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Sample records for aerobic dynamic feeding

  1. Aerobic dynamic feeding as a strategy for in situ accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate in aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-06-01

    Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV). PMID:24725384

  2. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    PubMed Central

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  3. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types.

  4. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process.

    PubMed

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  5. Aerobic scope explains individual variation in feeding capacity

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Sonya K.; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Links between metabolism and components of fitness such as growth, reproduction and survival can depend on food availability. A high standard metabolic rate (SMR; baseline energy expenditure) or aerobic scope (AS; the difference between an individual's maximum and SMR) is often beneficial when food is abundant or easily accessible but can be less important or even disadvantageous when food levels decline. While the mechanisms underlying these context-dependent associations are not well understood, they suggest that individuals with a higher SMR or AS are better able to take advantage of high food abundance. Here we show that juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) with a higher AS were able to consume more food per day relative to individuals with a lower AS. These results help explain why a high aerobic capacity can improve performance measures such as growth rate at high but not low levels of food availability. PMID:26556902

  6. Aerobic scope explains individual variation in feeding capacity.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-11-01

    Links between metabolism and components of fitness such as growth, reproduction and survival can depend on food availability. A high standard metabolic rate (SMR; baseline energy expenditure) or aerobic scope (AS; the difference between an individual's maximum and SMR) is often beneficial when food is abundant or easily accessible but can be less important or even disadvantageous when food levels decline. While the mechanisms underlying these context-dependent associations are not well understood, they suggest that individuals with a higher SMR or AS are better able to take advantage of high food abundance. Here we show that juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) with a higher AS were able to consume more food per day relative to individuals with a lower AS. These results help explain why a high aerobic capacity can improve performance measures such as growth rate at high but not low levels of food availability. PMID:26556902

  7. Temperature acclimation rate of aerobic scope and feeding metabolism in fishes: implications in a thermally extreme future.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Gräns, Albin; Axelsson, Michael; Seth, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Temperature acclimation may offset the increased energy expenditure (standard metabolic rate, SMR) and reduced scope for activity (aerobic scope, AS) predicted to occur with local and global warming in fishes and other ectotherms. Yet, the time course and mechanisms of this process is little understood. Acclimation dynamics of SMR, maximum metabolic rate, AS and the specific dynamic action of feeding (SDA) were determined in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) after transfer from 10°C to 16°C. SMR increased in the first week by 82% reducing AS to 55% of initial values, while peak postprandial metabolism was initially greater. This meant that the estimated AS during peak SDA approached zero, constraining digestion and leaving little room for additional aerobic processes. After eight weeks at 16°C, SMR was restored, while AS and the estimated AS during peak SDA recovered partly. Collectively, this demonstrated a considerable capacity for metabolic thermal compensation, which should be better incorporated into future models on organismal responses to climate change. A mathematical model based on the empirical data suggested that phenotypes with fast acclimation rates may be favoured by natural selection as the accumulated energetic cost of a slow acclimation rate increases in a warmer future with exacerbated thermal variations. PMID:25232133

  8. Comparison of two different anaerobic feeding strategies to establish a stable aerobic granulated sludge bed.

    PubMed

    Rocktäschel, T; Klarmann, C; Helmreich, B; Ochoa, J; Boisson, P; Sørensen, K H; Horn, H

    2013-11-01

    Two different anaerobic feeding strategies were compared to optimize the development and performance of aerobic granules. A stable aerobic granulation of activated sludge was achieved with an anaerobic plug flow operation (PI) and a fast influent step followed by an anaerobic mixing phase (PII). Two lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to test the different operation modes. PI with plug flow and a reactor H/D (height/diameter) ratio of 9 achieved a biomass concentration of 20 g(TSS)/L and an effluent TSS concentration of 0.10 g(TSS)/L. PII with the mixed anaerobic phase directly after feeding and a reactor H/D ratio of 2 achieved a biomass concentration of 9 g(TSS)/L and an effluent quality of 0.05 g(TSS)/L. Furthermore, it is shown that the plug flow regime during anaerobic feeding together with the lower H/D ratio of 2 led to channeling effects, which resulted in lower storage of organic carbon and a general destabilization of the granulation process. Compared to the plug flow regime (PI), the anaerobic mixing (PII) provided lower substrate gradients within the biofilm. However, these disadvantages could be compensated by higher mass transfer coefficients in PII (k(L) = 0.3 m/d for PI; k(L) = 86 m/d for PII) during the anaerobic phase. PMID:24103394

  9. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  10. Biodegradable polymers from organic acids by using activated sludge enriched by aerobic periodic feeding.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Davide; Majone, Mauro; Papa, Viviana; Beccari, Mario

    2004-03-20

    This article describes a new process for the production of biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs) based on the aerobic enrichment of activated sludge to obtain mixed cultures able to store PHAs at high rates and yields. Enrichment was obtained through the selective pressure established by feeding the carbon source in a periodic mode (feast and famine regime) in a sequencing batch reactor. A concentrated mixture of acetic, lactic, and propionic acids (overall concentration of 8.5 gCOD L(-1)) was fed every 2 h at 1 day(-1) overall dilution rate. Even at such high organic load (8.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)), the selective pressure due to periodic feeding was effective in obtaining a biomass with a storage ability much higher than activated sludges. The immediate biomass response to substrate excess (as determined thorough short-term batch tests) was characterized by a storage rate and yield of 649 mgPHA (as COD) g biomass (as COD)(-1) h(-1) and 0.45 mgPHA (as COD) mg removed substrates (as COD(-1)), respectively. When the substrate excess was present for more than 2 h (long-term batch tests), the storage rate and yield decreased, whereas growth rate and yield significantly increased due to biomass adaptation. A maximum polymer fraction in the biomass was therefore obtained at about 50% (on COD basis). As for the PHA composition, the copolymer poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate/beta-hydroxyvalerate) with 31% of hydroxyvalerate monomer was produced from the substrate mixture. Comparison of the tests with individual and mixed substrates seemed to indicate that, on removing the substrate mixture for copolymer production, propionic acid was fully utilized to produce propionylCoA, whereas the acetylCoA was fully provided by acetic and lactic acid. PMID:14966798

  11. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  12. Bacterial population dynamics in diary waste during aerobic and anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream and monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. Both...

  13. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Results Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA) and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon). In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. Conclusions The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid) per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit < 1 transformant per 1,1 × 108 cultured bacteria). The key methodological challenges to HGT detection in animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals. PMID:22463741

  14. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women.

    PubMed

    Curry, Brad S; Chengkalath, Devendra; Crouch, Gordon J; Romance, Michelle; Manns, Patricia J

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three warm-up protocols--static stretching, dynamic stretching, and light aerobic activity--on selected measures of range of motion and power in untrained females and to investigate the sustained effects at 5 and 30 minutes after warm-up. A total of 24 healthy females (ages 23-29 years) attended one familiarization session and three test sessions on nonconsecutive days within 2 weeks. A within-subject design protocol with the testing investigators blinded to the subjects' warm-up was followed. Each session started with 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling followed by pretest baseline measures. Another 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling was completed and followed by one of the three randomly selected warm-up interventions (static stretching, dynamic stretching, or light aerobic activity). The following posttest outcome measures were collected 5 and 30 minutes following the intervention: modified Thomas test, countermovement jump, and isometric time to peak force knee extension measured by dynamometer. Analysis of the data revealed significant time effects on range of motion and countermovement jump changes. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the warm-up conditions on any of the variables. The variation in responses to warm-up conditions emphasizes the unique nature of individual reactions to different warm-ups; however, there was a tendency for warm-ups with an active component to have beneficial effects. The data suggests dynamic stretching has greater applicability to enhance performance on power outcomes compared to static stretching. PMID:19675479

  15. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  16. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  17. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  18. Fluid dynamics in suspension-feeding blackfish.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, S L; Cech, J J; Patterson, M R

    1991-03-15

    Measurements of flow patterns and water velocities inside the oral cavity of blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus), made with a fiberoptic endoscope and thermistor flow probe, revealed that gill-arch structures act in blackfish as barriers that direct particle-laden water to the mucus-covered roof of the oral cavity, where particles are retained. Gill-arch structures have previously been assumed to be the site of particle retention in suspension-feeding fishes. Water does not pass between these structures in blackfish, and they do not serve as filters that separate particles from the water. These results emphasize the importance of directly assessing flow velocity and direction inside the oral cavity of vertebrate suspension feeders, particularly at the level of the filtering elements. PMID:17816190

  19. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOEpatents

    Kazmer, David O.

    1996-09-17

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  20. [Modeling and dynamic simulation of the multimode anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic wastewater treatment process].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Wu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Du, Xing-Zhi; Jiang, Ling-Yan; Xing, Can

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for professional education, process development, design evaluation, operational optimization and automatic control of the wastewater treatment system, and has been extensively applied in numerous full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The ASM2d model was calibrated by the process data, and used to simulate 15 operational test runs of the multimode anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AAO) process. After calibration, the model was capable of simulating the sludge concentrations and effluent data in 15 test runs of the multimode AAO system. The dynamic simulation results showed an overall good agreement between the measured and simulated data, for both effluent data and sludge concentrations, with a good reproduction of dynamic processes in AO test runs. PMID:23798127

  1. Vampires, Pasteur and reactive oxygen species. Is the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism a preventive antioxidant defence in blood-feeding parasites?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro L; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2002-08-14

    Several species of parasites show a reduction of their respiratory activity along their developmental cycles after they start to feed on vertebrate blood, relying on anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates to achieve their energy requirements. Usually, these parasites choose not to breathe despite of living in an environment of high oxygen availability such as vertebrate blood. Absence of the 'Pasteur effect' in most of these parasites has been well documented. Interestingly, together with the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in these parasites, there is clear evidence pointing to an increase in their antioxidant defences. As the respiratory chain in mitochondria is a major site of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we propose here that the arrest of respiration constitutes an adaptation to avoid the toxic effects of ROS. This situation would be especially critical for blood-feeding parasites because ROS produced in mitochondria would interact with pro-oxidant products of blood digestion, such as haem and/or iron, and increase the oxidative damage to the parasite's cells. PMID:12163151

  2. Nitrous oxide production by Alcaligenes faecalis under transient and dynamic aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, S.; Grobben, N.G.; Robertson, L.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Nitrous oxide production contributes to both greenhouse effect and ozone depletion in the stratosphere. A significant part of the global N2O emission can be attributed to microbial processes, especially nitrification and denitrification, used in biological wastewater treatment systems. This study looks at the efficiency of denitrification and the enzymes involved, with the emphasis on N2O production during the transient phase from aerobic to anaerobic conditions and vice versa. The effect of repetitive changing aerobic-anaerobic conditions on N2O was also studied. Alcaligenes faecalis was used as the model denitrofing organism. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Growth dynamics of specific spoilage organisms and associated spoilage biomarkers in chicken breast stored aerobically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to identify and quantify selected volatile spoilage biomarkers in a headspace over chicken breast using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detectors (GC-MS/FID). The chicken breast samples were aerobically s...

  4. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  5. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  6. Organization of the Escherichia coli aerobic enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation in dynamic domains within the cytoplasmic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Heiko; Dempwolff, Felix; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Riehle, Marc; Schäfer, Caspar; Pohl, Thomas; Graumann, Peter; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane contains the enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Not much is known about their supramolecular organization and their dynamics within the membrane in this model organism. In mitochondria and other bacteria, it was demonstrated by nondenaturing electrophoretic methods and electron microscopy that the OXPHOS complexes are organized in so-called supercomplexes, stable assemblies with a defined number of the individual enzyme complexes. To investigate the organization of the E. coli enzyme complexes of aerobic OXPHOS in vivo, we established fluorescent protein fusions of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the cytochrome bd-I, and the cytochrome bo3 terminal oxidases, and the FoF1 ATP-synthase. The fusions were integrated in the chromosome to prevent artifacts caused by protein overproduction. Biochemical analysis revealed that all modified complexes were fully assembled, active, and stable. The distribution of the OXPHOS complexes in living cells was determined using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamics within the membrane were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. All aerobic OXPHOS complexes showed an uneven distribution in large mobile patches within the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. It is discussed whether the individual OXPHOS complexes are organized as clustered individual complexes, here called “segrazones.” PMID:24729508

  7. Effects of aerobic training on heart rate dynamics in sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Tulppo, Mikko P; Hautala, Arto J; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Laukkanen, Raija T; Nissilä, Seppo; Hughson, Richard L; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of moderate- and high-volume aerobic training on the time domain and on spectral and fractal heart rate (HR) variability indexes. Sedentary subjects were randomized into groups with moderate-volume training (n = 20), high-volume training (n = 20), and controls (n = 15). The training period was 8 wk, including 6 sessions/wk at an intensity of 70-80% of the maximum HR, lasting for 30 min/session in the moderate-volume group and 60 min/session in the high-volume group. Time domain, frequency domain, and short-term fractal scaling measures of HR variability were analyzed over a 24-h period. Mean HR decreased from 70 +/- 7 to 64 +/- 8 beats/min and from 67 +/- 5 to 60 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.001 for both) for the moderate- and high-volume training groups, respectively. The normalized high-frequency spectral component increased in both groups (P < 0.05). The normalized low-frequency component decreased significantly (P < 0.05), resulting in a marked decrease in low frequency-to-high frequency ratio in both groups. In addition, short-term scaling exponent decreased in both groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the changes of HR variability indexes between groups. Aerobic training in sedentary subjects results in altered autonomic regulation of HR toward vagal dominance. A moderate training volume is a sufficient intervention to induce these beneficial effects. PMID:12651862

  8. Microbial Dynamics during Aerobic Exposure of Corn Silage Stored under Oxygen Barrier or Polyethylene Films▿

    PubMed Central

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm3 m−2 per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log10 CFU g−1, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  9. Microbial dynamics during aerobic exposure of corn silage stored under oxygen barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm³ m⁻² per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  10. Sodium sulfate impacts feeding, specific dynamic action, and growth rate in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David John

    2007-08-01

    Sodium sulfate is a ubiquitous salt that reaches toxic concentrations due to mining and other industrial activities, yet is currently unregulated at the Federal level in the United States. Previous studies have documented reduced growth of clams downstream of sulfate-dominated effluents, altered bioenergetics in filter-feeding invertebrates, and interactions between sulfate and other toxicants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if sodium sulfate affects the bioenergetics of the filter-feeding, freshwater bivalve, Corbicula fluminea, and the mechanism by which the effects are elicited. In addition to measuring effects on feeding, respiration and growth rates, I evaluated the relative sensitivity of a green algae consumed by clams to determine if top-down or bottom-up effects might be exhibited under field conditions. This study demonstrated that sodium sulfate had no effect on basal metabolic rates, but significantly reduced the feeding, post-feeding metabolic, and growth rates of C. fluminea. The proposed mechanism for these impacts is that filtering rates are reduced upon exposure, resulting in reduced food consumption and therefore, preventing increased metabolic rates normally associated with post-feeding specific dynamic action (SDA). In the field, these effects may cause changes in whole stream respiration rates and organic matter dynamics, as well as alter uptake rates of other food-associated contaminants like selenium, the toxicity of which is known to be antagonized by sulfate, in filter-feeding bivalves. PMID:17590452

  11. Thunniform swimming: muscle dynamics and mechanical power production of aerobic fibres in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Robert E; Syme, Douglas A

    2008-05-01

    We studied the mechanical properties of deep red aerobic muscle of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), using both in vivo and in vitro methods. In fish swimming in a water tunnel at 1-3 L s(-1) (where L is fork length), muscle length changes were recorded by sonomicrometry, and activation timing was quantified by electromyography. In some fish a tendon buckle was also implanted on the caudal tendon to measure instantaneous muscle forces transmitted to the tail. Between measurement sites at 0.45 to 0.65 L, the wave of muscle shortening progressed along the body at a relatively high velocity of 1.7 L per tail beat period, and a significant phase shift (31+/-4 degrees ) occurred between muscle shortening and local midline curvature, both suggesting red muscle power is directed posteriorly, rather than causing local body bending, which is a hallmark of thunniform swimming. Muscle activation at 0.53 L was initiated at about 50 degrees of the tail beat period and ceased at about 160 degrees , where 90 degrees is peak muscle length and 180 degrees is minimum length. Strain amplitude in the deep red fibres at 0.5 L was +/-5.4%, double that predicted from midline curvature analysis. Work and power production were measured in isolated bundles of red fibres from 0.5 L by the work loop technique. Power was maximal at 3-4 Hz and fell to less than 50% of maximum after 6 Hz. Based on the timing of activation, muscle strain, tail beat frequencies and forces in the caudal tendon while swimming, we conclude that yellowfin tuna, like skipjack, use their red muscles under conditions that produce near-maximal power output while swimming. Interestingly, the red muscles of yellowfin tuna are slower than those of skipjack, which corresponds with the slower tail beat frequencies and cruising speeds in yellowfin. PMID:18456888

  12. Aerobic Interval Training Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats Post-Myocardial Infarction: Roles of Mitochondrial Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Ke; Wang, You-Hua; Sun, Lei; He, Xi; Zhao, Mei; Feng, Zhi-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval training (AIT) can favorably affect cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of AIT on post-myocardial infarction (MI)—associated mitochondrial dysfunctions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AIT on myocardial mitochondria in post-MI rats by focusing on mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission). Mitochondrial respiratory functions (as measured by the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the ratio of ADP to oxygen consumption (P/O)); complex activities; dynamic proteins (mitofusin (mfn) 1/2, type 1 optic atrophy (OPA1) and dynamin-related protein1 (DRP1)); nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α); and the oxidative signaling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and P53 were observed. Post-MI rats exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and adverse mitochondrial network dynamics (reduced fusion and increased fission), which was associated with activated ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and decreased nuclear PGC-1α. After AIT, MI-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was improved (elevated RCR and P/O and enhanced complex I, III and IV activities); in addition, increased fusion (mfn2 and OPA1), decreased fission (DRP1), elevated nuclear PGC-1α and inactivation of the ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling were observed. These data demonstrate that AIT may restore the post-MI mitochondrial function by inhibiting dynamics pathological remodeling, which may be associated with inactivation of ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and increase in nuclear PGC-1α expression. PMID:24675698

  13. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  14. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  15. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  16. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  17. Determination of a Dynamic Feeding Strategy for Recombinant Pichia pastoris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of certain strain specific parameters of recombinant P. pastoris strains is required to be able to set up a feeding regime for fed-batch cultivations. To date, these parameters are commonly determined either by time-consuming and labor-intensive continuous cultivations or by several, consecutive fed-batch cultivations. Here, we describe a fast method based on batch experiments with methanol pulses to extract certain strain characteristic parameters, which are required to set up a dynamic feeding strategy for P. pastoris strains based on specific substrate uptake rate (qs). We further describe in detail the course of actions which have to be taken to obtain the desired dynamics during feeding. PMID:24744034

  18. Discovery and application of energetic principles to feeding systems for beef cattle: Use of dynamic models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Static feeding systems are being replaced by dynamic simulation models that attempt to capture the underlying biology which is sensitive to a wide range of genetic and environmental conditions. In 1986, the Davis Growth Model used cell number and size mechanisms of growth to predict growth and body ...

  19. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. PMID:26199741

  20. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2-5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. PMID:26199741

  1. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Chemical Spoilage Indexes Associated with Bacterial Growth Dynamics in Aerobically Stored Chicken.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) of raw chicken breast stored aerobically at 4, 10, and 21 °C were identified and quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth dynamics of total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta and H2 S producing bacteria were characterized based on maximum growth rates (μmax ), maximal microbial concentration (Nmax ) and at the moment of microbial shelf life (Svalues ), calculated from Gompertz-fitted growth curves. Pseudomonas spp. was predominant species, while B. thermosphacta was characterized by the highest μmax . The microbiological and sensory shelf lives were estimated based on TVC, Pseudomonas spp., and B. thermosphacta counts and sensory evaluation, respectively. Among 27 VOCs identified by GC-MS in spoiled chicken samples, ethanol (EtOH), 1-butanol-3-methyl (1But-3M), and acetic acid (C2 ) achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.66, 0.61, and 0.59, respectively, with TVC, regardless of storage temperature. Partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed that the synthesis of 1But-3M and C2 was most likely induced by the metabolic activity of B. thermosphacta and LAB, while EtOH was attributed to Pseudomonas spp. The increase in concentration of selected volatile spoilage markers (EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 ) in the headspace over spoiled chicken breast was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) with TVC growth. These findings highlight the possibility of analyzing the combination of 3 selected spoilage markers: EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 as rapid evaluation for poultry quality testing using SPME-GC-MS. PMID:27332555

  2. MILKY WAY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE: DYNAMICAL FEEDING FROM THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Wright, Melvyn; Sun, Ai-Lei; Minh, Young Chol

    2012-09-10

    The supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sgr A*, at the Galactic center is surrounded by a molecular circumnuclear disk (CND) lying between 1.5 and 4 pc radii. The irregular and clumpy structures of the CND suggest dynamical evolution and episodic feeding of gas toward the central SMBH. New sensitive data from the Submillimeter Array and Green Bank Telescope reveal several >5-10 pc scale molecular arms, which either directly connect to the CND or may penetrate inside the CND. The CND appears to be the convergence of the innermost parts of large-scale gas streamers, which are responding to the central gravitational potential well. Rather than being a quasi-stationary structure, the CND may be dynamically evolving, incorporating inflow via streamers, and feeding gas toward the center.

  3. Milky Way Supermassive Black Hole: Dynamical Feeding from the Circumnuclear Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Wright, Melvyn; Sun, Ai-Lei; Minh, Young Chol

    2012-09-01

    The supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sgr A*, at the Galactic center is surrounded by a molecular circumnuclear disk (CND) lying between 1.5 and 4 pc radii. The irregular and clumpy structures of the CND suggest dynamical evolution and episodic feeding of gas toward the central SMBH. New sensitive data from the Submillimeter Array and Green Bank Telescope reveal several >5-10 pc scale molecular arms, which either directly connect to the CND or may penetrate inside the CND. The CND appears to be the convergence of the innermost parts of large-scale gas streamers, which are responding to the central gravitational potential well. Rather than being a quasi-stationary structure, the CND may be dynamically evolving, incorporating inflow via streamers, and feeding gas toward the center.

  4. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:21156061

  5. Dynamics of development of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria during aeration of an oil-bearing stratum to enhance oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    The distribution and activity of microorganisms in ground formations has been studied in order to assess their use and regulation during oil field exploitation. Experiments were performed on water-flooded oil fields of the Tatar ASSR and revealed some regularity in the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic microflora. Wells were opened after 3, 28 and 68 days after flooding with aerated water supplemented with nitrogen and phosphate salts. Activation of aerobes results in oxidation of residual oil (not released over 3 years of exploitation). The products (CO/sub 2/ fatty acids) of oxidation promote oil recovery. In the longer experiments anaerobic processes, especially methanogenesis from CO/sub 2/ were enhanced.

  6. A dynamic fed batch strategy for a Pichia pastoris mixed feed system to increase process understanding.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Mixed substrate feeding strategies are frequently investigated to enhance the productivity of recombinant Pichia pastoris processes. For this purpose, numerous fed batch experiments or time-consuming continuous cultivations are required to optimize control parameters such as the substrate mixing ratio and the applied methanol concentration. In this study, we decoupled the feeding of methanol and glycerol in a mixed substrate fed batch environment to gain process understanding for a recombinant P. pastoris Muts strain producing the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Specific substrate uptake rates (qs) were controlled separately, and a stepwise increased qGly-control scheme was applied to investigate the effect of various substrate fluxes on the culture. The qs-controlled strategy allowed a parallel characterization of the metabolism and the recombinant protein expression in a fed batch environment. A critical-specific glycerol uptake rate was determined, where a decline of the specific productivity occurred, and a time-dependent acceleration of protein expression was characterized with the dynamic fed batch approach. Based on the observations on recombinant protein expression, propositions for an optimal feeding design to target maximal productivities were stated. Thus, the dynamic fed batch strategy was found to be a valuable tool for both process understanding and optimization of product formation for P. pastoris in a mixed substrate environment. PMID:22505140

  7. Development of a predictive model for the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population on pomegranate marinated chicken breast fillets under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Lytou, Anastasia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a model to describe the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population of chicken breast fillets marinated in pomegranate juice under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions. Moreover, the effect of pomegranate juice on the extension of the shelf life of the product was investigated. Samples (10 g) of chicken breast fillets were immersed in marinades containing pomegranate juice for 3 h at 4 °C following storage under aerobic conditions at 4, 10, and 15 °C for 10 days. Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were enumerated, in parallel with sensory assessment (odor and overall appearance) of marinated and non-marinated samples. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of TVC to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) that was further modeled as a function of temperature using a square root-type model. The validation of the model was conducted under dynamic temperature conditions based on two fluctuating temperature scenarios with periodic changes from 6 to 13 °C. The shelf life was determined both mathematically and with sensory assessment and its temperature dependence was modeled by an Arrhenius type equation. Results showed that the μmax of TVC of marinated samples was significantly lower compared to control samples regardless temperature, while under dynamic temperature conditions the model satisfactorily predicted the growth of TVC in both control and marinated samples. The shelf-life of marinated samples was significantly extended compared to the control (5 days extension at 4 °C). The calculated activation energies (Ea), 82 and 52 kJ/mol for control and marinated samples, respectively, indicated higher temperature dependence of the shelf life of control samples compared to marinated ones. The present results indicated that pomegranate juice could be used as an alternative ingredient in marinades to prolong the shelf life of chicken. PMID:26742613

  8. Modelling Transmission of Vector-Borne Pathogens Shows Complex Dynamics When Vector Feeding Sites Are Limited

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Stone, Lewi; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Blaustein, Leon

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and the prevalence of vector-borne disease has been widely studied with a range of outcomes. Increasing the number of host species for a pathogen may decrease infection prevalence (dilution effect), increase it (amplification), or have no effect. We derive a general model, and a specific implementation, which show that when the number of vector feeding sites on each host is limiting, the effects on pathogen dynamics of host population size are more complex than previously thought. The model examines vector-borne disease in the presence of different host species that are either competent or incompetent (i.e. that cannot transmit the pathogen to vectors) as reservoirs for the pathogen. With a single host species present, the basic reproduction ratio R0 is a non-monotonic function of the population size of host individuals (H), i.e. a value exists that maximises R0. Surprisingly, if a reduction in host population size may actually increase R0. Extending this model to a two-host species system, incompetent individuals from the second host species can alter the value of which may reverse the effect on pathogen prevalence of host population reduction. We argue that when vector-feeding sites on hosts are limiting, the net effect of increasing host diversity might not be correctly predicted using simple frequency-dependent epidemiological models. PMID:22590597

  9. A novel approach for determining the minimum feed in nanochannels processing via molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiaqi; Dong, Zeguang; Zhao, Jinsheng; Liu, Pinkuan

    2016-04-01

    A novel approach based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been proposed for the first time with the focus on quantifying the minimum feed (MF) in atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanochannel fabrication. This approach involves a coarse-to-fine criterion to determine MF so that regular nanochannel patterns can be obtained. The method is first introduced step by step and then confirmatory test is performed to demonstrate the capability of this contour-based method. MF judging studies are also performed systematically in which they vary in the aspects of scratching depth, tip angles, and tip shapes. Dislocations generation, surface quality, and scratching forces in the initial and subsequent scratches are investigated in detail. This method can overcome the drawbacks of high cost and low efficiency in experimental studies. Furthermore, our method sheds light on the manufacturing technique of nanochannels, which can help to obtain the surface morphologies with higher quality than traditional approaches.

