanding gene regulation requires knowledge of changes in transcription factor (TF) activities. Simultaneous direct measurement of numerous TF activities is currently impossible. Nevertheless, statistical approaches to infer TF activities have yielded non-trivial and verifiable predictions for individual TFs. Here, global statistical modelling identifies changes in TF activities from transcript profiles of Escherichia coli growing in stable (fixed oxygen availabilities) and dynamic (changing oxygen availability) environments. A core oxygen-responsive TF network, supplemented by additional TFs acting under specific conditions, was identified. The activities of the cytoplasmic oxygen-responsive TF, FNR, and the membrane-bound terminal oxidases implied that, even on the scale of the bacterial cell, spatial effects significantly influence oxygen-sensing. Several transcripts exhibited asymmetrical patterns of abundance in aerobic to anaerobic and anaerobic to aerobic transitions. One of these transcripts, ndh, encodes a major component of the aerobic respiratory chain and is regulated by oxygen-responsive TFs ArcA and FNR. Kinetic modelling indicated that ArcA and FNR behaviour could not explain the ndh transcript profile, leading to the identification of another TF, PdhR, as the source of the asymmetry. Thus, this approach illustrates how systematic examination of regulatory responses in stable and dynamic environments yields new mechanistic insights into adaptive processes.

  17. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  18. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  19. Transcription of hexose transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by change in oxygen provision

    PubMed Central

    Rintala, Eija; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Tamminen, Anu; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

    2008-01-01

    Background The gene family of hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of 20 members; 18 genes encoding transporters (HXT1-HXT17, GAL2) and two genes encoding sensors (SNF3, RGT2). The effect of oxygen provision on the expression of these genes was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations (D = 0.10 h-1, pH 5, 30°C). Transcript levels were measured from cells grown in five steady state oxygen levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2.8 and 20.9% O2), and from cells under conditions in which oxygen was introduced to anaerobic cultures or removed from cultures receiving oxygen. Results The expression pattern of the HXT gene family was distinct in cells grown under aerobic, hypoxic and anaerobic conditions. The transcription of HXT2, HXT4 and HXT5 was low when the oxygen concentration in the cultures was low, both under steady state and non-steady state conditions, whereas the expression of HXT6, HXT13 and HXT15/16 was higher in hypoxic than in fully aerobic or anaerobic conditions. None of the HXT genes showed higher transcript levels in strictly anaerobic conditions. Expression of HXT9, HXT14 and GAL2 was not detected under the culture conditions studied. Conclusion When oxygen becomes limiting in a glucose-limited chemostat cultivation, the glucose uptake rate per cell increases. However, the expression of none of the hexose transporter encoding genes was increased in anaerobic conditions. It thus seems that the decrease in the moderately low affinity uptake and consequently the relative increase of high affinity uptake may itself allow the higher specific glucose consumption rate to occur in anaerobic compared to aerobic conditions. PMID:18373847

  20. Degradation Kinetics and Mechanism of Lithospermic Acid under Low Oxygen Condition Using Quantitative 1H NMR with HPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianyang; Gong, Xingchu; Qu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantitative 1H NMR (Q-NMR) combined with HPLC-MS method has been proposed for investigating the degradation process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) components. Through this method, in-situ monitoring of dynamics degradation process of lithospermic acid (LA), one of the popular polyphenolic acids in TCM, was realized under low oxygen condition. Additionally, this methodology was proved to be simple, rapid and specific. Degradation kinetic runs have been carried out to systematically investigate the effects of two key environmental factors, initial pH values and temperatures. Eight main degradation products of LA were detected, seven of which were tentatively structural elucidated with the help of both NMR and LC-MS in this work and salvianolic acid A (Sal A) was the primary degradation product of LA. A possible degradation pathway of LA was proposed, subsequently. The results showed that the degradation of LA followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The apparent degradation kinetic constants increased as the initial pH value of the phosphate buffer increased. Under the given conditions, the rate constants of overall degradation as a function of temperature obeyed the Arrhenius equation. Our results proved that the Q-NMR combined with HPLC-MS method can be one of the most promising techniques for investigating degradation process of active components in TCM. PMID:27776128