  10. Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate▿

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, an exponential increase in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity was observed in the propionate granules, but a linear and erratic increase was detected in the acetate ones. Besides Accumulibacter and Competibacter, other bacterial populations found in both granules were associated with Chloroflexus and Acidovorax. The EBPR activity in the propionate granules was high and stable, whereas EBPR in the acetate granules was erratic throughout the study and suffered from a deterioration period that could be readily reversed by inducing hydrolysis of polyphosphate in presumably saturated Accumulibacter cells. Using a new ppk1 gene-based dual terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach revealed that Accumulibacter diversity was highest in the floccular sludge inoculum but that when granules were formed, propionate readily favored the dominance of Accumulibacter type IIA. In contrast, acetate granules exhibited transient shifts between type I and type II before the granules were dominated by Accumulibacter type IIA. However, ppk1 gene sequences from acetate granules clustered separately from those of propionate granules. Our data indicate that the mere presence of Accumulibacter is not enough to have consistently high EBPR but that the type of Accumulibacter determines the robustness of the phosphate removal process. PMID:21926195

  11. The effects of host-feeding on stability of discrete-time host-parasitoid population dynamic models.

    PubMed

    Emerick, Brooks; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-02-01

    Discrete-time models are the traditional approach for capturing population dynamics of a host-parasitoid system. Recent work has introduced a semi-discrete framework for obtaining model update functions that connect host-parasitoid population levels from year-to-year. In particular, this framework uses differential equations to describe the host-parasitoid interaction during the time of year when they come in contact, allowing specific behaviors to be mechanistically incorporated. We use the semi-discrete approach to study the effects of host-feeding, which occurs when a parasitoid consumes a potential host larva without ovipositing. We find that host-feeding by itself cannot stabilize the system, and both populations exhibit behavior similar to the Nicholson-Bailey model. However, when combined with stabilizing mechanisms such as density-dependent host mortality, host-feeding contracts the region of parameter space that allows for a stable host-parasitoid equilibrium. In contrast, when combined with a density-dependent parasitoid attack rate, host-feeding expands the non-zero equilibrium stability region. Our results show that host-feeding causes inefficiency in the parasitoid population, which yields a higher population of hosts per generation. This suggests that host-feeding may have limited long-term impact in terms of suppressing host levels for biological control applications. PMID:26686008

  12. A global comparative analysis of the feeding dynamics and environmental conditions of larval tunas, mackerels, and billfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopiz, Joel K.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-03-01

    Scombroid fishes, including tunas, mackerels, and billfishes, constitute some of the most important fisheries in lower latitudes around the world. Though the early life stages of these taxa are relatively well-studied, worldwide patterns in larval feeding dynamics and how such patterns relate to environmental conditions are poorly resolved. We present a synthesis of feeding success (i.e. feeding incidences) and diets of larval scombroids from around the world, and relate these results to water column and sea surface properties for the several regions in which larval feeding studies have been conducted. Feeding success of larval tunas was shown to be distinctly different among regions. In some locations (the Straits of Florida and the Mediterranean Sea), nearly no larvae had empty guts, whereas in other locations (the Gulf of California and off NW Australia) ~40-60% of larvae were empty. Diets were consistently narrow in each region (dominated by cyclopoid copepods, appendicularians, nauplii, and other fish larvae), and were usually, but not always, similar for a given scombroid taxon among regions (though diets differed among taxa). Larval habitat conditions were often similar among the 9 regions examined, but some clear differences included low levels of eddy kinetic energy and cooler waters (at the surface and at depth) in the Mediterranean, and lower chlorophyll concentrations around the Nansei Islands, Japan and off NW Australia where feeding success was low. When observed zooplankton abundances are also taken into account, the compiled results on feeding and environmental conditions indicate a bottom-up influence on feeding success. Moreover, the variability among regions highlights the potential for region-specific mechanisms regulating larval survival and, ultimately, levels of adult recruitment.

  13. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  14. Dynamics and thermal sensitivity of ballistic and non-ballistic feeding in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Deban, Stephen M; Scales, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Low temperature reduces the performance of muscle-powered movements, but in movements powered by elastic recoil mechanisms, this effect can be mitigated and performance can be increased. To better understand the morphological basis of high performance and thermal robustness of elastically powered movements, we compared feeding dynamics at a range of temperatures (5-25°C) in two species of terrestrial plethodontid salamanders, Plethodon metcalfi and Ensatina eschscholtzii, which differ in tongue muscle architecture and the mechanism of tongue projection. We found that Ensatina is capable of ballistic projection with a mean muscle mass-specific power of 2100 W kg(-1), revealing an elastic mechanism. Plethodon, in contrast, projected its tongue non-ballistically with a mean power of only 18 W kg(-1), indicating it is muscle powered. Ensatina projected its tongue significantly farther than Plethodon and with dynamics that had significantly lower thermal sensitivity at temperatures below 15°C. These performance differences were correlated with morphological differences, namely elongated collagenous aponeuroses in the projector muscle of Ensatina as compared with Plethodon, which are likely the site of energy storage, and the absence in Ensatina of projector muscle fibers attaching to the tongue skeleton that allows projection to be truly ballistic. These findings demonstrate that, in these otherwise similar species, the presence in one species of elaborated connective tissue in series with myofibers confers not only 10-fold greater absolute performance but also greater thermal robustness of performance. We conclude that changes in muscle and connective tissue architecture are sufficient to alter significantly the mechanics, performance and thermal robustness of musculoskeletal systems. PMID:26612894

  15. The Dynamics of Parenting and Early Feeding--Constructs and Controversies: A Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Elena; Daniels, Lynne A.; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that parenting and feeding interact to influence children's eating behaviour and weight status. Interpretation of existing research is complicated by the lack of consensus in the conceptualisation and measurement of both "parenting" and "feeding", particularly the distinction between "styles", "dimensions" and…

  16. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of space shuttle main propulsion feed line 17-inch disconnect valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Pearce, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    A steady incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) viscous flow analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion External Tank (ET)/Orbiter (ORB) propellant feed line quick separable 17-inch disconnect flapper valves for liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2). The main objectives of the analysis were to predict and correlate the hydrodynamic stability of the flappers and pressure drop with available water test data. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer codes were procured at no cost from the public domain, and were modified and extended to carry out the disconnect flow analysis. The grid generator codes SVTGD3D and INGRID were obtained. NASA Ames Research Center supplied the flow solution code INS3D, and the color graphics code PLOT3D. A driver routine was developed to automate the grid generation process. Components such as pipes, elbows, and flappers can be generated with simple commands, and flapper angles can be varied easily. The flow solver INS3D code was modified to treat interior flappers, and other interfacing routines were developed, which include a turbulence model, a force/moment routine, a time-step routine, and initial and boundary conditions. In particular, an under-relaxation scheme was implemented to enhance the solution stability. Major physical assumptions and simplifications made in the analysis include the neglect of linkages, slightly reduced flapper diameter, and smooth solid surfaces. A grid size of 54 x 21 x 25 was employed for both the LO2 and LH2 units. Mixing length theory applied to turbulent shear flow in pipes formed the basis for the simple turbulence model. Results of the analysis are presented for LO2 and LH2 disconnects.

  17. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; Scharler, Ursula M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N) and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N) was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N) and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N). These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that estuarine

  18. Nutrient Dynamics of Estuarine Invertebrates Are Shaped by Feeding Guild Rather than Seasonal River Flow.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; Scharler, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the variability of carbon and nitrogen elemental content, stoichiometry and diet proportions of invertebrates in two sub-tropical estuaries in South Africa experiencing seasonal changes in rainfall and river inflow. The elemental ratios and stable isotopes of abiotic sources, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos taxa were analyzed over a dry/wet seasonal cycle. Nutrient content (C, N) and stoichiometry of suspended particulate matter exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in both estuaries, which were explained by the variability in river inflow. Sediment particulate matter (%C, %N and C:N) was also influenced by the variability in river flow but to a lesser extent. The nutrient content and ratios of the analyzed invertebrates did not significantly vary among seasons with the exception of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus spp. (C:N) and the tanaid Apseudes digitalis (%N, C:N). These changes did not track the seasonal variations of the suspended or sediment particulate matter. Our results suggest that invertebrates managed to maintain their stoichiometry independent of the seasonality in river flow. A significant variability in nitrogen content among estuarine invertebrates was recorded, with highest % N recorded from predators and lowest %N from detritivores. Due to the otherwise general lack of seasonal differences in elemental content and stoichiometry, feeding guild was a major factor shaping the nutrient dynamics of the estuarine invertebrates. The nutrient richer suspended particulate matter was the preferred food source over sediment particulate matter for most invertebrate consumers in many, but not all seasons. The most distinct preference for suspended POM as a food source was apparent from the temporarily open/closed system after the estuary had breached, highlighting the importance of river flow as a driver of invertebrate nutrient dynamics under extreme events conditions. Moreover, our data showed that estuarine

  19. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chun-Hai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower. PMID:27441825

  20. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Sung, C. C.; Liou, D. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Cha, H. C.

    This work presents a new fuel sensor-less control scheme for liquid feed fuel cells that is able to control the supply to a fuel cell system for operation under dynamic loading conditions. The control scheme uses cell-operating characteristics, such as potential, current, and power, to regulate the fuel concentration of a liquid feed fuel cell without the need for a fuel concentration sensor. A current integral technique has been developed to calculate the quantity of fuel required at each monitoring cycle, which can be combined with the concentration regulating process to control the fuel supply for stable operation. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme can effectively control the fuel supply of a liquid feed fuel cell with reduced response time, even under conditions where the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) deteriorates gradually. This advance will aid the commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells and make them more adaptable for use in portable and automotive power units such as laptops, e-bikes, and handicap cars.

  1. Determining Suction Feeding Efficiency in the Bowfin fish (Amia) using Particle Image Velocimery and Computaional Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rua, Yenny; Kharbouch, Karim; Sanford, Christopher; Reckinger, Shanon

    2014-11-01

    Suction feeding is the most common form of prey capture in aquatic vertebrates. During the early evolution of fishes there was a major change in shape of the mouth, from a wedge shaped mouth opening in more primitive fishes to a more circular and planar mouth. This change in shape resulted from increased mobility of a key upper jaw bone, the maxilla. It has been suggested that this change in shape dramatically increased suction feeding efficiency. This study examines the hydrodynamic effects of these two mouth shapes in the same animal, the bowfin fish (Amia calva). 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to analyze suction feeding events. Post-processing algorithms have been developed to determine the flow rate of water into the mouth of the fish; the area of fluid, the velocity of fluid and the volume of fluid affected by the fish; the velocity of the fluid at the mouth, as well as the velocity of the fluid as a function of the distance from the mouth, finally the force exerted on the fluid by the fish is also determined. Lastly, a numerical model has been developed for comparison using a non-uniform mesh, which adapts dynamically in space and time to the fish feeding event. The realistic geometry of the fish's head is modeled in CAD.

  2. A Mixed Incoherent Feed-Forward Loop Allows Conditional Regulation of Response Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Semsey, Szabolcs

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the SodA superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in Escherichia coli is regulated by superoxide concentration through the SoxRS system and also by Fur (Ferric uptake regulator) through a mixed incoherent feed forward loop (FFL) containing the RyhB small regulatory RNA. In this work I theoretically analyze the function of this feed forward loop as part of the network controlling expression of the two cytoplasmic superoxide dismutases, SodA and SodB. I find that feed forward regulation allows faster response to superoxide stress at low intracellular iron levels compared to iron rich conditions. That is, it can conditionally modulate the response time of a superimposed transcriptional control mechanism. PMID:24621982

  3. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. PMID:23795678

  4. Fluid dynamics of feeding behaviour in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Wilga, Cheryl D; Lauder, George V; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    Although the motor control of feeding is presumed to be generally conserved, some fishes are capable of modulating the feeding behaviour in response to prey type and or prey size. This led to the 'feeding modulation hypothesis', which states that rapid suction strikes are pre-programmed stereotyped events that proceed to completion once initiated regardless of sensory input. If this hypothesis holds true, successful strikes should be indistinguishable from unsuccessful strikes owing to a lack of feedback control in specialized suction feeding fishes. The hydrodynamics of suction feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) was studied in three behaviours: successful strikes, intraoral transports of prey and unsuccessful strikes. The area of the fluid velocity region around the head of feeding sharks was quantified using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The maximal size of the fluid velocity region is 56% larger in successful strikes than unsuccessful strikes (10.79 cm2 vs 6.90 cm2), but they do not differ in duration, indicating that strikes are modulated based on some aspect of the prey or simply as a result of decreased effort on the part of the predator. The hydrodynamic profiles of successful and unsuccessful strikes differ after 21 ms, a period probably too short to provide time to react through feedback control. The predator-to-prey distance is larger in missed strikes compared with successful strikes, indicating that insufficient suction is generated to compensate for the increased distance. An accuracy index distinguishes unsuccessful strikes (-0.26) from successful strikes (0.45 to 0.61). Successful strikes occur primarily between the horizontal axis of the mouth and the dorsal boundary of the ingested parcel of water, and missed prey are closer to the boundary or beyond. Suction transports are shorter in duration than suction strikes but have similar maximal fluid velocity areas to move the prey through the

  5. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. PMID:21051843

  6. Plasma gossypol dynamics in white-tailed deer: Implications for whole cottonseed as a supplemental feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cottonseed (WCS) is a potential supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in rangeland conditions because of its high digestible energy and protein content, moderate fiber content, and resistance to degradation in moist conditions. WCS also contains the polyphenolic sec...

  7. Feed-forward and its role in conditional linear optical quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheel, S.; Munro, W. J.; Kok, P.; Eisert, J.; Nemoto, K.

    2006-03-15

    Nonlinear optical quantum gates can be created probabilistically using only single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and photon-number-resolving detectors. These gates are heralded but operate with probabilities much less than 1. There is currently a large gap between the performance of the known circuits and the established upper bounds on their success probabilities. One possibility for increasing the probability of success of such gates is feed-forward, where one attempts to correct certain failure events that occurred in the gate's operation. In this Brief Report we examine the role of feed-forward in improving the success probability. In particular, for the nonlinear sign-shift gate, we find that in a three-mode implementation with a single round of feed-forward the optimal average probability of success is approximately given by p{sub success}=0.272. This value is only slightly larger than the general optimal success probability without feed-forward, p{sub success}=0.25.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step finite-rate chemistry model with a total of 9 gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually-fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  9. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  10. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  11. [Research advances in aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhong, Wen-hui; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2007-11-01

    This paper reviewed the varieties and characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers, their action mechanisms, and the factors affecting aerobic denitrification. Aerobic denitrifiers mainly include Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus and Bacillus, which are either aerobic or facultative aerobic, and heterotrophic. They can denitrify under aerobic conditions, with the main product being N2O. They can also convert NH4+ -N to gas product. The nitrate reductase which catalyzes the denitrification is periplasmic nitrate reductase rather than membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio are the main factors affecting aerobic denitrification. The main methods for screening aerobic denitrifiers, such as intermittent aeration and selected culture, were also introduced. The research advances in the application of aerobic denitrifiers in aquaculture, waste water processing, and bio-degradation of organic pollutants, as well as the contributions of aerobic denitrifiers to soil nitrogen emission were summarized. PMID:18260473

  12. Approaches for evaluating the effects of bivalve filter feeding on nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Marine bivalves such as clams, mussels, and oysters are an important component of the food web, which influence nutrient dynamics and water quality in many estuaries. The role of bivalves in nutrient dynamics and, particularly, the contribution of commercial shellfish activities, are not well understood in Puget Sound, Washington. Numerous approaches have been used in other estuaries to quantify the effects of bivalves on nutrient dynamics, ranging from simple nutrient budgeting to sophisticated numerical models that account for tidal circulation, bioenergetic fluxes through food webs, and biochemical transformations in the water column and sediment. For nutrient management in Puget Sound, it might be possible to integrate basic biophysical indicators (residence time, phytoplankton growth rates, and clearance rates of filter feeders) as a screening tool to identify places where nutrient dynamics and water quality are likely to be sensitive to shellfish density and, then, apply more sophisticated methods involving in-situ measurements and simulation models to quantify those dynamics.

  13. Importance of interactions between food quality, quantity, and gut transit time on consumer feeding, growth, and trophic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J

    2007-05-01

    Ingestion kinetics of animals are controlled by both external food availability and feedback from the quantity of material already within the gut. The latter varies with gut transit time (GTT) and digestion of the food. Ingestion, assimilation efficiency, and thus, growth dynamics are not related in a simple fashion. For the first time, the important linkage between these processes and GTT is demonstrated; this is achieved using a biomass-based, mechanistic multinutrient model fitted to experimental data for zooplankton growth dynamics when presented with food items of varying quality (stoichiometric composition) or quantity. The results show that trophic transfer dynamics will vary greatly between the extremes of feeding on low-quantity/high-quality versus high-quantity/low-quality food; these conditions are likely to occur in nature. Descriptions of consumer behavior that assume a constant relationship between the kinetics of grazing and growth irrespective of food quality and/or quantity, with little or no recognition of the combined importance of these factors on consumer behavior, may seriously misrepresent consumer activity in dynamic situations. PMID:17427134

  14. Hedgehog signaling mediates adaptive variation in a dynamic functional system in the cichlid feeding apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yinan; Albertson, R. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive variation in the craniofacial skeleton is a key component of resource specialization and habitat divergence in vertebrates, but the proximate genetic mechanisms that underlie complex patterns of craniofacial variation are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway mediates widespread variation across a complex functional system that affects the kinematics of lower jaw depression—the opercular four-bar linkage apparatus—among Lake Malawi cichlids. By using a combined quantitative trait locus mapping and population genetics approach, we show that allelic variation in the Hh receptor, ptch1, affects the development of distinct bony elements in the head that represent two of three movable links in this functional system. The evolutionarily derived allele is found in species that feed from the water column, and is associated with shifts in anatomy that translate to a four-bar system capable of faster jaw rotation. Alternatively, the ancestral allele is found in species that feed on attached algae, and is associated with the development of a four-bar system that predicts slower jaw movement. Experimental manipulation of the Hh pathway during cichlid development recapitulates functionally salient natural variation in craniofacial geometry. In all, these results significantly extend our understanding of the mechanisms that fine-tune the craniofacial skeletal complex during adaptation to new foraging niches. PMID:24912175

  15. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. PMID:26409851

  16. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kelsea A; McCormick, Caroline A; Odt, Christine L; Weimer, Paul J; Suen, Garret

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  17. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Kelsea A.; McCormick, Caroline A.; Odt, Christine L.; Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  18. Trophic Dynamics of Filter Feeding Bivalves in the Yangtze Estuarine Intertidal Marsh: Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sikai; Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Sheng, Qiang; Wu, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Benthic bivalves are important links between primary production and consumers, and are essential intermediates in the flow of energy through estuarine systems. However, information on the diet of filter feeding bivalves in estuarine ecosystems is uncertain, as estuarine waters contain particulate matter from a range of sources and as bivalves are opportunistic feeders. We surveyed bivalves at different distances from the creek mouth at the Yangtze estuarine marsh in winter and summer, and analyzed trophic dynamics using stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) techniques. Different bivalve species had different spatial distributions in the estuary. Glauconome chinensis mainly occurred in marshes near the creek mouth, while Sinonovacula constricta preferred the creek. Differences were found in the diets of different species. S. constricta consumed more diatoms and bacteria than G. chinensis, while G. chinensis assimilated more macrophyte material. FA markers showed that plants contributed the most (38.86 ± 4.25%) to particular organic matter (POM) in summer, while diatoms contributed the most (12.68 ± 1.17%) during winter. Diatoms made the largest contribution to the diet of S. constricta in both summer (24.73 ± 0.44%) and winter (25.51 ± 0.59%), and plants contributed no more than 4%. This inconsistency indicates seasonal changes in food availability and the active feeding habits of the bivalve. Similar FA profiles for S. constricta indicated that the bivalve had a similar diet composition at different sites, while different δ13C results suggested the diet was derived from different carbon sources (C4 plant Spartina alterniflora and C3 plant Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter) at different sites. Species-specific and temporal and/or spatial variability in bivalve feeding may affect their ecological functions in intertidal marshes, which should be considered in the study of food webs and material flows in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:26261984

  19. Novel Feed-through Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) Experiment for Characterization of Dynamic Material Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opie, Saul; Gautam, Sudrishti; Fortin, Elizabeth; Lynch, Jenna; Loomis, Eric; Peralta, Pedro

    Hydrodynamic instabilities occur often in applications where forces act across a bimaterial interface. In Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, surface perturbations grow exponentially under opposing pressure and density gradients. In the closely related Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, the same perturbations grow linearly due to an impulsive acceleration, e.g., a passing shock wave. These effects are often analyzed with linear fluid theory, but it is well known that for materials possessing shear strength the perturbation evolution can be significantly affected. A challenge in modeling these effects is that existing knowledge of the interplay between strength and hydrodynamic instabilities in solids is limited for the loads and strain rates that are typically used to study them. We have developed novel feed-through RM instability experiments that are useful to understand and model this interplay. We will describe the experimental setup and show simulations that agree well with experimental results in two materials, one-phase copper, and iron loaded above and below the alpha-epsilon phase boundary, where modeling used a phase-aware strength model. In copper, the growth of surface perturbations is quite sensitive to strength model parameters, and so is the amplitude of the shock front perturbations. This is also observed in iron, along with an additional sensitivity in the modeling results to the parameters used to describe phase change kinetics. Work supported by Department of Energy (DOE) [Grant Number DE-SC0008683] from the Office of Fusion Energy Science.

  20. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  1. Dynamics of fat absorption and impact of sham feeding on postprandial lipema

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Rosa Chavez; Mattes, Richard D.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Given the importance of postprandial hyperlipidemia to increase risk for atherosclerosis, in the present study, stable isotope-labeled meals were fed to healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females) to investigate the kinetics chylomicron synthesis and the impact of sensory exposure to lipid on metabolism. Methods Subjects performed 2, 24-hr inpatient studies which entailed consumption of a liquid formula evening meal containing 30g of oil (+13C2 triolein) on day 1. Breakfast (day 2) consisted of TAG fed as capsules (30g oil + 13C7 triolein) to avoid activation of mouth taste receptors. Next, modified sham feeding of cream cheese occurred over 2 hrs. In the 2 trials, the stimulus was higher-fat (HF) and lower-fat (LF) cream cheese. A liquid meal was consumed at lunch. Blood sampling occurred intermittently and chylomicron particles Sf >400-TAG, were analyzed by GC/MS. Results 13C2-Label was found in fasting-state lipoproteins and individuals with higher body fat percentages demonstrated greater dilution of meal-TAG from endogenous sources. For both trials, 13 ± 4% of lipoprotein-TAG oleic acid was derived from the previous evening meal. Incremental AUC for TAG during HF was ~2½ times higher than after LF exposure (46 ±15 vs 17 ± 5 μmol/l × hr, P=0.04). The greater HF morning lipemia occurred with elevated glucose, insulin and NEFA peaks following lunch. Conclusions These data support a connection between enteral lipid metabolism and oral fat exposure, resulting in elevated postprandial lipemia. The results suggest that the intestine may participate in a mechanism coordinating oral fat signaling with control of subsequent macronutrient disposal in the body. PMID:20493191

  2. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  3. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  4. Managing for Improved Aerobic Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic deterioration or spoilage of silage is the result of aerobic microorganisms metabolizing components of the silage using oxygen. In the almost 40 years over which these silage conferences have been held, we have come to recognize the typical pattern of aerobic microbial development by which s...

  5. Static and dynamic visual cues in feed-forward postural control.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sambit; Aruin, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) play an important role in the performance of many activities requiring the maintenance of vertical posture. However, little is known about how variation in the available visual information affects generation of APAs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different visual cues on APAs. Ten healthy young subjects were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level in standing while the level of visual information about the forthcoming perturbation was varied. The external perturbations were provided by an aluminum pendulum attached to the ceiling. The visual conditions were (1) dynamic cues (full vision and high-frequency strobe light), (2) static cues (low-frequency strobe light) and (3) no cues (eyes open in dark room). Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure displacements were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical for APAs. The results showed that significantly larger APAs were generated in conditions with dynamic visual cues as compared to the conditions with static cues (p < 0.05). Finally, no APAs were observed in the condition where there was complete absence of any visual cues. Principal component analysis further revealed different muscle coupling patterns in the full vision and high-frequency strobe light conditions. These findings suggest the importance of using appropriate visual cues in the generation of APAs. PMID:23064846

  6. Feeding dynamics and ecomorphology of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Gunther, 1864) and Oligosarcus robustus (Menezes, 1969) in the Lagoa Fortaleza, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, D M; Hartz, S M

    2006-02-01

    Oligosarcus jenynsii and Oligosarcus robustus are fishes of Characidae family that occur in Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and northern Argentina. This work purported to study the feeding dynamics (repletion and hepatosomatic indexes and condition factor) over time, and to investigate the coexistence of these two species by evaluating the partition of resources using qualitative and quantitative analyses of diet, temporal and spatial segregation throughout the water column and some ecomorphological aspects of the species in the Lagoa Fortaleza. Specimens were sampled monthly, from May 2000 to April 2001 during 24 h/month, using stationary gill nets of different mesh sizes. The records of each individual included total and standard length; total, stomach and liver weight; sex and stomach repletion. The variation of the mean values of repletion index and relative frequencies of stomach repletion stages indicate that O. jenynsii and O. robustus do not present seasonal differences in feeding intensity. The hepatosomatic index shows an allocation of energy to the liver during every period except reproduction, when part of the energy is used for gonad maturation. The estimated condition factor for both species reveals an increase in the reproductive period, evidencing the influence of gonads upon the condition of the fish. The diet analysis revealed that O. robustus is piscivorous, whereas O. jenynsii is a generalist carnivore, tending to piscivory as well. The active period of O. robustus is more concentrated at sunrise and sunset, whereas O. jenynsii is continually active, a characteristic related to hunting for prey. The ecomorphological analysis revealed differences between the two species in the dimensions of the mouth. Evidence suggests that the species coexist, sharing food sources, differing in oral morphology but ingesting similar prey, possibly because food is not a limiting factor in the environment. PMID:16680315

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water/Mucus Partition Coefficients for Feeding Stimulants in Fish and the Implications for Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Rygg, Alex D.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Craven, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    The odorant partition coefficient is a physicochemical property that has been shown to dramatically influence odorant deposition patterns in the mammalian nose, leading to a chromatographic separation of odorants along the sensory epithelium. It is unknown whether a similar phenomenon occurs in fish. Here we utilize molecular dynamics simulations, based on a simplified molecular model of olfactory mucus, to calculate water/mucus partition coefficients for amino acid odorants (alanine, glycine, cysteine, and valine) that are known to elicit feeding behavior in fish. Both fresh water and salt water environments are considered. In fresh water, all four amino acids prefer the olfactory mucus phase to water, and the partition coefficient is shown to correlate with amino acid hydrophobicity. In salt water, a reversal in odorant partitioning is found, where each of the feeding stimulants (except glycine) prefer the water phase to olfactory mucus. This is due to the interactions between the salt ions and the odorant molecules (in the water phase), and between the salt and simplified mucin (in the olfactory mucus phase). Thus, slightly different odorant deposition patterns may occur in the fish olfactory organ in fresh and salt water environments. However, in both underwater environments we found that the variation of the water/mucus odorant partition coefficient is approximately one order of magnitude, in stark contrast to air/mucus odorant partition coefficients that can span up to six orders of magnitude. We therefore anticipate relatively similar deposition patterns for most amino acid odorants in the fish olfactory chamber. Thus, in contrast to terrestrial species, living in an underwater environment may preclude appreciable chromatographic odorant separation that may be used for spatial coding of odor identity across the olfactory epithelium. This is consistent with the reported lack of spatial organization of olfactory receptor neurons in the fish olfactory

  8. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area.

    PubMed

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56' to 33°01'S, 71°36' to 71°46'W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird's MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  9. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56′ to 33°01′S, 71°36′ to 71°46′W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird’s MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  10. Do ecohydrology and community dynamics feed back to banded-ecosystem structure and productivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegaro, Chiara; Ursino, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Mixed communities including grass, shrubs and trees are often reported to populate self-organized vegetation patterns. Patterns of survey data suggest that species diversity and complementarity strengthen the dynamics of banded environments. Resource scarcity and local facilitation trigger self organization, whereas coexistence of multiple species in vegetated self-organizing patches, implying competition for water and nutrients and favorable reproduction sites, is made possible by differing adaptation strategies. Mixed community spatial self-organization has so far received relatively little attention, compared with local net facilitation of isolated species. We assumed that soil moisture availability is a proxy for the environmental niche of plant species according to Ursino and Callegaro (2016). Our modelling effort was focused on niche differentiation of coexisting species within a tiger bush type ecosystem. By minimal numerical modelling and stability analysis we try to answer a few open scientific questions: Is there an adaptation strategy that increases biodiversity and ecosystem functioning? Does specific adaptation to environmental niches influence the structure of self-organizing vegetation pattern? What specific niche distribution along the environmental gradient gives the highest global productivity?

  11. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. PMID:26928914

  12. Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal Mudflats

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Frédéric; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Païssé, Sandrine; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuña Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Duran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mudflats and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate mudflat. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity. PMID:22407688

  13. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  14. Microbial dynamics and properties of aerobic granules developed in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor with an intermediate filamentous bulking stage.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, H; Basuvaraj, M; Hall, M; Neufeld, J D; Liss, S N

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic granules offer enhanced biological nutrient removal and are compact and dense structures resulting in efficient settling properties. Granule instability, however, is still a challenge as understanding of the drivers of instability is poorly understood. In this study, transient instability of aerobic granules, associated with filamentous outgrowth, was observed in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The transient phase was followed by the formation of stable granules. Loosely bound, dispersed, and pinpoint seed flocs gradually turned into granular flocs within 60 days of SBR operation. In stage 1, the granular flocs were compact in structure and typically 0.2 mm in diameter, with excellent settling properties. Filaments appeared and dominated by stage 2, resulting in poor settleability. By stage 3, the SBRs were selected for larger granules and better settling structures, which included filaments that became enmeshed within the granule, eventually forming structures 2-5 mm in diameter. Corresponding changes in sludge volume index were observed that reflected changes in settleability. The protein-to-polysaccharide ratio in the extracted extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from stage 1 and stage 3 granules was higher (2.8 and 5.7, respectively), as compared to stage 2 filamentous bulking (1.5). Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging of the biomass samples, coupled with molecule-specific fluorescent staining, confirmed that protein was predominant in stage 1 and stage 3 granules. During stage 2 bulking, there was a decrease in live cells; dead cells predominated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint results indicated a shift in bacterial community composition during granulation, which was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, Janthinobacterium (known denitrifier and producer of antimicrobial pigment) and Auxenochlorella protothecoides (mixotrophic green algae) were predominant during stage

  15. Effect of sludge age on methanogenic and glycogen accumulating organisms in an aerobic granular sludge process fed with methanol and acetate

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sludge age on granular sludge formation and microbial population dynamics in a methanol- and acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge system operated at 35°C was investigated. During anaerobic feeding of the reactor, methanol was initially converted to methane by methylotrophic methanogens. These methanogens were able to withstand the relatively long aeration periods. Lowering the anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) from 17 to 8 days enabled selective removal of the methanogens and prevented unwanted methane formation. In absence of methanogens, methanol was converted aerobically, while granule formation remained stable. At high SRT values (51 days), γ-Proteobacteria were responsible for acetate removal through anaerobic uptake and subsequent aerobic growth on storage polymers formed [so called metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO)]. When lowering the SRT (24 days), Defluviicoccus-related organisms (cluster II) belonging to the α-Proteobacteria outcompeted acetate consuming γ-Proteobacteria at 35°C. DNA from the Defluviicoccus-related organisms in cluster II was not extracted by the standard DNA extraction method but with liquid nitrogen, which showed to be more effective. Remarkably, the two GAO types of organisms grew separately in two clearly different types of granules. This work further highlights the potential of aerobic granular sludge systems to effectively influence the microbial communities through sludge age control in order to optimize the wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26059251

  16. Effect of sludge age on methanogenic and glycogen accumulating organisms in an aerobic granular sludge process fed with methanol and acetate.

    PubMed

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-09-01

    The influence of sludge age on granular sludge formation and microbial population dynamics in a methanol- and acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge system operated at 35°C was investigated. During anaerobic feeding of the reactor, methanol was initially converted to methane by methylotrophic methanogens. These methanogens were able to withstand the relatively long aeration periods. Lowering the anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) from 17 to 8 days enabled selective removal of the methanogens and prevented unwanted methane formation. In absence of methanogens, methanol was converted aerobically, while granule formation remained stable. At high SRT values (51 days), γ-Proteobacteria were responsible for acetate removal through anaerobic uptake and subsequent aerobic growth on storage polymers formed [so called metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO)]. When lowering the SRT (24 days), Defluviicoccus-related organisms (cluster II) belonging to the α-Proteobacteria outcompeted acetate consuming γ-Proteobacteria at 35°C. DNA from the Defluviicoccus-related organisms in cluster II was not extracted by the standard DNA extraction method but with liquid nitrogen, which showed to be more effective. Remarkably, the two GAO types of organisms grew separately in two clearly different types of granules. This work further highlights the potential of aerobic granular sludge systems to effectively influence the microbial communities through sludge age control in order to optimize the wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26059251

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  19. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  20. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  1. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  2. Improving aerobic stability and biogas production of maize silage using silage additives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The effects of air stress during storage, exposure to air at feed-out, and treatment with silage additives to enhance aerobic stability on methane production from maize silage were investigated at laboratory scale. Up to 17% of the methane potential of maize without additive was lost during seven days exposure to air on feed-out. Air stress during storage reduced aerobic stability and further increased methane losses. A chemical additive containing salts of benzoate and propionate, and inoculants containing heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were effective to increase aerobic stability and resulted in up to 29% higher methane yields after exposure to air. Exclusion of air to the best possible extent and high aerobic stabilities should be primary objectives when ensiling biogas feedstocks. PMID:26348286

  3. Ruminal bacterial community composition in dairy cows is dynamic over the course of two lactations and correlates with feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A group of 14 Holstein cows of similar age were followed through the course of their first two lactation cycles. During each lactation cycle, ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples and production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during Early (76-82 days in milk, DIM), Mi...

  4. Non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures based on a biological kinetic model of aerobic enzymatic methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V; Shim, Natalia; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures during methane oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus sporium strain 5 (NCIMB 11126) and Methylocaldum gracile strain 14 L (NCIMB 11912) under copper-rich (8.9 µM Cu(2+)), copper-limited (0.3 µM Cu(2+)) or copper-regular (1.1 µM Cu(2+)) conditions has been described mathematically. The model was calibrated by experimental data of methane quantities and carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane measured previously in laboratory microcosms reported by Feisthauer et al. [ 1 ] M. gracile initially oxidizes methane by a particulate methane monooxygenase and assimilates formaldehyde via the ribulose monophosphate pathway, whereas M. sporium expresses a soluble methane monooxygenase under copper-limited conditions and uses the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. The model shows that during methane solubilization dominant carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation occurs. An increase of biomass due to growth of methanotrophs causes an increase of particulate or soluble monooxygenase that, in turn, decreases soluble methane concentration intensifying methane solubilization. The specific maximum rate of methane oxidation υm was proved to be equal to 4.0 and 1.3 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. sporium under copper-rich and copper-limited conditions, respectively, and 0.5 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. gracile. The model shows that methane oxidation cannot be described by traditional first-order kinetics. The kinetic isotope fractionation ceases when methane concentrations decrease close to the threshold value. Applicability of the non-linear model was confirmed by dynamics of carbon isotope signature for carbon dioxide that was depleted and later enriched in (13)C. Contrasting to the common Rayleigh linear graph, the dynamic curves allow identifying inappropriate isotope data due to inaccurate substrate concentration analyses. The non-linear model pretty adequately described experimental

  5. Dynamic changes of the dominant functioning microbial community in the compost of a 90-m(3) aerobic solid state fermentor revealed by integrated meta-omics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Wang, Zhiheng; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic changes in the composition and function of both bacterial and fungal communities over time and at various depths in the compost of a 90-m(3) industrial-scale fermentor were explored using integrated meta-omics. The microbial communities in the middle layer (1.2m) of the compost developed a stable and simple structure over time, which was mainly composed of Thermobifida, Bacillus, Thermomyces and Aspergillus. According to the metaproteomic results, the bacterial community was more focused on cellulose degradation, characterized by 44% of the cellulases that were secreted by Thermobifida, while the fungal community was more likely to degrade hemicellulose, mainly via Thermomyces and Aspergillus. The results revealed that, under artificial control of the temperature and oxygen concentration, the efficiency of organic waste degradation was greatly increased and the fermentation cycle was shortened to 11 days. PMID:26720133

  6. Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Muñoz, Joaquín; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools) from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0–3.2%) and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i) several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii) mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii) pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv) infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring. PMID:23823127

  7. Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Muñoz, Joaquín; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools) from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0-3.2%) and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i) several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii) mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii) pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv) infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring. PMID:23823127

  8. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  9. Dynamic Maize Responses to Aphid Feeding Are Revealed by a Time Series of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Assays1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tzin, Vered; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Richter, Annett; Schmelz, Eric A.; Schoettner, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Ahern, Kevin R.; Meihls, Lisa N.; Kaur, Harleen; Huffaker, Alisa; Mori, Naoki; Degenhardt, Joerg; Mueller, Lukas A.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    As a response to insect attack, maize (Zea mays) has inducible defenses that involve large changes in gene expression and metabolism. Piercing/sucking insects such as corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) cause direct damage by acquiring phloem nutrients as well as indirect damage through the transmission of plant viruses. To elucidate the metabolic processes and gene expression changes involved in maize responses to aphid attack, leaves of inbred line B73 were infested with corn leaf aphids for 2 to 96 h. Analysis of infested maize leaves showed two distinct response phases, with the most significant transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in the first few hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. After 4 d, both gene expression and metabolite profiles of aphid-infested maize reverted to being more similar to those of control plants. Although there was a predominant effect of salicylic acid regulation, gene expression changes also indicated prolonged induction of oxylipins, although not necessarily jasmonic acid, in aphid-infested maize. The role of specific metabolic pathways was confirmed using Dissociator transposon insertions in maize inbred line W22. Mutations in three benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, Bx1, Bx2, and Bx6, increased aphid reproduction. In contrast, progeny production was greatly decreased by a transposon insertion in the single W22 homolog of the previously uncharacterized B73 terpene synthases TPS2 and TPS3. Together, these results show that maize leaves shift to implementation of physical and chemical defenses within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding and that the production of specific metabolites can have major effects in maize-aphid interactions. PMID:26378100

  10. Dynamic Maize Responses to Aphid Feeding Are Revealed by a Time Series of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Assays.

    PubMed

    Tzin, Vered; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Richter, Annett; Schmelz, Eric A; Schoettner, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Ahern, Kevin R; Meihls, Lisa N; Kaur, Harleen; Huffaker, Alisa; Mori, Naoki; Degenhardt, Joerg; Mueller, Lukas A; Jander, Georg

    2015-11-01

    As a response to insect attack, maize (Zea mays) has inducible defenses that involve large changes in gene expression and metabolism. Piercing/sucking insects such as corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) cause direct damage by acquiring phloem nutrients as well as indirect damage through the transmission of plant viruses. To elucidate the metabolic processes and gene expression changes involved in maize responses to aphid attack, leaves of inbred line B73 were infested with corn leaf aphids for 2 to 96 h. Analysis of infested maize leaves showed two distinct response phases, with the most significant transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in the first few hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. After 4 d, both gene expression and metabolite profiles of aphid-infested maize reverted to being more similar to those of control plants. Although there was a predominant effect of salicylic acid regulation, gene expression changes also indicated prolonged induction of oxylipins, although not necessarily jasmonic acid, in aphid-infested maize. The role of specific metabolic pathways was confirmed using Dissociator transposon insertions in maize inbred line W22. Mutations in three benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, Bx1, Bx2, and Bx6, increased aphid reproduction. In contrast, progeny production was greatly decreased by a transposon insertion in the single W22 homolog of the previously uncharacterized B73 terpene synthases TPS2 and TPS3. Together, these results show that maize leaves shift to implementation of physical and chemical defenses within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding and that the production of specific metabolites can have major effects in maize-aphid interactions. PMID:26378100

  11. Craving Ravens: Individual ‘haa’ Call Rates at Feeding Sites as Cues to Personality and Levels of Fission-Fusion Dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Common ravens aggregate in large non-breeder flocks for roosting and foraging until they achieve the status of territorial breeders. When discovering food, they produce far-reaching yells or ‘haa’ calls, which attract conspecifics. Due to the high levels of fission-fusion dynamics in non-breeders’ flocks, assemblies of feeding ravens were long thought to represent anonymous aggregations. Yet, non-breeders vary in their degree of vagrancy, and ‘haa’ calls convey individually distinct acoustic features, which are perceived by conspecifics. These findings give rise to the assumption that raven societies are based on differential social relationships on an individual level. We investigated the occurrence of ‘haa’ calling and individual call rates in a group of individually marked free-ranging ravens. Calling mainly occurred in subadult and adult females, which showed low levels of vagrancy. Call rates differed significantly between individuals and with residency status, and were correlated with calling frequency and landing frequency. Local ravens called more often and at higher rates, and were less likely to land at the feeding site than vagrant birds. The results are discussed with respect to individual degrees of vagrancy, which may have an impact on social knowledge and communication in this species. PMID:25984563

  12. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  13. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  14. "Aerobic" Writing: A Writing Practice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Sally Chandler

    "Aerobic writing" is a writing center strategy designed to keep students in writing "shape." Like aerobic exercise, aerobic writing is sustained for a certain length of time and done on a regular basis at prescribed time intervals. The program requires students to write at least two times a week for approximately an hour each time. Students write,…

  15. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  16. Neuromuscular Changes After Aerobic Exercise in People with Anterior Cruciate Ligament– Reconstructed Knees

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Elizabeth C.; Pfile, Kate R.; Weniger, Gerald R.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Herman, Daniel; Hart, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are common, especially in young, active people. The lower extremity neuromuscular adaptations seen after aerobic exercise provide information about how previously injured patients perform and highlight deficits and, hence, areas for focused treatment. Little information is available about neuromuscular performance after aerobic exercise in people with ACL reconstructions. Objective: To compare dynamic balance, gluteus medius muscle activation, vertical jump height, and hip muscle strength after aerobic exercise in people with ACL-reconstructed knees. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Of 34 recreationally active volunteers, 17 had a unilateral primary ACL reconstruction at least 2 years earlier and 17 were matched controls. Intervention(s): All participants performed 20 minutes of aerobic exercise on a treadmill. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded dynamic, single-legged balance electromyographic gluteus medius muscle activation, single-legged vertical jump height, and maximum isometric strength for hip abduction, extension, and external rotation preexercise and postexercise. Results: Participants with ACL reconstructions exhibited shorter reach distances during dynamic balance tasks, indicating poorer dynamic balance, and less gluteus medius muscle electromyographic activation. Reductions in hip abduction and extension strength after exercise were noted in all participants; however, those with ACL reconstructions displayed greater hip extensor strength loss after aerobic exercise than did the control group. Conclusions: Neuromuscular changes after aerobic exercise exist in both patients with ACL reconstructions and controls. The former group may experience greater deficits in hip extensor strength after aerobic exercise. Reduced reach distances in people with ACL reconstructions may represent a protective mechanism against excessive tibiofemoral

  17. Effect and behaviour of different substrates in relation to the formation of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Al-Zuhairy, S H K; Kraan, R; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-06-01

    When aerobic granular sludge is applied for industrial wastewater treatment, different soluble substrates can be present. For stable granular sludge formation on volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate), production of storage polymers under anaerobic feeding conditions has been shown to be important. This prevents direct aerobic growth on readily available chemical oxygen demand (COD), which is thought to result in unstable granule formation. Here, we investigate the impact of acetate, methanol, butanol, propanol, propionaldehyde, and valeraldehyde on granular sludge formation at 35 °C. Methanogenic archaea, growing on methanol, were present in the aerobic granular sludge system. Methanol was completely converted to methane and carbon dioxide by the methanogenic archaeum Methanomethylovorans uponensis during the 1-h anaerobic feeding period, despite the relative high dissolved oxygen concentration (3.5 mg O2 L(-1)) during the subsequent 2-h aeration period. Propionaldehyde and valeraldehyde were fully disproportionated anaerobically into their corresponding carboxylic acids and alcohols. The organic acids produced were converted to storage polymers, while the alcohols (produced and from influent) were absorbed onto the granular sludge matrix and converted aerobically. Our observations show that easy biodegradable substrates not converted anaerobically into storage polymers could lead to unstable granular sludge formation. However, when the easy biodegradable COD is absorbed in the granules and/or when the substrate is converted by relatively slow growing bacteria in the aerobic period, stable granulation can occur. PMID:25616527

  18. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  19. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  20. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  1. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  2. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  3. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Swine In vitro Fermentation Using Starch as a Substrate with Different Feed Additives for Odor Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md. J.; Jeong, C. D.; Mamuad, L. L.; Sung, H. G.; Kim, D. W.; Cho, S. B.; Lee, K.; Jeon, C. O.; Lee, Sang S.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted by in vitro fermentation and bacterial community analysis to investigate the reduction of odorous compounds in response to the use of feed additives (FA) during carbohydrate overload in growing pigs. Soluble starch at 1% (control) and various FA at 0.1% Ginseng meal (FA1); Persimmon leaf (FA2); Gingko nut (FA3) and Oregano lippia (FA4) were added to fecal slurry and incubated anaerobically for 12 and 24 h. In vitro parameters and microbial diversity of the dominant bacteria following fermentation were analyzed using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), band cloning and sequencing of the V3 region. Results showed that total gas production increased with the advancement of incubation (p<0.05). pH values of FAs and control groups were decreased except the FA4 group which increased somewhat from 12 to 24 h (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and H2S gas concentrations were comparatively lower in both stages in FA4 treatment than in the other groups (p<0.05). Hence, NH3-N concentrations in liquid phases were increased (p<0.05) from 12 to 24 h, but the trend was lowest in FA4 than in the other groups at both stages. The total VFA production was comparatively lower and butyrate levels were moderate in FA4 group than in the the other groups during both stages (p<0.05). Indirect odor-reducing compounds such as NO2, NO3 and SO4 concentrations were higher in the FA4 and FA3 than in the other groups at 24 h (p<0.05). After fermentation, ten dominant bands appeared, six of which appeared in all samples and four in only the FA4 treated group. The total number of DGGE bands and diversity was higher in the FA4-group compared to other groups. Additionally, similarity indices were lowest (71%) in the FA4, which represented a different bacterial community compared with the other groups. These findings indicate that NH3-N, H2S and VFA production was minimal, and pH was also better in the FA4 group than in the other groups. Furthermore, the

  4. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  5. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  6. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  7. Spatial and temporal infaunal dynamics of the Blanes submarine canyon-slope system (NW Mediterranean); changes in nematode standing stocks, feeding types and gender-life stage ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Romano, Chiara; Coenjaerts, Johan; Mar Flexas, M.; Zúñiga, Diana; Martin, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    governed by trophic conditions over longer periods of time in relatively food-rich environments such as canyons. We hypothesize that food pulses in a dynamic and topographical heterogeneous environment such as canyons regulate nematode size distributions, rather than long-term food availability. Feeding type distributions in the Blanes Canyon did not clearly resemble those from other canyon systems, apart from the spring assemblage at one station in the head of the canyon.