  1. Technical Note: Particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations and their association with environmental conditions in an urban, subtropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, S. S.; Siegel, J. A.; Kinney, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reactions between hydrocarbons and ozone or hydroxyl radicals lead to the formation of oxidized species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the troposphere. ROS can be carried deep into the lungs by small aerodynamic particles where they can cause oxidative stress and cell damage. While environmental studies have focused on ROS in the gas-phase and rainwater, it is also important to determine concentrations of ROS on respirable particles. Samples of PM2.5 collected over 3 h at midday on 40 days during November 2011 and September 2012 show that the particulate ROS concentration in Austin, Texas ranged from a minimum value of 0.02 nmol H2O2 (m3 air)-1 in December to 3.81 nmol H2O2 (m3 air)-1 in September. Results from correlation tests and linear regression analysis on particulate ROS concentrations and environmental conditions (which included ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation) indicate that ambient particulate ROS is significantly influenced by the ambient ozone concentration, temperature and incident solar radiation. Particulate ROS concentrations measured in this study were in the range reported by other studies in the US, Taiwan and Singapore. This study is one of the first to assess seasonal variations in particulate ROS concentrations and helps explain the influence of environmental conditions on particulate ROS concentrations.

  2. Technical Note: Particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations and their association with environmental conditions in an urban, subtropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, S. S.; Siegel, J. A.; Kinney, K. A.

    2014-07-01

    Reactions between hydrocarbons and ozone or hydroxyl radicals lead to the formation of oxidized species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the troposphere. ROS can be carried deep into the lungs by small aerodynamic particles where they can cause oxidative stress and cell damage. While environmental studies have focused on ROS in the gas phase and rainwater, it is also important to determine concentrations of ROS on respirable particles. Samples of PM2.5 collected over 3 h at midday on 40 days during November 2011 and September 2012 show that the particulate ROS concentration in Austin, Texas, ranged from a minimum value of 0.02 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in December to 3.81 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in September. Results from correlation tests and linear regression analysis on particulate ROS concentrations and environmental conditions (which included ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation) indicate that ambient particulate ROS is significantly influenced by the ambient ozone concentration, temperature and incident solar radiation. Particulate ROS concentrations measured in this study were in the range reported by other studies in the US, Taiwan and Singapore. This study is one of the first to assess seasonal variations in particulate ROS concentrations and helps explain the influence of environmental conditions on particulate ROS concentrations.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant–microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant–microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions. PMID:27818671

  4. Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osipov, Viatcheslav; Muratov, Cyrill; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI tests. We present an overview of the HOVI tests to make conclusion on the risk of strong explosions in possible liquid rocket incidents and provide a semi-quantitative interpretation of the HOVI data based on aerosol combustion. We uncover the most dangerous situations and discuss the foreseeable risks which can arise in space missions and lead to tragic outcomes. Our analysis relates to only unconfined mixtures that are likely to arise as a result of liquid propellant space vehicle incidents.

  5. Catalytic reduction of NO by CO over rhodium catalysts. 2. Effect of oxygen on the nature, population, and reactivity of surface species formed under reaction conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kondarides, D.I.; Chafik, T.; Verykios, X.E.

    2000-04-01

    The effect of oxygen on the nature, population, and reactivity of surface species formed during reduction of NO by CO over Rh/TiO{sub 2} catalysts has been examined employing FTIR and transient MS techniques. It has been found that the activity of Rh is hindered by accumulation of surface oxygen originating from NO decomposition and gas-phase oxygen in the feed. Adsorbed CO and reduced TiO{sub 2{minus}x} species in the vicinity of Rh particles act as oxygen atom scavengers and, under fuel-rich conditions, remove atomic oxygen from the surface and restore the catalytic properties. Results of the present study provide additional evidence that production of N{sub 2} is related to dissociation of adsorbed Rh-NO{sup {minus}} while production of N{sub 2}O is related to the presence of Rh(NO){sub 2}. The presence of reduced RH{sup 0} sites is necessary for the formation of both reduction products. In the absence of oxygen in the feed, surface isocyanate species are also observed under reaction conditions. Their formation requires the presence of adjacent Rh{sup 0}-CO and reduced Rh{sup 0} sites. Although these species are favored under conditions in which NO conversion to reduction products is observed, there is no evidence that they are catalytically active species.