  8. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  9. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  10. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  12. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  13. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  14. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation. PMID:26119011

  15. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  16. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  17. Aerobic Dance for Children: Resources and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Denise A.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic dance classes may be safe for older children, but are inappropriate for children in the fourth grade and under. Programs for these children should emphasize creativity. Resources for program development are given. (MT)

  18. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  19. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  20. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  1. Optimum conditions for aerobic thermophilic pretreatment of municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Cheunbarn, T.; Pagilla, K.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lab scale experiments were conducted to determine optimum sludge residence time (SRT) and temperature of aerobic thermophilic pretreatment (ATP) of mixed (thickened waste activated and primary) sludge to achieve maximum pathogen destruction and best process performance. 4L lab scale ATP reactors were operated at SRT of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 days, and at temperature of 55, 58, 62 and 65 C. ATP at temperature {ge} 62 C and SRT {ge} 0.6 days reduced the feed sludge fecal coliform density by at least 4-logs from 10{sup 7} MPN/g total solids to < 10{sup 4} MPN/g total solids. Salmonella in the feed sludge was reduced to < 1 MPN/g total solids from 2 to 18 MPN/4 g total solids by ATP at temperature {ge} 55 C and SRT {ge} 0.6 days. ATP was able to increase sludge volatile acids concentration by 100--200% over the feed sludge volatile acid concentration, and reduce the supernatant COD from 20,000--22,000 mg/L in the feed to 13,000--17,000 mg/L in ATP reactor sludge. Volatile solids destruction by ATP was increased from 25% to 40% when SRT was increased from 0.6 days to 1.5 days, and only 5% increase in volatile solids destruction was seen at each SRT of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 days when ATP temperature was increased from 55 to 65 C.

  2. [Effect of aerobic training on cardiac autonomic regulation revealed by heart rate variability analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, S; Zhang, Z; Zheng, J; Wang, X

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to elucidate the effect of aerobiac training on cardic autonomic function and to clarify whether there is any association between the changes in cardiac regulation and the heart rate dynamics and orthostatic tolerance during LBNP testing. To achieve this, the heart rate variability (HRV) signals obtained from a group of eight students before and after a 6-mon aerobic training, as well as from six athletes (medium- and long distance runners) were analyzed by conventional spectral, dynamic spectral and non-linear analysis. Our results showed that the conventional AR spectral analysis could not provide data with significance, owing to its greater variance and inherent limitation in being able to reflect only the average statistical characters over a certain period. While from the data obtained by use of the time-varying AR spectral analysis we could follow the time course of cardiac vagal withdrawl and sympathetic excitation during LBNP exposure. Regarding the non linear methods used, beta estimates didn't provide any significant result, but the ApEn analysis of the HRV signal could detect subtle changes in heart rate dynamics associated with aerobic training. Moreover, after aerobic training, the increments delta ApEn and delta DNP during LB NP testing were closely correlated. Our results would have important implications for further work in elucidating the effect of aerobic training on heart rate dynamics and improving the work on HRV signal analysis. PMID:10322949

  3. Taxonomy of Aerobic Marine Eubacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D.

    1972-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  4. Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria.

    PubMed

    Baumann, L; Baumann, P; Mandel, M; Allen, R D

    1972-04-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  5. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  6. Aerobic granular sludge mediated biodegradation of an organophosphorous ester, dibutyl phosphite.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar Reddy, G; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda Venkata; Venugopalan, Vayalam Purath

    2014-10-01

    Dibutyl phosphite, an organophosphorous compound, finds applications in different chemical industries and processes. Here, we report an efficient approach of biodegradation to be eventually used in bioremediation of dibutyl phosphite. Aerobic granules capable of dibutyl phosphite biodegradation were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR was operated with a 24-h cycle by feeding with dibutyl phosphite as a cosubstrate along with acetate. During the course of the SBR operation, aerobic granules of 0.9 ± 0.3 mm size were developed. Complete biodegradation of 1.4, 2 and 3 mM of dibutyl phosphite was achieved in 4, 5 and 8 h, respectively, accompanied by stoichiometric release of phosphite (H3 PO3). Phosphatase activity in the dibutyl phosphite-degrading granular biomass was 3- and 1.5-fold higher as compared to the activated sludge (seed biomass) and acetate-fed aerobic granules, respectively, indicating involvement in the hydrolysis of dibutyl phosphite. Microbial community analysis by t-RFLP showed the presence of 12 different bacterial types. Two bacterial strains capable of growth on dibutyl phosphite as sole carbon source were isolated and characterized as Acidovorax sp. and Sphingobium sp. The results show that aerobic microbial granules based process is suitable for the treatment of dibutyl phosphite contaminated water. PMID:25135363

  7. Growth and energy metabolism in aerobic fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Simulation and model verification

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, H.T.B.; Larsson, G.; Enfors, S.O.

    1998-11-20

    Some yeast species are classified as being glucose sensitive, which means that they may produce ethanol also under aerobic conditions when the sugar concentration is high. A kinetic model of overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for simulation of aerobic fed-batch cultivations. An inhibitory effect of ethanol on the maximum respiration of the yeast was observed in the experiments and included in the model. The model predicts respiration, biomass, and ethanol formation and the subsequent ethanol consumption, and was experimentally validated in fed-batch cultivations. Oscillating sugar feed with resulting oscillating carbon dioxide production did not influence the maximum respiration rate, which indicates that the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is not involved as a bottleneck causing aerobic ethanol formation.

  8. Factors affecting larval tick feeding success: host, density and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ectoparasites rely on blood feeding to sustain activity, support development and produce offspring. Blood feeding is also a route for transmission of diverse vector-borne pathogens. The likelihood of successfully feeding is thus an important aspect of ectoparasite population dynamics and...

  9. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  10. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  11. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

  12. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  13. Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  14. Aerobic Granules: Microbial Landscape and Architecture, Stages, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In “old” granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters “rooting” from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  15. Aerobic granules: microbial landscape and architecture, stages, and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2014-06-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In "old" granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters "rooting" from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  16. Integrated biological (anaerobic-aerobic) and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, B

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from simulated (on the basis of cultivation medium from the first separation process) general effluent of baker's yeast production (the average organic loading rates varied from 8.1 to 16 g COD/l/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it suffered from COD-deficiency to fulfil denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass (approximately 10%) of anaerobically untreated general effluent should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic-anoxic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high. PMID:16459801

  17. Effects of ethanol, molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation quality, in vitro digestibility and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages in the Tibetan plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gang; Desta, Seare T; Shao, Tao

    2016-05-01

    In Tibet, it is common practice to make and relocate total mixed ration (TMR) silages before feeding due to the uneven distribution of forages temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) or ethanol (E) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of local adaptive TMR silage. After 45 days of ensiling, pH and ammonia nitrogen in inoculated TMR silages were significantly lower than control. During the first 6 days of the aerobic exposure test, a small fluctuation in lactic acid concentration for all TMR silages was observed, and then silages with ethanol continued this trend, while lactic acid in silage without ethanol sharply decreased until the end of the aerobic exposure period. Meanwhile, pH gradually increased along the aerobic exposure; silages treated with ethanol showed lower pH after 9 days of aerobic exposure. The population of yeast gradually increased during 6 days of aerobic exposure, after that an accelerated rise was observed in TMR silages without ethanol. The combinational beneficial effect of L. plantarum and ethanol was found in combined addition of ethanol and Lactobacillus plantarum silages (EL), indicated by intermediate fermentation quality and higher aerobic stability. PMID:26419793

  18. Ecology of the Microbial Community Removing Phosphate from Wastewater under Continuously Aerobic Conditions in a Sequencing Batch Reactor▿

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Johwan; Schroeder, Sarah; Beer, Michael; McIlroy, Simon; Bayly, Ronald C.; May, John W.; Vasiliadis, George; Seviour, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    All activated sludge systems for removing phosphate microbiologically are configured so the biomass is cycled continuously through alternating anaerobic and aerobic zones. This paper describes a novel aerobic process capable of decreasing the amount of phosphate from 10 to 12 mg P liter−1 to less than 0.1 mg P liter−1 (when expressed as phosphorus) over an extended period from two wastewaters with low chemical oxygen demand. One wastewater was synthetic, and the other was a clarified effluent from a conventional activated sludge system. Unlike anaerobic/aerobic enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) processes where the organic substrates and the phosphate are supplied simultaneously to the biomass under anaerobic conditions, in this aerobic process, the addition of acetate, which begins the feed stage, is temporally separated from the addition of phosphate, which begins the famine stage. Conditions for establishing this process in a sequencing batch reactor are detailed, together with a description of the changes in poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and poly(P) levels in the biomass occurring under the feed and famine regimes, which closely resemble those reported in anaerobic/aerobic EBPR processes. Profiles obtained with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were very similar for communities fed both wastewaters, and once established, these communities remained stable over prolonged periods of time. 16S rRNA-based clone libraries generated from the two communities were also very similar. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/microautoradiography and histochemical staining revealed that “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” bacteria were the dominant poly(P)-accumulating organisms (PAO) in both communities, with the phenotype expected for PAO. FISH also identified large numbers of betaproteobacterial Dechloromonas and alphaproteobacterial tetrad-forming organisms related to Defluviicoccus in both communities, but while these organisms assimilated

  19. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  20. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  1. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  2. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  3. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  4. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  5. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  6. Strengthening aerobic granule by salt precipitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-You; Pan, Xiangliang; Li, Jun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Structural stability of aerobic granules is generally poor during long-term operation. This study precipitated seven salts inside aerobic granules using supersaturated solutions of (NH4)3PO4, CaCO3, CaSO4, MgCO3, Mg3(PO4)2, Ca3(PO4)2 or SiO2 to enhance their structural stability. All precipitated granules have higher interior strength at ultrasonic field and reveal minimal loss in organic matter degradation capability at 160-d sequential batch reactor tests. The strength enhancement followed: Mg3(PO4)2=CaSO4>SiO2>(NH4)3PO4>MgCO3>CaCO3=Ca3(PO4)2>original. Also, the intra-granular solution environment can be buffered by the precipitate MgCO3 to make the aerobic granules capable of degradation of organic matters at pH 3. Salt precipitation is confirmed a simple and cost-effective modification method to extend the applicability of aerobic granules for wastewater treatments. PMID:27377228

  7. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  8. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  9. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  10. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  11. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme. PMID:25661308

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  13. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  14. [Research advances in denitrogenation characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Cheng; Zhao, Min; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Li-Yan

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of aerobic denitrifiers is the enrichment and breakthrough of traditional denitrification theory. Owing to their unique superiority in denitrogenation, aerobic denitrifiers have become a hotspot in the study of bio-denitrogenation of waste water. Under aerobic conditions, the aerobic denitrifiers can utilize organic carbon sources for their growth, and produce N2 from nitrate and nitrite. Most of the denitrifiers can also proceed with heterotrophic nitrification simultaneously, transforming NH4(+)-N to gaseous nitrogen. In this paper, the denitrogenation characteristics and action mechanisms of some isolated aerobic denitrifiers were discussed from the aspects of electron theory and denitrifying enzyme system. The effects of the environmental factors DO, carbon sources, and C/N on the denitrogenation process of aerobic denitrifiers were analyzed, and the screening methods as well as the present and potential applications of aerobic denitrifiers in wastewater treatment were described and discussed. PMID:20873638

  15. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  16. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  17. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  18. Reductive dechlorination of Tri- and tetrachloroethylenes depends on transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, M

    1991-01-01

    Aerobic enrichment cultures from contaminated groundwaters dechlorinated trichloroethylene (TCE) (14.6 mg/liter; 111 mumol/liter) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) (16.2 mg/liter; 98 mumol/liter) reductively within 4 days after the transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The transformation products were equimolar amounts of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and traces of 1,1-dichloroethylene. No other chlorinated product and no methane were detected. The change was accompanied by the release of sulfide, which caused a decrease in the redox potential from 0 to -150 mV. In sterile control experiments, sulfide led to the abiotic formation of traces of 1,1-dichloroethylene without cis-1,2-dichloroethylene production. The reductive dechlorination of PCE via TCE depended on these specific transition conditions after consumption of the electron acceptor oxygen or nitrate. Repeated feeding of TCE or PCE to cultures after the change to anaerobic conditions yielded no further dechlorination. Only aerobic subcultures with an air/liquid ratio of 1:4 maintained dechlorination activities; anaerobic subcultures showed no transformation. Bacteria from noncontaminated sites showed no reduction under the same conditions. PMID:1892393

  19. Reductive dechlorination of Tri- and tetrachloroethylenes depends on transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kästner, M

    1991-07-01

    Aerobic enrichment cultures from contaminated groundwaters dechlorinated trichloroethylene (TCE) (14.6 mg/liter; 111 mumol/liter) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) (16.2 mg/liter; 98 mumol/liter) reductively within 4 days after the transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The transformation products were equimolar amounts of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and traces of 1,1-dichloroethylene. No other chlorinated product and no methane were detected. The change was accompanied by the release of sulfide, which caused a decrease in the redox potential from 0 to -150 mV. In sterile control experiments, sulfide led to the abiotic formation of traces of 1,1-dichloroethylene without cis-1,2-dichloroethylene production. The reductive dechlorination of PCE via TCE depended on these specific transition conditions after consumption of the electron acceptor oxygen or nitrate. Repeated feeding of TCE or PCE to cultures after the change to anaerobic conditions yielded no further dechlorination. Only aerobic subcultures with an air/liquid ratio of 1:4 maintained dechlorination activities; anaerobic subcultures showed no transformation. Bacteria from noncontaminated sites showed no reduction under the same conditions. PMID:1892393

  20. Aerobic workout and bone mass in females.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Lorentzon, R

    1997-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate bone mass in females participating in aerobic workout. Twenty-three females (age 24.1 +/- 2.7 years), participating in aerobic workout for about 3 hours/week, were compared with 23 age-, weight- and height-matched non-active females. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, whole dominant humerus, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter femoris, in specific sites in right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia and tibial diaphysis, and bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the whole dominant arm and right leg, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The aerobic workout group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in total body (3.7%), lumbar spine (7.8%), femoral neck (11.6%), Ward's triangle (11.7%), trochanter femoris (9.6%), proximal tibia (6.8%) and tibia diaphysis (5.9%) compared to the non-active controls. There were no differences between the groups concerning BMD of the whole dominant humerus, femoral diaphysis, distal femur and BMC and lean mass of the whole dominant arm and right leg. Leaness of the whole dominant arm and leg was correlated to BMC of the whole dominant arm and right leg in both groups. In young females, aerobic workout containing alternating high and low impact movements for the lower body is associated with a higher bone mass in clinically important sites like the lumbar spine and hip, but muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups and soft-glove boxing are not associated with a higher bone mass in the dominant humerus. It appears that there is a skeletal adaptation to the loads of the activity. PMID:9458499

  1. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  2. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%. PMID:17251012

  3. Fate of estrogen conjugate 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate in dairy wastewater: comparison of aerobic and anaerobic degradation and metabolite formation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Zou, Yonghong; Li, Xiaolin; Machesky, Michael L

    2013-08-15

    Irrigation with concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) wastewater on croplands has been identified as a major source discharging steroid hormones into the environment. To assess the potential risks on this irrigation practice, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were systematically investigated in aqueous solutions blended with dairy wastewater. Dissipation of the conjugated estrogen was dominated by biodegradation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The half-lives for the biodegradation of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions from 15 to 45°C varied from 1.70 to 415 d and 22.5 to 724 d, respectively. Under the same incubation conditions, anaerobic degradation rates of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were significantly less than aerobic degradation rates, suggesting that this hormone contaminant may accumulate in anaerobic or anoxic environments. Three degradation products were characterized under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 25°C, with estrone-3-sulfate and 17α-estradiol identified as primary metabolites and estrone identified as a secondary metabolite. However, the major degradation mechanisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were distinctly different. For aerobic degradation, oxidation at position C17 of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate ring was a major degradation mechanism. In contrast, deconjugation of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate thio-ester bond at position C3 was a major process initiating degradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23708453

  4. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  5. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  6. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  7. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. PMID:26849529

  8. The emission of volatile compounds during the aerobic and the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting of biowaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Erik; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Bo, Inge

    Two different biowaste composting techniques were compared with regard to their overall emission of volatile compounds during the active composting period. In the aerobic composting process, the biowaste was aerated during a 12-week period, while the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process consisted of a sequence of a 3-week anaerobic digestion (phase I) and a 2-week aeration period (phase II). While the emission of volatiles during phase I of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was measured in a full-scale composting plant, the aerobic stages of both composting techniques were performed in pilot-scale composting bins. Similar groups of volatile compounds were analysed in the biogas and the aerobic composting waste gases, being alcohols, carbonyl compounds, terpenes, esters, sulphur compounds and ethers. Predominance of alcohols (38% wt/wt of the cumulative emission) was observed in the exhaust air of the aerobic composting process, while predominance of terpenes (87%) and ammonia (93%) was observed in phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process, respectively. In the aerobic composting process, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone, limonene and ethyl acetate made up about 82% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOC)-emission. Next to this, the gas analysis during the aerobic composting process revealed a strong difference in emission profile as a function of time between different groups of volatiles. The total emission of VOC, NH 3 and H 2S during the aerobic composting process was 742 g ton -1 biowaste, while the total emission during phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was 236 and 44 g ton -1 biowaste, respectively. Taking into consideration the 99% removal efficiency of volatiles upon combustion of the biogas of phase I in the electricity generator, the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process can be considered as an attractive alternative for aerobic biowaste composting because of

  9. Reproductive and feeding spatial dynamics of the black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839, in NE Atlantic inferred from fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Inês; Figueiredo, Ivone; Janeiro, Ana Isabel; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria; Batista, Irineu; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    The black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) is a benthopelagic species widely distributed across the NE Atlantic, where it is admitted to perform a clockwise migration throughout its life cycle stimulated by feeding and reproduction. To overcome the limitations of direct observation of this species, fatty acids profile (FA) and δ15N and δ13C stable isotopes (SI) were analyzed in the muscle tissue of the black scabbardfish and related with diet and maturity. Specimens were collected in four geographic areas in the NE Atlantic: Iceland, the west of the British Isles, mainland Portugal, and Madeira. For all areas, the FA profile was related with the different phases of the reproductive cycle and with diet, whereas the SI were related with diet, environmental characteristics, such as latitude and depth, and particulate organic matter (POM). Stomach content of black scabbardfish caught off mainland Portugal was analyzed and the most frequent prey item identified was the lophogastrid crustacean Gnathophausia zoea, followed by the cephalopod Mastigotheutis spp. and the teleost Rouleina maderensis. For specimens from Iceland and the west of the British Isles, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the most important FA, followed by polyunsaturated (PUFA) and saturated FA (SFA), whereas for specimens from mainland Portugal and from Madeira the sequences were PUFA>MUFA>SFA and PUFA>SFA>MUFA, respectively. Immature specimens from the first three areas were found to be accumulating oleic acid which is an intermediate product of the metabolic pathway that transforms SFA to MUFA and these into PUFA. Specimens caught off Madeira were mature and showed a significant prevalence of ARA and DHA which are PUFA with an important role in reproduction. δ15N was significantly higher in the muscle of black scabbardfish from Madeira, whereas δ13C was significantly lower in specimens from Iceland. The low isotopic ratios as well as the prevalence of certain fatty acid trophic markers (FATM

  10. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H

    1997-01-01

    The microbiology of perirectal abscesses in 144 patients was studied. Aerobic or facultative bacteria only were isolated in 13 (9%) instances, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 27 (19%) instances, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated in 104 (72%) instances. A total of 325 anaerobic and 131 aerobic or facultative isolates were recovered (2.2 anaerobic isolates and 0.9 aerobic isolates per specimen). The predominant anaerobes were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis group (85 isolates), Peptostreptococcus spp. (72 isolates), Prevotella spp. (71 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (21 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (20 isolates), and Clostridium spp. (15 isolates). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (34 isolates), Streptococcus spp. (28 isolates), and Escherichia coli (19 isolates). These data illustrate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of perirectal abscesses. PMID:9350771

  11. Some features of the ecology of fleas inhabiting the nests of the suslik (Citellus citellus (L.)). I: Population dynamics, sex ratio, feeding, reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ryba, J; Rödl, P; Bartos, L; Daniel, M; Cerný, V

    1986-01-01

    While studying the suslik fleas in artificial nests planted in free nature, significant changes in the population dynamics of N. setosa, C. simplex and C. orientalis (from the spring build up to the autumnal peak and the decrease of flea number until the next spring) were noted. The predominance of females in the spring period was recorded in N. setosa. Significant seasonal changes in the number of engorged females of N. setosa and C. simplex and of C. orientalis males (the increase of engorged specimens in the spring and summer) were demonstrated. A significant predominance of females with mature eggs in the spring and summer and their negligible number in the autumn were found in N. setosa and C. simplex. PMID:3758870

  12. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  13. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  14. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  15. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  16. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  17. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  18. Evolution of Molybdenum Nitrogenase during the Transition from Anaerobic to Aerobic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Costas, Amaya M. Garcia; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Mus, Florence

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molybdenum nitrogenase (Nif), which catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium, has modulated the availability of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere since early in Earth's history. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that oxygen (O2)-sensitive Nif emerged in an anaerobic archaeon and later diversified into an aerobic bacterium. Aerobic bacteria that fix N2 have adapted a number of strategies to protect Nif from inactivation by O2, including spatial and temporal segregation of Nif from O2 and respiratory consumption of O2. Here we report the complement of Nif-encoding genes in 189 diazotrophic genomes. We show that the evolution of Nif during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism was accompanied by both gene recruitment and loss, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of nif genes. While the observed increase in the number of nif genes and their phylogenetic distribution are strongly correlated with adaptation to utilize O2 in metabolism, the increase is not correlated with any of the known O2 protection mechanisms. Rather, gene recruitment appears to have been in response to selective pressure to optimize Nif synthesis to meet fixed N demands associated with aerobic productivity and to more efficiently regulate Nif under oxic conditions that favor protein turnover. Consistent with this hypothesis, the transition of Nif from anoxic to oxic environments is associated with a shift from posttranslational regulation in anaerobes to transcriptional regulation in obligate aerobes and facultative anaerobes. Given that fixed nitrogen typically limits ecosystem productivity, our observations further underscore the dynamic interplay between the evolution of Earth's oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon biogeochemical cycles. IMPORTANCE Molybdenum nitrogenase (Nif), which catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium, has modulated the availability of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere since early in Earth's history. Nif emerged in an anaerobe and

  19. Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jean Baldus; Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Taylor, Tony; Imperatrice, Carol; Leonard, Deborah G. B.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Jost, Kenneth C.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying clinically significant species of aerobic actinomycetes. A total of 28 reference strains and 71 clinical isolates that included members of the genera Streptomyces, Gordonia, and Tsukamurella and 10 taxa of Nocardia were studied. Methods of nonsequencing analyses included growth and biochemical analysis, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the 439-bp Telenti fragment of the 65 hsp gene, susceptibility testing, and, for selected isolates, high-performance liquid chromatography. Many of the isolates were included in prior taxonomic studies. Sequencing of Nocardia species revealed that members of the group were generally most closely related to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains. However, the sequences of Nocardia transvalensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. nova isolates were highly variable; and it is likely that each of these species contains multiple species. We propose that these three species be designated complexes until they are more taxonomically defined. The sequences of several taxa did not match any recognized species. Among other aerobic actinomycetes, each group most closely resembled the associated reference strain, but with some divergence. The study demonstrates the ability of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify members of the aerobic actinomycetes, but the study also shows that a high degree of sequence divergence exists within many species and that many taxa within the Nocardia spp. are unnamed at present. A major unresolved issue is the type strain of N. asteroides, as the present one (ATCC 19247), chosen before the availability of molecular analysis, does not represent any of the common taxa associated with clinical nocardiosis. PMID:15184431

  20. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V

    1997-02-01

    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data. PMID:9077005

  1. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  3. Zebra mussel filter feeding and food-limited production of Daphnia: Recent changes in lower trophic level dynamics of Oneida Lake, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horgan, M.J.; Mills, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels can alter lower trophic level dynamics in lakes that they colonize by consuming large quantities of phytoplankton. We simulated the indirect effects of zebra mussel grazing on Daphnia by artificially reducing phytoplankton concentration for in situ Daphnia reproduction experiments. The response of Daphnia reproduction to reduced phytoplankton was evaluated for both the in situ experiments and field observations in Oneida Lake, New York, U.S.A. Oneida Lake has had an abundant population of zebra mussels since 1992. Our experiments revealed that fecundity of individuals from two species of Daphnia was positively related to phytoplankton concentration during the spring clearwater phase, although there was no discernible effect of food concentration on fecundity in summer cyanobacteria-dominated assemblages. The experimental results suggest that Daphnia fecundity responds to chlorophyll a concentrations < 2 ??g l-1. The years since zebra mussels became abundant in Oneida Lake have been characterized by high water clarity, low chlorophyll concentrations, long clearwater phases, and low Daphnia biomass compared with the previous 17 years. The food web effects of zebra mussel grazing are complex and it will take more years for impacts at higher trophic levels to develop and be identified.

  4. Bacterial population dynamics of aerobic and anaerobic dairy waste treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Modern high intensity dairy farms generate large amounts of waste (manure and urine) that is stored in lagoons until it is disposed of by land application on crop fields. This practice has resulted in nutrients leaching into ground and surface waters, poor air quality from volat...