  6. Overexpression of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes in Corynebacterium glutamicum enhances glucose metabolism and alanine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shogo; Gunji, Wataru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toda, Hiroshi; Suda, Masako; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ΔldhAΔppc+alaD+gapA, overexpressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gapA, shows significantly improved glucose consumption and alanine formation under oxygen deprivation conditions (T. Jojima, M. Fujii, E. Mori, M. Inui, and H. Yukawa, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87:159-165, 2010). In this study, we employ stepwise overexpression and chromosomal integration of a total of four genes encoding glycolytic enzymes (herein referred to as glycolytic genes) to demonstrate further successive improvements in C. glutamicum glucose metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In addition to gapA, overexpressing pyruvate kinase-encoding pyk and phosphofructokinase-encoding pfk enabled strain GLY2/pCRD500 to realize respective 13% and 20% improved rates of glucose consumption and alanine formation compared to GLY1/pCRD500. Subsequent overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-encoding gpi in strain GLY3/pCRD500 further improved its glucose metabolism. Notably, both alanine productivity and yield increased after each overexpression step. After 48 h of incubation, GLY3/pCRD500 produced 2,430 mM alanine at a yield of 91.8%. This was 6.4-fold higher productivity than that of the wild-type strain. Intracellular metabolite analysis showed that gapA overexpression led to a decreased concentration of metabolites upstream of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that the overexpression resolved a bottleneck in glycolysis. Changing ratios of the extracellular metabolites by overexpression of glycolytic genes resulted in reduction of the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which also plays an important role on the improvement of glucose consumption. Enhanced alanine dehydrogenase activity using a high-copy-number plasmid further accelerated the overall alanine productivity. Increase in glycolytic enzyme activities is a promising approach to make drastic progress in growth-arrested bioprocesses.

  7. CoxC encased in carbon nanotubes: an efficient oxygen reduction catalyst under both acidic and alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lisong; Cui, Xiangzhi; Wang, Qingsong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wan, Gang; Cui, Fangming; Wei, Chenyang; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-12-21

    The design of a non-precious metal oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst of high activity and long durability in acidic electrolyte is of great importance for the development and commercialization of low-temperature fuel cells, which remains a great challenge to date. Here, we demonstrate a facile, scalable protocol for the controlled synthesis of CoxC encapsulated in carbon nanotubes as a novel kind of efficient electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The synthesized CoxC/carbon nanotube features a high BET surface area, large pore volume and high graphitic content, which greatly favors enhanced ORR properties. The resultant composite electro-catalyst shows high ORR activity which is comparable with that of 20 wt% Pt/C in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, it also exhibits a high ORR activity in 0.1 M HClO4 with a near-complete 4e pathway. More attractively, compared to the most investigated FexC, CoxC as the proposed main catalytically active center shows much enhanced activity in acidic electrolyte, which will pave the way towards the rational design of an advanced electro-catalyst for an efficient ORR process especially under acidic conditions. Moreover, a fuel cell using the synthesized CoxC/carbon nanotube as a cathode catalyst showed a large open-circuit potential, high output power density and long durability, which make it a promising alternative to Pt/C as a non-precious metal ORR catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  8. Synthesis of a platinum diketonate-containing polymer showing oxygen-resistant phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Hirose, Amane; Tamashima, Kenji; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of a platinum diketonate-based alternating copolymer containing a fluorene unit and its oxygen-resistant phosphorescence are reported. The polymerization is executed via palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. The synthesized polymer shows good solubility in common organic solvents and processability to form homogeneous films. By optical measurements it is found that the synthesized polymer shows phosphorescence from a triplet π-π* ligand-centered transition, and interestingly, the emission is hardly influenced by oxygen. Phosphorescence is observed from both solution and film samples under aerobic conditions. The new idea of obtaining emissive materials based on conjugated polymers showing oxygen-resistant phosphorescence is presented here.