  5. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hao, W.; Wang, H. L.; Ning, T. T.; Yang, F. Y.; Xu, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR. PMID:25925059

  6. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  7. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  8. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  9. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  12. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  13. Validity of critical frequency test for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Papoti, Marcelo; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate critical frequency specific test (critf) for the estimation of the aerobic endurance in table tennis players. Methods: Eight male international-level table tennis players participated of this study. Specific tests were applied by using a mechanical ball thrower to control the intensity of the exercise. The critf was determined by applying three or four series of exercises to exhaustion (Tlim). The critf was evaluated by using lactate steady state test (90, 100, and 106 % of critf intensity). The other specific test was an incremental protocol used to determine the anaerobic threshold (AnTBI) and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) using a ball thrower. Results: The critf (39.87 ± 3.31 balls·min-1) was not significantly different among AnTBI (48.11 ± 7.36 balls·min- 1) and OBLA3.5 (49.36 ± 12.04 balls·min-1) frequencies and it was correlated with AnTBI parameter (r = 0.78). At frequencies of the 90 and 100% of critf a dynamic equilibrium was verified in lactate concentration between the eighth and twentieth minutes. However, this dynamic equilibrium was not found at 106% intensity. Conclusion: The data indicate that in table tennis the critf model can be used for measuring the aerobic endurance. Key pointsIn table tennis is need the use of a specific protocol for evaluation of the aerobic endurance.The critical frequency test in table tennis seems to represent the intensity of maximal equilibrium of lactatemia.The critical frequency test can be used for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol. PMID:24149951

  14. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  15. Psychological Benefits of Aerobic Running: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…

  16. The Psychology, Physiology, and Creativity of Middle School Aerobic Exercisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of aerobic running program on psychological and physical fitness and creative abilities of eight-grade school children. Students (n=85) were randomly assigned to aerobic running treatment groups or to control groups who participated in traditional, nonaerobic physical education. Found statistically significant increases for…

  17. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  18. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  19. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  20. EFFECTS OF CORN SILAGE INOCULANTS ON AEROBIC STABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic stability of corn silage can be a major problem for farmers particularly in warm weather. Silage inoculants, while the most common type of silage additive, have not been consistently effective at improving aerobic stability. This study investigated new and proposed inoculant products over ...

  1. Aerobic Activity--Do Physical Education Programs Provide Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGing, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    High school physical education curricula should concentrate less on sport skill development and competition, and more on health-related fitness and aerobic activity. Results are reported from a study of the type and amount of aerobic exercise provided in 29 high school physical education programs in a large metropolitan area. (IAH)

  2. Sexual dimorphism in primate aerobic capacity: a phylogenetic test.

    PubMed

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, L J; Nunn, C L

    2010-06-01

    Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of haematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should co-vary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions, we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

  3. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  6. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  7. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  8. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  9. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  12. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  13. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  14. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  15. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Glucoisosaccharinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Strand, S. E.; Dykes, J.; Chiang, V.

    1984-01-01

    α-Glucoisosaccharinic acid (GISA), a major by-product of kraft paper manufacture, was synthesized from lactose and used as the carbon source for microbial media. Ten strains of aerobic bacteria capable of growth on GISA were isolated from kraft pulp mill environments. The highest growth yields were obtained with Ancylobacter spp. at pH 7.2 to 9.5. GISA was completely degraded by cultures of an Ancylobacter isolate. Ancylobacter cell suspensions consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide in response to GISA addition. A total of 22 laboratory strains of bacteria were tested, and none was capable of growth on GISA. GISA-degrading isolates were not found in forest soils. Images PMID:16346467

  16. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Benjamin J; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-06-28

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual-motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  17. New Routes for Aerobic Biodegradation of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Gilchrist, Darrin C.

    1991-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an osmolyte in marine plants, is biodegraded by cleavage of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or by demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA). Sequential demethylation has been observed only with anoxic slurries of coastal sediments. Bacteria that grew aerobically on MMPA and DMSP were isolated from marine environments and phytoplankton cultures. Enrichments with DMSP selected for bacteria that generated DMS, whereas MMPA enrichments selected organisms that produced methanethiol (CH3SH) from either DMSP or MMPA. A bacterium isolated on MMPA grew on MMPA and DMSP, but rapid production of CH3SH from DMSP occurred only with DMSP-grown cells. Low levels of MPA accumulated during growth on MMPA, indicating demethylation as well as demethiolation of MMPA. The alternative routes for DMSP biodegradation via MMPA probably impact on net DMS fluxes to the marine atmosphere. PMID:16348607

  18. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  19. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  20. Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion and physiological responses during aerobic dance steps by impact/type of arm movement.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer-Gerschutz, S A; Darby, L A; Browder, K D

    2000-04-01

    Overall ratings of perceived exertion, i.e., undifferentiated RPE, are often used as indicators of exercise intensity during walking, jogging, and cycling; however, conflicting results concerning RPE during aerobic dance exercise have been reported, and the use of differentiated RPE, i.e., local RPE and central RPE, has not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to assess local, central, and over-all RPE, and physiological responses [heart rate (HR); % HRmax; absolute and relative VO2;% VO2 max, ventilation (VE), ventilatory equivalent (VE.VO2(-1); and oxygen pulse] during aerobic dance exercise varied by Arm Movement (Static Arm vs Dynamic Arm) and Impact (High vs Low). Trained women (N = 25; max VO2 = 50.4 +/- 7.5 ml.kg-1.min.-1) completed four aerobic dance steps. No RPE were significantly correlated with heart rate or VO2; however, for all steps all RPE were significantly (r = .40-.62) correlated with VE.VO2(-1) or VE. No interactions were present for RPE or physiological variables, and main effects were noted for Impact and Arm Movement. All RPE were greater for High Impact and for Static Arm Movement. Because VE and VE.VO2(-1) were correlated with Overall RPE for all steps, this may suggest that participants "attended to" perceived changes in respiratory phenomena during aerobic dance exercise. It appears that during combined arm-and-leg aerobic dance exercise the use of Overall RPE is sufficient to assess perceptual sensations associated with the intensity of the exercise. Changes in Overall RPE were proportionate to objective measures of exercise intensity, i.e., HR and VO2; however, it is recommended that both HR and Overall RPE be used to assess fully a participant's objective and subjective responses during aerobic dance exercise. PMID:10833740

  1. High resolution and comprehensive techniques to analyze aerobic methane oxidation in mesocosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, E. W.; Kessler, J. D.; Redmond, M. C.; Shiller, A. M.; Arrington, E. C.; Valentine, D. L.; Colombo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies of microbially mediated aerobic methane oxidation in oceanic environments have examined the many different factors that control the rates of oxidation. However, there is debate on how quickly methane is oxidized once a microbial population is established and what factor(s) are limiting in these types of environments. These factors include the availability of CH4, O2, trace metals, nutrients, and the density of cell population. Limits to these factors can also control the temporal aspects of a methane oxidation event. In order to look at this process in its entirety and with higher temporal resolution, a mesocosm incubation system was developed with a Dissolved Gas Analyzer System (DGAS) coupled with a set of analytical tools to monitor aerobic methane oxidation in real time. With the addition of newer laser spectroscopy techniques (cavity ringdown spectroscopy), stable isotope fractionation caused by microbial processes can also be examined on a real time and automated basis. Cell counting, trace metal, nutrient, and DNA community analyses have also been carried out in conjunction with these mesocosm samples to provide a clear understanding of the biology in methane oxidation dynamics. This poster will detail the techniques involved to provide insights into the chemical and isotopic kinetics controlling aerobic methane oxidation. Proof of concept applications will be presented from seep sites in the Hudson Canyon and the Sleeping Dragon seep field, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC 118). This system was used to conduct mesocosm experiments to examine methane consumption, O2 consumption, nutrient consumption, and biomass production.

  2. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low. PMID:27526151

  3. Supramolecular organization of bacterial aerobic respiratory chains: From cells and back.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana M P; Teixeira, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic respiratory chains from all life kingdoms are composed by several complexes that have been deeply characterized in their isolated form. These membranous complexes link the oxidation of reducing substrates to the reduction of molecular oxygen, in a process that conserves energy by ion translocation between both sides of the mitochondrial or prokaryotic cytoplasmatic membranes. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that those complexes are organized as supramolecular structures, the so-called supercomplexes and respirasomes, being available for eukaryotes strong data namely obtained by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. A parallel study has been developed for prokaryotes, based on blue native gels and mass spectrometry analysis, showing that in these more simple unicellular organisms such supercomplexes also exist, involving not only typical aerobic-respiration associated complexes, but also anaerobic-linked enzymes. After a short overview of the data on eukaryotic supercomplexes, we will analyse comprehensively the different types of prokaryotic aerobic respiratory supercomplexes that have been thus far suggested, in both bacteria and archaea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26546715

  4. Mathematical modeling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate bioegradation on actinide speciation.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; VanBriesen, J.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1998-03-19

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and, hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modeling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bio-utilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modeling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems.

  5. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  6. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  7. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Barbara

    1984-04-01

    Dynamics!” she said, as she buried her head deep in a book on tectonics. “Must be the key to explain what we see the ignorance of which seems to be chronic.”Convection below, then density flow and phase changes are not withstanding; Thermal gradient change and compositional range are things our minds should be commanding.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  9. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  10. Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

  11. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  12. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  13. Partial nitritation and o-cresol removal with aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Jemaat, Zulkifly; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    Several chemical industries produce wastewaters containing both, ammonium and phenolic compounds. As an alternative to treat this kind of complex industrial wastewaters, this study presents the simultaneous partial nitritation and o-cresol biodegradation in a continuous airlift reactor using aerobic granular biomass. An aerobic granular sludge was developed in the airlift reactor for treating a high-strength ammonium wastewater containing 950 ± 25 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1). Then, the airlift reactor was bioaugmented with a p-nitrophenol-degrading activated sludge and o-cresol was added progressively to the ammonium feed to achieve 100 mg L(-1). The results showed that stable partial nitritation and full biodegradation of o-cresol were simultaneously maintained obtaining a suitable effluent for a subsequent anammox reactor. Moreover, two o-cresol shock-load events with concentrations of 300 and 1000 mg L(-1) were applied to assess the capabilities of the system. Despite these shock load events, the partial nitritation process was kept stable and o-cresol was totally biodegraded. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to identify the heterotrophic bacteria related to o-cresol biodegradation and the ammonia oxidising bacteria along the granules. PMID:24140352

  14. Study of aerobic granular sludge stability in a continuous-flow membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Corsino, S F; Campo, R; Di Bella, G; Torregrossa, M; Viviani, G

    2016-01-01

    A granular continuous-flow membrane bioreactor with a novel hydrodynamic configuration was developed to evaluate the stability of aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Under continuous-flow operation (Period I), AGS rapidly lost their structural integrity resulting in loose and fluffy microbial aggregates in which filamentous bacteria were dominant. The intermittent feeding (Period II) allowed obtaining the succession of feast and famine conditions that favored the increase in AGS stability. Although no further breakage occurred, the formation of new granules was very limited, owing to the absence of the hydraulic selection pressure. These results noted the necessity to ensure, on the one hand the succession of feast/famine conditions, and on the other, the hydraulic selection pressure that allows flocculent sludge washout. This preliminary study shows that the proposed configuration could meet the first aspect; in contrast, biomass selection needs to be improved. PMID:26526094

  15. Identification of active aerobic methanotrophs in plateau wetlands using DNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongcui; Cui, Xiaoyong; Dumont, Marc G

    2016-08-01

    Sedge-dominated wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are methane emission centers. Methanotrophs at these sites play a role in reducing methane emissions, but relatively little is known about the composition of active methanotrophs in these wetlands. Here, we used DNA stable isotope probing to identify the key active aerobic methanotrophs in three sedge-dominated wetlands on the plateau. We found that Methylocystis species were active in two peatlands, Hongyuan and Dangxiong. Methylobacter species were found to be active only in Dangxiong peat. Hongyuan peat had the highest methane oxidation rate, and cross-feeding of carbon from methanotrophs to methylotrophic Hyphomicrobium species was observed. Owing to a low methane oxidation rate during the incubation, the labeling of methanotrophs in Maduo wetland samples was not detected. Our results indicate that there are large differences in the activity of methanotrophs in the wetlands of this region. PMID:27369086

  16. Simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol removal using aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Jemaat, Zulkifly; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2013-12-01

    The chemical and petrochemical industries produce wastewaters containing ammonium and phenolic compounds. Biological treatment of these wastewaters could be problematic due to the possible inhibitory effects exerted by phenolic compounds. The feasibility of performing simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol (PNP) biodegradation using a continuous aerobic granular reactor was evaluated. A nitrifying granular sludge was bioaugmented with a PNP-degrading floccular sludge, while PNP was progressively added to the feed containing a high ammonium concentration. Nitritation was sustained throughout the operational period with ca. 85% of ammonium oxidation and less than 0.3% of nitrate in the effluent. PNP biodegradation was unstable and the oxygen limiting condition was found to be the main explanation for this unsteadiness. An increase in dissolved oxygen concentration from 2.0 to 4.5 mg O2 L(-1) significantly enhanced PNP removal, achieving total elimination. Acinetobacter genus and ammonia-oxidising bacteria were the predominant bacteria species in the granular biomass. PMID:24177164

  17. Modeling the fate of particulate components in aerobic sludge stabilization--performance limitations.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, S; Çokgör, E U; Orhon, D

    2014-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of sludge composition on the limitations of aerobic stabilization. It was designed with the foresight that the stabilization mechanism could only be elucidated if the observed volatile suspended solids reduction were correlated with the fate of particulate components in sludge. Biomass sustained at sludge ages of 2 and 10 days were used in the stabilization reactors. Particulate components were determined by model evaluation of corresponding oxygen uptake rate profiles. Interpretation of the experimental data by modeling, based on death-regeneration mechanism without external substrate, could simulate the fate and evolution of major components in sludge during stabilization. It showed that both microbial decay and hydrolysis of non viable cellular material proceeded at much slower rates as compared with biological systems sustained with substrate feeding. Modeling also indicated that particulate metabolic products generated by sludge acclimated to high sludge age undergo slow biodegradation under prolonged stabilization. PMID:24865324

  18. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  19. Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

    2009-02-11

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

  20. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  1. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  2. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  3. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  4. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  5. Aerobic capacity is correlated with the ranking of boxers.

    PubMed

    Bruzas, Vidas; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Cepulenas, Algirdas; Mockus, Pranas; Statkeviciene, Birute; Subacius, Vitalijus

    2014-08-01

    The goal was to assess the aerobic capacity of boxers and its relation with sport mastery. Participants were 12 boxers from the Lithuanian national team (VO₂max - 58.03 ± 3.00 ml/kg/min) of different weight classes. Their sport mastery ranking was established according to their achieved results during the last years of participation in amateur boxing contests. In a graduated treadmill running test, the boxers' aerobic capacity indices were established. Running speed at first and second ventilatory thresholds, VO₂max, and maximal oxygen pulse had moderate to strong correlations with the boxers' sport mastery ranking. Aerobic capacity is an important fitness component of boxers in all weight categories. Special attention should be paid to development of cardiac capacity in the boxers' training processes, as with aerobic power and anaerobic threshold training. PMID:25153738

  6. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  7. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  8. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  9. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  10. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  11. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  12. Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kang, J S

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were fed to a total of 45 pigs (mean body weight 69.4kg) during the eight wk of finishing period. After slaughtering, longissmus muscle at 24h postmortem was used for meat quality analysis. Restaurant food waste was high in protein (22.0%) and fat (23.9%). Supplementing a corn-soy diet with FWM increased (P<0.05) feed DM intake, did not alter (P>0.05) average daily gain, decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency especially for 50% FWM treatment, and substantially reduced (P<0.05) feed cost, compared with feeding a corn-soy diet only. Feeding FWM up to 50% did not affect (P>0.05) carcass characteristics (carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and carcass grade), meat fatty acid composition, meat quality (marbling score, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, L*, a*, b* values, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss), and taste panel test (flavor, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance) compared with feeding a corn-soy diet. However, meat color was paler (P<0.05) for 50% FWM fed animals than a corn-soy diet fed animals. Meat color was the only limiting factor when FWM was fed to finishing pigs. In conclusion, aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture was similar to a corn-soy diet in feed value for finishing pigs. PMID:16171681

  13. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  14. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  15. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  16. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  17. Respirometric assessment of aerobic sludge stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tas, Didem Okutman

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic sludge stabilization was assessed respirometrically with the sludge taken from the secondary settling tank of a domestic wastewater treatment facility in Istanbul, Turkey. Zero-order removal rates of 178, 127 and 44 mg/L day were found for Suspended Solids (SS), Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) at the end of 18 days sludge stabilization, respectively. Significant nutrient release was observed by the mineralized nitrogen and phosphorus from the death and lysis of microorganisms. The model simulations for the batch respirometric assays for initial, 7th and 18th days of the stabilization agree reasonably well with the experimental data. The maximum storage rates (k(sto)) as well as maximum growth rates on stored products (micro(H2)) decrease with increasing stabilization period. Respirometric assays indicated the presence of microorganisms that started to compete with the dominant microorganisms as a result of the stabilization. As such, these findings have significance in terms of the efforts related to the sludge management and application processes. PMID:19942430

  18. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  19. Personality, Metabolic Rate and Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Chan, Wayne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO2) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r =  −0.12) and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11), openness (r = 0.13), and conscientiousness (r = 0.09) had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity. PMID:23372763

  20. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  1. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  2. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  3. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  4. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  5. Maternal and fetal responses to low-impact aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Katz, V L; Poe, M P; Hackney, A C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiologic responses to low-impact aerobics using treadmill walking as a control. Ten pregnant women between 21 and 28 weeks of gestation completed 40 minutes of low-impact aerobic dance. The maternal and fetal responses were then compared to 40 minutes of walking at the same heart rate. The aerobics program consisted of a 10-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of high-intensity exercise, and 10 minutes of decreasing intensity. Heart rates were recorded every 5 minutes, and oxygen uptake (VO2) and fetal response (real-time ultrasound) were obtained every 10 minutes. The maternal heart rates were similar during both trials (overall, 133 +/- 6 beat/min). VO2 values during walking were about 4 mL/kg/min greater than during aerobic dance (p < or = 0.003). Minute ventilation (VE) was also greater during walking (28.7 +/- 6.4 versus 24.1 +/- 3.4 L/min, p < or = 0.001). Respiratory exchange ratios and the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen (VE/VO2) were similar for both trials. Aerobic dance caused greater fetal heart rates than walking (p < or = 0.001), differences being as high as 25 beat/min. The fetal rates had returned toward rest within 5 minutes following exercise. Low-impact aerobic dance, compared with walking at similar heart rates, results in a lower maternal metabolic rate and increases the transient stress on the fetus. PMID:7575837

  6. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating IGFBP-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P.; Hagberg, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Methods Ten overweight (BMI=28.7±0.9kg/m2), older (61±2yr) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Results In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness 13% (p<0.05) and insulin sensitivity index 28% (p<0.05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased 41% after aerobic exercise training (p<0.05). The insulin response to an OGTT was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased 58% (p<0.001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (p<0.001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.06 and p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion While aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults. PMID:21872284

  7. [Feeding disorders in infancy: feeding interaction concept in diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Keren, M; Tyano, S

    1998-09-01

    In infancy clinical manifestations of psychological distress are mainly somatic. Feeding disorders are one of the most common and nonspecific manifestations of different kinds of disturbed parent-child relationships. These disturbances may have their origins in the baby's constitution and physical status, in the parent's personality structure, or both, as has been conceptualized in the transactional model of normal and abnormal development. Among the daily interactions a baby has with parents, feeding has special inherent impact on the early parent-child relationship because of its psychological meanings. Therefore, feeding disorders, with or without failure to thrive, often reflect various disorders of infancy, still not well recognized in the medical community, such as regulatory disorders, attachment disorders, depression of infancy, disorders of separation-individuation, and post-traumatic eating disorder. 3 clinical cases are brought to increase awareness of psychological distress in the infant, and of feeding disorders as 1 of its manifestations. Each illustrates a different kind of feeding disorder in terms of etiology and pathogenesis. Through these cases we emphasize the need for a multi-disciplinary, integrative approach in diagnosis and treatment. Our conceptual background is based both on the transactional model of development (infant and parental factors impact on each other) in a very dynamic paradigm, and on psychodynamic premises. Intrapsychic conflicts and past representations impact heavily on the parenting characteristics. We emphasize the psychological significance of disturbed feeding interactions, with or without failure to thrive. PMID:9885634

  8. Continuous feeding of low-dose APIs via periodic micro dosing.

    PubMed

    Besenhard, M O; Karkala, S K; Faulhammer, E; Fathollahi, S; Ramachandran, R; Khinast, J G

    2016-07-25

    Precise and effective feeding of small powder quantities remains a challenge in many fields, including pharmaceutical development and production. This paper demonstrates that a simple feeding principle can be applied to accomplish stable micro feeding (<100mg/s) and describes a gravimetric powder feeding system with a vibratory sieve mounted on a chute. Feeding was induced via vertical vibrations that can be adjusted within a broad range of frequencies and amplitudes. The feeding system was studied using different frequencies, amplitudes, sieves and powder properties. Feeding was characterized by means of a dynamic scale and high-speed camera recordings. The feeding system provided effective powder feeding even in a range of 1-2mg/s. It was shown that powder properties require special attention when the vibratory sieve-chute system operates at higher feed rates (or feeding times >30min), i.e., feeding at a higher throughput. A combination of discrete element method (DEM) simulations and compartment population balance model (PBM) was used to incorporate the proposed micro feed system into a continuous powder mixer (Gerike GCM250; Gerike Holding LTD., Regensdorf, Switzerland). It illustrates how oscillating feeding rates (the latter is a characteristic of the studied micro feeding system) affect the content uniformity of low dose blends, i.e., powder mixtures with a relatively low fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:27210736

  9. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and alfonsino (Beryx splendens) from the Juan Fernandez seamounts area.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, L M; Quiñones, R A; Gonzalez-Saldía, R R; Niklitschek, E J

    2016-06-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity of two important commercial bathypelagic species living in the Juan Fernández seamounts was analyzed: alfonsino (Beryx splendens) and orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus). These seamounts are influenced by the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) located between 160 and 250 m depth. Both species have vertical segregation; alfonsino is able to stay in the OMZ, while orange roughy remains at greater depths. In this study, we compare the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of these species, measuring the activity of key metabolic enzymes in different body tissues (muscle, heart, brain and liver). Alfonsino has higher anaerobic potential in its white muscle due to greater lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (190.2 μmol NADH min(-1) g ww(-1)), which is related to its smaller body size, but it is also a feature shared with species that migrate through OMZs. This potential and the higher muscle citrate synthase and electron transport system activities indicate that alfonsino has greater swimming activity level than orange roughy. This species has also a high MDH/LDH ratio in its heart, brain and liver, revealing a potential capacity to conduct aerobic metabolism in these organs under prolonged periods of environmental low oxygen conditions, preventing lactic acid accumulation. With these metabolic characteristics, alfonsino may have increased swimming activity to migrate and also could stay for a period of time in the OMZ. The observed differences between alfonsino and orange roughy with respect to their aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity are consistent with their characteristic vertical distributions and feeding behaviors. PMID:26687132

  11. Tolerance to organic loading rate by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Liu, Fu-biao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Sodium acetate as carbon source, tolerance to organic loading rate (OLR) by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor (CAGR) was investigated by gradually increasing the influent COD. AGS could maintain stability in the continuous flow reactor under OLR⩽15kg/m(3)d in the former 65 days, and SVI, granulation rate, average particle size and water content was 21 ml/g, 98%, 1.8mm and 97.2% on the 65th day. However, AGS gradually disintegrated after the 66 th day when OLR increased to 18 kg/m(3)d, and granules' properties deteriorated rapidly in a short time. High removal rates to pollutants were achieved by CAGR in the former 65 days, but the removal rates of pollutants dropped sharply from the 66 th day. With the increase of OLR and particle size, anaerobic cores inside the granules were formed by massive dead cells, while instability of anaerobic core eventually led to the collapse of the system. PMID:25710570

  12. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  13. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  14. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  15. Feeding Behavior of a Crab According to Cheliped Number

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Diogo Nunes; Christofoletti, Ronaldo Adriano; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2015-01-01

    Cheliped loss through autotomy is a common reflexive response in decapod crustaceans. Cheliped loss has direct and indirect effects on feeding behavior which can affect population dynamics and the role of species in the community. In this study, we assessed the impact of autotomy (0, 1, or 2 cheliped loss) on feeding behavior in the crab Pachygrapsus transversus, an omnivorous and abundant species that inhabits subtropical intertidal rocky shores along the South Atlantic Ocean. Autotomy altered crab feeding patterns and foraging behavior; however, the time spent foraging on animal prey or algae was not affected. These results indicate a plasticity of feeding behavior in P. transversus, allowing them to maintain feeding when injured. PMID:26682546

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period. METHODS: Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients. RESULTS: From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and

  17. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  18. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system based on suspended ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Gu, Li-Peng; Xu, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel suspended ceramsite was prepared, which has high strength, optimum density (close to water), and high porosity. The ceramsite was used to feed a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) arrangement to treat petroleum refinery wastewater for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system was varied from 72 to 18 h. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. Compared with the professional emission standard of China, the effluent concentrations of COD and NH3-N in the system could satisfy grade I at HRTs of 72 and 36 h, and grade II at HRT of 18 h. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0575 g suspended solid/g CODremoved. This work demonstrated that the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system using the suspended ceramsite as bio-carrier could be applied to achieving high wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:23656940

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  20. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low-aerobic-capacity rats fed an acute high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Morris, E M; Chintapalli, S V; Wankhade, U D; Shankar, K; Britton, S L; Koch, L G; Thyfault, J P; Rector, R S

    2016-07-01

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that rats with a low capacity for running (LCR) that were fed an acute high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with rats that were highly aerobically fit with a high capacity for running (HCR). Here, we tested the hypothesis that poor physiological outcomes in LCR rats following acute HFD feeding are associated with alterations in cecal microbiota. LCR rats exhibited greater body weight, feeding efficiency, 3 days of body weight change, and liver triglycerides after acute HFD feeding compared with HCR rats. Furthermore, compared with HCR rats, LCR rats exhibited reduced expression of intestinal tight junction proteins. Cecal bacterial 16S rDNA revealed that LCR rats had reduced cecal Proteobacteria compared with HCR rats. Microbiota of HCR rats consisted of greater relative abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae and unassigned genera within this family, suggesting increased reduction of endogenous mucins and proteins. Although feeding rats an acute HFD led to reduced Firmicutes in both strains, short-chain fatty acid-producing Phascolarctobacterium was reduced in LCR rats. In addition, Ruminococcae and Ruminococcus were negatively correlated with energy intake in the LCR/HFD rats. Predicted metagenomic function suggested that LCR rats had a greater capacity to metabolize carbohydrate and energy compared with HCR rats. Overall, these data suggest that the populations and metabolic capacity of the microbiota in low-aerobically fit LCR rats may contribute to their susceptibility to acute HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and poor physiologic outcomes. PMID:27288420

  1. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  2. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. PMID:25845956

  3. TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2009-01-27

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer.

  4. TANK 26 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2008-09-30

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth.

  5. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females. PMID:26141747

  6. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  7. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men. PMID:8457813

  8. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  9. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed. PMID:14629072

  10. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  11. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  12. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  13. Propagating synchrony in feed-forward networks.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sven; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Timme, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of precisely timed action potentials (spikes) emerge in a variety of neural circuits but their dynamical origin is still not well understood. One hypothesis states that synchronous activity propagating through feed-forward chains of groups of neurons (synfire chains) may dynamically generate such spike patterns. Additionally, synfire chains offer the possibility to enable reliable signal transmission. So far, mostly densely connected chains, often with all-to-all connectivity between groups, have been theoretically and computationally studied. Yet, such prominent feed-forward structures have not been observed experimentally. Here we analytically and numerically investigate under which conditions diluted feed-forward chains may exhibit synchrony propagation. In addition to conventional linear input summation, we study the impact of non-linear, non-additive summation accounting for the effect of fast dendritic spikes. The non-linearities promote synchronous inputs to generate precisely timed spikes. We identify how non-additive coupling relaxes the conditions on connectivity such that it enables synchrony propagation at connectivities substantially lower than required for linearly coupled chains. Although the analytical treatment is based on a simple leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model, we show how to generalize our methods to biologically more detailed neuron models and verify our results by numerical simulations with, e.g., Hodgkin Huxley type neurons. PMID:24298251

  14. Hydrocracker feeds olefin unit

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, A.G.

    1986-11-01

    An ethylene plant integrated with a selective hydrocracker in a complex refinery can give an attractive payout, bearing in mind that results depend on the refinery's configuration and business environment. Feedstock and operating conditions are more flexible from only a moderate investment, particularly that to modify the steam cracker. Total product upgrading is high. Low grade vacuum-flashed distillates passed through a selective hydrocracker produce hydrogenated residue (hydrowax) having a value close to a naphtha as a feed to a steam cracker. The technology and economics of the concept are confirmed in a large industrial installations.

  15. Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

    2011-12-01

    profiles perpendicular to the flow direction along the plume. Simulated microbial growth was strongest near the central tank inlet, where both, oxygen and ethylbenzene were available at high concentrations, and along the transverse mixing zone at the fringe of the developed ethylbenzene plume. Model based interpretation of the aerobic/anaerobic phase with competitive biodegradation proved to be ambiguous due to uncertainties regarding the actual stoichiometry of the specific denitrification reaction. Also, the simulated isotopic patterns were very sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the A. aromaticum EbN1 biomass. Ethylbenzene concentrations and isotopic patterns predicted by the numerical model match the measurements quite well for the first half of the aerobic/anaerobic phase. A distinct increase in biodegradation dynamics later on hints at a change in biodegradation dynamics during the course of the experiment.

  16. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  17. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands. PMID:27154570

  19. Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using food waste (UFW) and effluents from acidogenic biohydrogen production process (FFW) were studied employing aerobic mixed culture as biocatalyst. Anoxic microenvironment documented higher PHA production, while aerobic microenvironment showed higher substrate degradation. FFW showed higher PHA accumulation (39.6%) than UFW (35.6%) due to ready availability of precursors (fatty acids). Higher fraction of poly-3-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) was observed compared to poly-3-hydroxy valerate (PHV) in the accumulated PHA in the form of co-polymer [P3(HB-co-HV)]. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Integration with fermentative biohydrogen production yielded additional substrate degradation under both aerobic (78%) and anoxic (72%) microenvironments apart from PHA production. Microbial community analysis documented the presence of aerobic and facultative organisms capable of producing PHA. Integration strategy showed feasibility of producing hydrogen along with PHA by consuming fatty acids generated during acidogenic process in association with increased treatment efficiency. PMID:22055090

  20. Supplementary low-intensity aerobic training improves aerobic capacity and does not affect psychomotor performance in professional female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-03-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas' psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  1. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  2. Moderate Aerobic Training Improves Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Isabela; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Padilha, Gisele A.; Marques, Patrícia S.; Magalhães, Raquel F.; Antunes, Mariana A.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Rocha, Nazareth N.; Silva, Pedro L.; Xisto, Débora G.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the therapeutic effects of aerobic training on lung mechanics, inflammation, morphometry and biological markers associated with inflammation, and endothelial cell damage, as well as cardiac function in a model of elastase-induced emphysema. Methods: Eighty-four BALB/c mice were randomly allocated to receive saline (control, C) or 0.1 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema, ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks. After the end of administration period, once cardiorespiratory impairment associated with emphysema was confirmed, each group was further randomized into sedentary (S) and trained (T) subgroups. Trained mice ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Results: Four weeks after the first instillation, ELA animals, compared to C, showed: (1) reduced static lung elastance (Est,L) and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung tissue, (2) increased elastic and collagen fiber content, dynamic elastance (E, in vitro), alveolar hyperinflation, and levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and (3) increased right ventricular diastolic area (RVA). Four weeks after aerobic training, ELA-T group, compared to ELA-S, was associated with reduced lung hyperinflation, elastic and collagen fiber content, TNF-α levels, and RVA, as well as increased Est,L, E, and levels of VEGF. Conclusion: Four weeks of regular and moderate intensity aerobic training modulated lung inflammation and remodeling, thus improving pulmonary function, and reduced RVA and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this animal model of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:27536247

  3. [Modeling formation of aerobic granule and influence of hydrodynamic shear forces on granule diameter].

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimension aerobic granule mathematical model was established, basing on mathematical biofilm model and activated sludge model. The model was used to simulate simple aerobic granule process such as nutrients removal, granule diameter evolution, cycle performance as well as depth profiles of DO and biomass. The effluent NH4(+) -N concentration decreased as the modeling processed. The simulation effluent NO3(-)-N concentration decreased to 3 mg x L(-1) as the granules grew. While the granule diameter increased from 1.1 mm on day 30 to 2.5 mm on day 100, the TN removal efficiency increased from less than 10% to 91%. The denitrification capacity was believed to enhance because the anoxic zone would be enlarged with the increasing granule diameter. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred inside the big aerobic granules. The oxygen permeating depth increased with the consumption of substrate. It was about 100-200 microm at the beginning of the aeration phase, and it turned to near 800 microm at the end of reaction. The autotrophs (AOB and NOB) were mostly located at the out layer where the DO concentration was high. The heterotrophic bacteria were distributed through the whole granule. As hydrodynamic shear coefficient k(de) increased from 0.25 (m x d)(-1) to 5 (m x d)(-1), the granule diameter under steady state decreased form 3.5 mm to 1.8 mm. The granule size under the dynamic steady-state decreased with the increasing hydrodynamic shear force. The granule size could be controlled by adjusting aeration intensity. PMID:22452208

  4. Influence of carbon source on nutrient removal performance and physical-chemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lashkarizadeh, Monireh; Yuan, Qiuyan; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of carbon source variation on the physical and chemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge and its biological nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal performance was investigated. Two identical sequencing batch reactors, R1 and R2, were set up. Granular biomass was cultivated to maturity using acetate-based synthetic wastewater. After mature granules in both reactors with simultaneous chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium and phosphorus removal capability were achieved, the feed of R2 was changed to municipal wastewater and R1 was continued on synthetic feed as control. Biological phosphorus removal was completely inhibited in R2 due to lack of readily biodegradable COD; however, the biomass maintained high ammonium and COD removal efficiencies. The disintegration of the granules in R2 occurred during the first two weeks after the change of feed, but it did not have significant impacts on settling properties of the sludge. Re-granulation of the biomass in R2 was then observed within 30 d after granules' disintegration when the biomass acclimated to the new substrate. The granular biomass in R1 and R2 maintained a Sludge Volume Index close to 60 and 47 mL g(-1), respectively, during the experimental period. It was concluded that changing the carbon source from readily biodegradable acetate to the more complex ones present in municipal wastewater did not have significant impacts on aerobic granular sludge characteristics; it particularly did not affect its settling properties. However, sufficient readily biodegradable carbon would have to be provided to maintain simultaneous biological nitrate and phosphorus removal. PMID:25719420

  5. Lipid Biomarkers Indicating Aerobic Methanotrophy at Ancient Marine Methane- Seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgel, D.; Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    The inventory of lipid biomarkers of a number of ancient methane-seep limestones has been studied over the last decade. The molecular fingerprints of the chemosynthesis-based microbial communities tend to be extremely well-preserved in these limestones. The key process at seeps is the anaerobic oxidation of methane, performed by consortia of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archaea. Compounds preserved within modern and ancient seep settings comprise C-13-depleted lipid biomarkers. Besides the occurrence of C-13- depleted isoprenoids (archaea) and n-alkyl-chains (bacteria), C-13-depleted hopanoids have been reported in seep limestones. Here, lipid biomarker data are presented from three ancient methane-seep limestones embedded in Miocene and Campanian strata. These examples provide strong evidence that methane was not solely oxidized by an anaerobic process. In a Miocene limestone, 3-beta-methylated hopanoids were found (delta C-13: -100 per mil). Most likely, 3-beta-methylated hopanepolyols, prevailing in aerobic methanotrophs were the precursor lipids. In another Miocene limestone, a series of C-13-depleted 4-methylated steranes (lanostanes; -80 to -70 per mil) is derived from aerobic methanotrophs. Lanosterol is the most likely precursor of lanostanes, known to be produced by aerobic methanotrophs, some of which are outstanding among bacteria in having the capacity to produce steroids. In a Campanian seep limestone a suite of conspicuous secohexahydrobenzohopanes (-110 to -107 per mil) is found. These hopanoids probably represent early degradation products of seep-endemic aerobic methanotrophs. This interpretation is supported by the presence of "regular" hopanoids that can be discriminated from the unusual secohexahydrobenzohopanes by only moderately low delta C-13 values (-49 to -42 per mil). Structural and carbon isotope data reveal that aerobic methanotrophy is more common at ancient methane- seeps than previously noticed. Our data indicate that

  6. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  7. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  8. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  9. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF AUTOHEATED THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION WITH AIR AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major disadvantage of aerobic digestion is that it requires long detention times, particularly in colder climates, to insure adequate stabilization. Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) offers the potential to decrease the required detention time. ATAD takes advanta...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Rich; Cunliffe, Michael; Scanlan, Julie; Moussard, Helene; Kits, K. Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Jetten, MSM; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Han, James; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Stein, Lisa Y.; Murrell, Collin

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  11. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  12. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-01

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing. PMID:24706845

  13. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F.; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-01-01

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple–areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant’s jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple–areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant’s oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple–areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing. PMID:24706845

  14. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  15. Organic and Nonorganic Feeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is one of the most important interactions between caregiver and child in the first few years of life and even later on in handicapped children. Feeding disorders can present as food refusal or low quantity of food intake due to behavioral issues or underlying organic conditions. This situation concerns mostly infants and children below 6 years of age; however, feeding problems can appear also later on in life. Feeding disorders are a concern for over 10-25% of parents of otherwise healthy children below 3 years of age, but only 1-5% of infants and toddlers suffer from severe feeding problems resulting in failure to thrive. In case of premature infants or neurologically disabled children, this rate is much higher. Feeding disorders may appear as an isolated problem, mainly due to negative behaviors during feeding, or as a concomitant disorder with an underlying organic disease or structural anomaly. The newest classification also includes the feeding style presented by the caregiver (responsive, controlling, indulgent or neglectful) as a separate cause of feeding disorders. PMID:26226993

  16. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  17. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  18. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  19. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  20. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost. PMID:12348766

  1. Aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.W.; Carpenter, C.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the biodegradation of {sup 14}C-labeled vinyl chloride in samples taken from a shallow aquifer. Under aerobic conditions, vinyl chloride was readily degraded, with greater than 99% of the labeled material being degraded after 108 days and approximately 65% being mineralized to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  2. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  3. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  4. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  5. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  6. AEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY AND TOXICITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetable oil spills are a widely known phenomenon, but are the least understood. These spills can be as devastating to the environment as petroleum oil spills. Previous laboratory research results have indicated that as vegetable oils degrade aerobically, the aqueous solutions b...

  7. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  8. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  9. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  10. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  11. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  13. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  14. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  15. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  16. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  17. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  18. Identification of serum analytes and metabolites associated with aerobic capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies aimed at identifying serum markers of cellular metabolism (biomarkers) that are associated at baseline with aerobic capacity (V02 max) in young, healthy individuals have yet to be reported. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to use the standard chemistry screen and untargeted mass ...

  19. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  20. Environmental Controls on Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, L.; Maltby, J.; Engbersen, N.; Zopfi, J.; Bange, H. W.; Elvert, M.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Kock, A.; Lehmann, M. F.; Treude, T.; Niemann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Large quantities of the greenhouse gas CH4 are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, and later into the atmosphere. Indeed, coastal seas account for more than 75% of global oceanic CH4 emissions. Yet, aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB) consume an important part of CH4 in the water column, thus mitigating CH4 release to the atmosphere. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic systems, in particular with regard to the variability of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentrations, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine the most important controlling factors, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of CH4, MOx, the composition of the MOB community, and physicochemical water column parameters in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Eckernförde(E-) Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, seasonal stratification leads to hypoxia in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Methane is produced year-round in the sediments, resulting in accumulation of methane in bottom waters, and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were a) perturbations of the water column caused by storm events, currents or seasonal mixing, b) temperature and c) oxygen concentration. a) Perturbations of the water column led to a sharp decrease in MOx within hours, probably caused by replacement of 'old' water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of MOB. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though CH4 was abundant at all depths, MOx was highest in bottom waters (1-5 nM/d), which usually contain the lowest O2 concentrations. Lab-based experiments with adjusted O2

  1. Adaptive feed-forward loop connection based on error signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Koichi

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate effect of changing the connection of feed-forward loop based on error signal. Our motivation of this work is solution to progress of human skill. For the skill model, we study a human simple action such as arm motion. Many models that describe the human arm dynamics have been proposed in recent year. While one type does not need an inverse model of human dynamics, the system based on the model does not include feed-forward loop. On the other hand, another type model has a feed-forward loop and feedback loop systems. This type assumes feed-forward element includes an internal model by repeating action or training and this loop progress our skill. Then we usually have to exercise to get a good performance. This says that we design the internal motion model by training and we move on prediction for motion. Under the assumption, Kawato model is well known. The model proposed that learning of feed-forward element is promoted in brain so that the error of feedback loop decreases. Furthermore, we assume the connections in feedback loop and feed-forward loop are changed. We show numerical simulations and consider that the position error given by our vision changes the skill element and we confirm that the position error is the one of the estimate function for the improvement in our skill.

  2. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  3. Effects of dominant somatotype on aerobic capacity trainability

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K; Chtara, M; Feki, Y; Amri, M; Trudeau, F

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between dominant somatotype and the effect on aerobic capacity variables of individualised aerobic interval training. Methods: Forty one white North African subjects (age 21.4±1.3 years; V·o2max = 52.8±5.7 ml kg–1 min–1) performed three exercise tests 1 week apart (i) an incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine V·o2max and V·o2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2); (ii) a VAM-EVAL track test to determine maximal aerobic speed (vV·o2max); and (iii) an exhaustive constant velocity test to determine time limit performed at 100% vV·o2max (tlim100). Subjects were divided into four somatometric groups: endomorphs-mesomorphs (Endo-meso; n = 9), mesomorphs (Meso; n = 11), mesomorphs-ectomorphs (Meso-ecto; n = 12), and ectomorphs (Ecto; n = 9). Subjects followed a 12 week training program (two sessions/week). Each endurance training session consisted of the maximal number of successive fractions for each subject. Each fraction consisted of one period of exercise at 100% of vV·o2max and one of active recovery at 60% of vV·o2max. The duration of each period was equal to half the individual tlim100 duration (153.6±39.7 s). After the training program, all subjects were re-evaluated for comparison with pre-test results. Results: Pre- and post-training data were grouped by dominant somatotype. Two way ANOVA revealed significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction effects (p<0.001) for improvements in vV·o2max, V·o2max expressed classically and according to allometric scaling, and V·o2 at VT2. There were significant differences among groups post-training: the Meso-ecto and the Meso groups showed the greatest improvements in aerobic capacity. Conclusion: The significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction suggests different trainability with intermittent and individualised aerobic training according to somatotype. PMID:16306506

  4. Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Yan; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial strain F6 was isolated from a biological aerated filter that is used for purifying recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system and was identified as Marinobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain F6 showed efficient aerobic denitrifying ability. One hundred percent of nitrates and 73.10% of nitrites were removed, and the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates reached 50.08% and 33.03% under a high nitrate and nitrite concentration in the medium, respectively. N(2)O and (15)N(2), as revealed by GC-MS and GC-IRMS, were the products of aerobic denitrification. Factors affecting the growth and aerobic denitrifying performance of strain F6 were investigated. The results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain F6 were the presence of sodium succinate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 15, salinity ranging from 32-35 g/L of NaCl, incubation temperature of 30°C, an initial pH of 7.5, and rotation speed of 150 rpm [dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.75 mg/L]. In addition, strain F6 was confirmed to be a heterotrophic nitrifier through its NO(2)(-) generation and 25.96% TN removal when NH(4)(+) was used as the sole N source. Therefore, strain F6, the first reported member of genus Marinobacter with aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying ability, is an excellent candidate for facilitating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in industry and aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22578593

  5. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  6. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  7. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  8. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  9. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  10. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  11. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor/ Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR) System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    JAFARI, Jalil; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; NABIZADEH, Ramin; FARROKHI, Mehrdad; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR)-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater. Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2–2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3. The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3. Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively. Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewater. PMID:26056640

  12. Breast feeding: success or failure.

    PubMed

    Houston, M J

    1981-11-01

    Awareness of the important role of breast feeding in child health and the reproductive cycle, which is well documented elsewhere, necessitates an examination of the changing practice of breast feeding. This paper reviews these changing practices both in Western and developing societies, examines the problems which lead to lactation failure, and looks at factors related to success in breast feeding. In the light of the need for practical help for successful breast feeding. the present system of support both in hospital and at home is then discussed. An alternative system of structured home support for post-natal women, which has been shown to increase the success rate of breast feeding, is outlined. The way in which this system acts is discussed and the implications for both mothers and health staff are considered. PMID:6915047

  13. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  14. Orbital maneuvering engine feed system coupled stability investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, D. R.; Schuman, M. D.; Hunting, J. K.; Fertig, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer model used to analyze and predict engine feed system coupled instabilities over a frequency range of 10 to 1000 Hz was developed and verified. The analytical approach to modeling the feed system hydrodynamics, combustion dynamics, chamber dynamics, and overall engineering model structure is described and the governing equations in each of the technical areas are presented. This is followed by a description of the generalized computer model, including formulation of the discrete subprograms and their integration into an overall engineering model structure. The operation and capabilities of the engineering model were verified by comparing the model's theoretical predictions with experimental data from an OMS-type engine with a known feed system/engine chugging history.

  15. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process. PMID:25689817

  16. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  17. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  18. The Effect of a Silage Inoculant on Silage Quality, Aerobic Stability, and Meat Production on Farm Scale

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Aragón, Y.; Jatkauskas, J.; Vrotniakienė, V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation on nutrient content, fermentation, aerobic stability, and beef cattle performance for whole-plant corn silage treated with a commercial product (blend of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, BSM, blend of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, DSM numbers 3530, 19457, and 23231, resp.), was compared to a control treatment with no silage additives (CT). The material had a DM of 323 g/kg, crude protein, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations of 87.9 and 110.5 g/kg DM, respectively. BSM increased the fermentation rate with a significantly deeper pH (P < 0.01), a significant increase in the total organic acids concentration (P < 0.05), more lactic acid (P < 0.01), and numerically more acetic acid compared to CT. BSM significantly decreased the concentrations of butyric acid (P < 0.01), ethanol, and ammonia-N compared to the CT. BSM-treated silage decreased DM by 3.0 % (P < 0.01) and had a higher digestible energy and a higher metabolizable energy concentration by 2.3 (P < 0.01) and 1.00 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to untreated silage. Aerobic stability improved by more than 2 days in BSM silage. The DM intake of silage treated with BSM increased by 6.14 %, and improved weight gain and the feed conversion by 8.0 (P < 0.01) and 3.4%. PMID:23738122

  19. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH < pK). Steady states were achieved with different extracellular levels of fumaric acid, obtained by adding different amounts of fumaric acid to the feed medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683700

  20. RESISTANCE TRAINING AS A PRECONDITIONING STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING OUTCOMES IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Margaret K.; Collins, Eileen G.; Reynertson, Sandra I.; Dilling, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic exercise training is a recognized approach for improving functional capacity in COPD. People with greater disease severity often have difficulty achieving higher aerobic exercise training intensity. The effects of resistance training prior to aerobic training were examined to determine if this sequential approach was associated with greater gains in functional status than aerobic training alone or concurrent aerobic and resistance training. Methods Patients were randomized to: 1) sequential resistance then aerobic training (RT-then-AT) (8 weeks resistance training followed by 8 weeks aerobic exercise training), 2) control group (CE-then-AT+RT) (8 weeks of ‘sham’ training followed by 8 weeks concurrent aerobic and resistance training), 3) control group (CE-then-AT) (8 weeks ‘sham’ training followed by 8 weeks aerobic training). Outcomes were assessed at study entry, after week 8, and after week 16: aerobic exercise performance; muscle strength and endurance. Results 75 patients completed training: FEV1 %pred 40±10, V̇O2peak %predicted, 71±22, fat-free mass index 19.5±3.1. RT-then-AT had greater acquisition of peripheral muscle endurance than CE-then-AT+RT and CE-then-AT, but improvements in aerobic exercise performance were similar. Improvements in muscle strength were similar between RT-then-AT and CE-then-AT+RT. Sarcopenia was associated with poorer attendance, and lower aerobic and resistance training volumes. Conclusion Although the sequential approach to resistance and aerobic training yielded a greater increase in muscle endurance and higher resistance training volume compared to concurrent resistance and aerobic training, other training outcomes were similar between the two groups, thus the sequential approach is not clearly superior to the concurrent approach in severe COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01058213. PMID:24958605

  1. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass silage.

    PubMed

    Dean, D B; Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Littell, R C

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the nutritive value and aerobic stability of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage could be improved by addition of proprietary, exogenous cellulase/hemicellulase enzyme preparations at ensiling. A 5-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved without treatment (control) or after treatment with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes including Promote NET (Pr), Biocellulase X-20 (X20), Biocellulase A-20 (A20), and Enzyme CT. The respective enzymes were applied at half the recommended rate, the recommended rate, or twice the recommended rate corresponding to 0.65, 1.3, and 2.6 g/kg of DM, 7.3, 14.5, and 29 mg/kg of DM, at 7.3, 14.4, and 29 mg/kg of DM, and 89, 178, and 356 mg/kg of DM, for Pr, X20, A20, and CT, respectively. The enzymes were sprayed on the bermudagrass at ensiling (not added at feeding as suggested by the manufacturers) to test the objectives of the study. Six 1-kg replicates of chopped (5 cm) forage were ensiled for 145 d in 2.8-L mini silos. Three silos per treatment were used for chemical analysis and 3 for aerobic stability monitoring. The silage juice was analyzed for organic acids, pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ammonia-N, and soluble N. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), NDF (IVNDFD), and ADF (IVADFD) were determined after digesting the silages in buffered rumen fluid for 6 or 48 h in 2 ANKOM(II) Daisy Incubators. Compared with the other silages, those treated with Pr had lower DM losses, and lower pH and ammonia-N concentration than control silages. Residual WSC concentration was greater in Pr- and CT-treated silages than in control silages and greater in Pr-treated silages than CT-treated silages. Compared with control silages, NDF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and CT, and ADF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and A20

  2. Feeding the future.

    PubMed

    Bender, W; Smith, M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses the unequal distribution of food within and among countries of the world, poverty as the main cause of hunger, the patterns of population growth, and future prospects. The evidence reveals the potential for reaching limits of agricultural expansion. Widespread environmental destruction suggests that agricultural lands are declining. Current production patterns may not be sustainable. "Population growth is the single largest determinant of future needs." Farmers of the world's poorest regions must produce food to meet the needs of a doubled population by 2050. The 1996 World Food Summit urged that agricultural policies emphasize environmentally sustainable production methods and a wider variety of crops that would include sorghum and millet. In the early 1990s, 40% of Africa's population was food-energy deficient. Africa has some of the highest population growth rates. Fertility stands at about 6 children/woman. Even with reduced fertility, the African population is expected to double to 22% of world population by 2050. The East Asian population, which is dominated by China, is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2050. South Asia includes some of the poorest and most densely populated countries; its population is expected to reach 2.2-3.3 billion by 2050. 43% of the malnourished population during 1990-92 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% lived in South Asia, 16% lived in East and Southeast Asia, 15% lived in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12% lived in the Near East and North Africa. The proportions of underweight children included 58% in South Asia, 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in the Near East and North Africa, 24% in East and Southeast Asia, and 12% in Latin America and the Caribbean. If everyone adopted a vegetarian diet and no food were wasted, there would be enough food to feed 10 billion people. Malnourishment has the harshest effects on children, rural populations, the growing urban poor, and victims of natural disasters. PMID

  3. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  4. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  5. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  6. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  7. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  8. Axenic aerobic biofilms inhibit corrosion of copper and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, A; Ornek, D; Duarte, D A; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed copper and aluminum alloy 2024 in modified Baar's medium has been studied with continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An axenic aerobic biofilm of either Pseudomonas fragi K or Bacillus brevis 18 was able to lessen corrosion as evidenced by a consistent 20-fold increase in the low-frequency impedance value of copper as well as by a consistent four- to seven-fold increase in the polarization resistance of aluminum 2024 after six days exposure compared to sterile controls. This is the first report of axenic aerobic biofilms inhibiting generalized corrosion of copper and aluminum. Addition of the representative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris (to simulate consortia corrosion behavior) to either the P. fragi K or B. brevis 18 protective biofilm on copper increased the corrosion to that of the sterile control unless antibiotic (ampicillin) was added to inhibit the growth of SRB in the biofilm. PMID:10616712

  9. [Fluorescence fingerprint transformation of municipal wastewater caused by aerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Cui, Shuo; Xie, Chao-bo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Chen, Mao-fu; Lü, Yan-li

    2011-12-01

    The conventional parameters such as COD and BOD only could represent information about total organic content. Fluorescence spectrum can display organic composition and it is unique for each sample, so it is referred as "fluorescence fingerprint". In the present study transformation of excitation-emission matrix of municipal wastewater with sewage as major components after aerobic treatment was investigated and then the zones of biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters were figured out: the fluorescence at excitation wavelength/emission wavelength of about 280/340 nm and 225/240 nm derived from biodegradable organics and those of the zone of excitation wavelength above 300 nm and the zone of excitation wavelength below 300 nm and emission wavelength above 400 nm were mainly related with non-biodegradable organics. The above-mentioned results indicated that fluorescence fingerprint could be used to evaluate the performance and instruct design and operation of aerobic systems. PMID:22295782

  10. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  11. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  12. Performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactor during digestion and thickening of aerobic membrane bioreactor excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Hafuka, Akira; Mimura, Kazuhisa; Ding, Qing; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor in terms of digestion and thickening of excess sludge from an aerobic membrane bioreactor. A digestion reactor equipped with an external polytetrafluoroethylene tubular microfiltration membrane module was operated in semi-batch mode. Solids were concentrated by repeated membrane filtration and sludge feeding, and their concentration reached 25,400mg/L after 92d. A high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, i.e., 98%, was achieved during operation. A hydraulic retention time of 34d and a pulse organic loading rate of 2200mg-COD/(L-reactor) gave a biogas production rate and biogas yield of 1.33L/(reactor d) and 0.08L/g-CODinput, respectively. The external membrane unit worked well without membrane cleaning for 90d. The transmembrane pressure reached 25kPa and the filtration flux decreased by 80% because of membrane fouling after operation for 90d. PMID:27394993

  13. Enzyme activities support the use of liver lipid-derived ketone bodies as aerobic fuels in muscle tissues of active sharks.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Dickson, K A

    2001-01-01

    Few data exist to test the hypothesis that elasmobranchs utilize ketone bodies rather than fatty acids for aerobic metabolism in muscle, especially in continuously swimming, pelagic sharks, which are expected to be more reliant on lipid fuel stores during periods between feeding bouts and due to their high aerobic metabolic rates. Therefore, to provide support for this hypothesis, biochemical indices of lipid metabolism were measured in the slow-twitch, oxidative (red) myotomal muscle, heart, and liver of several active shark species, including the endothermic shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus. Tissues were assayed spectrophotometrically for indicator enzymes of fatty acid oxidation (3-hydroxy-o-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), ketone-body catabolism (3-oxoacid-CoA transferase), and ketogenesis (hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase). Red muscle and heart had high capacities for ketone utilization, low capacities for fatty acid oxidation, and undetectable levels of ketogenic enzymes. Liver demonstrated undetectable activities of ketone catabolic enzymes but high capacities for fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Serum concentrations of the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate varied interspecifically (means of 0.128-0.978 micromol mL(-1)) but were higher than levels previously reported for teleosts. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aerobic metabolism in muscle tissue of active sharks utilizes ketone bodies, and not fatty acids, derived from liver lipid stores. PMID:11247746

  14. Treatment of colour industry wastewaters with concomitant bioelectricity production in a sequential stacked mono-chamber microbial fuel cells-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey; Fonseka, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of any microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based system is of vital importance if it is to be utilized for potential field applications. In this study, an integrated MFC-aerobic bioreactor system was investigated for its scalability with the purpose of treating a simulated dye wastewater and industrial wastewaters originated from textile dyebaths and leather tanning. The influent containing real wastewater was fed into the reactor in continuous mode at ambient temperature. Three MFC units were integrated to act in unison as a single module for wastewater treatment and a continuously stirred aerobic bioreactor operating downstream to the MFC module was installed in order to ensure more complete degradation of colouring agents found in the wastewater. Total colour removal in the final effluent exceeded 90% in all experiments where both synthetic (AO-7 containing) and real wastewater were used as the influent feed. The chemical oxygen demand reduction also exceeded 80% in all experiments under the same conditions. The MFC modules connected in parallel configuration allowed obtaining higher current densities than that can be obtained from a single MFC unit. The maximum current density of the MFC stack reached 1150 mA m(-2) when connected in a parallel configuration. The outcome of this work implies that suitably up-scaled MFC-aerobic integrated bioprocesses could be used for colour industry wastewater treatment under industrially relevant conditions with possible prospects of bioelectricity generation. PMID:26212183

  15. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  16. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  17. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  18. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  19. Intensity Thresholds for Aerobic Exercise–Induced Hypoalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Samuels, Brian; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating exercise-induced hypoalgesia, there is limited understanding of the optimal intensity of aerobic exercise in producing hypoalgesic effects across different types of pain stimuli. Given that not all individuals are willing or capable of engaging in high intensity aerobic exercise, whether moderate intensity aerobic exercise is associated with a hypoalgesic response and whether this response generalizes to multiple pain induction techniques needs to be substantiated. Purpose This study’s purpose is to test for differences in the magnitude of pressure and heat pain modulation induced by moderate (MAE) and vigorous (VAE) intensity aerobic exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young males and 15 females completed one training session and three testing sessions consisting of 25 minutes of either 1) stationary cycling at 70% heart rate reserve (HRR), 2) stationary cycling at 50% HRR, or 3) quiet rest (control). Pain testing was conducted on both forearms prior to and immediately following each condition and included the following tests: pressure pain thresholds (PPT), suprathreshold pressure pain test, static continuous heat test, and repetitive pulse heat pain test. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on each pain measure. Results VAE and MAE reduced pain ratings during static continuous heat stimuli and repetitive heat pulse stimuli, with VAE producing larger effects. VAE also increased PPTs, while neither exercise influenced suprathreshold pressure pain ratings. Conclusion These results suggest that MAE is capable of producing a hypoalgesic effect using continuous and repetitive pulse heat stimuli. However, a dose-response effect was evident as VAE produced larger effects than MAE. PMID:24002342

  20. Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by a two-continuous UASB system with step-feed for COD and phenols removal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang; Fang, Fang; Wang, Ke

    2011-05-01

    A two-continuous mesophilic (37 ± 2°C) UASB system with step-feed was investigated as an attractive optimization strategy for enhancing COD and total phenols removal of the system and improving aerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater. Through the step-feed period, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD and total phenols reached 55-60% and 58-63% respectively in the system, at an influent flow distribution ratio of 0.2 and influent COD concentration of 2500 mg/L; the corresponding efficiencies were at low levels of 45-50% and 43-50% respectively at total HRT of 48 h during the single-feed period. The maximum specific methanogenic activity and substrate utilization rate were 592 ± 16 mg COD-CH(4)/(g VSS d) and 89 ± 12 mg phenol/(g VSS d) during the step-feed operation. After the anaerobic digestion with step-feed, the aerobic effluent COD concentration decreased from 270 ± 9 to 215 ± 10 mg/L. The results suggested that step-feed enhanced the degradation of refractory organics in the second reactor. PMID:21093254

  1. The interaction effects of aerobic exercise training and vitamin D supplementation on plasma lipid profiles and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Parvin; Damirchi, Arsalan; Hoseini, Rastegar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction effects of aerobic exercise training and vitamin D supplementation on indices of obesity and plasma lipid profiles in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods Forty female Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: aerobic training (3 days/week for 8 weeks; AT; n = 8), aerobic training and vitamin D supplementation (OVX + AT + Vit D; n = 8), vitamin D supplementation (OVX + Vit D; n = 8), ovariectomized control (OVX + C, n = 8) and SHAM (n = 8). After blood sampling, visceral fat was taken from the abdominal cavity and weighed immediately. Data was statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Repeated measure ANOVA tests with a 0.05 significance level. Results Body weight, visceral fat, BMI and food intake decreased significantly in OVX + AT + Vit D (P < 0.001); whereas these variables increased significantly in OVX + C (P < 0.001) and SHAM (P < 0.023) groups. At the end of two-months of follow-up, we observed significant differences in TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR in all groups. Conclusion It seems that aerobic training with vitamin D, due to the involvement of muscle mass and exposure to dynamic pressure on the bones and muscles, increased energy expenditure, stimulated insulin exudation and glucose homeostasis, decreased insulin resistance and improved the lipid profile in ovariectomized rats. PMID:26526941

  2. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A

    1987-10-01

    Many human responses to the weightless environment have been documented from actual spaceflights. These include physiological effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and fluid balance, and the musculoskeletal system, as well as psychological effects. Simulations on Earth have added to our knowledge about the physiology of weightlessness. Early data on orthostatic intolerance after real and simulated spaceflight led some scientists to discourage a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts. They believed it was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth. However, most of the data available today do not support this contention. Furthermore, aerobic fitness is beneficial to cardiovascular function and mental performance. Therefore, it may be important in performing extra-vehicular activities during flight. Some astronauts claim exercise enhances their feeling of well-being and self image. And, although the cardiovascular system and exercise performance may recover more slowly after flight to preflight levels when fitness level prior to flight is high, the musculoskeletal system may recover more rapidly. Research is needed to determine optimal levels of aerobic training for performing tasks in flight, maintaining health and well-being during flight, and assuring satisfactory recovery on return to Earth. PMID:3314852

  3. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    PubMed

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  5. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25 years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise. PMID:26180300

  7. Obesity promotes aerobic glycolysis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, David A; deGraffenried, Matthew J; Apte, Shruti A; Bowers, Laura W; Whelan, Kaitlin A; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the leading preventable comorbidity associated with increased prostate cancer-related recurrence and mortality. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that a body mass index >30 is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage within the prostate gland and increased prostate cancer-related mortality. Here we provide evidence that obesity promotes worse clinical outcome through induction of metabolic abnormalities known to promote genotoxic stress. We have previously reported that blood serum derived from obese mice may enhance the proliferative and invasive potential of human prostate cancer cell lines ex vivo. Here we show that a 1-h exposure of LNCaP or PacMetUT1 prostate cancer cell lines and nonmalignant RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells to 2% serum from obese mice induces markers of aerobic glycolysis relative to those exposed to serum from nonobese mice. This metabolic change was correlated with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased frequency of DNA double-strand breaks. Interestingly, N-tert-Butylhydroxylamine, an antioxidant, significantly suppressed markers of aerobic glycolysis in the cells exposed to the blood serum of obese mice, suggesting that ROS contributes to a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. Here we describe obesity-induced changes in key metabolic markers that impact prostate cancer cell progression and explore the role of antioxidants in ameliorating these effects. PMID:25264717

  8. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  9. Posttranscriptional Control of T Cell Effector Function by Aerobic Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Faubert, Brandon; Villarino, Alejandro V.; O’Sullivan, David; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Blagih, Julianna; Qiu, Jing; Weber, Jason D.; Pearce, Edward J.; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A “switch” from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that aerobic glycolysis is specifically required for effector function in T cells but that this pathway is not necessary for proliferation or survival. When activated T cells are provided with costimulation and growth factors but are blocked from engaging glycolysis, their ability to produce IFN-γ is markedly compromised. This defect is translational and is regulated by the binding of the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH to AU-rich elements within the 3′ UTR of IFN-γ mRNA. GAPDH, by engaging/disengaging glycolysis and through fluctuations in its expression, controls effector cytokine production. Thus, aerobic glycolysis is a metabolically regulated signaling mechanism needed to control cellular function. PMID:23746840

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  11. Soil and sediment bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J P; Hsaio, Y H; Spiro, S; Richardson, D J

    1995-01-01

    Several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen, although the physiological advantage gained from this process is not entirely clear. The contribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. As a first step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been developed. Twenty-nine such strains have been isolated from three soils and a freshwater sediment and shown to comprise members of three genera (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Moraxella). All of these strains expressed a nitrate reductase with an active site located in the periplasmic compartment. Twenty-two of the strains showed significant rates of nitrate respiration in the presence of oxygen when assayed with physiological electron donors. Also isolated was one member of the gram-positive genus Arthrobacter, which was likewise able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen but appeared to express a different type of nitrate reductase. In the four environments studied, culturable bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration were isolated in significant numbers (10(4) to 10(7) per g of soil or sediment) and in three cases were as abundant as, or more abundant than, culturable bacteria capable of denitrification. Thus, it seems likely that the corespiration of nitrate and oxygen may indeed make a significant contribution to the flux of nitrate to nitrite in the environment. PMID:7487017

  12. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration in Profiles of Polesie Lubelskie Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Anna; Stêpniewska, Zofia

    2014-04-01

    Soil respiration is a very important factor influencing carbon deposition in peat and reflecting the intensity of soil organic matter decomposition, root respiration, and the ease of transporting gases to the surface. Carbon dioxide release from three different peat soil profiles (0-80 cm) of the Polesie Lubelskie Region (Eastern Poland) was analyzed under laboratory conditions. Peat samples were incubated at 5, 10, and 20°C in aerobic and anaerobic environments, and their CO2-evolution was analyzed up to 14 days. The respiration activity was found to be in the range of 0.013-0.497 g CO2 kg-1 DW d-1. The respiratory quotient was estimated to be in the range of 0.51-1.51, and the difference in respiration rates over 10°C ranged between 4.15 and 8.72 in aerobic and from 1.15 to 6.53 in anaerobic conditions. A strong influence of temperature, depth, the degree of peat decomposition, pH, and nitrate content on respiration activity was found. Lack of oxygen at low temperature caused higher respiration activity than under aerobic conditions. These results should be taken into account when the management of Polish peatlands is considered in the context of climate and carbon storage, and physicochemical properties of soil in relation to soil respiration activity are considered.

  13. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  14. Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Santen, Heike; Wallmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers selected efficiency rates and process data of aerobic and anaerobic procedures for the treatment of municipal solid waste and residual waste. Data are exclusively related to mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) procedures for generating waste appropriate for landfilling. The following aspects are regarded: general framework conditions for the application of MBT, efficiency of decomposition and of stabilisation, air and water emissions and energy balances. The presented data can be used for more efficient planning. In comparison to aerobic processes, anaerobic digestion can be ecologically advantageous, particularly with regard to exhaust emissions and energy balances. On the other hand, the wastewater emissions and the wastewater treatment required must be regarded as disadvantageous. Due to the relatively short period of operational history of most anaerobic processes for mechanical-biological waste treatment and thus limited experiences, operational reliability of anaerobic processes is slightly lower. Extensive biological stability of the treated waste for low-emission disposal cannot be reached by anaerobic digestion alone, but only in combination with additional aerobic post-treatment. In connection with the utilisation of renewable energies and the rising relevancy of climate protection, it can be affirmed that anaerobic digestion for the treatment of municipal solid waste has a high potential for further development. PMID:16125060

  15. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  16. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

  17. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  18. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  19. Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    PubMed

    Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P < 0.05), and left ventricular mass was 51% and 32% greater (P < 0.05) in canoeists than in the sedentary and moderately trained participants, respectively. There were no differences in left ventricular chamber dimension, suggesting that the kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals. PMID:15513280

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  1. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  2. Breast feeding pattern in neonates.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S P; Sharma, V K; Kumar, V

    1994-09-01

    The present study comprised 100 mothers of newborn babies with regard to their belief and practices about lactation. A vast majority (98.2%) of the mothers were breast feeding, 87.9% mothers used prelacteal feeds of one sort or the other. Only 0.5% breast fed their babies within 6 hours and nearly 50% started after 48 hours. Colostrum was discarded by 82.9% of mother and nearly 73% wanted to continue breast feeding beyond 1 year. The age of weaning preferred was after 1 year by 91%. Only 24.7% mothers had undergone antenatal check ups. Hence, much needs to be done with regards to proper antenatal care and advice to discourage wrong and harmful feeding practices. PMID:7883365

  3. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  4. Blood-Feeding Induces Reversible Functional Changes in Flight Muscle Mitochondria of Aedes aegypti Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Machado, Ana Carolina L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Momoli, Marisa M.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Galina, Antonio; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hematophagy poses a challenge to blood-feeding organisms since products of blood digestion can exert cellular deleterious effects. Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways, and also an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating redox metabolism. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial function should be relevant for hematophagous arthropods. Here, we investigated the effects of blood-feeding on flight muscle (FM) mitochondria from the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood-feeding caused a reversible reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, an event that was parallel to blood digestion. These changes were most intense at 24 h after blood meal (ABM), the peak of blood digestion, when oxygen consumption was inhibited by 68%. Cytochromes c and a+a3 levels and cytochrome c oxidase activity of the electron transport chain were all reduced at 24 h ABM. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses of FM revealed that mitochondria fuse upon blood meal, a condition related to reduced ROS generation. Consistently, BF induced a reversible decrease in mitochondrial H2O2 formation during blood digestion, reaching their lowest values at 24 h ABM where a reduction of 51% was observed. Conclusion Blood-feeding triggers functional and structural changes in hematophagous insect mitochondria, which may represent an important adaptation to blood feeding. PMID:19924237

  5. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  6. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  7. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  8. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  9. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in

  10. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples. PMID:20819367

  11. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  12. Reduction of ochratoxin A in chicken feed using probiotic.

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins present in fodders may evoke health problems of animals and people. The data published by FAO in 2001 show that 25% of raw materials are contaminated with mycotoxins, while their type and concentration are to a great extent dependable on the climatic zone. Biological detoxification of mycotoxins by the use of microorganisms is one of the well-known strategies for the management of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spontaneous fermentation and that with the use of probiotic bacteria and yeast on ochratoxin A (OTA) concentration and the microbiota pattern during fermentation. The probiotic preparation is a natural product containing bacteria resistant to gastric juice and bile: Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0920, Lactobacillus brevis LOCK 0944, Lactobacillus plantarum LOCK 0945, as well as live yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae LOCK 0140 of high fermenting capacity. After 6-hour fermentation with the probiotic, in feed with a low concentration of ochratoxin A (1 mg/kg) the amount of ochratoxin A decreased by 73%. In the case of high a concentration (5 mg/kg) the decrease in ochratoxin A was lower at about 55%. This tendency was sustained during the following hours of incubation (12th and 24th hours). The application of probiotic bacteria and yeasts resulted in the reduction of aerobic spore forming bacteria. It can be concluded that the probiotic preparation containing bacteria of Lactobacillus strains and yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the study was conducive to detoxification of ochratoxin A added to a feed. PMID:25528900

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic performance before and after a short-term body mass reduction program in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, A; Narici, M V; Fumagalli, E; Faglia, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2001-02-01

    The cardiovascular response to an aerobic cycloergometer exercise test (ACET, 15 min at 60 W, 60 rpm) and the maximally attainable muscle power output, assessed by a stair climbing test (SCT), were evaluated in 60 obese patients (41 females and 19 males; age: 18-68 yr; body mass index, BMI: 40.8+/-4.8 kg/m2) before and after a 3-week body mass reduction (BMR) program, entailing integrated energy-restricted diet (1200-1500 kcal/day), low-grade aerobic exercise conditioning and individual and/or group psychological therapy. The daily conditioning protocol (5 days/week) consisted of: 1) 30 min of indoor jogging and dynamic aerobic standing and floor exercises performed with arms and legs, under the guidance of a therapist; 2) 30 min of cycloergometer exercise at 60 W; and/or 3) 4-km outdoor leisure walking on flat terrain. Three weeks of BMR program induced a significant weight loss (-4.5 %; p<0.001), a reduction of systolic (-11+/-14 mmHg, -7.3%,p<0.001) and diastolic (-7+/-9 mmHg, -7.3%,p<0.001) resting arterial blood pressure, as well as a reduction of heart rate at rest (-18.6%,p<0.001), during ACET (-11.3%,p<0.001) and 5 min thereafter (-14.8%,p<0.001). The subjective rating of perceived exertion in terms of breathlessness and general fatigue during ACET, scored on a 0-100 visual analogic scale, was significantly reduced (p<0.001) after BMR program. A 11.2% decrease in SCT time (p<0.001) was also observed, corresponding to a 9.6% increase (p<0.001) in average muscle power (W) and 14.6% increase (p<0.001) in specific muscle power (W.kg(-1)). In conclusion, a combination of energy restricted diet, low intensity aerobic exercise and psychological counselling appears to significantly improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance in morbidly obese subjects. Different factors (ie, reduction of body mass, shift in the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, a weight-loss dependent shift toward a more favourable region of the muscle power

  14. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  15. ASSESSING AEROBIC NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE AT FOUR DOE SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Koelsch; Robert C. Starr; Kent S. Sorenson, Jr.