  9. Degradation of toluene by a mixed population of archetypal aerobes, microaerophiles, and denitrifiers: laboratory sand column experiment and multispecies biofilm model formulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Su; Jaffé, Peter R

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in a saturated sand column with three bacterial strains that have different growth characteristics on toluene, Pseudomonas putida F1 which degrades toluene only under aerobic conditions, Thauera aromatica T1 which degrades toluene only under denitrifying conditions, and Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 has a facultative nature and can perform nitrate-enhanced biodegradation of toluene under hypoxic conditions (DO <2 mg/L). Steady-state concentration profiles showed that oxygen and nitrate appeared to be utilized simultaneously, regardless of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the results from fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that PKO1 maintained stable cells numbers throughout the column, even when the pore water oxygen concentration was high. Since PKO1's growth rate under aerobic condition is much lower than that of F1, except under hypoxic conditions, these observations were not anticipated. Therefore these observations require a mechanistic explanation that can account for localized low oxygen concentrations under aerobic conditions. To simulate the observed dynamics, a multispecies biofilm model was implemented. This model formulation assumes the formation of a thin biofilm that is composed of the three bacterial strains. The individual strains grow in response to the substrate and electron acceptor flux from bulk fluid into the biofilm. The model was implemented such that internal changes in bacterial composition and substrate concentration can be simulated over time and space. The model simulations from oxic to denitrifying conditions compared well to the experimental profiles of the chemical species and the bacterial strains, indicating the importance of accounting for the biological activity of individual strains in biofilms that span different redox conditions.

  10. Complete nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater via partial nitrification by appropriately alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions in a continuous plug-flow step feed process.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Qiu, Shuang; Zhu, Ao; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-05-15

    This study assessed the technical feasibility of removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater by partial nitrification (nitritation) in a continuous plug-flow step feed process. Nitrite in the effluent accumulated to over 81.5  ± 9.2% but disappeared with the transition of process operation from anoxic/oxic mode to the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic mode. Batch tests showed obvious ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) stimulation (advanced ammonia oxidation rate) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria inhibition (reduced nitrite oxidation rate) under transient anoxic conditions. Two main factors contributed to nitritation in this continuous plug-flow process: One was the alternating anoxic and oxic operational condition; the step feed strategy guaranteed timely denitrification in anoxic zones, allowing a reduction in energy supply (nitrite) to NOB. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that NOB population gradually decreased to 1.0  ± 0.1% of the total bacterial population (dominant Nitrospira spp., 1.55 × 10(9) copies/L) while AOB increased approximately two-fold (7.4  ± 0.9%, 1.25 × 10(10) copies/L) during the above anoxic to anaerobic transition. Most importantly, without addition of external carbon sources, the above wastewater treatment process reached 86.0  ± 4.2% of total nitrogen (TN) removal with only 7.23 ± 2.31 mg/L of TN in the effluent, which met the discharge requirements.

  11. Oxygen demand during mineralization of aquatic macrophytes from an oxbow lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchini Jr, I; Cunha-Santino, M B; Peret, A M

    2008-02-01

    This study presents a kinetic model of oxygen consumption during aerobic decomposition of detritus from seven species of aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia auriculata, Oxycaryum cubense and Utricularia breviscapa. The aquatic macrophytes were collected from Oleo Lagoon situated in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain (SP, Brazil). Mineralization experiments were performed using the closed bottles method. Incubations made with lake water and macrophytes detritus (500 mL and 200 mg.L(-1) (DM), respectively) were maintained during 45 to 80 days at 20 degrees C under aerobic conditions and darkness. Carbon content of leachates from aquatic macrophytes detritus and dissolved oxygen concentrations were analyzed. From the results we concluded that: i) the decomposition constants differ among macrophytes; these differences being dependent primarily on molecular and elemental composition of detritus and ii) in the short term, most of the oxygen demand seems to depend upon the demineralization of the dissolved carbon fraction.