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  16. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Doaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding) appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF) is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%). The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0%) and mother's/mother in law's advice (58.3%). The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father's education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education. PMID:24895560

  17. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition. PMID:26589098

  18. Short-term aerobic exercise training improves gut peptide regulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kullman, Emily L; Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Fealy, Ciaran E; Scelsi, Amanda R; Pagadala, Mangesh R; Flask, Chris A; McCullough, Arthur J; Kirwan, John P

    2016-05-15

    Obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common chronic liver disease. Exercise and diet are uniformly prescribed treatments for NAFLD; however, there are limited empirical data on the effects of exercise training on metabolic function in these patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fasting and glucose-stimulated adaptation of gut peptides to short-term aerobic exercise training in patients with NAFLD. Twenty-two obese subjects, 16 with NAFLD [body mass index (BMI), 33.2 ± 1.1 (SE) kg/m(2)] and 6 obese controls (BMI, 31.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in a supervised aerobic exercise program (60 min/day, 85% of their heart rate maximum, for 7 days). Fasting and glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYYTotal) concentrations in plasma were assessed before and after the exercise program. Initially, the NAFLD group had higher fasting PYY (NAFLD = 117 ± 18.6, control = 47.2 ± 6.4 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and GLP-1 (NAFLD = 12.4 ± 2.2, control = 6.2 ± 0.2 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and did not significantly increase GLP-1 or PYY in response to glucose ingestion. After the exercise program, fasting GLP-1 was reduced in the NAFLD group (10.7 ± 2.0 pg/ml, P < 0.05). Furthermore, exercise training led to significant increase in the acute (0-30 min) PYY and GLP-1 responses to glucose in the NAFLD group, while the total area under the glucose-stimulated GLP-1 response curve was reduced in both NAFLD and controls (P < 0.05). In summary, 7 days of vigorous aerobic exercise normalized the dynamic PYY and GLP-1 responses to nutrient stimulation and reduced the GLP-1 response in NAFLD, suggesting that exercise positively modulates gut hormone regulation in obese adults with NAFLD. PMID:27032902

  19. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  20. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. PMID:22748607

  1. Feed your head: neurodevelopmental control of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel A; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  2. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  3. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  4. An index for quantifying the aerobic reactivity of municipal solid wastes and derived waste products.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    The organic matter contained in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in the MSW fractions obtained by mechanical separation has strong environmental impact when the waste is used as landfill. This is partly due to the biological activity that occurs under anaerobic conditions. Negative effects on the environment include unpleasant odors, biogas, leachate and biomass self-heating. Measuring the biological reactivity of waste with the help of indicators is an important tool to prevent waste impact. The aim of this study was to develop an index capable of describing the aerobic reactivity of waste, using both biological and chemical indicators. To develop this index, 71 MSW and MSW-product samples, including biologically treated MSW and mechanically separated MSW fractions, were analyzed. Fifty of the 71 samples analyzed represented MSWs and their derived products collected from a number of Italian waste plants and sites. The remaining 21 were MSW samples collected at different times during 8 different full-scale aerobic biological processes in four treatment plants used to reduce the biological reactivity of wastes. Five of these processes used the entire (unsorted) MSW, while the remaining three used the organic fraction of the MSW obtained by mechanical pre-treatment (waste sieving). Respirometric activity (Dynamic Respiration Index, DRI) and eluates characterization (chemical oxygen demand--COD, and 5 days biological oxygen demand--BOD5) were used as indicators of waste strength, as they had previously been reported to be indirect measures of waste impact on landfill. Summarizing all studied indicators, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to develop the Putrescibility Index (Ip). The results revealed Ip index of 204+/-33 (mean+/-standard deviation) and 159+/-14 for the organic fraction of MSW and MSW untreated waste respectively, and of 106+/-16 and 101+/-22 for the corresponding biologically treated waste. PMID:18280541

  5. A comparison between the theory and reality of full-scale step-feed nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Goodwin, S; Daigger, G T; Crawford, G V

    2005-01-01

    Capacity enhancement and volume reduction benefits of step-feeding fully aerobic bioreactors has been well documented. Application of step-feed technology to biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems, particularly those removing nitrogen alone or both nitrogen and phosphorus, is relatively new to the industry. In recent years, a number of full-scale step-feed facilities have been brought into service. This paper reviews nine full-scale step-feed biological nutrient removal systems--both nitrogen removal alone, and nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The objective is to compare the theoretical benefits of such systems with their actual operation. The predicted benefits of reduced bioreactor volume or increased process capacity, reduced energy usage, more robust nitrification performance, and the flexibility to tune (or de-tune) nitrification efficiency were verified in full-scale systems. Equations are also presented that may be used in the prediction of step-feed benefits. There are two primary drivers for considering a step-feed biological reactor system: 1. Reduced bioreactor volume for a defined capacity or performance or increased process capacity given a fixed bioreactor volume. 2. More robust nitrification performance. Full-scale operation of these step-feed nutrient removal systems provides a real world basis for the claimed benefits of step-feed operation. These systems have uniformly shown additional capacity. A number of them have also exhibited more robust performance, especially during storms. Where possible, side-by-side comparisons of full-scale step-feed systems with non-step-feed systems have exhibited greater process reliability and flexibility. PMID:16459837

  6. AGRP neurons are sufficient to orchestrate feeding behavior rapidly and without training

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Yexica; Atasoy, Deniz; Sternson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Two intermingled hypothalamic neuron populations, specified by expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) or pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), positively and negatively influence feeding behavior respectively, possibly by reciprocally regulating downstream melanocortin receptors. However, the sufficiency of these neurons to control behavior, and the relationship of their activity to the magnitude and dynamics of feeding are unknown. To measure this, we used channelrhodopsin-2 for cell type-specific photostimulation. Activation of only 800 AGRP neurons in mice evoked voracious feeding within minutes. The behavioral response increased with photoexcitable neuron number, photostimulation frequency, and stimulus duration. Conversely, POMC neuron stimulation reduced food intake and body weight, which required melanocortin receptor signaling. However, AGRP neuron-mediated feeding was not dependent on suppressing this melanocortin pathway, indicating that AGRP neurons directly engage feeding circuits. Furthermore, feeding was evoked selectively over drinking without training or prior photostimulus exposure, which suggests that AGRP neurons serve a dedicated role coordinating this complex behavior. PMID:21209617

  7. How to Make Students Feel Happy in the Course of Aerobics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuezhi

    With its own charm, aerobics is accepted by more and more university students, and becomes one of the most popular sports for girls in colleges. So the Aerobics Teachers must change the single mode of teaching. Aerobics Teachers should start from the actual situations, adopt the method of "group teach", and teach students to appreciate themselves and help each other in a team. And teachers also should make students feel happy of success and sports when they compete in teams.

  8. The convenience of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Tompson, M

    1971-08-01

    Immediately after delivery when the baby is put to breast, the simplicity of breast feeding becomes apparent. There is no concern about the milk not agreeing with the baby, and if he is kept with his mother so she can feed him on demand, the baby will probably gain more weight than if he were on formula. The mother's milk is always right and is always there. Traveling is convenient if clothes are worn that make discreet nursing possible; a 2-piece outfit such as a blouse and a skirt works well. A rest room or a dressing room can also be used for nursing privacy. A diaper or little blanket thrown over the baby can be a casual cover-up if needed. The nursing mother has no bottles to carry around and no fears of running out of supplies. A study by Spock found that mothers of twins who were breast feeding were better organized than those who were bottle feeding. Although the breast feeding mother is tied down to being a mother of her baby, she grows in discovery of her importance to her baby. Weaning is a gradual process. As the baby nurses less, the mother's milk supply decreases. Even after a baby has been weaned, he might need an occasional nursing to assuage a trying experience like a bump or an illness. PMID:4935488

  9. Preferential Use of Carbon Sources in Culturable Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria of Coptotermes curvignathus's (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Gut and Its Foraging Area.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Z; H'ng, P S; Chin, K L; Sajap, Ahmad Said; Tan, G H; Paridah, M T; Othman, Soni; Chai, E W; Go, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The lower termite, Coptotermes curvignathus, is one of the most prominent plantation pests that feed upon, digest, and receive nourishment from exclusive lignocellulose diets. The objective of this study was to examine the utilization of sole carbon sources by isolated culturable aerobic bacteria among communities from the gut and foraging pathway of C. curvignathus. We study the bacteria occurrence from the gut of C. curvignathus and its surrounding feeding area by comparing the obtained phenotypic fingerprint with Biolog's extensive species library. A total of 24 bacteria have been identified mainly from the family Enterobacteriaceae from the identification of Biolog Gen III. Overall, the bacteria species in the termite gut differ from those of foraging pathway within a location, except Acintobacter baumannii, which was the only bacteria species found in both habitats. Although termites from a different study area do not have the same species of bacteria in the gut, they do have a bacterial community with similar role in degrading certain carbon sources. Sugars were preferential in termite gut isolates, while nitrogen carbon sources were preferential in foraging pathway isolates. The preferential use of specific carbon sources by these two bacterial communities reflects the role of bacteria for regulation of carbon metabolism in the termite gut and foraging pathway. PMID:26314017

  10. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  11. Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Kvello, Pal; Mann, Kevin; Cheung, Samantha K.; Gordon, Michael D.; Wang, Liming; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Feeding is dynamically regulated by the palatability of the food source and the physiological needs of the animal. How consumption is controlled by external sensory cues and internal metabolic state remains under intense investigation. Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is required to inhibit consumption. Inactivation of these cells results in indiscriminate and excessive intake of all compounds, independent of taste quality or nutritional state. Conversely, acute activation of these neurons suppresses consumption of water and nutrients. The output from these neurons is required to gate activity in motor neurons that control meal initiation and consumption. Thus, our study reveals a new layer of inhibitory control in feeding circuits that is required to suppress a latent state of unrestricted and non-selective consumption. PMID:24991960

  12. Beyond vascularization: aerobic fitness is associated with N-acetylaspartate and working memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a promising form of prevention for cognitive decline; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and fitness impacts the human brain. Several studies have postulated that increased regional brain volume and function are associated with aerobic fitness because of increased vascularization rather than increased neural tissue per se. We tested this position by examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the right frontal cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NAA is a nervous system specific metabolite found predominantly in cell bodies of neurons. We reasoned that if aerobic fitness was predominantly influencing the vasculature of the brain, then NAA levels should not vary as a function of aerobic fitness. However, if aerobic fitness influences the number or viability of neurons, then higher aerobic fitness levels might be associated with greater concentrations of NAA. We examined NAA levels, aerobic fitness, and cognitive performance in 137 older adults without cognitive impairment. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we found that higher aerobic fitness levels offset an age-related decline in NAA. Furthermore, NAA mediated an association between fitness and backward digit span performance, suggesting that neuronal viability as measured by NAA is important in understanding fitness-related cognitive enhancement. Since NAA is found exclusively in neural tissue, our results indicate that the effect of fitness on the human brain extends beyond vascularization; aerobic fitness is associated with neuronal viability in the frontal cortex of older adults. PMID:22574272

  13. Removal of Pesticides and Inorganic Contaminants in Anaerobic and Aerobic Biological Contactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation contains data on the removal of pesticides (acetochlor, clethodim, dicrotophos), ammonia, nitrate, bromate and perchlorate through aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes.

  14. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Long, Xi; Zheng, Min; Qiu, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the environment face the threat of antibiotics. However, most studies investigating the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics have been conducted on microorganisms in aerobic conditions, while studies examining the anaerobic toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics are still limited. In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on Escherichia coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)>log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)≈log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) value, which represents the affinity between SAs and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) but rather on the total binding energy. Furthermore, SAs with greatly similar structures were categorized into different groups. This deep insight into the difference between aerobic and anaerobic toxicities will benefit environmental science, and the results of this study will serve as a reference for the risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. PMID:26748048

  15. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  16. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  17. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  18. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  19. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  20. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  1. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  2. Breast Feeding in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M.; Back, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on 300 Kingston infants born at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The method of milk feeding and the reasons given by the mothers for beginning bottle feeding were recorded. Other factors influencing the incidence of breast feeding were examined. Complementing in hospital, maternal employment, improving socio-economic status, advertising, and general misinformation were considered important. A higher incidence of gastro-enteritis was found in the first 4 months of life among partly or wholly bottle-fed babies than among breast-fed babies. Weight increments were calculated for the first 3 months of life. A higher proportion of infants with increments in the lowest 25% were bottle fed than those infants with increments in the remaining 75%. PMID:5464065

  3. [Promotion program for breast feeding in Poland. II. Analysis of the breast feeding situation in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mikiel-Kostyra, K

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of breast-feeding situation in Poland was based on three kinds of nation-wide surveys conducted in 1988: newborn feeding and breast feeding routines in maternity wards epidemiology of breast-feeding and other feeding methods in first six months of infant life KAP study among MCH professionals The major findings of the surveys were: conflicting with lactation maternity wards routines especially: very initiation of breast-feeding, administration of liquids and formulas, rigid feeding schedule, separation of newborns from the mothers too early supplantation of breast-feeding lack of current breast-feeding knowledge among MCH professionals. PMID:8359714

  4. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Kung-Hui; Mahendra, Shaily; Song, Donald L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2003-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis is recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring, assessing, and validating in-situ bioremediation processes. In this study, kinetic carbon isotope fractionation factors () associated with the aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cDCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) were examined. Of the three solvents, the largest fractionation effects were observed for biodegradation of VC. Both metabolic and cometabolic VC degradation were studied using Mycobacterium aurum L1 (grown on VC), Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (grown on methane), Mycobacterium vaccae JOB 5 (grown on propane), and two VC enrichment cultures seeded from contaminated soils of Alameda Point and Travis Air Force Base, CA. M. aurum L1 caused the greatest fractionation (= -5.7) while for the cometabolic cultures, values ranged from -3.2 to -4.8. VC fractionation patterns for the enrichment cultures were within the range of those observed for the metabolic and cometabolic cultures (= -4.5 to -5.5). The fractionation for cometabolic degradation of TCE by Me. trichosporium OB3b was low (= -1.1), while no quantifiable carbon isotopic fractionation was observed during the cometabolic degradation of cDCE. For all three of the tested chlorinated ethenes, isotopic fractionation measured during aerobic degradation was significantly smaller than that reported for anaerobic reductive dechlorination. This study suggests that analysis of compound-specific isotopic fractionation could assist in determining whether aerobic or anaerobic degradation of VC and cDCE predominates in field applications of in-situ bioremediation. In contrast, isotopic fractionation effects associated with metabolic and cometabolic reactions are not sufficiently dissimilar to distinguish these processes in the field.

  5. Specificity of aerobic and anaerobic work capacities and powers.

    PubMed

    Boulay, M R; Lortie, G; Simoneau, J A; Hamel, P; Leblanc, C; Bouchard, C

    1985-12-01

    Thirty-three untrained subjects of both sexes, 18-31 years of age, performed several tests on cycle ergometers. Maximal aerobic power (MAP) was obtained in a progressive work test. Maximal aerobic capacity (MAC) was measured in a 90-min maximal test and was computed as the total work output during that period. Two all-out cycle ergometer work tests lasting 10 s and 90 s were used to estimate the anaerobic alactic capacity (AAC) and lactic capacity (ALC). Anaerobic alactic power (AAP) was computed as the highest output in 1 s in the AAC test and anaerobic lactic power (ALP) was obtained as the mean output during the last 5 s in an all-out test of 30 s. Correlation coefficients were computed between all measurements of capacity and power expressed per kg of body weight as well as with scores adjusted for sex differences. Common variances (r2 X 100) between measurements of power were either low (MAP-AAP, 40%) or moderate (MAP-ALP, 61%; AAP-ALP, 62%) while common variances between measurements of capacity were sometimes low (MAC-AAC, 49%) or higher (MAC-ALC, 76%; AAC-ALC, 77%). The common variances between tests of power and capacity reached high values when calculated with metabolic criteria of the same class (MAP-MAC, 81%; AAP-AAC, 92%). These results provide quantitative evidence to support the notion of specificity between the aerobic and the anaerobic work performances and support the distinction between capacity and power of the three energy systems. PMID:4077360

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  7. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  8. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  9. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759

  10. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-degrading bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NAV2, excretes an emulsifier which is capable of emulsifying the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. This emulsifier is not denatured by phenol. PMID:16347928

  11. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  12. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  13. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  14. Development of a Specific Anaerobic Field Test for Aerobic Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  15. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  16. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  17. [Improving of muscle mass and force in rehabilitation of heart-lung patients. Aerobic interval training, resistance-exercises, excentric exercises, vibration].

    PubMed

    Apor, Péter; Tihanyi, József; Borka, Péter

    2005-09-18

    Improvement of muscle mass and force which got depleted by inactivity or pathological processes is one of the aims and also a prerequisite of a rehabilitative intervention. Metabolically active larger and stronger muscles diminish the cardiovascular risk, permit the aerobic preventive and rehabilitative activities and enables a higher quality of life. Interval forms of aerobic exercise improves also the muscles. The resistance training plays an important part in rehabilitation. Beside the traditional dynamic strength training with weights, gym machines, body weight etc. the excentric type of muscle activity potentiates higher muscle load with lesser energy consumption, therefore it is suitable in the case of smaller performance ability. Vibration of the whole body or parts of it by machines improves the co-activity of the motor units and results in force development with small metabolic involvement. PMID:16238250

  18. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety. PMID:22866582

  19. Controlled Clinical Comparison of BacT/ALERT Standard Aerobic Medium with BACTEC Standard Aerobic Medium for Culturing Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mirrett, Stanley; Reller, L. Barth; Petti, Cathy A.; Woods, Christopher W.; Vazirani, Bindu; Sivadas, Rekha; Weinstein, Melvin P.

    2003-01-01

    Standard aerobic media are widely used for culturing blood with the BacT/ALERT (BioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) (BM) and BACTEC 9240 (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) (BD) automated continuously monitoring instrument systems. Although similarly composed of soybean-casein digest broths, the formulations of the standard aerobic media available for these instruments differ from each other in supplements and in sodium polyanetholesulfonate concentration. Therefore, we compared the standard aerobic media available for these systems at two university hospitals. Blood samples from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infection were inoculated at the bedside into nonvented BM and BD standard aerobic blood culture bottles and incubated in their respective instruments. The laboratories received 6,743 pairs of bottles that were each filled with 8 to 12 ml of blood. A total of 523 isolates representing true infections were recovered from 257 patients; of these isolates, 348 were recovered from both the BD and the BM bottles, 108 were recovered from the BM bottles only, and 67 were recovered from the BD bottles only (P < 0.005). More staphylococci (P < 0.05), especially coagulase-negative staphylococci (P < 0.05), and yeasts (P < 0.01) were recovered from BM bottles than from BD bottles. Of 291 unimicrobial episodes of bloodstream infection, 220 were detected with both bottles, 41 were detected with the BM bottles only, and 30 were detected with the BD bottles only (difference not significant). Among 335 cultures that were positive in both bottles within the first 72 h of incubation, the median times to detection were 14 h for BM bottles and 13 h for BD bottles. Rates for false-positive results were 0.5% for BM bottles and 0.1% for BD bottles. One BM bottle and seven BD bottles yielded false-negative results. We conclude that the BM medium provides improved recovery of microorganisms, especially staphylococci and yeasts, compared with that provided by the BD medium

  20. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  1. Complete feeds-intensive systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercially cultivated fish are raised in high-density culture systems where the assumption is that the contribution of natural foods to the nutrition of the fish is insignificant. Thus, intensively cultured fish must be fed a nutritionally complete feed. A short section on the concept and im...

  2. Feeding DDGS to other animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is true that historically DDGS has primarily been fed to beef, dairy, swine, and poultry animals. It also appears to be a viable ingredient for aquafeeds. But it should be appropriate as a feed ingredient for other animals as well. To date, however, there have been only a few published studies...

  3. High fat intake lowers hepatic fatty acid synthesis and raises fatty acid oxidation in aerobic muscle in Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Geelen, S N; Blázquez, C; Geelen, M J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Beynen, A C

    2001-07-01

    The metabolic effects of feeding soyabean oil instead of an isoenergetic amount of maize starch plus glucose were studied in ponies. Twelve adult Shetland ponies were given a control diet (15 g fat/kg DM) or a high-fat diet (118 g fat/kg DM) according to a parallel design. The diets were fed for 45 d. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations decreased by 55 % following fat supplementation. Fat feeding also reduced glycogen concentrations significantly by up to 65 % in masseter, gluteus and semitendinosus muscles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). The high-fat diet significantly increased the TAG content of semitendinosus muscle by 80 % (P < 0.05). Hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase activities were 53 % (P < 0.01) and 56 % (P < 0.01) lower respectively in the high-fat group, but diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity was unaffected. Although carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity in liver mitochondria was not influenced, fat supplementation did render CPT-I less sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. There was no significant effect of diet on the activity of phosphofructokinase in the different muscles. The activity of citrate synthase was raised significantly (by 25 %; P < 0.05) in the masseter muscle of fat-fed ponies, as was CPT-I activity (by 46 %; P < 0.01). We conclude that fat feeding enhances both the transport of fatty acids through the mitochondrial inner membrane and the oxidative capacity of highly-aerobic muscles. The higher oxidative ability together with the depressed rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis in liver may contribute to the dietary fat-induced decrease in plasma TAG concentrations in equines. PMID:11432762

  4. Aeration control of thermophilic aerobic digestion using fluorescence monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process is recognized as an effective method for rapid waste activated sludge (WAS) degradation and the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. Yet, high energy costs due to heating and aeration have limited the commercialization of economical TAD processes. Previous research on autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) has already reduced the heating cost. However, only a few studies have focused on reducing the aeration cost. Therefore, this study applied a two-step aeration control strategy to a fill-and-draw mode semicontinuous TAD process. The NADH-dependent fluorescence was monitored throughout the TAD experiment, and the aeration rate shifted according to the fluorescence intensity. As a result, the simple two-step aeration control operation achieved a 20.3% reduction in the total aeration, while maintaining an effective and stable operation. It is also expected that more savings can be achieved with a further reduction of the lower aeration rate or multisegmentation of the aeration rate. PMID:19190414

  5. Toxic effects of butyl elastomers on aerobic methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea I.; Blees, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Large quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane are liberated into the water column of marine and lacustrine environments where it may be consumed by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.The reliable quantification of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates is consequently of paramount importance for estimating methane budgets and to understand the controls on water column methane cycling. A widely used set of methods for measuring MOx rates is based on the incubation of water samples during which the consumption of methane is monitored, for instance with radio-tracer assays. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber stoppers because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases at the relevant time scales. We tested the effect of different stopper materials (unmodified- and halogenated butyl rubber) on MOx activity in environmental samples and in cultures of methane oxidising bacteria. MOx rates in samples sealed with unmodified butyl rubber were > 75% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber seals, suggesting inhibiting/toxic effects associated with the use of unmodified butyl elastomers. To further explore the cause of these effects, we analysed aqueous extracts of the different stoppers. Halogenated butyl rubber stoppers appeared to bleed off comparably little amounts of organics. In stark contrast, extracts of unmodified butyl rubber were contaminated with various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes, phenylalkanes and benzuothiazoles. We also found tetramethylthiourea, a scavenger of active oxygen species, which may inhibit the MOx pathway.

  6. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  7. Efficient utilization of aerobic metabolism helps Tibetan locusts conquer hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Responses to hypoxia have been investigated in many species; however, comparative studies between conspecific geographical populations at different altitudes are rare, especially for invertebrates. The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is widely distributed around the world, including on the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the low-altitude North China Plain (NP). TP locusts have inhabited Tibetan Plateau for over 34,000 years and thus probably have evolved superior capacity to cope with hypoxia. Results Here we compared the hypoxic responses of TP and NP locusts from morphological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. We found that TP locusts were more tolerant of extreme hypoxia than NP locusts. To evaluate why TP locusts respond to extreme hypoxia differently from NP locusts, we subjected them to extreme hypoxia and compared their transcriptional responses. We found that the aerobic metabolism was less affected in TP locusts than in NP locusts. RNAi disruption of PDHE1β, an entry gene from glycolysis to TCA cycle, increased the ratio of stupor in TP locusts and decreased the ATP content of TP locusts in hypoxia, confirming that aerobic metabolism is critical for TP locusts to maintain activity in hypoxia. Conclusions Our results indicate that TP and NP locusts have undergone divergence in hypoxia tolerance. These findings also indicate that insects can adapt to hypoxic pressure by modulating basic metabolic processes. PMID:24047108

  8. Roles of triosephosphate isomerase and aerobic metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Helfert, S; Estévez, A M; Bakker, B; Michels, P; Clayton, C

    2001-01-01

    Kinetoplastid protozoa compartmentalize the first seven enzymes of glycolysis and two enzymes of glycerol metabolism in a microbody, the glycosome. While in its mammalian host, Trypanosoma brucei depends entirely on glucose for ATP generation. Under aerobic conditions, most of the glucose is metabolized to pyruvate. Aerobic metabolism depends on the activities of glycosomal triosephosphate isomerase and a mitochondrial glycerophosphate oxidase, and on glycerophosphate<-->dihydroxyacetone phosphate exchange across the glycosomal membrane. Using a combination of genetics and computer modelling, we show that triosephosphate isomerase is probably essential for bloodstream trypanosome survival, but not for the insect-dwelling procyclics, which preferentially use amino acids as an energy source. When the enzyme level decreased to about 15% of that of the wild-type, the growth rate was halved. Below this level, a lethal rise in dihydroxyacetone phosphate was predicted. Expression of cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase inhibited cell growth. Attempts to knockout the trypanosome alternative oxidase genes (which are needed for glycerophosphate oxidase activity) were unsuccessful, but when we lowered the level of the corresponding mRNA by expressing a homologous double-stranded RNA, oxygen consumption was reduced fourfold and the rate of trypanosome growth was halved. PMID:11415442

  9. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Rodney A.; Berggren, Kiersten L.; Kerr, Abigail L.; Patel, Ami; Peplinski, Caitlin; Sikorski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging. PMID:24961267

  10. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

  11. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Critical period of weed control in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, A

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return. PMID:22778701

  13. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:22509578

  14. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  15. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  16. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ratnadeep; Dey, Netai Chandra; Samanta, Amalendu; Biswas, Rajib

    2011-01-01

    Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording) and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II) during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs) had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2 ± 3.38 mL/kg/min) compared to (42.4 ± 2.03 mL/kg/min) compared to (42.4 ± 2.03 mL/kg/min) the youngest group (20–29 yrs). It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r = −0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively) and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r = 0.57 – 0.68, P ≤ 0.001). Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India. PMID:21961020

  17. Kibdelomycin Is a Bactericidal Broad-Spectrum Aerobic Antibacterial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Dayananth, Priya; Balibar, Carl J.; Garlisi, Charles G.; Lu, Jun; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Fukuda, Yasumichi; Ha, Sookhee; Young, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to grow and pose serious challenges, while the discovery rate for new antibiotics declines. Kibdelomycin is a recently discovered natural-product antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the bacterial DNA replication enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. It was reported to be a broad-spectrum aerobic Gram-positive agent with selective inhibition of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. We have extended the profiling of kibdelomycin by using over 196 strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic pathogens recovered from worldwide patient populations. We report the MIC50s, MIC90s, and bactericidal activities of kibdelomycin. We confirm the Gram-positive spectrum and report for the first time that kibdelomycin shows strong activity (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) against clinical strains of the Gram-negative nonfermenter Acinetobacter baumannii but only weak activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We confirm that well-characterized resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae show no cross-resistance to kibdelomycin and quinolones and coumarin antibiotics. We also show that kibdelomycin is not subject to efflux in Pseudomonas, though it is in Escherichia coli, and it is generally affected by the outer membrane permeability entry barrier in the nonfermenters P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, which may be addressable by structure-based chemical modification. PMID:25845866

  18. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities. PMID:25086776

  19. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  20. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128