  12. Chemotaxis without Conventional Two-Component System, Based on Cell Polarity and Aerobic Conditions in Helicity-Switching Swimming of Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Huajun; Meng, Qingguo; Terahara, Natsuho; Gu, Wei; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Nakane, Daisuke; Wang, Wen; Miyata, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S. eriocheiris performs chemotaxis without the conventional two-component system, a system commonly found in bacterial chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of S. eriocheiris was observed more clearly when the cells were cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The cells were polarized as evidenced by a tip structure, swimming in the direction of the tip, and were shown to reverse their swimming direction in response to attractants. Triton X-100 treatment revealed the internal structure, a dumbbell-shaped core in the tip that is connected by a flat ribbon, which traces the shortest line in the helical cell shape from the tip to the other pole. Sixteen proteins were identified as the components of the internal structure by mass spectrometry, including Fibril protein and four types of MreB proteins. PMID:28217108

  13. Bottom-Water Conditions in a Marine Basin after the Cretaceous–Paleogene Impact Event: Timing the Recovery of Oxygen Levels and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Montes De Oca, Claudia; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-high-resolution analysis of major and trace element contents from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary interval in the Caravaca section, southeast Spain, reveals a quick recovery of depositional conditions after the impact event. Enrichment/depletion profiles of redox sensitive elements indicate significant geochemical anomalies just within the boundary ejecta layer, supporting an instantaneous recovery –some 102 years– of pre-impact conditions in terms of oxygenation. Geochemical redox proxies point to oxygen levels comparable to those at the end of the Cretaceous shortly after impact, which is further evidenced by the contemporary macrobenthic colonization of opportunistic tracemakers. Recovery of the oxygen conditions was therefore several orders shorter than traditional proposals (104–105 years), suggesting a probable rapid recovery of deep-sea ecosystems at bottom and in intermediate waters. PMID:24349232

  14. Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    , the mobilization of Pb, Cd, and Cu was significantly enhanced, whereas As concentrations decreased, compared with the reaction system without oxygen. The presence of oxygen resulted in the formation of secondary Fe-oxides which appear to be Fe(II)-substituted P-containing ferrihydrite. Although the rock contained only 1.04 wt% total Fe, oxidative dissolution of pyrite, leaching and oxidation of structural Fe(II) in fluorapatite, and precipitation of Fe-oxides significantly decreased the pH in brine with oxygen(pH 3.3-3.7), compared with the reaction system without oxygen (pH 4.2-4.4). In the CO2-rock-brine system without O2, the majority of As remained in the rock, with about 1.1% of the total As being released from intrinsic Fe-oxides to the aqueous phase. The release behavior of As to solution was consistent with competitive adsorption between phosphate/fluoride and As on Fe-oxide surfaces. In the presence of O2 the mobility of As was reduced due to enhanced adsorption onto both intrinsic and secondary Fe-oxide surfaces.When O2 was present, the dominant species in solution was the less toxic As(V). This work will advance our understanding of the geochemical reaction mechanisms that occur under GCS conditions and help to evaluate the risks associated with geological CO2 sequestration.

  15. Transcription of genes coding for metabolic key functions in Nitrosomonas europaea during aerobic and anaerobic growth.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Sonja; Gilch, Stefan; Meyer, Ortwin; Schmidt, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea can grow under conditions of chemolithoautotrophic aerobic (oxygen as oxidant) as well as anaerobic [nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) as oxidant] nitrification or chemoorganotrophic anaerobic pyruvate-dependent denitrification. In this study, the adaptation of the transcription (mRNA synthesis/concentration) of N. europaea to aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions was evaluated and the transcription of genes coding for metabolic key functions was analyzed: nitrogen and energy metabolism (amoA, hao, rh1, nirK, norB, nsc, aceE, ldhA, ppc, gltA, odhA, coxA), carbon dioxide fixation (cbbL), gluconeogenesis (ppsA), cell growth (ftsZ), and oxidative stress (sodB). During aerobic ammonia oxidation the specific activities of ammonia oxidation, nitrite reduction, and the growth rates correlated with the transcription level of the corresponding genes amoA/hao, nirK/norB/nsc, and cbbL/ftsZ. In anaerobically ammonia-oxidizing cells of N. europaea, the cellular mRNA concentrations of amoA, hao, rh1,coxA, cbbL, ftsZ, and sodB were reduced compared with aerobically nitrifying cells, but the mRNA levels of nirK, norB, and nsc were significantly increased. During anaerobic pyruvate-dependent denitrification, the mRNA abundance of nirK, norB, nsc, aceE, gltA, and odhA was increased, while the concentrations of amoA,hao, rh1, coxAcbbL, ftsZ, and sodB were significantly reduced. Temperature, pH value, and NH(4)(+), O(2), NO, and NO(2) concentrations had comparatively small effects on the transcription of the studied genes.

  16. The Effect of Oxygen on Bile Resistance in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Morgan L; Pendarvis, Ken; Nanduri, Bindu; Edelmann, Mariola J; Jenkins, Haley N; Reddy, Joseph S; Wilson, Jessica G; Ding, Xuan; Broadway, Paul R; Ammari, Mais G; Paul, Oindrila; Roberts, Brandy; Donaldson, Janet R

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe that is the causative agent of the disease listeriosis. The infectious ability of this bacterium is dependent upon resistance to stressors encountered within the gastrointestinal tract, including bile. Previous studies have indicated bile salt hydrolase activity increases under anaerobic conditions, suggesting anaerobic conditions influence stress responses. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if reduced oxygen availability increased bile resistance of L. monocytogenes. Four strains representing three serovars were evaluated for changes in viability and proteome expression following exposure to bile in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Viability for F2365 (serovar 4b), EGD-e (serovar 1/2a), and 10403S (serovar 1/2a) increased following exposure to 10% porcine bile under anaerobic conditions (P < 0.05). However, HCC23 (serovar 4a) exhibited no difference (P > 0.05) in bile resistance between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that oxygen availability does not influence resistance in this strain. The proteomic analysis indicated F2365 and EGD-e had an increased expression of proteins associated with cell envelope and membrane bioenergetics under anaerobic conditions, including thioredoxin-disulfide reductase and cell division proteins. Interestingly, HCC23 had an increase in several dehydrogenases following exposure to bile under aerobic conditions, suggesting that the NADH:NAD+ is altered and may impact bile resistance. Variations were observed in the expression of the cell shape proteins between strains, which corresponded to morphological differences observed by scanning electron microscopy. These data indicate that oxygen availability influences bile resistance. Further research is needed to decipher how these changes in metabolism impact pathogenicity in vivo and also the impact that this has on susceptibility of a host to listeriosis. PMID:27274623

  17. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  18. Challenges in polyoxometalate-mediated aerobic oxidation catalysis: catalyst development meets reactor design.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Manuel; Güttel, Robert; Streb, Carsten

    2016-11-14

    Selective catalytic oxidation is one of the most widely used chemical processes. Ideally, highly active and selective catalysts are used in combination with molecular oxygen as oxidant, leading to clean, environmentally friendly process conditions. For homogeneous oxidation catalysis, molecular metal oxide anions, so-called polyoxometalates (POMs) are ideal prototypes which combine high reactivity and stability with chemical tunability on the molecular level. Typically, POM-mediated aerobic oxidations are biphasic, using gaseous O2 and liquid reaction mixtures. Therefore, the overall efficiency of the reaction is not only dependent on the chemical components, but requires chemical engineering insight to design reactors with optimized productivity. This Perspective shows that POM-mediated aerobic liquid-phase oxidations are ideal reactions to be carried out in microstructured flow reactors as they enable facile mass and energy transfer, provide large gas-liquid interfaces and can be easily upscaled. Recent advances in POM-mediated aerobic catalytic oxidations are therefore summarized with a focus on technological importance and mechanistic insight. The principles of reactor design are discussed from a chemical engineering point of view with a focus on homogeneous oxidation catalysis using O2 in microfluidic systems. Further, current limitations to catalytic activity are identified and future directions based on combined chemistry and chemical engineering approaches are discussed to show that this approach could lead to sustainable production methods in industrial chemistry based on alternative energy sources and chemical feedstocks.

  19. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed.