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Sample records for aerobic endurance exercise

  1. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5 years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  2. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson; Paulo, Anderson Caetano; Regazzini, Marcelo; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 modes of aerobic exercise (continuous or intermittent) on maximum strength (1 repetition maximum, 1RM) and strength endurance (maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM) for lower- and upper-body exercises to test the acute hypothesis in concurrent training (CT) interference. Eight physically active men (age: 26.9 +/- 4.2 years; body mass: 82.1 +/- 7.5 kg; height: 178.9 +/- 6.0 cm) were submitted to: (a) a graded exercise test to determine V(.-)O2max (39.26 +/- 6.95 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and anaerobic threshold velocity (3.5 mmol x L(-1)) (9.3 +/- 1.27 km x h(-1)); (b) strength tests in a rested state (control); and (c) 4 experimental sessions, at least 7 days apart. The experimental sessions consisted of a 5-kilometer run on a treadmill continuously (90% of the anaerobic threshold velocity) or intermittently (1:1 minute at V(.-)O2max). Ten minutes after the aerobic exercise, either a maximum strength or a strength endurance test was performed (leg press and bench press exercises). The order of aerobic and strength exercises followed a William's square distribution to avoid carryover effects. Results showed that only the intermittent aerobic exercise produced an acute interference effect on leg strength endurance, decreasing significantly (p < 0.05) the number of repetitions from 10.8 +/- 2.5 to 8.1 +/- 2.2. Maximum strength was not affected by the aerobic exercise mode. In conclusion, the acute interference hypothesis in concurrent training seems to occur when both aerobic and strength exercises produce significant peripheral fatigue in the same muscle group.

  3. Elevated energy coupling and aerobic capacity improves exercise performance in endurance-trained elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Cress, M Elaine; Esselman, Peter C

    2013-04-01

    Increased maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)), mitochondrial capacity and energy coupling efficiency are reported after endurance training (ET) in adult subjects. Here we test whether leg exercise performance (power output of the legs, P(max), at V(O(2)max)) reflects these improvements with ET in the elderly. Fifteen male and female subjects were endurance trained for a 6 month programme, with 13 subjects (69.5 ± 1.2 years old, range 65-80 years old; n = 7 males; n = 6 females) completing the study. This training significantly improved P(max) (Δ17%; P = 0.003), V(O(2)max) (Δ5.4%; P = 0.021) and the increment in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) above resting (ΔV(O(2)m-r) = V(O(2)max) - V(O(2)rest; Δ9%; P < 0.02). In addition, evidence of improved energy coupling came from elevated leg power output per unit V(O(2))at the aerobic capacity [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)); P = 0.02] and during submaximal exercise in the ramp test as measured by delta efficiency (ΔP(ex)/ΔV(O(2)); P = 0.04). No change was found in blood lactate, muscle glycolysis or fibre type. The rise in P(max) paralleled the improvement in muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity (ATP(max)) in these subjects. In addition, the greater exercise energy coupling [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)) and delta efficiency] was accompanied by increased mitochondrial energy coupling as measured by elevated ATP production per unit mitochondrial content in these subjects. These results suggest that leg exercise performance benefits from elevations in energy coupling and oxidative phosphorylation capacity at both the whole-body and muscle levels that accompany endurance training in the elderly.

  4. Improved exercise performance and increased aerobic capacity after endurance training of patients with stable polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, controlled study on patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis was based on three hypotheses: patients display impaired endurance due to reduced aerobic capacity and muscle weakness, endurance training improves their exercise performance by increasing the aerobic capacity, and endurance training has general beneficial effects on their health status. Methods In the first part of this study, we compared 23 patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis with 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A subgroup of patients were randomized to perform a 12-week endurance training program (exercise group, n = 9) or to a non-exercising control group (n = 6). We measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and the associated power output during a progressive cycling test. Endurance was assessed as the cycling time to exhaustion at 65% of VO2 max. Lactate levels in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured with microdialysis. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring citrate synthase (CS) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities in muscle biopsies. Clinical improvement was assessed according to the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) improvement criteria. All assessors were blinded to the type of intervention (that is, training or control). Results Exercise performance and aerobic capacity were lower in patients than in healthy controls, whereas lactate levels at exhaustion were similar. Patients in the exercise group increased their cycling time, aerobic capacity and CS and β-HAD activities, whereas lactate levels at exhaustion decreased. Six of nine patients in the exercise group met the IMACS improvement criteria. Patients in the control group did not show any consistent changes during the 12-week study. Conclusions Polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients have impaired endurance, which could be improved by 12 weeks of endurance training. The clinical improvement corresponds to

  5. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  6. The effect of increased lipid intake on hormonal responses during aerobic exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Christ, Emanuel R; Zehnder, Monica; Boesch, Chris; Trepp, Roman; Mullis, Primus E; Diem, Peter; Décombaz, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    In view of the growing health problem associated with obesity, clarification of the regulation of energy homeostasis is important. Peripheral signals, such as ghrelin and leptin, have been shown to influence energy homeostasis. Nutrients and physical exercise, in turn, influence hormone levels. Data on the hormonal response to physical exercise (standardized negative energy balance) after high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet with identical carbohydrate intake are currently not available. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a short-term dietary intervention with HF and LF affects ghrelin and leptin levels and their modulators, GH, insulin and cortisol, before and during aerobic exercise. Eleven healthy, endurance-trained male athletes (W(max) 365 +/- 29 W) were investigated twice in a randomized crossover design following two types of diet: 1. LF - 0.5 g fat/kg body weight (BW) per day for 2.5 days; 2. HF - 0.5 g fat/kg BW per day for 1 day followed by 3.5 g fat/kg BW per day for 1.5 days. After a standardized carbohydrate snack in the morning, metabolites and hormones (GH, ghrelin, leptin, insulin and cortisol) were measured before and at regular intervals throughout a 3-h aerobic exercise test on a cycloergometer at 50% of W(max). Diet did not significantly affect GH and cortisol concentrations during exercise but resulted in a significant increase in ghrelin and decrease in leptin concentrations after LF compared with HF diet (area under the curve (AUC) ghrelin LF vs HF: P < 0.03; AUC leptin LF vs HF: P < 0.02, Wilcoxon rank test). These data suggest that acute negative energy balance induced by exercise elicits a hormonal response with opposite changes of ghrelin and leptin. In addition, the hormonal response is modulated by the preceding intake of fat.

  7. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  8. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  9. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759

  10. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  11. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females.

    PubMed

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-12-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance.

  12. Mechanisms for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle blood flow capacity: differences with interval sprint training versus aerobic endurance training.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, M H; Roseguini, B

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow capacity (BFC) is increased by exercise training due to structural vascular remodeling (in the form of angiogenesis of capillaries and remodeling of the arterial tree within skeletal muscle) and/or altered control of vascular resistance. Changes in control can be central or the result of changes in reactivity of arteries and arterioles (due to changes in vascular smooth muscle and/or endothelium). The purpose of this review is to evaluate the relative importance of these mechanisms for increased BFC following interval sprint training (IST) and endurance exercise training (ET). Based on the results discussed herein we conclude that the importance of each of these mechanisms varies throughout muscle tissue due to interactions of muscle fiber-type composition and muscle fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The distribution of vascular adaptive changes varies with mode of training. For example, IST has been shown to produce the greatest relative increase in contractile activity in fast-twitch, white, skeletal muscle (i.e. white gastrocnemius muscle (Gw) and Gw muscle exhibits the largest increase in oxidative capacity, capillary density, BFC, and changes in vascular cells with IST. In contrast, ET has been shown to produce the greatest relative increase in contractile activity in red gastrocnemius muscle (Gr), and Gr muscle exhibits the largest increase in oxidative capacity, capillary density, and BFC after ET training. Results demonstrate that the increases in BFC are not mediated solely by structural adaptation. Rather, changes in vascular control predominate in Gr and soleus muscle, while increases in arteriolar and capillary density predominate following IST in Gw. Finally, evidence indicates that ET and IST induce non-uniform changes in smooth muscle and endothelium throughout skeletal muscle arteriolar networks.

  13. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  14. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  15. Adding strength to endurance training does not enhance aerobic capacity in cyclists.

    PubMed

    Psilander, N; Frank, P; Flockhart, M; Sahlin, K

    2015-08-01

    The molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced when resistance exercise is added to a bout of endurance exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine if this mode of concurrent training translates into increased mitochondrial content and improved endurance performance. Moderately trained cyclists performed 8 weeks (two sessions per week) of endurance training only (E, n = 10; 60-min cycling) or endurance training followed by strength training (ES, n = 9; 60-min cycling + leg press). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and analyzed for enzyme activities and protein content. Only the ES group increased in leg strength (+19%, P < 0.01), sprint peak power (+5%, P < 0.05), and short-term endurance (+9%, P < 0.01). In contrast, only the E group increased in muscle citrate synthase activity (+11%, P = 0.06), lactate threshold intensity (+3%, P < 0.05), and long-term endurance performance (+4%, P < 0.05). Content of mitochondrial proteins and cycling economy was not affected by training. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that concurrent training does not enhance muscle aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists.

  16. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  17. Validity of critical frequency test for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Papoti, Marcelo; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate critical frequency specific test (critf) for the estimation of the aerobic endurance in table tennis players. Methods: Eight male international-level table tennis players participated of this study. Specific tests were applied by using a mechanical ball thrower to control the intensity of the exercise. The critf was determined by applying three or four series of exercises to exhaustion (Tlim). The critf was evaluated by using lactate steady state test (90, 100, and 106 % of critf intensity). The other specific test was an incremental protocol used to determine the anaerobic threshold (AnTBI) and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) using a ball thrower. Results: The critf (39.87 ± 3.31 balls·min-1) was not significantly different among AnTBI (48.11 ± 7.36 balls·min- 1) and OBLA3.5 (49.36 ± 12.04 balls·min-1) frequencies and it was correlated with AnTBI parameter (r = 0.78). At frequencies of the 90 and 100% of critf a dynamic equilibrium was verified in lactate concentration between the eighth and twentieth minutes. However, this dynamic equilibrium was not found at 106% intensity. Conclusion: The data indicate that in table tennis the critf model can be used for measuring the aerobic endurance. Key pointsIn table tennis is need the use of a specific protocol for evaluation of the aerobic endurance.The critical frequency test in table tennis seems to represent the intensity of maximal equilibrium of lactatemia.The critical frequency test can be used for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol. PMID:24149951

  18. A hypoxia complement differentiates the muscle response to endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Silvia; Däpp, Christoph; Wittwer, Matthias; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Mueller, Matthias; Weinstein, Felix; Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans; Flück, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic stress is believed to constitute an important signal for training-induced adjustments of gene expression and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the effects of endurance training on expression of muscle-relevant transcripts and ultrastructure would be specifically modified by a hypoxia complement during exercise due to enhanced glycolytic strain. Endurance training of untrained male subjects in conditions of hypoxia increased subsarcolemmal mitochondrial density in the recruited vastus lateralis muscle and power output in hypoxia more than training in normoxia, i.e. 169 versus 91% and 10 versus 6%, respectively, and tended to differentially elevate sarcoplasmic volume density (42 versus 20%, P = 0.07). The hypoxia-specific ultrastructural adjustments with training corresponded to differential regulation of the muscle transcriptome by single and repeated exercise between both oxygenation conditions. Fine-tuning by exercise in hypoxia comprised gene ontologies connected to energy provision by glycolysis and fat metabolism in mitochondria, remodelling of capillaries and the extracellular matrix, and cell cycle regulation, but not fibre structure. In the untrained state, the transcriptome response during the first 24 h of recovery from a single exercise bout correlated positively with changes in arterial oxygen saturation during exercise and negatively with blood lactate. This correspondence was inverted in the trained state. The observations highlight that the expression response of myocellular energy pathways to endurance work is graded with regard to metabolic stress and the training state. The exposed mechanistic relationship implies that the altitude specificity of improvements in aerobic performance with a 'living low-training high' regime has a myocellular basis. PMID:20176680

  19. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  20. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance. PMID:26553495

  1. Physiological Adaptations to Chronic Endurance Exercise Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    In a roundtable format, five doctors explore the reasons why regular physical activity should continue to play a significant role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Endurance exercise training improves aerobic capacity, reduces blood pressure, and decreases risk. (Author/MT)

  2. (-)-Hydroxycitrate ingestion and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Suh, Heajung; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-02-01

    We have been interested in the ergogenic aid effects of food components and supplements for enhancing endurance exercise performance. For this purpose, acute or chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) ingestion might be effective because it promotes utilization of fatty acid as an energy source. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP: citrate lyase, thereby increasing inhibition of lipogenesis in the body. Many researchers have reported that less body fat accumulation and sustained satiety cause less food intake. After focusing on exercise performance with HCA ingestion, we came up with different results that show positive effects or not. However, our previously reported data showed increased use of fatty acids during moderate intensity exercise. For future research, HCA and co-ingestion of other supplements, such as carnitine or caffeine, might have greater effect on glycogen-sparing than HCA alone. PMID:15915661

  3. (-)-Hydroxycitrate ingestion and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Suh, Heajung; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-02-01

    We have been interested in the ergogenic aid effects of food components and supplements for enhancing endurance exercise performance. For this purpose, acute or chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) ingestion might be effective because it promotes utilization of fatty acid as an energy source. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP: citrate lyase, thereby increasing inhibition of lipogenesis in the body. Many researchers have reported that less body fat accumulation and sustained satiety cause less food intake. After focusing on exercise performance with HCA ingestion, we came up with different results that show positive effects or not. However, our previously reported data showed increased use of fatty acids during moderate intensity exercise. For future research, HCA and co-ingestion of other supplements, such as carnitine or caffeine, might have greater effect on glycogen-sparing than HCA alone.

  4. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  5. Muscle metabolic remodeling in response to endurance exercise in salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Andrea J.; Vanderveken, Mark; McClelland, Grant B.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of skeletal muscle is relevant to swimming performance and metabolism in fishes, especially those that undergo extreme locomotory feats, such as seasonal migration. However, the influence of endurance exercise and the molecular mechanisms coordinating this remodeling are not well understood. The present study examines muscle metabolic remodeling associated with endurance exercise in fed rainbow trout as compared to migrating salmon. Trout were swum for 4 weeks at 1.5 BL/s, a speed similar to that of migrating salmon and red and white muscles were sampled after each week. We quantified changes in key enzymes in aerobic and carbohydrate metabolism [citrate synthase (CS), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD), hexokinase (HK)] and changes in mRNA expression of major regulators of metabolic phenotype (AMPK, PPARs) and lipid (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, CPT I), protein (aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and carbohydrate (HK) oxidation pathways. After 1 week of swimming substantial increases were seen in AMPK and PPARα mRNA expression and of their downstream target genes, CPTI and HK in red muscle. However, significant changes in CS and HK activity occurred only after 4 weeks. In contrast, there were few changes in mRNA expression and enzyme activities in white muscle over the 4-weeks. Red muscle results mimic those found in migrating salmon suggesting a strong influence of exercise on red muscle phenotype. In white muscle, only changes in AMPK and PPAR expression were similar to that seen with migrating salmon. However, in contrast to exercise alone, in natural migration HK decreased while AST increased suggesting that white muscle plays a role in supplying fuel and intermediates possibly through tissue breakdown during prolonged fasting. Dissecting individual and potentially synergistic effects of multiple stressors will enable us to determine major drivers of the metabolic phenotype and their impacts on whole animal performance. PMID

  6. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-03-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.

  7. Self-efficacy and enjoyment of middle school children performing the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER).

    PubMed

    Kane, Irene; Robertson, Robert J; Fertman, Carl I; Nagle, Elizabeth F; McConnaha, Wendell R; Rabin, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Self-efficacy and enjoyment were examined among 34 middle school children (M age = 12.5 yr.) performing the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Exercise self-efficacy (running) and physical activity enjoyment were measured after viewing a video illustrating the PACER, and subsequently following a PACER test. Significantly greater pre- than post-exercise self-efficacy was reported; enjoyment scores did not differ. Ratings of self-efficacy were higher before exercise than after, but enjoyment scores were not significantly different. A significant correlation was found between post-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment, but not between pre-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment. Although positive correlations were found between PACER laps and pre-/post-exercise self-efficacy, correlations with ratings of enjoyment were not significant. Exercise self-efficacy was associated with children's beliefs about the task-specific PACER aerobic exercise; however, exercise enjoyment was stable. Children's self-efficacy and enjoyment beliefs should be considered when developing interventional strategies to promote aerobic exercise participation. PMID:24611251

  8. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Graham, Marilynn H; Bush, Jill A; Olvera, Norma; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (≥ 95 th body mass index [BMI] percentile) and 16 children who were considered normal weight (<85th BMI percentile) participated in this study. Performance outcomes included test duration (in minutes) and exercise heart rate (HR) (first-stage and peak HR) for each test. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and independent t-tests were used to assess differences in primary outcomes. Mean PACER test duration was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 1.3 minutes for children who were obese and normal weight, respectively. Modified PACER duration was higher than 3 minutes for the obese (3.6 ± 0.6 minutes) and normal weight (5.3 ± 1.2 minutes) groups. Children first-stage HR, expressed as a percent of peak HR, was above the predicted anaerobic threshold during the PACER, but below the anaerobic threshold during the MPACER. Relative first-stage HR was not significantly different between groups for the PACER, but they were significantly different between groups for the MPACER. In conclusion, the MPACER was a better alternative than the PACER for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who were normal weight and obese. When validated, this modified field test could be used to assess aerobic fitness in Hispanic children, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Additionally, the study provides evidence in which physical educators, personal trainers, and others most apt to assess aerobic fitness in children who are obese, should modify tests originally designed for the population who are normal weight.

  9. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  10. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise.

  11. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  12. Muscle strength, endurance, and aerobic capacity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, C; Broman, G

    1992-01-01

    Isometric/isokinetic muscle strength and isokinetic endurance of the lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity were evaluated in 67 patients (43 female, 24 male; mean age 53 years, range 23-65) with classical/definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of functional class II. Results obtained were compared with those of a healthy reference group matched for age and sex. Disease characteristics of the group with RA were registered and lifestyle characteristics, such as work load, exercise, diet, smoking, and alcohol habits, were reported by both groups. Generally, results showed that the group with RA had decreased functional capacity. Isometric hip and knee muscle strength of the rheumatoid group was reduced to about 75% of normal function, isokinetic knee muscle strength at the velocities of 60 and 180 degrees/s to about 65% and 75% of normal function respectively, isokinetic endurance of the knee muscle groups to about 45%, and aerobic capacity to about 80% of the results obtained for the healthy reference group. Analyses of variance showed that the rheumatoid group, compared with the healthy group, had significantly reduced function on all isometric and isokinetic tests of the extensors and flexors of the knee. Results for isometric hip muscle strength were similar--all tests but one yielding highly significant differences. To avoid unnecessary functional deficits it seems important to include muscular training in rehabilitation programmes for patients with RA.

  13. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho; Paik, Il-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Jee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio). Materials and Methods Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress. PMID:26331134

  14. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    PubMed

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p aerobic training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  15. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  16. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  17. Impaired Aerobic Endurance and Muscular Strength in Substance Use Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Flemmen, Grete; Wang, Eivind

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although substance use disorder (SUD) patients are documented to have an inactive lifestyle, which is associated with cardiovascular disease, other lifestyle-related diseases and premature death, evidence regarding their aerobic endurance and muscular strength is limited. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate directly assessed maximal oxygen consumption, walking efficiency, as well as maximal strength in a group of SUD patients. A total of 44 SUD patients in residential treatment, 31 men (31 ± 8 years) and 13 women (34 ± 10 years), were included and completed the physical testing. The patients were compared with an age- and sex-matched reference group. Male and female SUD patients exhibited a maximal oxygen consumption of 44.6 ± 6.2 and 33.8 ± 6.6 mL· min−1 kg−1, respectively. This was significantly lower than the reference group, 15% (P = 0.03) for men and 25% (P = 0.001) for women. In addition, the SUD patients had a 13% significantly reduced walking efficiency (P = 0.02), compared with healthy controls. The impairments in aerobic endurance were accompanied by significant reductions in maximal strength of 30% (P = 0.001) and 33% (P = 0.01) for men and women, respectively. In combination, these results imply that SUD patients have impaired endurance and muscular strength compared with what is typically observed in the population, and consequently suffer a higher risk of developing cardiovascular and other lifestyle-related diseases and early death. Effective physical exercise should be advocated as an essential part of the clinical practice of SUD treatment to improve the patient's health and consequently reduce the costs because of the high use of emergency departments, hospital, and medical care. PMID:26554792

  18. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  19. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  20. Aerobic endurance training reduces bubble formation and increases survival in rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2001-01-01

    The formation of bubbles is the basis for injury to divers after decompression, a condition known as decompression illness. In the present study we investigated the effect of endurance training in the rat on decompression-induced bubble formation. A total of 52 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (300-370 g) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: training or sedentary control. Trained rats exercised on a treadmill for 1.5 h per day for 1 day, or for 2 or 6 weeks (5 days per week) at exercise intervals that alternated between 8 min at 85-90 % of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max) and 2 min at 50-60 % of V̇O2,max. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a decompression chamber in pairs, one sedentary and one trained, at a rate of 200 kPa min−1 to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the ‘surface’ (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min−1. Immediately after reaching the ‘surface’ (100 kPa) the animals were anaesthetized and the right ventricle was insonated using Doppler ultrasound. Intensity-controlled interval training significantly increased V̇O2,max by 12 and 60 % after 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. At 6 weeks, left and right ventricular weights were 14 and 17 % higher, respectively, in trained compared to control rats. No effect of training was observed on skeletal muscle weight. Bubble formation was significantly reduced in trained rats after both 2 and 6 weeks. However, the same effect was seen after a single bout of aerobic exercise lasting 1.5 h on the day prior to decompression. All of the rats that exercised for 1.5 h and 2 weeks, and most of those that trained for 6 weeks, survived the protocol, whereas most sedentary rats died within 60 min post-decompression. This study shows that aerobic exercise protects rats from severe decompression and death. This may be a result of less bubbling in the trained animals. The data showed that the

  1. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  2. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. METHODS: Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients’ CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. RESULTS: The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P < 0.635) and body mass index (BMI) (25.2 ± 1.1 vs 24.9 ± 0.8; P < 0.810), but the extent of change was not significantly different from that experienced by the control group (body weight: 68.8 ± 4.0 vs 68.8 ± 3.9; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.1 vs 24.4 ± 1.2). However, the exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P < 0.001), cardio-respiratory endurance (120.5 ± 4.5 vs 105.4 ± 2.8; P < 0

  3. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  4. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  5. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  6. Endurance exercise attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smuder, Ashley J; Min, Kisuk; Hudson, Matthew B; Kavazis, Andreas N; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Nelson, W Bradley; Powers, Scott K

    2012-02-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for patients in respiratory failure. However, MV renders the diaphragm inactive leading to diaphragm weakness due to both atrophy and contractile dysfunction. It is now established that oxidative stress is a requirement for MV-induced diaphragmatic proteolysis, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction to occur. Given that endurance exercise can elevate diaphragmatic antioxidant capacity and the levels of the cellular stress protein heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), we hypothesized that endurance exercise training before MV would protect the diaphragm against MV-induced oxidative stress, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results confirm that endurance exercise training before MV increased both HSP72 and the antioxidant capacity in the diaphragm. Importantly, compared with sedentary animals, exercise training before MV protected the diaphragm against MV-induced oxidative damage, protease activation, myofiber atrophy, and contractile dysfunction. Further, exercise protected diaphragm mitochondria against MV-induced oxidative damage and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These results provide the first evidence that exercise can provide protection against MV-induced diaphragm weakness. These findings are important and establish the need for future experiments to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for exercise-induced diaphragm protection.

  7. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  8. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  9. RESISTIVE EXERCISES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURNHAM, STAN; MCCRAW, LYNN W.

    A STUDY WAS CONCERNED WITH A COMPARISON OF ISOTONIC, ISOMETRIC, AND SPEED EXERCISE PROGRAMS AS A MEANS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, SPEED, AND POWER. SUBJECTS FOR THE INVESTIGATION WERE 93 FRESHMEN AND SOPHOMORE MEN ENROLLED IN A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS. AFTER MEASUREMENT OF INITIAL STATUS IN THE ATTRIBUTES UNDER CONSIDERATION, THE…

  10. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  11. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  12. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  13. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  14. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  15. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  16. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time.

    PubMed

    Montner, P; Stark, D M; Riedesel, M L; Murata, G; Robergs, R; Timms, M; Chick, T W

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  17. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  18. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Wiggs, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase), the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning. PMID:25814955

  19. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S and S + E) and at rest, 0, 1, and 2 h after exercise in E In S and S + E, muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. Muscle PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) after exercise in S + E than in S and E, and higher (P < 0.05) in S than in E after exercise. In S and S + E, muscle vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 1 (S only), 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S + E, muscle regulatory factor-4 and muscle heme oxygenase-1 mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 1, 2, and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S, muscle hexokinase II mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest and higher (P < 0.05) than in E after exercise. These findings suggest that in trained subjects, speed endurance exercise provides a stimulus for muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate regulation, and angiogenesis that is not evident with endurance exercise. These responses are reinforced when speed endurance exercise is followed by endurance exercise.

  20. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S and S + E) and at rest, 0, 1, and 2 h after exercise in E In S and S + E, muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. Muscle PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) after exercise in S + E than in S and E, and higher (P < 0.05) in S than in E after exercise. In S and S + E, muscle vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 1 (S only), 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S + E, muscle regulatory factor-4 and muscle heme oxygenase-1 mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 1, 2, and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S, muscle hexokinase II mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest and higher (P < 0.05) than in E after exercise. These findings suggest that in trained subjects, speed endurance exercise provides a stimulus for muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate regulation, and angiogenesis that is not evident with endurance exercise. These responses are reinforced when speed endurance exercise is followed by endurance exercise. PMID:27456910

  1. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  2. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  3. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  4. Acute Endurance Exercise Induces Nuclear p53 Abundance in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tachtsis, Bill; Smiles, William J.; Lane, Steven C.; Hawley, John A.; Camera, Donny M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor protein p53 may have regulatory roles in exercise response-adaptation processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy, although its cellular location largely governs its biological role. We investigated the subcellular localization of p53 and selected signaling targets in human skeletal muscle following a single bout of endurance exercise. Methods: Sixteen, untrained individuals were pair-matched for aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and allocated to either an exercise (EX, n = 8) or control (CON, n = 8) group. After a resting muscle biopsy, EX performed 60 min continuous cycling at ~70% of VO2peak during which time CON subjects rested. A further biopsy was obtained from both groups 3 h post-exercise (EX) or 4 h after the first biopsy (CON). Results: Nuclear p53 increased after 3 h recovery with EX only (~48%, p < 0.05) but was unchanged in the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic fractions in either group. Autophagy protein 5 (Atg-5) decreased in the mitochondrial protein fraction 3 h post-EX (~69%, P < 0.05) but remained unchanged in CON. There was an increase in cytoplasmic levels of the mitophagy marker PINK1 following 3 h of rest in CON only (~23%, P < 0.05). There were no changes in mitochondrial, nuclear, or cytoplasmic levels of PGC-1α post-exercise in either group. Conclusions: The selective increase in nuclear p53 abundance following endurance exercise suggests a potential pro-autophagy response to remove damaged proteins and organelles prior to initiating mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling responses in untrained individuals. PMID:27199762

  5. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W O

    1989-05-01

    In brief: Athletes who compete in endurance sports may sustain exercise-associated collapse (EAC) during or after an event. A classification system was devised for EAC that can be used by physicians who cover endurance events. Symptoms and signs of EAC include exhaustion, nausea, cramps, abnormally high or low core body temperature, muscle spasms, and inability to walk unassisted. The three classes of EAC are hyperthermic, normothermic, and hypothermic; each class is subclassified as mild, moderate, or severe. Treatment of warm runners includes applying ice bags wrapped with wet towels to the major areas of heat loss (neck, axilla, groin) to lower the core body temperature. Treatment of cool runners involves removing wet clothing, drying the skin, and insulating with wool blankets.

  6. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  7. Effect of ambient temperature on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Johnson, Evan C; Klau, Jennifer F; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2011-06-01

    It is well established that caffeine ingestion during exercise enhances endurance performance. Conversely, the physiological and psychological strain that accompanies increased ambient temperature decreases endurance performance. Little is known about the interaction between environmental temperature and the effects of caffeine on performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ambient temperature (12 and 33°C) on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance cycling exercise. Eleven male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 25 ± 6 years; [Formula: see text] 58.7 ± 2.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four exercise trials in a randomized, double blind experimental design. After cycling continuously for 90 min (average 65 ± 7% [Formula: see text]) in either a warm (33 ± 1°C, 41 ± 5%rh) or cool (12 ± 1°C, 60 ± 7%rh) environment, subjects completed a 15-min performance trial (PT; based on total work accumulated). Subjects ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of encapsulated caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) 60 min prior to and after 45 min of exercise. Throughout exercise, subjects ingested water so that at the end of exercise, independent of ambient temperature, their body mass was reduced 0.55 ± 0.67%. Two-way (temperature × treatment) repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted with alpha set at 0.05. Total work (kJ) during the PT was greater in 12°C than 33°C [P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.804, confidence interval (CI): 30.51-62.30]. When pooled, CAF increased performance versus PLA independent of temperature (P = 0.006, η(2) = 0.542 CI: 3.60-16.86). However, performance differences with CAF were not dependent on ambient temperature (i.e., non-significant interaction; P = 0.662). CAF versus PLA in 12 and 33°C resulted in few differences in other physiological variables. However, during exercise, rectal temperature (T (re)) increased in the warm environment (peak T (re); 33°C, 39.40 ± 0.45; 12°C, 38.79 ± 0.42°C; P < 0.05) but was not different in CAF versus PLA (P > 0

  8. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  9. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  10. Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wisherd, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Jensen, C. D.; Whittam, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic carbohydrate drink, containing 55 mEq l-1 Na+, 4.16 g l-1 citrate, 20.49 g l-1 glucose, and 365 mOsm kg-1 H2O, and AstroAde (AA), a sodium chloride-sodium citrate hyperhydration drink, containing 164 mEq l-1 Na+, 8.54 g l-1 citrate, <5 mg l-1 glucose, and 253 mOsm kg-1 H2O. Mean (+/-SE) endurance for N, P1 and AA was 24.68 +/- 1.50, 24.55 +/- 1.09, and 30.50 +/- 3.44 min respectively. Percent changes in plasma volume (PV) from -105 min of rest to zero min before exercise were -1.5 +/- 3.2% (N), 0.2 +/- 2.2% (P1), and 4.8 +/- 3.0% (AA; P < 0.05). The attenuated endurance for N and P1 could not be attributed to differences in exercise metabolism (VE, RE, VO2) from the carbohydrate or citrate, terminal heart rate, levels of perceived exertion, forehead or thigh skin blood flow velocity, changes or absolute termination levels of rectal temperature. Thus, the higher level of resting PV for AA just before exercise, as well as greater acid buffering and possible increased energy substrate from citrate, may have contributed to the greater endurance.

  11. Reproductive profile of physically active men after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.

  12. The association between ace gene variation and aerobic capacity in winter endurance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, J; Zmijewski, P; Klusiewicz, A; Kaliszewski, P; Malczewska-Lenczowska, J; Gajewski, J; Pokrywka, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possible relationship between I/D polymorphism of ACE gene and selected indices of aerobic capacity among male and female athletes practising winter endurance sports. Sixty-six well-trained athletes (female n = 26, male n = 40), aged 18.4 ± 2.8 years, representing winter endurance sports (cross-country skiing, n = 48; biathlon, n = 8; Nordic combined, n = 10) participated in the study. Genotyping for ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal running velocity (Vmax) and running velocity at anaerobic threshold (VAT4) were determined in an incremental test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill. The ACE genotype had no significant effect on absolute VO2max, relative VO2max (divided by body mass or fat free body mass), VAT4 or Vmax. No interaction effect of gender x ACE genotype was found for each of the examined aerobic capacity indices. ACE gene variation was not found to be a determinant of aerobic capacity in either female or male Polish, well-trained endurance athletes participating in winter sports.

  13. Echocardiography and circulatory response to progressive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac ultrasound techniques have provided an abundance of empirical information regarding normal circulatory responses to dynamic exercise. These data are consistent with a schema by which alterations in peripheral resistance, effected by arteriolar dilatation, facilitate blood flow to exercising muscle and match these responses to increasing metabolic demand. In this model, cardiac responses are governed by quantity of systemic venous return, matched by increases in heart rate to maintain a constant ventricular filling volume. In a progressive test in the upright position, stroke volume rises early, then plateaus as work intensity rises. The initial increase in stroke volume reflects refilling of the heart from the sequestration of blood in the dependent extremities by gravity that occurs when assuming the upright position. Well documented improvements in both inotropic and lusitropic function during progressive exercise therefore serve to maintain constancy of stroke volume and ventricular filling, respectively, with progressive shortening of systolic and diastolic time periods as work intensity rises. During exercise, then, the circulatory system appears to act like an arterial venous fistula, with peripheral resistance serving as the principal factor facilitating and controlling blood flow. Observations in subjects with altered circulatory dynamics during exercise (patients with cardiac disease, highly trained endurance athletes) can be understood within the context of this physiological model.

  14. Reproducibility of an aerobic endurance test for nonexpert swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Veronese da Costa, Adalberto; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Carlos, Daniel Medeiros; Guerra, Luis Marcos de Medeiros; Silva, Antônio José; Barbosa, Tiago Manoel Cabral dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to verify the reproduction of an aerobic test to determine nonexpert swimmers’ resistance. Methods: The sample consisted of 24 male swimmers (age: 22.79 ± 3.90 years; weight: 74.72 ± 11.44 kg; height: 172.58 ± 4.99 cm; and fat percentage: 15.19% ± 3.21%), who swim for 1 hour three times a week. A new instrument was used in this study (a Progressive Swim Test): the swimmer wore an underwater MP3 player and increased their swimming speed on hearing a beep after every 25 meters. Each swimmer’s heart rate was recorded before the test (BHR) and again after the test (AHR). The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the number of laps performed (NLP) were also recorded. The sample size was estimated using G*Power software (v 3.0.10; Franz Faul, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany). The descriptive values were expressed as mean and standard deviation. After confirming the normality of the data using both the Shapiro–Wilk and Levene tests, a paired t-test was performed to compare the data. The Pearson’s linear correlation (r) and intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) tests were used to determine relative reproducibility. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to determine absolute reproducibility. The limits of agreement and the bias of the absolute and relative values between days were determined by Bland–Altman plots. All values had a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences in AHR (P = 0.03) and NLP (P = 0.01) between the 2 days of testing. The obtained values were r > 0.50 and ICC > 0.66. The SEM had a variation of ±2% and the CV was <10%. Most cases were within the upper and lower limits of Bland–Altman plots, suggesting correlation of the results. The applicability of NLP showed greater robustness (r and ICC > 0.90; SEM < 1%; CV < 3%), indicating that the other variables can be used to predict incremental changes in the physiological condition

  15. Testosterone and endurance exercise: development of the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition".

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C; Moore, A W; Brownlee, K K

    2005-01-01

    During the last 30 years a large number of research studies have been conducted examining reproductive endocrine dysfunction in exercising women. The number of similar studies examining men is still relatively small. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of research studies in men indicate endurance exercise training has significant effects upon the major male reproductive hormone, testosterone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis that regulates reproductive hormones. This review article addresses one reproductive endocrine dysfunction found in exercising men, what has been deemed the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition". Specifically, men with this condition exhibit basal (resting-state) free and total testosterone levels that are significantly and persistently reduced. The exact physiological mechanism inducing the reduction of testosterone is currently unclear, but is postulated to be a dysfunction (or perhaps a readjustment) within the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular regulatory axis. The time course for the development of the "exercise-hypogonadal condition" or the threshold of exercise training necessary to induce the condition remains unresolved. The potential exists for these reduced testosterone levels within the exercise-hypogonadal male to disrupt and be detrimental to some anabolic or androgenic testosterone-dependent physiological processes. Unfortunately, extremely few research studies have addressed whether such processes are affected, and thus findings are inconclusive. Conversely, the alterations in testosterone levels brought about by endurance exercise training have the potential for cardiovascular protective effects and thus could be beneficial to the health of these men. Current evidence suggests this condition is limited to men who have been persistently involved in chronic endurance exercise training for extended periods of time (i.e., years). Many questions, however, regarding the male reproductive endocrine adaptive process to

  16. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  17. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  18. Methazolamide Plus Aminophylline Abrogates Hypoxia-Mediated Endurance Exercise Impairment.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Rebecca L; Binns, Scott E; Klochak, Anna L; Giordano, Gregory R; Paris, Hunter L R; Sevits, Kyle J; Beals, Joseph W; Biela, Laurie M; Larson, Dennis G; Luckasen, Gary J; Irwin, David; Schroeder, Thies; Hamilton, Karyn L; Bell, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    In hypoxia, endurance exercise performance is diminished; pharmacotherapy may abrogate this performance deficit. Based on positive outcomes in preclinical trials, we hypothesized that oral administration of methazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, aminophylline, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and/or methazolamide combined with aminophylline would attenuate hypoxia-mediated decrements in endurance exercise performance in humans. Fifteen healthy males (26 ± 5 years, body-mass index: 24.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: placebo (n = 9), methazolamide (250 mg; n = 10), aminophylline (400 mg; n = 9), or methazolamide (250 mg) with aminophylline (400 mg; n = 8). On two separate occasions, the first in normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21) and the second in hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.15), participants sat for 4.5 hours before completing a standardized exercise bout (30 minutes, stationary cycling, 100 W), followed by a 12.5-km time trial. The magnitude of time trial performance decrement in hypoxia versus normoxia did not differ between placebo (+3.0 ± 2.7 minutes), methazolamide (+1.4 ± 1.7 minutes), and aminophylline (+1.8 ± 1.2 minutes), all with p > 0.09; however, the performance decrement in hypoxia versus normoxia with methazolamide combined with aminophylline was less than placebo (+0.6 ± 1.5 minutes; p = 0.01). This improvement may have been partially mediated by increased SpO2 in hypoxia with methazolamide combined with aminophylline compared with placebo (73% ± 3% vs. 79% ± 6%; p < 0.02). In conclusion, coadministration of methazolamide and aminophylline may promote endurance exercise performance during a sojourn at high altitude.

  19. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Alves-Wagner, Ana B; Hirshman, Michael F; Gallagher, Iain J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Atkins, Ryan; Greenhaff, Paul L; Qi, Nathan R; Gustafsson, Thomas; Fielding, Roger A; Timmons, James A; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a risk factor for diabetes and a strong predictor of mortality, yet some individuals are "exercise-resistant" and unable to improve exercise capacity through exercise training. To test the hypothesis that resistance to aerobic exercise training underlies metabolic disease risk, we used selective breeding for 15 generations to develop rat models of low and high aerobic response to training. Before exercise training, rats selected as low and high responders had similar exercise capacities. However, after 8 weeks of treadmill training, low responders failed to improve their exercise capacity, whereas high responders improved by 54%. Remarkably, low responders to aerobic training exhibited pronounced metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and increased adiposity, demonstrating that the exercise-resistant phenotype segregates with disease risk. Low responders had impaired exercise-induced angiogenesis in muscle; however, mitochondrial capacity was intact and increased normally with exercise training, demonstrating that mitochondria are not limiting for aerobic adaptation or responsible for metabolic dysfunction in low responders. Low responders had increased stress/inflammatory signaling and altered transforming growth factor-β signaling, characterized by hyperphosphorylation of a novel exercise-regulated phosphorylation site on SMAD2. Using this powerful biological model system, we have discovered key pathways for low exercise training response that may represent novel targets for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  20. Effects of endurance exercise on the reproductive system of men: the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition".

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of investigative research studies point to participation in endurance exercise training as having significant detrimental effects upon reproductive hormonal profiles in men. Specifically, men chronically exposed to this type of exercise training exhibit persistently reduced basal (resting-state) free and total testosterone concentrations without concurrent LH elevations. Men displaying these symptoms have been deemed to exhibit the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition". The exact physiological mechanism inducing the reduction of testosterone in these men is currently unclear, but is postulated to be a dysfunction (or perhaps a readjustment) within the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular regulatory axis. The potential exists for the reduced testosterone concentrations within exercise-hypogonadal men to be disruptive and detrimental to some anabolic-androgenic testosterone- dependent physiological processes. Findings on this point are limited, but do suggest spermatogenesis problems may exist in some cases. Alternatively, reductions in circulating testosterone concentrations could have cardiovascular protective effects and thus be beneficial to the health of these men. Present evidence suggests the exercise-hypogonadal condition is limited to men who have been persistently involved in chronic endurance exercise training for an extended period time (i.e., years), and it is not a highly prevalent occurrence (although, a thorough epidemiological investigation on the topic is lacking in the literature). Many questions regarding the male reproductive endocrine adaptive process to exercise training still remain unanswered, necessitating the need for much further investigation on the topic, especially with respect to the exercise-hypogonadal condition.

  1. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  2. Aerobic response to exercise of the fastest land crab.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Herreid, C F

    1983-04-01

    To view the aerobic response to exercise, the ghost crab Ocypode guadichaudii was run in a treadmill respirometer at three velocities (0.13, 0.19, and 0.28 km/h) while oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored. A steady-state VO2 that increased linearly with velocity was attained. VO2 transient periods at the beginning and end of exercise were extremely rapid with half times from 50 to 150 s. The magnitude of oxygen deficit and debt were small and both showed increases with an increase in velocity. Oxygen debt was measured at each velocity after 4-, 10-, and 20-min exercise bouts. No change in the magnitude of oxygen debt was observed with respect to exercise duration. Maximal VO2 was 11.9 times the average resting VO2. Oxygen uptake kinetics have shown only very sluggish and reduced rates in five other more sedentary crab species previously tested. The aerobic response pattern observed in the present study is more comparable to that of exercising mammals and highly aerobic ectothermic vertebrates. This suggests that the ghost crab meets the energy demand of sustained exercise by aerobic ATP production in contrast to many other crab species.

  3. Effects of meditation and aerobic exercise on EEG patterns.

    PubMed

    Severtsen, B; Bruya, M A

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two stress-reducing wellness activities, meditation and aerobic exercise, on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns of normal subjects. Ten nursing students completed the study: five performed meditation daily and five performed aerobic exercise daily. Stress was determined using the Stanford University Self Assessment and Holmes-Rahe Social Adjustment Rating Scales prior to the stress-reducing activities and again following the six-week study. Although neither group demonstrated a significant increase in alpha waves, self-rating scores for both measures were improved at the end of the six-week study. Meditation and aerobic activity were associated with a perception of increased ability to cope and a generally positive feeling about the value of exercise and meditation in their lives.

  4. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  5. EMP acupoint stimulation conducive to increase the effect of weight reduction through aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Chun; Zhu, Ximei; Zhang, Hongyu; Du, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to observe whether weight reduction through aerobic exercise is more effective with the intervention of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) Acupoint stimulation. Method: based on the need of this study, we choose 48 young and middle-aged obese patients and randomly divide them into Experimental Group and Control Group with each group consisting of 24 of them. The Control Group has an aerobic endurance running each day with each running lasting for about 45 minutes and covering about 6 KM; the Experimental Group has the same exercise as the CG, but, after their running, stimulation by electromagnetic pulse meter is given to their Sanyinjiao Acupoint and Zushanli Acupoint. Then the content of body fat and the lipid indexes of the two groups before the treatment are compared with their counterparts after the said treatment. Result: after 6 weeks of treatment, the various indexes of the two groups are improved to different degrees (P<0.05); the effect on lipid indexes of the Experimental Group is obviously better than that of the Control Group (P<0.05), but the content of their body fat shows no conspicuous difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: after 6 weeks of treatment, the intervention of EMP acupoint stimulation can more evidently improve the lipid indexes than it has done to the group only having aerobic exercise; but it has little effect in terms of the improvement of the body fat content, which may be because of the short time of such intervention. PMID:26379942

  6. Strategies for voluntary rehydration in horses during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Nyman, S; Jansson, A; Dahlborn, K; Lindholm, A

    1996-07-01

    To avoid dehydration and a decrease in performance capacity in horses, fluid and electrolyte losses need to be compensated for during long distance rides as well as on other occasions when sweat losses are high during exercise. Thirteen endurance-trained horses, age 5-14 years, were used to compare 3 strategies of voluntary rehydration during prolonged exercise, offering 1) water, 2) water after administering salt paste (3 x 30 g of NaCl) per os and 3) 0.9% saline. The ride covered 62 km and consisted of 3 rounds, of 20, 22 and 20 km, respectively. During the first 20 km, no fluid was offered to any of the horses. Thereafter, fluid was repeatedly offered from buckets at the 'vet gates' and at fluid stations situated in the middle of the rounds. Fluid intake and bodyweight were measured during the ride and up until 3 b after the ride. The low heart rates and unchanged plasma glucose concentration indicated that the work load was moderate. Total fluid intake was significantly higher in the saline group than in the water group or the salt paste group. The total plasma protein concentration (TPP) fell below resting values in the saline group post exercise, indicating an increase in plasma volume. No changes in TPP were seen in the other groups. Plasma sodium concentration during the ride increased in the salt paste group but not in the saline drinking horses despite their higher NaCl intake. The water group had an increased plasma aldosterone concentration post exercise, indicating that sodium-conserving mechanisms had been activated. Plasma potassium concentration decreased in all treatments from pre- to post ride. It was concluded, that drinking saline solution during and after exercise is a good strategy for rehydration since this group showed the fastest recovery of their bodyweight losses. The persistently elevated plasma sodium concentration in the salt paste group during the ride, is indicative of a disturbance in the fluid distribution between the body fluid

  7. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  9. Responses of Trace Elements to Aerobic Maximal Exercise in Elite Sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    OTAĞ, Aynur; HAZAR, Muhsin; OTAĞ, İlhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, İlyas

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P<0.05 and P<0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  10. Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chtara, M; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Koubaa, D; Feki, Y; Millet, G; Amri, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of the sequencing order of individualised intermittent endurance training combined with muscular strengthening on aerobic performance and capacity. Methods: Forty eight male sport students (mean (SD) age 21.4 (1.3) years) were divided into five homogeneous groups according to their maximal aerobic speeds (vV·O2MAX). Four groups participated in various training programmes for 12 weeks (two sessions a week) as follows: E (n = 10), running endurance training; S (n = 9), strength circuit training; E+S (n = 10) and S+E (n = 10) combined the two programmes in a different order during the same training session. Group C (n = 9) served as a control. All the subjects were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) the training period using four tests: (1) a 4 km time trial running test; (2) an incremental track test to estimate vV·O2MAX; (3) a time to exhaustion test (tlim) at 100% vV·O2MAX; (4) a maximal cycling laboratory test to assess V·O2MAX. Results: Training produced significant improvements in performance and aerobic capacity in the 4 km time trial with interaction effect (p<0.001). The improvements were significantly higher for the E+S group than for the E, S+E, and S groups: 8.6%, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 2.5% for the 4 km test (p<0.05); 10.4%, 8.3%, 8.2%, and 1.6% for vV·O2MAX (p<0.01); 13.7%, 10.1%, 11.0%, and 6.4% for V·O2MAX (ml/kg0.75/min) (p<0.05) respectively. Similar significant results were observed for tlim and the second ventilatory threshold (%V·O2MAX). Conclusions: Circuit training immediately after individualised endurance training in the same session (E+S) produced greater improvement in the 4 km time trial and aerobic capacity than the opposite order or each of the training programmes performed separately. PMID:16046343

  11. Exercise and improved insulin sensitivity in older women: evidence of the enduring benefits of higher intensity training.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Loretta; Dziura, James; Yeckel, Catherine W; Neufer, P Darrell

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have compared the relative benefits of moderate- vs. higher intensity exercise training on improving insulin sensitivity in older people while holding exercise volume constant. Healthy older (73 +/- 10 yr) women (N = 25) who were inactive, but not obese, were randomized into one of three training programs (9-mo duration): 1) high-intensity [80% peak aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak); T(H)] aerobic training; 2) moderate-intensity (65% V(O2)peak; T(M)) aerobic training; or 3) low-intensity (stretching) placebo control (50% V(O2)peak); C(TB)). Importantly, exercise volume (300 kcal/session) was held constant for subjects in both the T(H) and the T(M) groups. V(O2)peak was determined by using a graded exercise challenge on a treadmill. Total body fat and lean mass were determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The rate of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization as well as the suppression of lipolysis were determined approximately 72 h after the final exercise bout by using a two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. We observed improved glucose utilization at the higher insulin dose with training, but these improvements were statistically significant only in the T(H) (21%; P = 0.02) compared with the T(M) (16%; P = 0.17) and C(TB) (8%; P = 0.37) groups and were observed without changes in either body composition or V(O2)peak. Likewise in the T(H) group, we detected a significant improvement in insulin-stimulated suppression (%) of adipose tissue lipolysis at the low-insulin dose (38-55%, P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that long-term higher intensity exercise training provides more enduring benefits to insulin action compared with moderate- or low-intensity exercise, likely due to greater transient effects.

  12. Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary inflammation induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Clarice R; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Almeida, Francine M; Lourenço, Juliana D; Abreu, Rodrigo M; Arantes, Petra M M; Lopes, Fernanda Dtqs; Martins, Milton A

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recognized as a stimulator of the immune system, but its effect on bacterial infection has not been extensively evaluated. We studied whether moderate aerobic exercise training prior to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection influences pulmonary inflammatory responses. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Sedentary Untreated (sedentary without infection); Sedentary Infected (sedentary with infection); Trained Untreated (aerobic training without infection); and Trained Infected (aerobic training with infection). Animals underwent aerobic training for 4 wk, and 72 h after last exercise training, animals received a challenge with S. pneumoniae and were evaluated either 12 h or 10 days after instillation. In acute phase, Sedentary Infected group had an increase in respiratory system resistance and elastance; number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL); polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma; and levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) in lung homogenates. Exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in all of these parameters and induced an increase in expression of antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD and MnSOD) in lungs. Trained Infected mice had a significant decrease in the number of colony-forming units of pneumococci in the lungs compared with Sedentary Infected animals. Ten days after infection, Trained Infected group exhibited lower numbers of macrophages in BAL, polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma and IL-6 in lung homogenates compared with Sedentary Infected group. Our results suggest a protective effect of moderate exercise training against respiratory infection with S. pneumoniae. This effect is most likely secondary to an effect of exercise on oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  13. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  14. Effects of endurance training and heat acclimation on psychological strain in exercising men wearing protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments examined the influences of endurance training and heat acclimation on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal discomfort (RTD) during exercise in the heat while wearing two types of clothing. In experiment 1, young men underwent 8 weeks of physical training [60-80% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) for 30-45 min day-1, 3-4 days week-1 at 20-22 degrees C dry bulb (db) temperature] followed by 6 days of heat acclimation [45-55% VO2max for 60 min day-1 at 40 degrees C db, 30% relative humidity (rh)] (n = 7) or corresponding periods of control observation followed by heat acclimation (n = 9). In experiment 2, young men were heat-acclimated for 6 or 12 days (n = 8 each). Before and after each treatment, subjects completed bouts of treadmill exercise (1.34 m s-1, 2% grade in experiment 1 and 0% grade in experiment 2) in a climatic chamber (40 degrees C db, 30% rh), wearing in turn normal light clothing (continuous exercise at 37-45% VO2max for a tolerated exposure of 116-120 min in experiment 1 and at 31-34% VO2max for 146-150 min in experiment 2) or clothing protective against nuclear, biological, and chemical agents (continuous exercise at 42-51% VO2max for a tolerated exposure of 47-52 min in experiment 1 and intermittent exercise at 23% VO2max for 97-120 min in experiment 2). In experiment 1, when wearing normal clothing, endurance training and/or heat acclimation significantly decreased RPE and/or RTD at a fixed power output. There were concomitant reductions in relative work intensity (% VO2max) [an unchanged oxygen consumption (VO2) but an increased VO2max, or a reduced VO2 with no change of VO2max], rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), and/or heart rate (HR). When wearing protective clothing, in contrast, there were no significant changes in RPE or RTD. Although training and/or acclimation reduced %VO2max or Tre, any added sweat that was secreted did not evaporate through the protective clothing, thus increasing

  15. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Stennis Watson, G.; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. Design Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Setting Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System clinical research unit. Participants Thirty-three adults (17 women) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment ranging in age from 55 to 85 years (mean age,70 years). Intervention Participants were randomized either to a high-intensity aerobic exercise or stretching control group. The aerobic group exercised under the supervision of a fitness trainer at 75% to 85% of heart rate reserve for 45 to 60 min/d, 4 d/wk for 6 months. The control group carried out supervised stretching activities according to the same schedule but maintained their heart rate at or below 50% of their heart rate reserve. Before and after the study, glucometabolic and treadmill tests were performed and fat distribution was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, month 3, and month 6, blood was collected for assay and cognitive tests were administered. Main Outcome Measures Performance measures on Symbol-Digit Modalities, Verbal Fluency, Stroop, Trails B, Task Switching, Story Recall, and List Learning. Fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulinlike growth factor-I, and β-amyloids 40 and 42. Results Six months of high-intensity aerobic exercise had sex-specific effects on cognition, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trophic activity despite comparable gains in cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat reduction. For women, aerobic exercise improved performance on multiple tests of executive function, increased glucose disposal during the metabolic clamp, and reduced fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. For men

  17. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  18. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  19. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Rodney A.; Berggren, Kiersten L.; Kerr, Abigail L.; Patel, Ami; Peplinski, Caitlin; Sikorski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging. PMID:24961267

  20. Exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis attributable to cycle ergometer exercise in endurance-trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Navalta, James Wilfred; McFarlin, Brian Keith; Lyons, Thomas Scott; Faircloth, John Clifton; Bacon, Nicholas T; Callahan, Zachary J

    2009-08-01

    Exercise as a stimulus to induce lymphocyte apoptosis remains controversial. Differences may be due to participant fitness level or the methodology of assessing cell death. Another important issue is the mode of exercise used to induce physiological changes. Treadmill exercise typically induces significant apoptosis in human lymphocytes; however, the effect of cycle exercise is less clear. The 2 main purposes of this study were to assess if cycle ergometer exercise induces similar changes in apoptosis, and to further characterize the morphological method of assessing cell death. Endurance athletes (n = 10; peak oxygen consumption = 55.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed a 60-min ride on a cycle ergometer at approximately 80% peak oxygen consumption. Blood samples taken before (PRE) and after (POST) exercise were used to make blood films for apoptotic analysis via the morphological technique. A significant increase was observed in the apoptotic index following cycle exercise (PRE = 7.3 +/- 2%, POST = 12.9 +/- 2%; p < 0.01). On average, it took 42 +/- 9 min to read PRE sample slides, which was significantly longer than the 27 +/- 4 min needed for POST slides (p < 0.01). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report that exercise on the cycle ergometer produces changes in lymphocyte apoptosis. The values measured during this study were about 20% lower than those we have observed following treadmill running, which may be explained by differences in active muscle mass and the resultant physiological stress between the 2 exercise modes. It is likely that cycling may result in reduced immunosuppression, compared with running at the same intensity.

  1. Acute effect of high-intensity aerobic exercise performed on treadmill and cycle ergometer on strength performance.

    PubMed

    Panissa, Valéria L G; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Julio, Ursula F; Ribeiro, Natalia; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo M A; Carmo, Everton C; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent training (i.e., combination of endurance with strength training) may result in negative interference on strength performance. Moreover, there are indications that the magnitude of this interference is dependent on endurance exercise mode. Thus, this study aimed to verify the acute effects of previous running and cycling on strength endurance performance. After the determination of the maximum intensity reached (Imax) during treadmill running and cycle ergometer pedaling and half-squat maximum strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]), 10 physically active men were submitted to 3 experimental conditions: control condition (S) comprised of 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% 1RM, intermittent running (RS), and cycling (CS) conditions (15 × 1 minute:1 minute in the Imax) followed by the strength exercise (S). Maximum number of repetitions (MNR), total session volume (TV), and vastus lateralis electromyographic signal (VLRMS) were analyzed. It was observed that MNR and TV performed in set 1 in the S condition was superior to that performed in set 1 in the RS (p < 0.001) and CS (p < 0.001) conditions; and set 2 in the S condition was superior to set 2 only in the CS for the MNR (p = 0.032) and TV (p = 0.012). For the VLRMS, there was a main effect for repetition, with higher values in the last repetition compared with the second one (p < 0.01). In conclusion, an aerobic exercise bout before strength exercise impairs the subsequent strength endurance performance. In addition, the magnitude of the interference effect was higher after the aerobic cycling exercise.

  2. Acute effect of high-intensity aerobic exercise performed on treadmill and cycle ergometer on strength performance.

    PubMed

    Panissa, Valéria L G; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Julio, Ursula F; Ribeiro, Natalia; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo M A; Carmo, Everton C; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent training (i.e., combination of endurance with strength training) may result in negative interference on strength performance. Moreover, there are indications that the magnitude of this interference is dependent on endurance exercise mode. Thus, this study aimed to verify the acute effects of previous running and cycling on strength endurance performance. After the determination of the maximum intensity reached (Imax) during treadmill running and cycle ergometer pedaling and half-squat maximum strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]), 10 physically active men were submitted to 3 experimental conditions: control condition (S) comprised of 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% 1RM, intermittent running (RS), and cycling (CS) conditions (15 × 1 minute:1 minute in the Imax) followed by the strength exercise (S). Maximum number of repetitions (MNR), total session volume (TV), and vastus lateralis electromyographic signal (VLRMS) were analyzed. It was observed that MNR and TV performed in set 1 in the S condition was superior to that performed in set 1 in the RS (p < 0.001) and CS (p < 0.001) conditions; and set 2 in the S condition was superior to set 2 only in the CS for the MNR (p = 0.032) and TV (p = 0.012). For the VLRMS, there was a main effect for repetition, with higher values in the last repetition compared with the second one (p < 0.01). In conclusion, an aerobic exercise bout before strength exercise impairs the subsequent strength endurance performance. In addition, the magnitude of the interference effect was higher after the aerobic cycling exercise. PMID:25259468

  3. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways. PMID:26298685

  4. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways. PMID:26298685

  5. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  7. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation.

  8. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  9. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  10. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630438

  11. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke.

  12. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630438

  13. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke.

  14. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Marius; Eichner, Gerrit; Beiter, Thomas; Zügel, Martina; Krumholz-Wagner, Ilke; Hudemann, Jens; Pilat, Christian; Krüger, Karsten; Niess, Andreas M.; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Mooren, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n = 19) and untrained (SED, n = 17) individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring. PMID:27239103

  15. Regulation of whole body energy homeostasis with growth hormone replacement therapy and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Robert; Ith, Michael; Trepp, Roman; Christ, Emanuel; Flück, Martin

    2011-06-28

    We hypothesized that network analysis is useful to expose coordination between whole body and myocellular levels of energy metabolism and can identify entities that underlie skeletal muscle's contribution to growth hormone-stimulated lipid handling and metabolic fitness. We assessed 112 metabolic parameters characterizing metabolic rate and substrate handling in tibialis anterior muscle and vascular compartment at rest, after a meal and exercise with growth hormone replacement therapy (GH-RT) of hypopituitary patients (n = 11). The topology of linear relationships (| r | ≥ 0.7, P ≤ 0.01) and mutual dependencies exposed the organization of metabolic relationships in three entities reflecting basal and exercise-induced metabolic rate, triglyceride handling, and substrate utilization in the pre- and postprandial state, respectively. GH-RT improved aerobic performance (+5%), lean-to-fat mass (+19%), and muscle area of tibialis anterior (+2%) but did not alter its mitochondrial and capillary content. Concomitantly, connectivity was established between myocellular parameters of mitochondrial lipid metabolism and meal-induced triglyceride handling in serum. This was mediated via the recruitment of transcripts of muscle lipid mobilization (LIPE, FABP3, and FABP4) and fatty acid-sensitive transcription factors (PPARA, PPARG) to the metabolic network. The interdependence of gene regulatory elements of muscle lipid metabolism reflected the norm in healthy subjects (n = 12) and distinguished the regulation of the mitochondrial respiration factor COX1 by GH and endurance exercise. Our observations validate the use of network analysis for systems medicine and highlight the notion that an improved stochiometry between muscle and whole body lipid metabolism, rather than alterations of single bottlenecks, contributes to GH-driven elevations in metabolic fitness.

  16. Anaerobic and aerobic peak power output and the force-velocity relationship in endurance-trained athletes: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Chamari, K; Ahmaidi, S; Fabre, C; Massé-Biron, J; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the anaerobic peak power output (Pan, peak) declines more than the peak aerobic power (Paer, peak) with increasing age. In addition, the force-velocity (F-v) relationship was studied to determine which of these two factors is primarily responsible for the expected alterations in anaerobic power. The Pan, peak, the maximal F when v is equal to zero (F0) and the maximal v when F is equal to zero (v0) were assessed by F-v test i.e. a brief intense intermittent exercise test using incremental braking forces. The Paer, peak was measured by a maximal increment exercise test. A group of 12 young athletes (YA) and 12 master athletes (MA) mean age 24.8 (SEM 1.3) and 65.1 (SEM 1.2) years, respectively, participated in this study. The YA and MA had similar body masses, heights and endurance training schedules. The results showed that Pan, peak was 42.7% lower in the older subjects, corresponding to mean values of 1089 (SEM 40) compared to 624 (SEM 33) W (t = 8.9, P < 0.001) for YA compared to MA, respectively. The F0 and V0 indices showed values that were lower by 30.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The Paer, peak was 35% lower with mean values of 323 (SEM 12) W for YA compared to 210 (SEM 6) W for MA (t = 8.3, P < 0.001). The mean maximal oxygen uptake was 34.7% lower with 4240 (SEM 160) ml.min-1 for YA compared to 2770 (SEM 120) ml.min-1 for MA (t = 7.2, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effects of Different Intensities of Endurance Exercise in Morning and Evening on the Lipid Metabolism Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Ando, Karina; Tabata, Hiroki; Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Nishimaki, Mio; Xiang, Mi; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of different exercise intensity performed at different exercise times on lipid metabolism response during prolonged exercise. Nine young men performed endurance exercise at different exercise intensities (60%VO2max or Fatmax) in the morning (9 am to 10 am) or evening (5 pm to 6 pm); blood samples were collected before exercise and immediately and one and two hours after exercise completion. Expired gas was analyzed from the start of exercise until two hours after exercise completion. There were no significant changes in catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and free fatty acid levels between morning and evening trials for each endurance exercise intensity. However, the morning and evening trials both exhibited significantly higher lipid oxidation at Fatmax than that at 60%VO2max. These results suggest that exercise at Fatmax offers greater lipid oxidation than that at 60%VO2max, regardless of exercise timing. Key points It is important to consider exercise intensity when evaluating lipid oxidation. Few studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on lipid oxidation in the morning and evening. Fatmax exhibited greater total lipid oxidation compared to that of 60%VO2max when energy expenditure was equated, but time of day did not affect lipid oxidation in prolonged exercise. PMID:27803625

  18. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio O; Dos Anjos, Carlos A S; Covolan, Roberto J M; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D; Magalhães, Fernando H; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  19. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Flávio O.; dos Anjos, Carlos A. S.; Covolan, Roberto J. M.; Pinheiro, Fabiano A.; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D.; Magalhães, Fernando H.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  20. Autophagy plays a role in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in an endurance exercise-trained condition.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jeong-Sun; Jeon, Sei-Il; Park, Je-Young; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Seong-Cheol; Cho, Ki-Jung; Jeong, Jong-Moon

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is tightly regulated by two major processes: mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial degradation by autophagy (mitophagy). Research in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training has been well established, while the mechanisms regulating mitophagy and the interplay between mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation following endurance exercise training are not yet well defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term inhibition of autophagy in response to acute endurance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in an exercise-trained condition. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice performed five daily bouts of 1-h swimming per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure autophagy flux in mouse skeletal muscle, mice were treated with or without 2 days of 0.4 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal colchicine (blocking the degradation of autophagosomes) following swimming exercise training. The autophagic flux assay demonstrated that swimming training resulted in an increase in the autophagic flux (~100 % increase in LC3-II) in mouse skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial fusion proteins, Opa1 and MFN2, were significantly elevated, and mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, was also increased in trained mouse skeletal muscle, suggesting that endurance exercise training promotes both mitochondrial fusion and fission processes. A mitochondrial receptor, Bnip3, was further increased in exercised muscle when treated with colchicine while Pink/Parkin protein levels were unchanged. The endurance exercise training induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis marker proteins, SDH, COX IV, and a mitochondrial biogenesis promoting factor, PGC-1α but this effect was abolished in colchicine-treated mouse skeletal muscle. This suggests that autophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial biogenesis and this coordination between these opposing processes is involved in the cellular

  1. Exercise training reverses impaired skeletal muscle metabolism induced by artificial selection for low aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Stephenson, Erin J; Yaspelkis, Ben B; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hawley, John A

    2011-01-01

    We have used a novel model of genetically imparted endurance exercise capacity and metabolic health to study the genetic and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities associated with low intrinsic running capacity would be ameliorated by exercise training. Selective breeding for 22 generations resulted in rat models with a fivefold difference in intrinsic aerobic capacity. Low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity runners remained sedentary (SED) or underwent 6 wk of exercise training (EXT). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signal transduction, and rates of palmitate oxidation were lower in LCR SED vs. HCR SED (P < 0.05). Decreases in glucose and lipid metabolism were associated with decreased β₂-adrenergic receptor (β₂-AR), and reduced expression of Nur77 target proteins that are critical regulators of muscle glucose and lipid metabolism [uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively]. EXT reversed the impairments to glucose and lipid metabolism observed in the skeletal muscle of LCR, while increasing the expression of β₂-AR, Nur77, GLUT4, UCP3, and FAT/CD36 (P < 0.05) in this tissue. However, no metabolic improvements were observed following exercise training in HCR. Our results demonstrate that metabolic impairments resulting from genetic factors (low intrinsic aerobic capacity) can be overcome by an environmental intervention (exercise training). Furthermore, we identify Nur77 as a potential mechanism for improved skeletal muscle metabolism in response to EXT.

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  3. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  4. Endurance Exercise as an “Endogenous” Neuro-enhancement Strategy to Facilitate Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Marco; Villringer, Arno; Lehmann, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise improves cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function and may also increase the information processing capacities of the brain. Animal and human research from the past decade demonstrated widespread exercise effects on brain structure and function at the systems-, cellular-, and molecular level of brain organization. These neurobiological mechanisms may explain the well-established positive influence of exercise on performance in various behavioral domains but also its contribution to improved skill learning and neuroplasticity. With respect to the latter, only few empirical and theoretical studies are available to date. The aim of this review is (i) to summarize the existing neurobiological and behavioral evidence arguing for endurance exercise-induced improvements in motor learning and (ii) to develop hypotheses about the mechanistic link between exercise and improved learning. We identify major knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by future research projects to advance our understanding of how exercise should be organized to optimize motor learning. PMID:26834602

  5. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  6. Drink temperature influences fluid intake and endurance capacity in men during exercise in a hot, dry environment.

    PubMed

    Mündel, Toby; King, Jenny; Collacott, Esther; Jones, David A

    2006-09-01

    The effect of different drink temperatures on the perception of exertion and exercise endurance has not been extensively investigated. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of drink temperature on fluid intake and endurance during cycling in the heat. Eight healthy, non-acclimated males (26 +/- 7 years; maximum oxygen uptake, 54 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); mean +/- S.D.) cycled to exhaustion at 34 degrees C and at 65% of their peak aerobic power, consuming a drink at either 19 degrees C (CON) or 4 degrees C (COLD). Six of the eight subjects cycled for longer during COLD, with exhaustion occurring at 62 +/- 4 min, compared to 55 +/- 4 min for CON (P < 0.05; mean +/- S.E.M.). Subjects consumed significantly more fluid during COLD compared to CON (1.3 +/- 0.3 l h(-1) compared to 1.0 +/- 0.2 l h(-1); P < 0.05). Heart rate tended to be lower by approximately 5 beats min(-1) during COLD, and rectal temperature during the second half of the exercise period was approximately 0.25 degrees C lower during the COLD trial; however, these trends were not significant (P = 0.08 and P = 0.07, respectively). No differences were observed between trials for ventilation, concentrations of prolactin, glucose and lactate or perceived exertion. It is concluded that a drink at 4 degrees C during exercise in the heat enhances fluid consumption and improves endurance by acting as a heat sink, attenuating the rise in body temperature and therefore reducing the effects of heat stress.

  7. Exercise training from late middle age until senescence does not attenuate the declines in skeletal muscle aerobic function.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Thomas, Melissa M; Wright, Kathryn J; Riel, Caitlin D; Hepple, Russell T

    2009-09-01

    We previously showed that 7 wk of treadmill exercise training in late-middle-aged rats can reverse the modest reductions in skeletal muscle aerobic function and enzyme activity relative to values in young adult rats (Exp Physiol 93: 863-871, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether extending this training program into senescence would attenuate the accelerated decline in the muscle aerobic machinery normally seen at this advanced age. For this purpose, 29-mo-old Fisher 344 Brown-Norway rats underwent 5 or 7 mo of treadmill exercise training. Training resulted in greater exercise capacity during an incremental treadmill exercise test and reduced percent body fat in 34- and 36-mo-old rats and improved survival. Despite these benefits at the whole body level, in situ muscle aerobic capacity and muscle mass were not greater in the trained groups at 34 mo or 36 mo of age. Similarly, the trained groups did not have higher activities of citrate synthase (CS) or Complex IV in homogenates of either the plantaris (fast twitch) or the soleus (slow twitch) muscles at either age. Finally, protein expression of CS (a marker of mitochondrial content) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (relating to the drive on mitochondrial biogenesis) were not higher in the trained groups. Therefore, although treadmill training from late middle age into senescence had significant benefits on running capacity, survival, and body fat, it did not prevent the declines in muscle mass, muscle aerobic capacity, or mitochondrial enzyme activities normally seen across this age, revealing a markedly diminished plasticity of the aerobic machinery in response to endurance exercise at advanced age.

  8. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly.

  9. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  10. Liver glycogen metabolism during and after prolonged endurance-type exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Betts, James A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is determined primarily by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate- to high-intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. Because endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Much exercise metabolism research to date has focused on muscle glycogen utilization, with little attention paid to the contribution of liver glycogen. (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy permits direct, noninvasive measurements of liver glycogen content and has increased understanding of the relevance of liver glycogen during exercise. In contrast to muscle, endurance-trained athletes do not exhibit elevated basal liver glycogen concentrations. However, there is evidence that liver glycogenolysis may be lower in endurance-trained athletes compared with untrained controls during moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, liver glycogen sparing in an endurance-trained state may account partly for training-induced performance/capacity adaptations during prolonged (>90 min) exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrate at a relatively high rate (>1.5 g/min) can prevent liver glycogen depletion during moderate-intensity exercise independent of the type of carbohydrate (e.g., glucose vs. sucrose) ingested. To minimize gastrointestinal discomfort, it is recommended to ingest specific combinations or types of carbohydrates (glucose plus fructose and/or sucrose). By coingesting glucose with either galactose or fructose, postexercise liver glycogen repletion rates can be doubled. There are currently no guidelines for carbohydrate ingestion to maximize liver glycogen repletion. PMID:27436612

  11. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A

    1987-10-01

    Many human responses to the weightless environment have been documented from actual spaceflights. These include physiological effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and fluid balance, and the musculoskeletal system, as well as psychological effects. Simulations on Earth have added to our knowledge about the physiology of weightlessness. Early data on orthostatic intolerance after real and simulated spaceflight led some scientists to discourage a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts. They believed it was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth. However, most of the data available today do not support this contention. Furthermore, aerobic fitness is beneficial to cardiovascular function and mental performance. Therefore, it may be important in performing extra-vehicular activities during flight. Some astronauts claim exercise enhances their feeling of well-being and self image. And, although the cardiovascular system and exercise performance may recover more slowly after flight to preflight levels when fitness level prior to flight is high, the musculoskeletal system may recover more rapidly. Research is needed to determine optimal levels of aerobic training for performing tasks in flight, maintaining health and well-being during flight, and assuring satisfactory recovery on return to Earth. PMID:3314852

  12. Sweat sodium concentration during exercise in the heat in aerobically trained and untrained humans.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, Nassim; Del Coso, Juan; Ortega, Juan F; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)](sweat)) during exercise in the heat differs between aerobically trained and untrained individuals. On three occasions, ten endurance-trained (Tr) and ten untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak = 4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 0.7 L min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-ventilated environment (36 ± 1°C; 25 ± 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (i.e., 40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). Whole-body (SR(WB)) and back sweat rates (SR(BACK)) were measured. At the conclusion of the study, Na(+) in sweat and blood samples was analyzed to calculate Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates. SR(WB) and SR(BACK) were highly correlated in Tr and UTr (r = 0.74 and 0.79, respectively; P < 0.0001). In both groups, SR(BACK) increased with the increases in exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Likewise, [Na(+)](sweat) increased with the exercise intensity in both groups (P < 0.05) and it tended to be higher in Tr than in UTr at 60 and 80% VO2peak (~22 mmol L(-1) higher; P = 0.06). However, when normalized for SR(BACK), [Na(+)](sweat) was not different between groups. In both groups, Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates increased with the increases in SR(BACK) (P < 0.05). However, Na(+) reabsorption rate was lower in the Tr than in the UTr (mean slope = 48 vs. 82 ηmol cm(-2) min(-1); P = 0.03). In conclusion, using a cross-sectional study design, our data suggest that aerobic fitness level does not reduce sweat Na(+) secretion or enhance Na(+) reabsorption during prolonged exercise in the heat that induced high sweat rates.

  13. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  14. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest. PMID:15240416

  15. Adverse cardiometabolic response to aerobic exercise training: Should this be a concern?

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Eric S.; Church, Timothy S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Karavirta, Laura; Kraus, William E.; Mikus, Catherine; Resnick, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic exercise training in sedentary individuals improves physical fitness and various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Prior reports suggest that exercise training may adversely affect some risk factors in a small segment of the population. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinically significant worsening of CV risk variables was as or more prevalent among individuals randomized to a supervised endurance training program as compared to those randomized to a control condition. Methods Baseline and end of study measurements of resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and were obtained on 1188 healthy sedentary subjects from the following studies: DREW (N=464), INFLAME (N=162), University of Jyvaskyla study (N=140), and STRRIDE (N=422). Each study randomized subjects to 4- to 6-month supervised aerobic exercise programs or to a control group of no supervised exercise training. For our analyses, the respective control and exercise groups for each study were combined to create one control group (N=345) and one exercise group (n=843). For each of the 4 CV risk variables, we calculated the respective proportions of control and exercise group subjects whose baseline-to-followup changes were greater than or equal to prespecified adverse change (AC) thresholds (ref). Those thresholds were increases of ≥ 24 pmol/L for FI, ≥ 0.42 mmol/L for TG, ≥ 10 mm Hg for SBP, and a decrease of ≥ 0.12 mmol/L for HDL-C Results The respective proportions of subjects meeting the AC threshold in the control and exercise groups were 15.2% vs. 9.6% (p=0.02) for FI, 14.9% vs. 13.1% (p=0.37) for TG, 28.6% vs. 22.5% (p=0.03) for HDL-C, and 16.9% vs. 15.8% (p=0.52) for SBP. The mean changes in the control and exercise groups were 1.8 vs. −6.5 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) for FI, −0.03 vs. −0.11 mmol/L (p=0.02) for TG, −0.03 vs. 0.00 mmol/L (p=0.02) for HDL-C, and −1.9 vs. −2.0 mm Hg (p=0

  16. Exercise volume and aerobic fitness in young adults: the Midwest Exercise Trial-2.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Washburn, Richard A; Honas, Jeffery J; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of exercise volume at a fixed intensity on changes in aerobic fitness. Ninety-two overweight/obese individuals (BMI 25-40 kg m(2)), age 18-30 years, 50 % women, completed a 10 mo, 5 d wk(-1) supervised exercise intervention at 2 levels of exercise energy expenditure (400 or 600 kcal session(-1)) at 70-80 % heart rate (HR) max. Exercise consisted primarily of walking/jogging on motor-driven treadmills. The duration and intensity of all exercise sessions were verified by a downloadable HR monitor set to collect HR in 1-min epochs. All participants were instructed to continue their typical patterns of non-exercise physical activity and dietary intake over the duration of the 10 mo intervention. Maximal aerobic capacity (indirect calorimetry) was assessed on a motor-driven treadmill using a modified Balke protocol at baseline, mid-point (5 mo), and following completion of the 10 mo intervention. VO2 max (L min(-1)) increased significantly in both the 400 (11.3 %) and 600 kcal session(-1) groups (14 %) compared to control (-2.0 %; p < 0.001); however, the differences between exercise groups were not significant. Similar results were noted for change in relative VO2 max (mL kg(-1) min(-1)); however, the magnitude of change was greater than for absolute VO2 max (L min(-1)) (400 group = 18.3 %; 600 group = 20.2 %) due to loss of body weight over the 10-mo intervention in both exercise groups. Our results indicate that exercise volume was not associated with change in aerobic fitness in a sample of previously sedentary, overweight and obese young adults. PMID:27026879

  17. Disruption of BCAA metabolism in mice impairs exercise metabolism and endurance.

    PubMed

    She, Pengxiang; Zhou, Yingsheng; Zhang, Zhiyou; Griffin, Kathleen; Gowda, Kavitha; Lynch, Christopher J

    2010-04-01

    Exercise enhances branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, and BCAA supplementation influences exercise metabolism. However, it remains controversial whether BCAA supplementation improves exercise endurance, and unknown whether the exercise endurance effect of BCAA supplementation requires catabolism of these amino acids. Therefore, we examined exercise capacity and intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle of knockout (KO) mice of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which catalyzes the first step of BCAA catabolism. We found that BCATm KO mice were exercise intolerant with markedly decreased endurance to exhaustion. Their plasma lactate and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in skeletal muscle during exercise and lactate release from hindlimb perfused with high concentrations of insulin and glucose were significantly higher in KO than wild-type (WT) mice. Plasma and muscle ammonia concentrations were also markedly higher in KO than WT mice during a brief bout of exercise. BCATm KO mice exhibited 43-79% declines in the muscle concentration of alanine, glutamine, aspartate, and glutamate at rest and during exercise. In response to exercise, the increments in muscle malate and alpha-ketoglutarate were greater in KO than WT mice. While muscle ATP concentration tended to be lower, muscle IMP concentration was sevenfold higher in KO compared with WT mice after a brief bout of exercise, suggesting elevated ammonia in KO is derived from the purine nucleotide cycle. These data suggest that disruption of BCAA transamination causes impaired malate/aspartate shuttle, thereby resulting in decreased alanine and glutamine formation, as well as increases in lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and ammonia in skeletal muscle. Thus BCAA metabolism may regulate exercise capacity in mice. PMID:20133434

  18. Postexercise Hypotension After Continuous, Aerobic Interval, and Sprint Interval Exercise.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Siddhartha S; Bhammar, Dharini M; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of 3 exercise bouts, differing markedly in intensity, on postexercise hypotension (PEH). Eleven young adults (age: 24.6 ± 3.7 years) completed 4 randomly assigned experimental conditions: (a) control, (b) 30-minute steady-state exercise (SSE) at 75-80% maximum heart rate (HRmax), (4) aerobic interval exercise (AIE): four 4-minute bouts at 90-95% HRmax, separated by 3 minutes of active recovery, and (d) sprint interval exercise (SIE): six 30-second Wingate sprints, separated by 4 minutes of active recovery. Exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer. Blood pressure (BP) was measured before exercise and every 15-minute postexercise for 3 hours. Linear mixed models were used to compare BP between trials. During the 3-hour postexercise, systolic BP (SBP) was lower (p < 0.001) after AIE (118 ± 10 mm Hg), SSE (121 ± 10 mm Hg), and SIE (121 ± 11 mm Hg) compared with control (124 ± 8 mm Hg). Diastolic BP (DBP) was also lower (p < 0.001) after AIE (66 ± 7 mm Hg), SSE (69 ± 6 mm Hg), and SIE (68 ± 8 mm Hg) compared with control (71 ± 7 mm Hg). Only AIE resulted in sustained (>2 hours) PEH, with SBP (120 ± 9 mm Hg) and DBP (68 ± 7 mm Hg) during the third-hour postexercise being lower (p ≤ 0.05) than control (124 ± 8 and 70 ± 7 mm Hg). Although all exercise bouts produced similar reductions in BP at 1-hour postexercise, the duration of PEH was greatest after AIE.

  19. A study on macronutrient self-selection after acute aerobic exercise in college females

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Min-Jeong; Cho, Ik-Rae; Won, Yu-Mi; Han, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Kon-Nym; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hee; Chin, Ji-Hyoung; Roh, Jae-Hun; Min, Seung-Hi; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Hyo-Joo; Jang, Kwon; Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kang, Suh-Jung; Shin, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hu-Nyun; Hong, Jae-Seung; Choi, Eun-Hi; An, Nam-Il; Kim, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Mi-Suk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine whether acute aerobic exercise (climbing) is associated with changes in the dietary intake pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Food intake and physical activity data for 15 female college students were sampled for 3 days and categorized according to routine activity or high-intensity activity such as hiking. Nutrient intake based on the data was analyzed using a nutrition program. [Results] Carbohydrate and protein intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before acute aerobic exercise, but lipid intake showed no significant difference. Calorie intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before exercise; however, calorie consumption was significantly increased after exercise. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise causes a decrease in total calories by inducing reduction in carbohydrate and protein intake. Therefore, aerobic exercise is very important for weight (body fat) control since it causes positive changes in the food intake pattern in female students. PMID:27799693

  20. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on free radical metabolism of liver in mice during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bing, Yan; Zhaobao, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Free Radical Metabolism of Liver in mice during endurance exercise. Forty-eight mice were divided into the quiet group and the exercised group. And the two groups were both grouped again, including the control group and the drug-treated group. After exhaustive exercise, the exercised groups were subdivided into the immediate group and the recovery group. The swimming time to exhaustion significantly prolonged in the exercised drug-treated group as compared with the exercised control group (P < 0.05); The SOD activity of drug-treated groups significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared with the control groups and MDA content was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The SOD activity and MDA content of exercised control groups significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared with the quiet control group. The SOD activity and MDA content of exercised drug-treated groups significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared with the quiet drug-treated group. The results indicated that Ginkgo biloba extract can obviously increase the body's endurance exercise capacity in mice and delay fatigue; Ginkgo biloba extract can help to increase the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in liver tissue, reduce the lipid peroxidation injury in liver tissue caused by free radicals, improve athletic ability, and promote the recovery process after exercise in mice.

  1. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    PubMed

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  2. Effects of High Intensity Training and Continuous Endurance Training on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Recreationally Active Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish

  3. Resistance VS aerobic exercise--is the later a better choice?

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Tapas; Adhikari, Prakash

    2006-03-01

    Pulse pressures of two groups of young (18-35 yrs) normotensive non smoker men were compared. One group used to do regular resistance exercise in gymnasium & anther group used to practice aerobic exercise (playing football basketball etc.) regularly. Duration of exercise for both the group was same. Higher pulse pressure was noted in the group taking strength training than that of the persons taking aerobic exercise. Higher pulse pressure is an indication of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. It promotes vascular damage and atherosclerosis. It seems that, practice of regular aerobic exercise is preferable for maintaining physical fitness, normal blood pressure and endothelial health.

  4. Endurance Exercise Selectively Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Arne; Sparling, Phillip B.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that examine the possibility that exercise selectively influences different types of cognition. To our knowledge, these experiments represent the first attempt to study higher-cognitive processes during exercise. Theoretical thinking was guided by the transient hypofrontality hypothesis. In both experiments, athletes…

  5. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  6. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    PubMed

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  7. Intermittent exercise alters endurance in an eight-legged ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R B; Full, R J

    1992-05-01

    Most animals move intermittently, yet many proposed performance limitations of terrestrial locomotion are based on steady-state measurements and assumptions. We examined the effect of work-rest transitions by exercising the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata (28.1 +/- 8.1 g), intermittently on a treadmill at 0.30 m/s, a supramaximal speed [i.e., greater than the speed that elicits the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)]. Duration of the exercise and pause periods, ratio of exercise to pause, and speed during the exercise period were varied to determine the effect on performance. Crabs fatigued after 7.5 min of continuous running, a distance capacity (i.e., total distance traveled before fatigue) of 135 m. When the task was done intermittently with 2-min exercise and 2-min pause periods, the crabs fatigued after 87 min (a total distance of 787 m), representing an 5.8-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same absolute speed (0.30 m/s) and a 2.2-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed (0.15 m/s). Pause periods less than 30 s did not result in greater distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed. Longer (3-5 min) and shorter exercise periods (less than or equal to 30 s) decreased distance capacity. Leg muscle lactate increased 10-fold to 15 mumol/g leg during intermittent exercise. However, significant amounts of lactate were cleared from the leg during the brief pause periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Increased atrial arrhythmia susceptibility induced by intense endurance exercise in mice requires TNFα

    PubMed Central

    Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh; Izaddoustdar, Farzad; Korogyi, Adam S.; Wang, Qiongling; Farman, Gerrie P.; Yang, FengHua; Yang, Wallace; Dorian, David; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Tuomi, Jari M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Cox, Brian; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Dorian, Paul; Backx, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia that, for unknown reasons, is linked to intense endurance exercise. Our studies reveal that 6 weeks of swimming or treadmill exercise improves heart pump function and reduces heart-rates. Exercise also increases vulnerability to AF in association with inflammation, fibrosis, increased vagal tone, slowed conduction velocity, prolonged cardiomyocyte action potentials and RyR2 phosphorylation (CamKII-dependent S2814) in the atria, without corresponding alterations in the ventricles. Microarray results suggest the involvement of the inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, in exercised-induced atrial remodelling. Accordingly, exercise induces TNFα-dependent activation of both NFκB and p38MAPK, while TNFα inhibition (with etanercept), TNFα gene ablation, or p38 inhibition, prevents atrial structural remodelling and AF vulnerability in response to exercise, without affecting the beneficial physiological changes. Our results identify TNFα as a key factor in the pathology of intense exercise-induced AF. PMID:25598495

  9. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  10. Recovery of damaged skeletal muscle in mdx mice through low-intensity endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Frinchi, M; Macaluso, F; Licciardi, A; Perciavalle, V; Coco, M; Belluardo, N; Morici, G; Mudò, G

    2014-01-01

    The lack of dystrophin in mdx mice leads to cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration processes. Various strategies have been proposed in order to reduce the muscle-wasting component of muscular dystrophy, including implementation of an exercise programme. The aim of this study was to examine how low-intensity endurance exercise affects the degeneration-regeneration process in dystrophic muscle of male mdx mice. Mice were subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise by running on a motorized Rota-Rod for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Histomorphological analysis showed a significant reduction of measured inflammatory-necrotic areas in both gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle of exercised mdx mice as compared to matched sedentary mdx mice. The degenerative-regenerative process was also evaluated by examining the protein levels of connexin 39 (Cx39), a specific gene expressed in injured muscles. Cx39 was not detected in sedentary wild type mice, whereas it was found markedly increased in sedentary mdx mice, revealing active muscle degeneration-regeneration process. These Cx39 protein levels were significantly reduced in muscles of mdx mice exercised for 30 and 40 days, revealing together with histomorphological analysis a strong reduction of degeneration process in mice subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise. Muscles of exercised mdx mice did not show significant changes in force and fatigue resistance as compared to sedentary mdx mice. Overall in this study we found that specific low-intensity endurance exercise induces a beneficial effect probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle.

  11. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes. PMID:27465721

  12. An acute bout of endurance exercise but not sprint interval exercise enhances insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Clippinger, Benjamin; Spinella, Thomas; von Duvillard, Serge P; Nindl, Bradley C; Nindl, Bradley; Arciero, Paul J

    2009-02-01

    An acute bout of endurance exercise (EE) enhances insulin sensitivity, but the effects of sprint interval exercise (SIE) have not yet been described. We sought to compare insulin sensitivity at baseline and after an acute bout of EE and SIE in healthy men (n = 8) and women (n = 5) (age, 20.7 +/- 0.3 years; peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), 42.6 +/- 1.7 mL.kg(-1).min(-1); <1.5 days.week(-1) structured exercise; body fat, 21.1 +/- 1.9%). Subjects underwent 3 oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT(s)) the day after each of the following 3 conditions: no exercise, baseline (OGTT(B)); SIE at approximately 125% VO(2 peak) (OGTT(SIE)); and EE at approximately 75% VO(2 peak )(OGTT(EE)). SIE and EE sessions were randomized for each subject. Subjects consumed identical meals the day preceding each OGTT. Two insulin sensitivity indices - composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index (ISI-COMP) and ISI-hepatic insulin sensitivity (HOMA) - were calculated, using previously validated formulas (ISI-COMP = 10 000/ radical(glucose(fasting)) x insulin(fasting) x glucose(mean OGTT) x insulin(mean OGTT)); ISI-HOMA = 22.5/(insulin(fasting) x glucose(fasting)), and the plasma concentrations of cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured. There were no differences by sex for any condition (men vs. women, p > 0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficients between ISI-COMP and ISI-HOMA for each condition were highly correlated (p < 0.01), and followed similar patterns of response. ISI-COMP(EE) was 71.4% higher than ISI-COMP(B) (8.4 +/- 1.4 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.0; p < 0.01) and 40.0% higher than ISI-COMPSIE (8.4 +/- 1.4 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5; p < 0.05), but there was no difference between ISI-COMP(B) and ISI-COMP(SIE) (p = 0.182). VO(2 peak) was highly correlated with both ISI-COMP and ISI-HOMA during baseline and SIE test conditions (p < 0.02). These findings demonstrate that an acute bout of EE, but not SIE, increases insulin sensitivity relative to a no-exercise control condition

  13. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations.

  14. Endurance Exercise: Normal Physiology and Limitations Imposed by Pathological Processes (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Walter R.; Adams, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    The physiologic and metabolic adjustments of the body to a single endurance exercise session are analyzed in terms of the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, and oxygen delivery to the muscles. Patients with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular diseases are compared to normal individuals. (Author/MT)

  15. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  16. Effects of G-trainer, cycle ergometry, and stretching on physiological and psychological recovery from endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    West, Amy D; Cooke, Matthew B; LaBounty, Paul M; Byars, Allyn G; Greenwood, Mike

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 treatment modes (Anti-Gravity Treadmill [G-trainer], stationary cycling [CompuTrainer], and static stretching) on the physiological and psychological recovery after an acute bout of exhaustive exercise. In a crossover design, 12 aerobically trained men (21.3 ± 2.3 years, 72.1 ± 8.1 kg, 178.4 ± 6.3 cm, (Equation is included in full-text article.): 53.7 ± 6.3 ml·kg·min) completed a 29-km stationary cycling time trial. Immediately after the time trial, subjects completed 30 minutes of G-trainer or CompuTrainer (40% (Equation is included in full-text article.)) or static stretching exercises. A significant time effect was detected for plasma lactate (p = 0.010) and serum cortisol (p = 0.039) after exercise. No treatment or treatment by time interaction was identified for lactate or cortisol, respectively. No main effects for time, treatment, or treatment by time interaction were identified for interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). No differences were observed among treatments in skeletal muscle peak power output, mean power output, time to peak power, and rate to fatigue at 24 hours postexercise bout. Finally, no significant changes in mood status were observed after exercise and between treatment groups. When compared with stationary cycling and static stretching, exercise recovery performed on the G-trainer was unable to reduce systemic markers of stress and inflammation, blood lactate, or improve anaerobic performance and psychological mood states after an exhaustive bout of endurance exercise. Further research is warranted that includes individualized recovery modalities to create balances between the stresses of training and competition.

  17. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  18. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivi...

  19. Combination of sago and soy-protein supplementation during endurance cycling exercise and subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar; Rahaman, A Abdul; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a combination of sago and soy protein ingested during moderate-intensity cycling exercise can improve subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity compared with a carbohydrate in the form of sago and with a placebo. The participants were 8 male recreational cyclists with age, weight, and VO2max of 21.5 +/- 1.1 yr, 63.3 +/- 2.4 kg, and 39.9 +/- 1.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively. The design of the study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover comprising 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% VO2max followed by a time-to-exhaustion ride at 90% VO2max. The sago feeding provided 60 g of carbohydrate, and the sago-soy combination provided 52.5 g of carbohydrate and 15 g of protein, both at 20-min intervals during exercise. Times to exhaustion for the placebo, sago, and sago-soy supplementations were 4.09 +/- 1.28, 5.49 +/- 1.20, and 7.53 +/- 2.02 min, respectively. Sago-soy supplementation increased endurance by 84% (44-140%; p < .001) and by 37% (15-63%; p < .05) relative to placebo and sago, respectively. The plasma insulin response was elevated above that with placebo during sago and sago-soy supplementations. The authors conclude that a combination of sago and soy protein can delay fatigue during high-intensity cycling.

  20. Is balance exercise training as effective as aerobic exercise training in fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Culhaoglu, Belde

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of aerobic and balance exercises on pain severity, myalgic score, quality of life, exercise capacity and balance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 33 females diagnosed with FMS by the American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited in this randomised controlled study and allocated to aerobic exercise (AE) or balance exercise (BE) groups. Exercises were performed three times a week, for 6 weeks on a treadmill or with a Tetrax interactive balance system (TIBS). Outcome measures were characterised by myalgic score, visual analogue scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exercise testing, Timed Up-Go (TUG) and TIBS measurements. Comparisons from baseline to 6 weeks were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated. Improvements in pain, myalgic score and FIQ were found in both groups (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, myalgic score was significant (p = 0.02, d = -1.77), the value was higher in AE. Exercise duration, Borg scale, resting blood pressures (RBP) and maximal heart rate were significant in AE. In BE, Borg scale, exercise duration was significant (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, diastolic RBP (p = 0.04, d = -0.92), exercise duration (p = 0.00, d = -1.64) were significant, with higher values in AE. TUG significantly changed in groups (p < 0.05, d ≥ -1.22). Stability scores, eyes open while standing on elastic pads (p = 0.00, d = -0.98) and head back (p = 0.03, d = -0.74), were significant, with higher values in BE. This study showed that BE provided some improvements in FMS, but AE training led to greater gains. BE training should be included in comprehensive programs. PMID:25903448

  1. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia. PMID:26581447

  2. CD36, but not GPR120, is required for efficient fatty acid utilization during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Mina; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) are an important energy source during exercise. In addition to its role as an energy supply for skeletal muscle, FA may activate signaling pathways that regulate gene expression. FA translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and G protein-coupled receptor GPR120 are long-chain FA receptors. In this study, we investigated the impact of CD36 or GPR120 deletion on energy metabolism during exercise. CD36 has been reported to facilitate cellular transport and oxidation of FA during endurance exercise. We show that CD36 deletion decreased exogenous FA oxidation during exercise, using a combination of (13)C-labeled FA oxidation measurement and indirect calorimetry. In contrast, GPR120 deletion had no observable effect on energy metabolism during exercise. Our results further substantiate that CD36-mediated FA transport plays an essential role in efficient FA oxidation during exercise. PMID:25070011

  3. Blood volume, heart rate, and left ventricular ejection fraction changes in dogs before and after exercise during endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Mackintosh, I.C.; Dormehl, I.C.; van Gelder, A.L.; du Plessis, M.

    1983-10-01

    In Beagles after 7 weeks' endurance training, resting blood volume increased by an average of 13.1%. Resting heart rates were not significantly affected, but heart rates measured 2 minutes after exercise were significantly lower after the endurance training than before. Left ventricular ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography from 2 minutes after exercise showed no significant changes in response to a single exercise period or over the 50 days' training.

  4. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-06-01

    Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and power compared with undertaking resistance training alone. This has been variously described as the interference effect or concurrent training effect. In recent years, understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating training adaptation in skeletal muscle has emerged and provided potential mechanistic insight into the concurrent training effect. Although it appears that various molecular signaling responses induced in skeletal muscle by endurance exercise can inhibit pathways regulating protein synthesis and stimulate protein breakdown, human studies to date have not observed such molecular 'interference' following acute concurrent exercise that might explain compromised muscle hypertrophy following concurrent training. However, given the multitude of potential concurrent training variables and the limitations of existing evidence, the potential roles of individual training variables in acute and chronic interference are not fully elucidated. The present review explores current evidence for the molecular basis of the specificity of training adaptation and the concurrent interference phenomenon. Additionally, insights provided by molecular and performance-based concurrent training studies regarding the role of individual training variables (i.e., within-session exercise order, between-mode recovery, endurance training volume, intensity, and modality) in the concurrent interference effect are discussed, along with the limitations of our current understanding of this complex paradigm.

  5. Regulation of the STARS signaling pathway in response to endurance and resistance exercise and training.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita A; Stefanetti, Renae J; Rahbek, Stine K; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2013-09-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) protein and members of its downstream signaling pathway, including myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and SRF, are increased in response to prolonged resistance exercise training but also following a single bout of endurance cycling. The aim of the present study was to measure and compare the regulation of STARS, MRTF-A and SRF mRNA and protein following 10 weeks of endurance training (ET) versus resistance training (RT), as well as before and following a single bout of endurance (EE) versus resistance exercise (RE). Following prolonged training, STARS, MRTF-A and SRF mRNA levels were all increased by similar magnitude, irrespective of training type. In the training-habituated state, STARS mRNA increased following a single-bout RE when measured 2.5 and 5 h post-exercise and had returned to resting level by 22 h following exercise. MRTF-A and SRF mRNA levels were decreased by 2.5, 5, and 22 h following a single bout of RE and EE exercise when compared to their respective basal levels, with no significant difference seen between the groups at any of the time points. No changes in protein levels were observed following the two modes of exercise training or a single bout of exercise. This study demonstrates that the stress signals elicited by ET and RT result in a comparable regulation of members of the STARS pathway. In contrast, a single bout of EE and RE, performed in the trained state, elicit different responses. These observations suggest that in the trained state, the acute regulation of the STARS pathway following EE or RE may be responsible for exercise-specific muscle adaptations.

  6. Hormonal responses to concurrent strength and endurance training with different exercise orders.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; dos Santos, Mariah Gonçalves; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Rodrigues Lhullier, Francisco L; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Silva, Rodrigo Ferrari; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the intrasession sequencing of concurrent strength and aerobic training on the acute testosterone (TT) and cortisol (COR) responses. Ten recreationally strength-trained young men (23.5 ± 0.9 years) performed 2 exercise interventions: aerobic-strength (AS) and strength-aerobic (SA), which consisted of 30 minutes of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at 75% of maximal heart rate and 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 75% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in 4 strength exercises. Maximal heart rate was determined using a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were collected before, between exercise modalities, and immediately after the concurrent training sessions to determine basal and acute total TT and COR concentrations. There were significant increases in TT after the first modality in both exercise orders (p < 0.05). However, the TT level remained significantly higher than the resting levels after the second exercise modality only in the AS (p < 0.05) which resulted in a significant higher relative total change after the complete concurrent training session compared with SA (p < 0.05). Regarding COR, there were significant increases after the first modality in both AS and SA orders (p < 0.05), but the COR returned to resting levels after the second modality in both AS and SA interventions. During AS and SA, the change observed after the first modality performance was greater than that after the second in both hormones. The present results suggest that the TT response is optimized after the AS order, whereas both AS and SA produced similar hormonal levels at all time points. However, it is important to state that the present results should be applied only when short duration and moderate intensity aerobic training is performed.

  7. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  8. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  9. Plasma glutamine responses to high-intensity exercise before and after endurance training.

    PubMed

    Kargotich, Stephen; Goodman, Carmél; Dawson, Brian; Morton, Alan R; Keast, David; Joske, David J L

    2005-01-01

    Glutamine responses to strenuous interval exercise were examined before and after 6 weeks of endurance training. Glutamine measures were obtained before and after the interval exercise sessions and training in untrained males assigned to training (T; n = 10) or control (C; n = 10) groups. Before training, C and T group glutamine progressively decreased (p < 0.05) by 18% and 16%, respectively, by 150-min postinterval exercise. Over the training period C group glutamine did not change, while T group values increased (p < 0.05) by 14%. After training, glutamine again decreased (p < 0.05) by similar percentages (C = 16% and T = 15%) by 150-min postinterval exercise, but the T group recorded higher (p < 0.05) resting and postexercise glutamine concentrations than the C group. Training induced increases in glutamine may prevent the decline in glutamine levels following strenuous exercise falling below a threshold where immune function might be acutely compromised. PMID:16440504

  10. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.

  11. Influence of endurance and resistance exercise order on the postexercise hemodynamic responses in hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Menêses, Annelise Lins; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; de Lima, Paulo Fernando Marinho; Batista, Rafael Marinho Falcão; Monteiro, Maria de Fátima; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-03-01

    The study aims to evaluate the effects of the order of endurance and resistance exercises on postexercise blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamics in hypertensive women. Nineteen hypertensive women underwent 3 sessions: control (50 minutes rest), endurance (50-60% of heart rate reserve) followed by resistance exercise (50% of 1 repetition maximum) (E + R), and resistance followed by endurance exercise (R + E). Before and 30 minutes after each session, BP, peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate were measured. Postexercise increases in systolic (E + R: +1 ± 3 mm Hg and R + E: +3 ± 3 mm Hg), diastolic (E + R: +3 ± 1 mm Hg and R + E: +3 ± 2 mm Hg), and mean BP (E + R: +3 ± 1 mm Hg and R + E: +3 ± 2 mm Hg) were significantly lower after the exercise sessions compared with the control session (p ≤ 0.05). The exercise sessions abolished the increases in peripheral vascular resistance (E + R: +0.00 ± 0.04 mm Hg·min·L and R + E: +0.05 ± 0.05 mm Hg·min·L) and the decreases in cardiac output (E + R: +0.04 ± 0.28 L·min and R + E: -0.26 ± 0.28 L·min) observed after the control session (p ≤ 0.05). After the exercise sessions, stroke volume decreased (E + R: -14 ± 3 ml and R + E: -9 ± 4 ml) and heart rate increased (E + R: +5 ± 1 b·min and R + E: +4 ± 1 b·min) in comparison with the control session (p ≤ 0.05). For all the variables, there were no significant differences between the exercise sessions. Regardless of the order of endurance and resistance exercises, combined exercise sessions abolished increases in BP observed in a control condition due to a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and increases in cardiac output. Thus, combined exercises should be prescribed to individuals with hypertension to control their BP, regardless of the order they are accomplished. PMID:25264665

  12. Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of aerobic exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Frank C; Viereck, Janika; Krüger, Karsten; Thum, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    Purpose microRNAs (miRs) are crucial intracellular mediators of various biological processes, also affecting the cardiovascular system. Recently, it has been shown that miRs circulate extracellularly in the bloodstream and that such circulating miRs change in response to physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate heart/muscle specific and inflammation related miRs in plasma of individuals before, directly after, and 24 h after a marathon run and to analyze their relation to conventional biochemical, cardiovascular, and performance indexes. Male endurance athletes (n =14) were recruited for the study after performing a battery of cardiac functional tests. Blood samples were collected before, directly after, and 24 h after a public marathon run. miR-1, miR-133, miR-206, miR-499, miR-208b, miR-21, and miR-155 were measured using individual Taqman assays and normalized to Caenorhabditis elegans miR-39 (cel-39) spike-in control. Moreover, soluble cardiac, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers were determined. As a result, skeletal- and heart muscle-specific miRs showed a significant increase after the marathon. The strongest increase was observed for miR-206. Twenty-four hours after the run, only miR-499 and miR-208b were returned to preexercise levels, whereas the others were still enhanced. In contrast, miR-21 and -155 were not affected by exercise. miR-1, -133a, and -206 correlated to aerobic performance parameters such as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and running speed at individual anaerobic lactate threshold (VIAS). miR-1 showed a moderate negative correlation with fractional shortening, whereas miR-133a was positively related to the thickness of intraventricular septum. None of the miRs correlated with cardiac injury markers such as troponin T, troponin I, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide. In conclusion, these findings suggest a potential role for muscle- and heart-specific miRs in cardiovascular adaptation processes

  13. Assessment of murine exercise endurance without the use of a shock grid: an alternative to forced exercise.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jennifer D; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Quinn, LeBris S

    2014-01-01

    Using laboratory mouse models, the molecular pathways responsible for the metabolic benefits of endurance exercise are beginning to be defined. The most common method for assessing exercise endurance in mice utilizes forced running on a motorized treadmill equipped with a shock grid. Animals who quit running are pushed by the moving treadmill belt onto a grid that delivers an electric foot shock; to escape the negative stimulus, the mice return to running on the belt. However, avoidance behavior and psychological stress due to use of a shock apparatus can interfere with quantitation of running endurance, as well as confound measurements of postexercise serum hormone and cytokine levels. Here, we demonstrate and validate a refined method to measure running endurance in naïve C57BL/6 laboratory mice on a motorized treadmill without utilizing a shock grid. When mice are preacclimated to the treadmill, they run voluntarily with gait speeds specific to each mouse. Use of the shock grid is replaced by gentle encouragement by a human operator using a tongue depressor, coupled with sensitivity to the voluntary willingness to run on the part of the mouse. Clear endpoints for quantifying running time-to-exhaustion for each mouse are defined and reflected in behavioral signs of exhaustion such as splayed posture and labored breathing. This method is a humane refinement which also decreases the confounding effects of stress on experimental parameters. PMID:25145813

  14. Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Conceição, Matheus; Cunha, Giovani; Radaelli, Régis; Bottaro, Martim; Trindade, Guilherme Treis; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different intra-session exercise sequences in the cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7±4.1years), were randomly placed into two concurrent training groups: strength training prior to (SE, n=13) or after (ES, n=13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training 3 times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. The peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), maximum aerobic workload (W(máx)), absolute (VT(1) and VT(2)) and relative (VT(1)% and VT(2)%) ventilatory thresholds, as well as workloads at VT(1) and VT(2) (W(VT1) and W(VT2)) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after the training. In addition, muscle quality (MQ) was evaluated by the quotient between maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test) of the knee extensors and the quadriceps femoris muscle thickness determined by ultrasonography. There were no modifications after training in the VT(1), VT(2), VT(1)%, and VT(2)%. There was significant increase in the W(VT1) only in SE (P<0.05), as well as significant increase in the W(VT2) in both groups (P<0.001). There was significant increase in the VO(2peak), with both groups showing increases (P<0.001), with no difference between groups; as well significant increase in the W(máx) (P<0.001) with no difference between SE and ES. The force per unit of muscle mass of knee extensors increased in both groups (P<0.001), but the increase was significantly higher in SE than in ES (27.5±12.7 vs. 15.2±10.3%, P<0.02). Hence, the intra-session exercise sequence had no influence in the maximal endurance power adaptations to concurrent training, but had influence in the magnitude of the muscle quality enhancements.

  15. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Tarek

    2015-06-01

    Menopause may increase risk of hypertension and abnormal lipid profile. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of morning and afternoon aerobic exercises on hypertension and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Forty five women aged from 49 to 60 years were randomly assigned into three groups. Group (A) 15 patients received medicine, (B) 15 patients performed morning aerobic exercises and received medicine, and group (C) 15 patients performed afternoon aerobic exercises and received medicine. Blood pressure measurement and lipid profile tests were performed before and after the study. The results showed that there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, favoring group C. Also there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in lipid levels, favoring group C. Therefore, it can be concluded that morning aerobic exercises were more effective in reducing the blood pressure and lipids than afternoon exercises in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:26171380

  17. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  18. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  19. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4–6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h−1and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = −0.56 and −0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest

  20. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  1. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Noakes, Timothy; Phinney, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    A key element contributing to deteriorating exercise capacity during physically demanding sport appears to be reduced carbohydrate availability coupled with an inability to effectively utilize alternative lipid fuel sources. Paradoxically, cognitive and physical decline associated with glycogen depletion occurs in the presence of an over-abundance of fuel stored as body fat that the athlete is apparently unable to access effectively. Current fuelling tactics that emphasize high-carbohydrate intakes before and during exercise inhibit fat utilization. The most efficient approach to accelerate the body's ability to oxidize fat is to lower dietary carbohydrate intake to a level that results in nutritional ketosis (i.e., circulating ketone levels >0.5 mmol/L) while increasing fat intake for a period of several weeks. The coordinated set of metabolic adaptations that ensures proper interorgan fuel supply in the face of low-carbohydrate availability is referred to as keto-adaptation. Beyond simply providing a stable source of fuel for the brain, the major circulating ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate, has recently been shown to act as a signalling molecule capable of altering gene expression, eliciting complementary effects of keto-adaptation that could extend human physical and mental performance beyond current expectation. In this paper, we review these new findings and propose that the shift to fatty acids and ketones as primary fuels when dietary carbohydrate is restricted could be of benefit for some athletes. PMID:25275931

  2. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Noakes, Timothy; Phinney, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    A key element contributing to deteriorating exercise capacity during physically demanding sport appears to be reduced carbohydrate availability coupled with an inability to effectively utilize alternative lipid fuel sources. Paradoxically, cognitive and physical decline associated with glycogen depletion occurs in the presence of an over-abundance of fuel stored as body fat that the athlete is apparently unable to access effectively. Current fuelling tactics that emphasize high-carbohydrate intakes before and during exercise inhibit fat utilization. The most efficient approach to accelerate the body's ability to oxidize fat is to lower dietary carbohydrate intake to a level that results in nutritional ketosis (i.e., circulating ketone levels >0.5 mmol/L) while increasing fat intake for a period of several weeks. The coordinated set of metabolic adaptations that ensures proper interorgan fuel supply in the face of low-carbohydrate availability is referred to as keto-adaptation. Beyond simply providing a stable source of fuel for the brain, the major circulating ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate, has recently been shown to act as a signalling molecule capable of altering gene expression, eliciting complementary effects of keto-adaptation that could extend human physical and mental performance beyond current expectation. In this paper, we review these new findings and propose that the shift to fatty acids and ketones as primary fuels when dietary carbohydrate is restricted could be of benefit for some athletes.

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  4. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  5. Effect of preceding resistance exercise on metabolism during subsequent aerobic session.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Rashti, Stefanie L; Tranchina, Christopher P; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Hoffman, Jay R

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the acute effect of prior resistance training of varying intensities on energy expenditure and substrate utilization during subsequent aerobic exercise. Eleven males and 21 females completed three experimental trials consisting of (1) aerobic exercise only (C), (2) aerobic exercise preceded by a high-intensity resistance training (HI), and (3) aerobic exercise preceded by a low-intensity resistance training (LO). Resistance training produced an equal volume between HI and LO and consisted of six exercises with each performed for three sets of eight repetitions at 90% of 8-RM in HI and three sets of 12 repetitions at 60% of 8-RM in LO. Aerobic exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO(2)peak for 20 min in all trials. Oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbohydrate and fat oxidation were determined throughout each aerobic exercise session. Fat oxidation rate was higher (P < 0.05) in HI than either LO or C in both males and females. VO2 was also higher (P < 0.05) in HI than either LO or C in females. In males, although between-trial differences in VO2 did not reach statistical significance, they were consistent with the trend seen in females. No differences in carbohydrate oxidation rates were observed across the three trials in either gender group. It appears that in training that combines both aerobic and resistance exercises, performing a comparatively higher intensity resistance exercise first would augment fat utilization and energy expenditure during subsequent aerobic exercise.

  6. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Karina; Campos, Gerson E R; Staron, Robert S; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks). The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-)LDLr(-/+)) were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed) and/or training (Ex) mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M). The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M) on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition) in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS) were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB) was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M) and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C) increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M) resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M) caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was even

  7. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Clinically, adult with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not been reported previously. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults people with ID can be influenced positively from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program, the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre-to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19089748

  8. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, adults with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not previously been reported. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults with ID can be positively influenced from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19479628

  9. Enhancement of exercise endurance capacity by fermented deer antler in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seongho; Park, Eu Ddeum; Suh, Hyung Joo; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Yooheon

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the activity of fermented deer antler on exercise endurance capacity, we evaluated endurance capacity in five-week-old male BALB/c mice by administering the fermented deer antler extract (FA) or the non-fermented deer antler extract (NFA) and then subjected the mice to exercise in the form of swimming. The mice administered 500 mg/kg/day of FA showed a significant increase in swimming time compared with mice administered placebo (16.55 min vs. 21.64 min, P<0.05). Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the marker of the liver and muscle damage, was significantly lower in FA groups. However, NFA groups did not show significantly different swimming time or serum LDH from that of the control group. Moreover, the FA-500 group had significantly higher hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after forced swimming than the control and NFA groups (P<0.05). These findings suggest that fermentation may increase the exercise endurance capacity of the deer antler. PMID:25273137

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Acute Endurance Exercise-Induced Translational Regulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Hiroaki; Yada, Koichi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Exercise dynamically changes skeletal muscle protein synthesis to respond and adapt to the external and internal stimuli. Many studies have focused on overall protein synthesis to understand how exercise regulates the muscular adaptation. However, despite the probability that each gene transcript may have its own unique translational characteristics and would be differentially regulated at translational level, little attention has been paid to how exercise affects translational regulation of individual genes at a genome-wide scale. Here, we conducted a genome-wide translational analysis using ribosome profiling to investigate the effect of a single bout of treadmill running (20 m/min for 60 min) on mouse gastrocnemius. Global translational profiles largely differed from those in transcription even at a basal resting condition as well as immediately after exercise. As for individual gene, Slc25a25 (Solute carrier family 25, member 25), localized in mitochondrial inner membrane and maintaining ATP homeostasis and endurance performance, showed significant up-regulation at translational level. However, multiple regression analysis suggests that Slc25a25 protein degradation may also have a role in mediating Slc25a25 protein abundance in the basal and early stages after acute endurance exercise. PMID:26845575

  11. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  12. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Roseann; Darby, Lynn A; Fullenkamp, Adam; Morgan, Amy L

    2015-09-01

    Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11) who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max) exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max) exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times) and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function) were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC) and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these effects were maintained 30 min post-exercise. These findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise, regardless of intensity, can improve performance on tests of executive function in older women. Key pointsFew studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on executive function in older womenExecutive function improved after 20-min of aerobic exercise regardless of exercise intensity in older womenFindings from the study were not confounded by prescribed medications; all participants who were older women were not taking any medications.

  13. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    PubMed

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  14. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise on serum leptin levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Kraemer, G R; Acevedo, E O; Hebert, E P; Temple, E; Bates, M; Etie, A; Haltom, R; Quinn, S; Castracane, V D

    1999-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that leptin concentrations in obese patients may be altered by weight loss. We examined the effects of a 9-week aerobic exercise program on serum leptin concentrations in overweight women (20-50% above ideal body mass) under conditions of weight stability. Sixteen overweight women, mean (SE) age 42.75 (1.64) years, comprised the exercise group which adhered to a supervised aerobic exercise program. A graded exercise treadmill test was conducted before and after the exercise program to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) using open-circuit spirometry. The women demonstrated improved aerobic fitness (VO2max increased 12.29%), however, body fat and the body mass index did not change significantly [42.27 (1.35)-41.87 (1.33)%]. Fourteen women, age 40.57 (2.80) years, did not exercise over the same time period and served as a control group. Serum leptin levels were not significantly altered for either the exercise [28.00 (2.13)-31.04 (2.71) ng x ml(-1)] or the control group [33.24 (3.78)-34.69 (3.14) ng x mg(-1)]. The data indicate that 9 weeks of aerobic exercise improves aerobic fitness, but does not affect leptin concentrations in overweight women.

  16. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  17. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  18. The effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal functions in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurdak, Hatice; Sandikci, Sunay; Ergen, Nilay; Dogan, Ayşe; Kurdak, Sanli Sadi

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a feared complication of diabetes since it can lead to end-stage renal failure and also it is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The important clinical problems caused by diabetic nephropathy are proteinuria and decreased renal function. Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management, along with diet and medication. Since acute exercise causes proteinuria and decreases glomerular filtration rate, the effect of exercise on diabetic nephropathy is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate in diabetic rats. Moderate diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg IV) in rats and an aerobic exercise- training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. Four groups of rats; control sedentary (CS), control exercise (CE), diabetic sedentary (DS) and diabetic exercise (DE) were included in the study. Blood glucose levels were determined from the plasma samples taken at the end of 4 weeks of stabilization period and 8 weeks of training program. Creatinine clearance (CCr) and microalbuminuria (MA) levels were determined to evaluate renal functions. The analyzed data revealed that regular aerobic exercise: 1) significantly decreased the plasma glucose level of the DE group compared to the DS group (p < 0.05), 2) significantly decreased the microalbuminuria level of the DE group compared to those of DS group (p < 0.01), 3) significantly decreased the creatinine clearance levels of the DE and CE groups compared to those of CS group (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that despite of decreasing creatinine clearance, regular submaximal aerobic exercise has a preventive effect on development of microalbuminuria and thus may retard nephropathy in diabetic rats. Key pointsRegular submaximal aerobic exercise can facilitate the control of blood glucose level in diabetic rats.Streptozotocin induced diabetes may cause microalbuminuria

  19. Standardized Boesenbergia pandurata Extract Stimulates Exercise Endurance Through Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoon; Kim, Mi-Bo; Kim, Changhee; Jung, Hoe-Yune; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of standardized Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr. (fingerroot) ethanol extract on exercise endurance was investigated in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells and C57BL/6J mice. Standardized B. pandurata ethanol extract (BPE) increased mitochondrial mass and stimulated the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) in vitro. BPE also elevated the mRNA expression of key factors of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which are activated by PGC-1α, such as estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). In animal models, both normal and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice treated with BPE ran much longer than their respective controls. In addition, BPE increased the protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), PGC-1α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), which are stimulated by exercise. These results indicate that B. pandurata could be a potential nutraceutical candidate for enhancing exercise endurance based on its mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise-mimicking effects. PMID:27331877

  20. Pre-exercise nutrition: the role of macronutrients, modified starches and supplements on metabolism and endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Bach, Christopher W; Baur, Daniel A

    2014-04-29

    Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and have generally been shown to enhance performance, despite increasing insulin levels and reducing fat oxidation. These metabolic effects may be attenuated by consuming low glycemic index carbohydrates and/or modified starches before exercise. High fat meals seem to have beneficial metabolic effects (e.g., increasing fat oxidation and possibly sparing muscle glycogen). However, these effects do not necessarily translate into enhanced performance. Relatively little research has examined the effects of a pre-exercise high protein meal on subsequent performance, but there is some evidence to suggest enhanced pre-exercise glycogen synthesis and benefits to metabolism during exercise. Finally, various supplements (i.e., caffeine and beetroot juice) also warrant possible inclusion into pre-race nutrition for endurance athletes. Ultimately, further research is needed to optimize pre-exercise nutritional strategies for endurance performance.

  1. Effects of High-Intensity Endurance Exercise on Epidermal Barriers against Microbial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Eda, Nobuhiko; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Satomi; Lee, Eunjae; Akama, Takao

    2013-01-01

    For athletes, preventing infectious disease on skin is important. Examination measurement of epidermal barriers could provide valuable information on the risk of skin infections. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity endurance exercise on epidermal barriers. Six healthy adult males (age; 22.3 ± 1.6 years) performed bicycle exercise at 75%HRmax for 60 min from 18:30 to 19:30. Skin surface samples were measured 18:30 (pre), 19:30 (post), 20:30 (60 min), and 21:30 (120 min). Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SIgA concentration at pre was significantly higher than at post, 60 min and 120 min (p < 0.05). HBD-2 concentration at post and 120 min was significantly higher than at pre (p < 0. 05). Moisture content of the stratum corneum was significantly higher at post than at pre, 60 min, and 120 min (p < 0.05). On the chest, moisture content of the stratum corneum was significantly lower at 120 min than at pre (p < 0.05). The number of staphylococci was significantly higher at post than at pre (p < 0.05), and tended to be higher at 60 min than at pre on the chest (p = 0. 08). High-intensity endurance exercise might depress the immune barrier and physical barrier and enhance the risk of skin infection. On the other hand, the biochemical barrier increases after exercise, and our findings suggest that this barrier might supplement the compromised function of other skin barriers. Key points The immune barrier and physical barrier might be depressed and the risk of skin infection might be enhanced by high-intensity endurance exercise. The biochemical barrier increases after high-intensity endurance exercise and might supplement the compromised function of other skin barriers. We recommend that athletes maintain their skin surface in good condition, for example, by showering immediately after sports activities and using moisturizers

  2. Effects of methionine restriction and endurance exercise on bones of ovariectomized rats: a study of histomorphometry, densitometry, and biomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Su, I-Hsiu; Lewis, Jack L; Chang, Ming-Shi; Hsu, Ar-Tyan; Perrone, Carmen E; Ables, Gene P

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MetR) and endurance exercise on bone quality under a condition of estrogen deficiency, female Sprague-Dawley rats (36-wk-old) were assigned to a sham surgery group or one of five ovariectomized groups subjected to interventions of no treatment (Ovx), endurance exercise (Exe), methionine restriction (MetR), methionine restriction plus endurance exercise (MetR + Exe), and estrogen treatment (Est). Rats in the exercise groups were subjected to a treadmill running regimen. MetR and control diets contained 0.172 and 0.86% methionine, respectively. After the 12-wk intervention, all animals were killed, and serum and bone tissues were collected for analyses. Compared with estrogen treatment, MetR diet and endurance exercise showed better or equivalent efficiency in reducing body weight gain caused by ovariectomy (P < 0.05). Whereas only the Est group showed evidence for reduced bone turnover compared with the Ovx group, MetR diet and/or endurance exercise demonstrated efficiencies in downregulating serum insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.05). Both the Exe and MetR groups showed higher femoral cortical and total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), but only the Exe and Est groups preserved cancellous bone volume and/or vBMD of distal femora (P < 0.05) compared with the Ovx group. After being normalized to body mass, femora of the MetR and MetR + Exe groups had relatively higher bending strength and dimension values followed by the Sham, Exe, and Est groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both MetR diet and endurance exercise improved cortical bone properties, but only endurance exercise preserved cancellous bone under estrogen deficiency.

  3. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  4. The effects of acute aerobic exercise on the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aerobic exercise on primary motor cortical excitability is a relevant area of interest for both motor learning and motor rehabilitation. Transient excitability changes that may follow an exercise session are a necessary precursor to more lasting neuroplastic changes. While the number of studies is limited, research suggests that a session of aerobic exercise can create an ideal environment for the early induction of plasticity. Potential mechanisms include the upregulation of neurotransmitter activity, altered cerebral metabolism and cortisol levels, and increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. While there is considerable evidence that chronic physical activity positively impacts brain health and function, studies examining cortical excitability changes and motor performance after a single session of exercise are lacking. Further research is required to determine the clinical utility and feasibility of aerobic exercise.

  5. Endurance exercise facilitates relearning of forelimb motor skill after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, Michelle; Attwood, Zachary; White, Nicole; Doré, Jules J E; Corbett, Dale

    2007-06-01

    Endurance exercise (i.e. running), by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other modulators of synaptic plasticity, improves attention and learning, both critical components of stroke rehabilitation. We hypothesized that, following middle cerebral artery occlusion in male Sprague-Dawley rats, endurance exercise would act synergistically with a challenging skilled forelimb task to facilitate motor recovery. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four rehabilitation conditions: no rehabilitation, running only, reach training only, and reach training preceded by running (run/reach training) for 5 weeks beginning 5 days after stroke. The behavioral outcome, morphological change and mRNA expression of proteins implicated in neuroplasticity (BDNF, synapsin I and microtubule-associated protein 2) were compared. Endurance exercise on a motorized running wheel, prior to reach training, enhanced recovery of skilled reaching ability but did not transfer to gross motor skills such as postural support (forelimb asymmetry test) and gait (ladder rung walking test). Microtubule-associated protein 2 staining density in the run/reach group was slightly enhanced in the contralateral motor cortex compared with the contralateral sensory and ipsilateral cingulate cortices, suggesting that running preceding reach training may have resulted in more dendritic branching within the motor cortex in this group. No significant differences in mRNA levels were detected among the training paradigms; however, there was a trend toward greater BDNF and synapsin I mRNA in the reaching groups. These findings suggest that exercise facilitates learning of subsequent challenging reaching tasks after stroke, which has the potential to optimize outcomes in patients with stroke. PMID:17553014

  6. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear.

  7. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  8. Physiological cardiac remodelling in response to endurance exercise training: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Georgina M; Waring, Cheryl D; Vicinanza, Carla; Torella, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training fosters the health and performance of the cardiovascular system, and represents nowadays a powerful tool for cardiovascular therapy. Exercise exerts its beneficial effects through reducing cardiovascular risk factors, and directly affecting the cellular and molecular remodelling of the heart. Traditionally, moderate endurance exercise training has been viewed to determine a balanced and revertible physiological growth, through cardiomyocyte hypertrophy accompanied by appropriate neoangiogenesis (the Athlete's Heart). These cellular adaptations are due to the activation of signalling pathways and in particular, the IGF-1/IGF-1R/Akt axis appears to have a major role. Recently, it has been shown that physical exercise determines cardiac growth also through new cardiomyocyte formation. Accordingly, burgeoning evidence indicates that exercise training activates circulating, as well as resident tissue-specific cardiac, stem/progenitor cells. Dissecting the mechanisms for stem/progenitor cell activation with exercise will be instrumental to devise new effective therapies, encompassing myocardial regeneration for a large spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21880653

  9. Role of central respiratory muscle fatigue in endurance exercise in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Marciniuk, D; McKim, D; Sanii, R; Younes, M

    1994-01-01

    The role of central respiratory muscle fatigue in determining endurance time (ET) of steady-state ergometry, ventilation (VE), and breathing pattern during exhaustive submaximal exercise is not known. Six normal subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer to exhaustion at 72-82% of maximal power output on three occasions. During the second test, inspiratory muscle load was reduced (approximately 50% of baseline load) for all but the last 3 min of exercise. ET was determined, and VE, tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (f), and sense of breathing effort (Borg scale) were assessed at different points during the assisted exercise and compared with the values obtained at the same time in identical tests without assist, carried out before and after the assisted test (different days). Borg scale rating was less and there was a nonsignificant trend for VT and VE to be higher and for f to be lower when the assist was in place than at the same time during the unassisted runs. In the last 3 min of exercise, when the respiratory load was comparable (assist removed) but ventilatory work history was different, there were no significant differences in sense of respiratory effort, VE, VT, or f between the experimental and control tests, and ET was also similar. We conclude that central respiratory muscle fatigue plays no role in determining ET, sense of respiratory effort, or breathing pattern in normal subjects during exhaustive submaximal exercise.

  10. Improvement in exercise endurance in patients with chronic airflow limitation using continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, D E; Sanii, R; Younes, M

    1988-12-01

    To cope with the increased ventilatory demands of exercise, patients with severe expiratory flow limitation adopt strategies that ultimately place greater demands on their inspiratory muscles. Increased inspiratory muscle work may contribute to dyspnea causation and exercise limitation in such patients even before their ventilatory ceiling is attained. In this setting, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) should, by favorably affecting inspiratory muscle function and respiratory sensation, improve exercise performance. Six patients with chronic airflow limitation (CAL) (FEV1 +/- SD = 35 +/- 12% predicted) undertook constant-load, submaximal, cycle exercise at 50% of their predetermined maximal oxygen consumption: CPAP of 4 to 5 cm H2O was delivered during one exercise session and bracketed by one or two unassisted control sessions. In four patients, CPAP-assisted (4 to 5 cm H2O) exercise was bracketed by two unassisted control exercise sessions; two remaining patients undertook CPAP-assisted exercise and one unassisted control session. CPAP resulted in a significant increase in exercise endurance time (TLIM) (by 48%: CPAP TLIM (mean +/- SE) = 8.82 +/- 1.90 min; averaged control TLIM = 5.98 +/- 1.23 min (p less than 0.01). CPAP effectively ameliorated exertional dyspnea in the majority of patients; selected dyspnea ratings (Borg scale) during control (final minute) and CPAP at isotime, at comparable levels of ventilation, were (mean +/- SD) 7.83 +/- 2.25 and 5.5 +/- 2.2, respectively (p less than 0.025). Breathing frequency fell significantly during CPAP application (at isotime) by 17% (p less than 0.02); other steady-state ventilatory variables and end-expiratory lung volumes were not significantly different during CPAP and control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Children and Aerobic Exercise: A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, M. Cay; Labbe, Elise E.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques 16 studies involving the cognitive and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise on children in both schools and clinical settings. Concludes that few studies concurrently measure physical and psychological changes that may accompany exercise in children and suggests methods for further investigation. (SW)

  12. Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

    2011-08-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes.

  13. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  14. Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…

  15. Illness, Injury, and Correlates of Aerobic Exercise and Walking: A Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A sample of Californians was surveyed to explore differences in aerobic exercise and walking behavior among healthy subjects and subjects with illness/injury serious enough to limit physical activity. Results indicate different patterns of determinants of exercise within various illness/injury groups. This implies interventions to increase…

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vanadium compounds are insulin like drugs which are accompanied with nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as their major side effects. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the role of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Group II received vanadyl sulphate (50 mg/kg/week; i.p.) for 6 weeks. Group III had combination of exercise and vanadyl sulphate therapy as groups 1 and 2. At the end of study, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for the tissues injury determination. Results: Vanadyl sulphate alone increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and kidney weight (KW) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P<0.05). These observations revealed nephrotoxicity induced by vanadyl sulphate, although exercise training did not attenuate these results. In addition, vanadyl sulphate alone induced liver tissue damage score and exercise training intensified it insignificantly, while the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase were greater in exercise alone group than others groups. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise could not attenuate vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings must be considered when vanadyl sulphate is suggested as insulin like drug. PMID:27689120

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vanadium compounds are insulin like drugs which are accompanied with nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as their major side effects. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the role of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Group II received vanadyl sulphate (50 mg/kg/week; i.p.) for 6 weeks. Group III had combination of exercise and vanadyl sulphate therapy as groups 1 and 2. At the end of study, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for the tissues injury determination. Results: Vanadyl sulphate alone increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and kidney weight (KW) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P<0.05). These observations revealed nephrotoxicity induced by vanadyl sulphate, although exercise training did not attenuate these results. In addition, vanadyl sulphate alone induced liver tissue damage score and exercise training intensified it insignificantly, while the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase were greater in exercise alone group than others groups. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise could not attenuate vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings must be considered when vanadyl sulphate is suggested as insulin like drug.

  18. Glutamine and carbohydrate supplements reduce ammonemia increase during endurance field exercise.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Alves, Robson Cardilo; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2007-12-01

    Blood ammonia concentration increases during endurance exercise and has been proposed as a cause for both peripheral and central fatigue. We examined the impact of glutamine and (or) carbohydrate supplementation on ammonemia in high-level runners. Fifteen men in pre-competitive training ran 120 min (approximately 34 km) outdoors on 4 occasions. On the first day, the 15 athletes ran without the use of supplements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. After that, each day for 4 d before the next 3 exercise trials, we supplemented the athletes' normal diets in bolus with carbohydrate (1 g.kg(-1).d(-1)), glutamine (70 mg.kg(-1).d(-1)), or a combination of both in a double-blind study. Blood ammonia level was determined before the run and every 30 min during the run. During the control trial ammonia increased progressively to approximately 70% above rest concentration. Following supplementation, independent of treatment, ammonia was not different (p>0.05) for the first 60 min, but for the second hour it was lower than in the control (p<0.05). Supplementation in high-level, endurance athletes reduced the accumulation of blood ammonia during prolonged, strenuous exercise in a field situation. PMID:18059593

  19. The effects of endurance exercise on dystrophic mdx mice. II. Contractile properties of skinned muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lynch, G S; Hayes, A; Lam, M H; Williams, D A

    1993-07-22

    Dystrophic (mdx) mice were subjected to a 15 week exercise programme consisting of endurance swimming. Single fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch) and soleus (SOL, mixed fast- and slow-twitch) muscles were attached to a sensitive force-recording apparatus, and activated in Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-buffered solutions. In addition to the normal well-defined fibre types in these muscles, a small number of fibres were also sampled from the soleus of both experimental groups, which were 'Intermediate' to the other two SOL fibre types. Type IIB fibres from the EDL and type IIA fibres from the soleus of the Swim group were significantly less sensitive to Ca2+ and Sr2+ compared with those fibres sampled from the sedentary (Sedent) group, suggesting that endurance exercise was able to modify Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated contractile characteristics. The swim-trained (Swim) group's increased incidence of SOL fibres with characteristics intermediate to those of the fast- and slow-twitch fibre types suggests a possible exercise-induced fibre type transformation as an adaptation to the functional demand. PMID:8396775

  20. Critical velocity, anaerobic distance capacity, maximal instantaneous velocity and aerobic inertia in sprint and endurance young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Wenzel, Bruno München; Piccin, Jeferson Steffanello; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Lopes, André Luiz; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio

    2010-09-01

    Critical velocity (CV), anaerobic distance capacity (ADC), maximal instantaneous velocity (V (max)), and aerobic inertia (tau) were calculated from two (CV(2par) and ADC(2par)), three (CV(3par), ADC(3par), and V (max 3par)), and four-parameter model data (CV(4par), ADC(4par), V (max 4par), and tau), which were obtained from six different times and distances (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,500 m) swum in front crawl stroke under maximal intensity. Fourteen swimmers (14-15-year-old; sprint and endurance groups, each group n = 7) volunteered in this study. CV values were not influenced by the groups. The model effects showed that CV(2par) was higher than CV(3par) and CV(4par) regardless of the group used. In addition, CV(3par) and CV(4par) were similar. ADC seems to be better estimated using both three- and four-parameter models. V (max) was higher in the sprint group regardless of the model used. The models effects showed that the V (max 4par) was higher than the V (max 3par) regardless of the group. Sprint and endurance groups showed similar tau values. The analysis of the models (F test, coefficient of determination R (2), and adjusted coefficient of determination R (adjusted) (2) ) showed that the three-parameter model was more appropriate among the applied models. Although the four-parameter model showed better correlation for the endurance group, the inclusion of tau (fourth parameter) did not significantly improve the quality of adjustment. However, it is important to emphasize the availability of another parameter for the study of bioenergetics in swimming and other sports.

  1. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  2. Effects of L-tyrosine and carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Chinevere, Troy D; Sawyer, Robert D; Creer, Andrew R; Conlee, Robert K; Parcell, Allen C

    2002-11-01

    To test the effects of tyrosine ingestion with or without carbohydrate supplementation on endurance performance, nine competitive cyclists cycled at 70% peak oxygen uptake for 90 min under four different feeding conditions followed immediately by a time trial. At 30-min intervals, beginning 60 min before exercise, each subject consumed either 5 ml/kg body wt of water sweetened with aspartame [placebo (Pla)], polydextrose (70 g/l) (CHO), L-tyrosine (25 mg/kg body wt) (Tyr), or polydextrose (70 g/l) and L-tyrosine (25 mg/kg body wt) (CHO+Tyr). The experimental trials were given in random order and were carried out by using a counterbalanced double-blind design. No differences were found between treatments for oxygen uptake, heart rate, or rating of perceived exertion at any time during the 90-min ride. Plasma tyrosine rose significantly from 60 min before exercise to test termination (TT) in Tyr (means +/- SE) (480 +/- 26 micromol) and CHO+Tyr (463 +/- 34 micromol) and was significantly higher in these groups from 30 min before exercise to TT vs. CHO (90 +/- 3 micromol) and Pla (111 +/- 7 micromol) (P < 0.05). Plasma free tryptophan was higher after 90 min of exercise, 15 min into the endurance time trial, and at TT in Tyr (10.1 +/- 0.9, 10.4 +/- 0.8, and 12.0 +/- 0.9 micromol, respectively) and Pla (9.7 +/- 0.5, 10.0 +/- 0.3, and 11.7 +/- 0.5 micromol, respectively) vs. CHO (7.8 +/- 0.5, 8.6 +/- 0.5, and 9.3 +/- 0.6 micromol, respectively) and CHO+Tyr (7.8 +/- 0.5, 8.5 +/- 0.5, 9.4 +/- 0.5 micromol, respectively) (P < 0.05). The plasma tyrosine-to-free tryptophan ratio was significantly higher in Tyr and CHO+Tyr vs. CHO and Pla from 30 min before exercise to TT (P < 0.05). CHO (27.1 +/- 0.9 min) and CHO+Tyr (26.1 +/- 1.1 min) treatments resulted in a reduced time to complete the endurance time trial compared with Pla (34.4 +/- 2.9 min) and Tyr (32.6 +/- 3.0 min) (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that tyrosine ingestion did not enhance performance during a

  3. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Intrahepatocellular and Intramyocellular Lipids in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Andrea; Kreis, Roland; Allemann, Sabin; Stettler, Christoph; Diem, Peter; Buehler, Tania; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipids are ectopic lipid stores. Aerobic exercise results in IMCL utilization in subjects over a broad range of exercise capacity. IMCL and IHCL have been related to impaired insulin action at the skeletal muscle and hepatic level, respectively. The acute effect of aerobic exercise on IHCL is unknown. Possible regulatory factors include exercise capacity, insulin sensitivity and fat availability subcutaneous and visceral fat mass). Aim To concomitantly investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on IHCL and IMCL in healthy subjects, using Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Methods Normal weight, healthy subjects were included. Visit 1 consisted of a determination of VO2max on a treadmill. Visit 2 comprised the assessment of hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity by a two-step hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. At Visit 3, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were assessed by whole body MRI, IHCL and IMCL before and after a 2-hours aerobic exercise (50% of VO2max) using 1H-MR-spectroscopy. Results Eighteen volunteers (12M, 6F) were enrolled in the study (age, 37.6±3.2 years, mean±SEM; VO2max, 53.4±2.9 mL/kg/min). Two hours aerobic exercise resulted in a significant decrease in IMCL (−22.6±3.3, % from baseline) and increase in IHCL (+34.9±7.6, % from baseline). There was no significant correlation between the exercise-induced changes in IMCL and IHCL and exercise capacity, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass and hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity. Conclusions IMCL and IHCL are flexible ectopic lipid stores that are acutely influenced by physical exercise, albeit in different directions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00491582 PMID:23967125

  4. The effects of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on food reward.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether an acute bout of calorie-matched aerobic and resistance exercise alters food reward in a similar manner. Thus, we examined the effects of isocaloric resistance and aerobic exercise sessions on acute food reward. Sixteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary control. The target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal/kg of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 12 repetition-maximum (equivalent to 70% of 1 repetition-maximum). A validated computer task assessed the wanting and liking for visual food cues following exercise, and following an ad libitum lunch. Decreases in the relative preference for high vs. low fat foods were noted following exercise compared to the control session, and this was independent of modality (aerobic: P = 0.04; resistance: P = 0.03). Furthermore, the explicit liking for high vs. low fat foods was lower following resistance exercise compared to the control session (P = 0.04). However, these changes in food reward were not correlated with changes in energy intake (EI) between sessions. Exercise, independent of modality, led to decreases in the relative preference for high fat relative to low fat foods. Additionally, decreases in the hedonic "liking" of high fat foods following resistance, but not aerobic, exercise may imply that modality does influence acute food hedonic responses. However, these decreases in food hedonics were not related to lower EI, thus suggesting that a dissociation may exist between food hedonics and actual EI.

  5. Aerobic exercise modulates intracortical inhibition and facilitation in a nonexercised upper limb muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Investigating the response to exercise in a non-exercised muscle may help to determine the clinical usefulness of lower-body exercise interventions for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Methods In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess input–output curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the extensor carpi radialis muscle in twelve healthy individuals following a single session of moderate stationary biking. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene would affect the response of these measures to exercise. Results We observed significant increases in ICF and decreases in SICI following exercise. No changes in LICI were detected, and no differences were observed in input–output curves following exercise, or between BDNF groups. Conclusions The current results demonstrate that the modulation of intracortical excitability following aerobic exercise is not limited to those muscles involved in the exercise, and that while exercise does not directly modulate the excitability of motor neurons, it may facilitate the induction of experience-dependent plasticity via a decrease in intracortical inhibition and increase in intracortical facilitation. These findings indicate that exercise may create favourable conditions for adaptive plasticity in M1 and may be an effective adjunct to

  6. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry KW; Lee, Edwin HM; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy LM; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia LW; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric YH

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  7. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong.

  8. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  9. Nonpreventive Role of Aerobic Exercise Against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Jalaledin; Zeynali, Farzaneh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Pezeshki, Zahra; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug and nephrotoxicity is a major concern for CP therapy. CP-induced nephrotoxicity is gender-dependent, and the effect of aerobic exercise in females has not been reported yet while it has a beneficial effect in males. Hence, this study was designed to determine the protective role of aerobic exercise against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Methods: Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II had aerobic exercise on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Then, the exercise protocol was continued for another week in group I and stopped in group II. All animals in these groups received CP (2.5 mg/kg/day; i.p.) for 1-week. Groups III and IV were treated with CP and vehicle, respectively, without exercise. Finally, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical measurements and tissue histopathology investigations. Results: CP alone without exercise increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS); while exercise could not attenuate these parameters in female rats. Exercise in females increased the serum levels of BUN and Cr and KTDS and weight loss (P < 0.05). Kidney nitrite levels reduce significantly in group I in compared to positive and negative control groups. Exercise also did not have beneficial effects on malondialdehyde levels in plasma and kidney. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise cannot reduce CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Increasing the damage in female rats may be related to female sex hormone estrogen or gender differences in renal hemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system activity in the presence of exercise. In general, it is recommended that the females under CP chemotherapy avoid exercising during treatment. PMID:26288702

  10. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. Design A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Patients Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 22). Methods Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60–70% heart rate reserve). Results The attendance rate was high (median 89%). None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT) most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group. Conclusion Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371 PMID:27419388

  11. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    PubMed

    Stothart, Cary R; Simons, Daniel J; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking) interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning) for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains). These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  12. L-Arginine but not L-glutamine likely increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Clarke, Jim; Green, Jackson G; Shi, Xiaocai

    2012-07-01

    The addition of L-arginine or L-glutamine to glucose-electrolyte solutions can increase intestinal water, glucose, and sodium absorption in rats and humans. We evaluated the utility of L-arginine and L-glutamine in energy-rehydration beverages through assessment of exogenous glucose oxidation and perceptions of exertion and gastrointestinal distress during endurance exercise. Eight cyclists rode 150 min at 50% of peak power on four occasions while ingesting solutions at a rate of 150 mL 15 min(-1) that contained (13)C-enriched glucose (266 mmol L(-1)) and sodium citrate ([Na(+)] 60 mmol L(-1)), and either: 4.25 mmol L(-1) L-arginine or 45 mmol L(-1) L-glutamine, and as controls glucose only or no glucose. Relative to glucose only, L-arginine invoked a likely 12% increase in exogenous glucose oxidation (90% confidence limits: ± 8%); however, the effect of L-glutamine was possibly trivial (4.5 ± 7.3%). L-Arginine also led to very likely small reductions in endogenous fat oxidation rate relative to glucose (12 ± 4%) and L-glutamine (14 ± 4%), and relative to no glucose, likely reductions in exercise oxygen consumption (2.6 ± 1.5%) and plasma lactate concentration (0.20 ± 0.16 mmol L(-1)). Effects on endogenous and total carbohydrate oxidation were inconsequential. Compared with glucose only, L-arginine and L-glutamine caused likely small-moderate effect size increases in perceptions of stomach fullness, abdominal cramp, exertion, and muscle tiredness during exercise. Addition of L-arginine to a glucose and electrolyte solution increases the oxidation of exogenous glucose and decreases the oxygen cost of exercise, although the mechanisms responsible and impact on endurance performance require further investigation. However, L-arginine also increases subjective feelings of gastrointestinal distress, which may attenuate its other benefits. PMID:22048324

  13. L-Arginine but not L-glutamine likely increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Clarke, Jim; Green, Jackson G; Shi, Xiaocai

    2012-07-01

    The addition of L-arginine or L-glutamine to glucose-electrolyte solutions can increase intestinal water, glucose, and sodium absorption in rats and humans. We evaluated the utility of L-arginine and L-glutamine in energy-rehydration beverages through assessment of exogenous glucose oxidation and perceptions of exertion and gastrointestinal distress during endurance exercise. Eight cyclists rode 150 min at 50% of peak power on four occasions while ingesting solutions at a rate of 150 mL 15 min(-1) that contained (13)C-enriched glucose (266 mmol L(-1)) and sodium citrate ([Na(+)] 60 mmol L(-1)), and either: 4.25 mmol L(-1) L-arginine or 45 mmol L(-1) L-glutamine, and as controls glucose only or no glucose. Relative to glucose only, L-arginine invoked a likely 12% increase in exogenous glucose oxidation (90% confidence limits: ± 8%); however, the effect of L-glutamine was possibly trivial (4.5 ± 7.3%). L-Arginine also led to very likely small reductions in endogenous fat oxidation rate relative to glucose (12 ± 4%) and L-glutamine (14 ± 4%), and relative to no glucose, likely reductions in exercise oxygen consumption (2.6 ± 1.5%) and plasma lactate concentration (0.20 ± 0.16 mmol L(-1)). Effects on endogenous and total carbohydrate oxidation were inconsequential. Compared with glucose only, L-arginine and L-glutamine caused likely small-moderate effect size increases in perceptions of stomach fullness, abdominal cramp, exertion, and muscle tiredness during exercise. Addition of L-arginine to a glucose and electrolyte solution increases the oxidation of exogenous glucose and decreases the oxygen cost of exercise, although the mechanisms responsible and impact on endurance performance require further investigation. However, L-arginine also increases subjective feelings of gastrointestinal distress, which may attenuate its other benefits.

  14. The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Eric E; Buckley, James G; Lewis, Stephanie L; Brandauer, Josef; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute oral dose of 3 mg·kg(-1) of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance, perceived exertion, mood, and cognitive function. Subjects (n = 18) ingested either R. rosea or a carbohydrate placebo 1 hour before testing in a double-blind, random crossover manner. Exercise testing consisted of a standardized 10-minute warm-up followed by a 6-mile time trial (TT) on a bicycle ergometer. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 minutes during the TT using a 10-point Borg scale. Blood lactate concentration, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase were measured before warm-up, 2 minutes after warm-up, and 2 minutes after TT (n = 15). A Profile of Mood States questionnaire and a Stroop Color Test were completed before warm-up and after TT. Testing was repeated 2-7 days later with the other condition. Rhodiola rosea ingestion significantly decreased heart rate during the standardized warm-up (R. rosea = 136 ± 17 b·min(-1); placebo = 140 ± 17 b·min(-1); mean ± SD; p = 0.001). Subjects completed the TT significantly faster after R. rosea ingestion (R. rosea = 25.4 ± 2.7 minutes; placebo = 25.8 ± 3.0 minutes; p = 0.037). The mean RPE was lower in the R. rosea trial (R. rosea = 6.0 ± 0.9; placebo = 6.6 ± 1.0; p = 0.04). This difference was even more pronounced when a ratio of the RPE relative to the workload was calculated (R. rosea = 0.048 ± 0.01; placebo = 0.057 ± 0.02; p = 0.007). No other statistically significant differences were observed. Acute R. rosea ingestion decreases heart rate response to submaximal exercise and appears to improve endurance exercise performance by decreasing the perception of effort.

  15. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.

  16. Cardiac autonomic responses at onset of exercise: effects of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    D'Agosto, T; Peçanha, T; Bartels, R; Moreira, D N; Silva, L P; Nóbrega, A C L; Lima, J R P

    2014-09-01

    Analyzes of cardiac autonomic responses at the initial transient of exercise have been used for the investigation of the cardiovascular health. We evaluated the influence of aerobic fitness on HR and HRV responses at the onset of exercise. 25 male subjects (22.3±2.4 years) were divided into 2 groups: 'low aerobic fitness' (36.2±2.6ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=10) and 'high aerobic fitness' (46.4±5.0ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=15). The experimental session consisted of assessing the beat-to-beat HR at rest and during submaximal exercise. The autonomic responses at the onset of exercise were calculated by fitting the HR and HRV (rMSSD-index) curves during the initial 300s of exercise into a first-order exponential equation. The time constant of HR and of the rMSSD index (τonHR and τonrMSSD) were calculated for analysis. We observed lower values of τonrMSSD in the high aerobic fitness group compared to the low aerobic fitness group (26.8±5s vs. 38.0±18s, respectively; p=0.02). The τonHR (42.0±15 vs. 49.3±26s, p=0.38) for the groups showed no difference. Aerobic fitness partially influenced the autonomic responses during exercise, since individuals with higher fitness showed faster decreases in beat-to-beat HRV at the onset of exercise.

  17. Sex-specific effects of habitual aerobic exercise on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Gary L; Eskurza, Iratxe; Walker, Ashley E; Fay, Tara N; Seals, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    Brachial artery FMD (flow-mediated dilation) is impaired with aging and is associated with an increased risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). In the present study, we determined whether regular aerobic exercise improves brachial artery FMD in MA/O (middle-aged/older) men and post-menopausal women. In sedentary MA/O adults (age, 55-79 years) without CVD, 8 weeks of brisk walking (6 days/week for approx. 50 min/day; randomized controlled design) increased treadmill time approx. 20% in both MA/O men (n=11) and post-menopausal women (n=15) (P<0.01), without altering body composition or circulating CVD risk factors. Brachial artery FMD increased >50% in the MA/O men (from 4.6±0.6 to 7.1±0.6%; P<0.01), but did not change in the post-menopausal women (5.1±0.8 compared with 5.4±0.7%; P=0.50). No changes occurred in the non-exercising controls. In a separate cross-sectional study (n=167), brachial artery FMD was approx. 50% greater in endurance-exercise-trained (6.4±0.4%; n=45) compared with sedentary (4.3±0.3%; n=60) MA/O men (P<0.001), whereas there were no differences between endurance-trained (5.3±0.7%, n=20) and sedentary (5.6±0.5%, n=42) post-menopausal women (P=0.70). Brachial artery lumen diameter, peak hyperaemic shear rate and endothelium-independent dilation did not differ with exercise intervention or in the endurance exercise compared with sedentary groups. In conclusion, regular aerobic exercise is consistently associated with enhanced brachial artery FMD in MA/O men, but not in post-menopausal women. Some post-menopausal women without CVD may be less responsive to habitual aerobic exercise than MA/O men.

  18. p300 is not required for metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, Samuel A; Migdal, Christopher W; Buckner, Elisa H; Okuno, Hiroshi; Gertsman, Ilya; Stocks, Ben; Barshop, Bruce A; Nalbandian, Sarah R; Philp, Andrew; McCurdy, Carrie E; Schenk, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The acetyltransferase, E1a-binding protein (p300), is proposed to regulate various aspects of skeletal muscle development, metabolism, and mitochondrial function,viaits interaction with numerous transcriptional regulators and other proteins. Remarkably, however, the contribution of p300 to skeletal muscle function and metabolism,in vivo, is poorly understood. To address this, we used Cre-LoxP methodology to generate mice with skeletal muscle-specific knockout of E1a-binding protein (mKO). mKO mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type/floxed littermates, with no differences in lean mass, skeletal muscle structure, fiber type, respirometry flux, or metabolites of fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.Ex vivomuscle function in extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles, including peak stress and time to fatigue, as well asin vivorunning capacity were also comparable. Moreover, expected adaptations to a 20 d voluntary wheel running regime were not compromised in mKO mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that p300 is not required for the normal development or functioning of adult skeletal muscle, nor is it required for endurance exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations.-LaBarge, S. A., Migdal, C. W., Buckner, E. H., Okuno, H., Gertsman, I., Stocks, B., Barshop, B. A., Nalbandian, S. R., Philp, A., McCurdy, C. E., Schenk, S. p300 is not required for metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise training.

  19. Hibernating squirrel muscle activates the endurance exercise pathway despite prolonged immobilization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; MacDonald, Elizabeth M; Leinwand, Leslie A; Merriman, Dana K; Fink, Rainer H A; Cohn, Ronald D

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a very common clinical challenge in many disuse conditions. Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to combat debilitating functional consequences evoked from these clinical conditions. In contrast, hibernation represents a physiological state in which there is natural protection against disuse atrophy despite prolonged periods of immobilization and lack of nutrient intake. Even though peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) is a central mediator in muscle remodeling pathways, its role in the preservation of skeletal muscle mass during hibernation remains unclear. Since PGC-1α regulates muscle fiber type formation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we analyzed muscles of 13-lined ground squirrels. We find that animals in torpor exhibit a shift to slow-twitch Type I muscle fibers. This switch is accompanied by activation of the PGC-1α-mediated endurance exercise pathway. In addition, we observe increased antioxidant capacity without evidence of oxidative stress, a marked decline in apoptotic susceptibility, and enhanced mitochondrial abundance and metabolism. These results show that activation of the endurance exercise pathway can be achieved in vivo despite prolonged periods of immobilization, and therefore might be an important mechanism for skeletal muscle preservation during hibernation. This PGC-1α regulated pathway may be a potential therapeutic target promoting skeletal muscle homeostasis and oxidative balance to prevent muscle loss in a variety of inherited and acquired neuromuscular disease conditions.

  20. Mental Aerobics: Exercises for the Mind in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paggi, Kay; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reports observations of the use of mental aerobics with 48 adults whose median age was 70. Provides examples of the group puzzles and logic, math, and word problems used to enhance cognitive functioning and creative thinking. (SK)

  1. Aerobic exercise improves microvascular dysfunction in fructose fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Boa, B C S; Costa, R R; Souza, M G C; Cyrino, F Z G A; Paes, L S; Miranda, M L; Carvalho, J J; Bouskela, E

    2014-05-01

    Fructose is a major diet component directly related to severe damages to the microcirculation and to diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension to which physical activity is pointed out as an important non-pharmacological treatment since its positive effects precede anthropometric improvements. In this study we have investigated the effects of a light/moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on microcirculatory dysfunction elicited by carbohydrate overload during a period of 5 months. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) whose drinking water was substituted (F) or not (C) by 10% fructose solution, during 20 weeks, associated or not to AET in the last 4 weeks (EC and EF subgroups) had their microcirculatory function evaluated on the cheek pouch preparation, glucose and insulin tolerance (GTT and ITT) tested. Arterial blood was collected for pO2, pCO2, HCO3(-), pH, total CO2, saturated O2 and lactate determinations. Liver fragments were observed using an electron microscope. Microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine [Ach, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator; 10(-8)M - *123.3±7.5% (C), 119.5±1.3% (EC), *98.1±3.2% (F) and 133.6±17.2% (EF); 10(-6)M - *133.0±4.1% (C), 135.6±4.3% (EC), *103.4±4.3% (F) and 134.1±5.9% (EF); 10(-4)M - *167.2±5.0% (C), 162.8±5.4% (EC), *123.8±6.3% (F) and 140.8±5.0% (EF)] and to sodium nitroprusside [SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator; 10(-8)M - 118.8±6.8% (C), 114.0±5.0% (EC), 100.2±2.9% (F), 104.9±4.4% (EF); 10(-6)M - 140.6±11.7% (C), 141.7±5.5% (EC), 125.0±4.7% (F), 138.3±2.8% (EF); 10(-4)M - 150.4±10.9% (C), 147.9±6.5% (EC), 139.2±7.3% (F), 155.9±4.7% (EF)] and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 min ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) procedure [14.4±3.5 (C), 30.0±1.9 (EC), *112.0±8.8 (F) and *22.4±0.9 leaks/cm(2) (EF)] have shown that endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was significantly reduced and I/R induced macromolecular permeability augmented in sedentary fructose (F

  2. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, p<0.05). The combination of caffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. PMID:24726708

  3. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, p<0.05). The combination of caffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain.

  4. Hip and knee muscle function following aerobic exercise in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ott, Brittany; Cosby, Nicole L; Grindstaff, Terry L; Hart, Joseph M

    2011-08-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a commonly experienced knee disorder that can result in altered muscle activation of the surrounding musculature. There is little evidence on effects of aerobic exercise on quadriceps torque and EMG activation of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and gluteus medius (GM). In this study 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with PFPS had measures of torque and muscle activation taken following aerobic exercise. A modified Balke-Ware protocol was used for the exercise intervention. Baseline and post-aerobic measurements of knee extension torque and VMO, VL, and GM activation during a single leg anterior reaching task. These measurements were only taken on the injured limb. Following exercise, knee extension torque was lower in PFPS patients when compared to controls (p=0.03). Patients reporting no pain after exercise experienced decreases (p=0.021) in GM activation following exercise. There was a decrease in VMO (p=0.010) and VL (p=0.021) activation in PFPS patients with elevated knee pain. Recreationally active individuals with PFPS may experience different responses in the quadriceps and GM after exercise. Responses may be confounded by whether or not pain is exacerbated by exercise.

  5. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease. PMID:26463598

  6. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms. PMID:24911173

  7. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  8. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  9. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-01

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  10. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between 4-AIT, CME, and 1-AIT. Total EPOC was highest after 4-AIT. These data suggest that exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome.

  11. Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism during aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan M; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Ruano-Ruíz, Juan A; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Túnez-Fiñana, Isaac; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic response when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose is unclear. In the present study, we administered two beverages containing GluF (glucose+fructose) or Glu (glucose alone) in a randomized cross-over design to 20 healthy aerobically trained volunteers to compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase. After ingesting the beverages and a 15-min resting period, volunteers performed 30 min of moderate aerobic exercise. Urinary and blood samples were taken at baseline (t(-15)), during the exercise (t(0), t(15) and t(30)) and during the recovery phase (t(45), t(75) and t(105)). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher halfway through the exercise period and during acute recuperation (t(15) and t(75); P<0.05) following ingestion of GluF than after Glu alone, without any differences between the effects of either intervention on plasma glucose concentrations. Towards the end of the exercise period, urinary catecholamine concentrations were lower following GluF (t(45); P<0.05). Plasma triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations were higher after the ingestion of GluF compared with Glu (t(15), t(30), t(45) and t(105); P<0.05). Furthermore, with GluF, we observed higher levels of lipoperoxides (t(15), t(30), t(45) and t(105); P<0.05) and oxidized LDL (low-density lipoprotein; t(30); P<0.05) compared with after the ingestion of Glu alone. In conclusion, hormonal and lipid alterations are provoked during aerobic exercise and recovery by the addition of a dose of fructose to the pre-exercise ingestion of glucose.

  12. Assessment of Aerobic Endurance: A Comparison between CD-ROM and Laboratory-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Margaret; Sharp, Bob; de Vito, Giuseppe; Nimmo, Myra A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a CD-ROM version of a basic course in exercise physiology that was developed in the United Kingdom to overcome problems of staff time, expense, ethical considerations, and large student numbers. Compares it to a traditional course and concludes that adding more active learning approaches to the CD-ROM would enhance student learning. (LRW)

  13. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  15. Effects of respiratory muscle training versus placebo on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Sonetti, D A; Wetter, T J; Pegelow, D F; Dempsey, J A

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of a 5 week (25 sessions); (30-35 min/day, 5 days/week), respiratory muscle training (RMT) program in nine competitive male cyclists. The experimental design included inspiratory resistance strength training (3-5 min/session) and hyperpnea endurance training (30 min/session), a placebo group which used a sham hypoxic trainer (n=8), and three exercise performance tests, including a highly reproducible 8 km time trial test. RMT intensity, measured once a week in terms of accumulated inspiratory pressure and the level of sustainable hyperpnea increased significantly after 5 weeks (+64% and +19%, respectively). The RMT group showed a significant 8% increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (P<0.05) while the placebo group showed only a 3.7% increase (P>0.10). RMT and placebo groups both showed significant increases in the fixed work-rate endurance test performance time (+26% and +16%, respectively) and in the peak work-rate achieved during the incremental maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2)max) test (+9 and +6%). The 8 km time trial performance increased 1.8+/-1.2% (or 15+/-10 sec; P<0.01) in the RMT group with 8 of 9 subjects increasing; the placebo group showed a variable non-significant change in 5 of 8 subjects (-0.3+/-2.7%, P=0.07). The changes observed in these three performance tests were not, however, significantly different between the RMT and placebo groups. Heart rate, ventilation, or venous blood lactate, at equal work-rates during the incremental exercise test or at equal times during the fixed work-rate endurance test were not changed significantly across these exercise trials in either group. We propose that the effect of RMT on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists does not exceed that in a placebo group. Significant placebo and test familiarization effects must be accounted for in experimental designs utilizing performance tests which are critically dependent on volitional effort.

  16. Femoral artery remodeling after aerobic exercise training without weight loss in women

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Manning J; Schwark, Earl H; Lewis, Richard; Sloan, Gloria; Cannon, Joseph; McCully, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background It is currently unclear whether reductions in adiposity mediate the improvements in vascular health that occur with aerobic exercise. The purpose of this longitudinal study of 13 healthy women (33 ± 4 years old) was to determine whether 14 weeks of aerobic exercise would alter functional measures of vascular health, namely resting aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, an index of arterial stiffness), femoral artery diameter (DFA), and femoral artery blood flow (BFFA) independent of changes in adiposity. Methods Aerobic fitness was assessed as VO2peak normalized to fat-free mass, and adiposity (percent body fat) was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of proteins associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and leptin, were also measured. Subjects cycled for 50 minutes, 3 times per week. Results Aerobic fitness normalized to fat-free mass increased 6% (P = 0.03) whereas adiposity did not change. Resting DFA increased 12% (P < 0.001) and resting shear rate decreased 28% (P = 0.007). Aortic PWV, and serum sICAM-1, CRP and leptin did not change with training. Conclusion Significant reductions in adiposity were not necessary for aerobic exercise training to bring about improvements in aerobic fitness and arterial remodeling. Peripheral arterial remodeling occurred without changes in central arterial stiffness or markers of inflammation. PMID:18775082

  17. Aerobic Exercise for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Hai-Feng; Yang, Tao; Yu, Si-Xun; Huang, Hai-Dong; Jiang, Ling-Li; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background Although some trials assessed the effectiveness of aerobic exercise for Parkinson's disease (PD), the role of aerobic exercise in the management of PD remained controversial. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence about whether aerobic exercise is effective for PD. Methods Seven electronic databases, up to December 2013, were searched to identify relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality based on PEDro scale. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of random-effects model were calculated. And heterogeneity was assessed based on the I2 statistic. Results 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 901 patients were eligible. The aggregated results suggested that aerobic exercise should show superior effects in improving motor actions (SMD, −0.57; 95% CI −0.94 to −0.19; p = 0.003), balance (SMD, 2.02; 95% CI 0.45 to 3.59; p = 0.01), and gait (SMD, 0.33; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.49; p<0.0001) in patients with PD, but not in quality of life (SMD, 0.11; 95% CI −0.23 to 0.46; p = 0.52). And there was no valid evidence on follow-up effects of aerobic exercise for PD. Conclusion Aerobic exercise showed immediate beneficial effects in improving motor action, balance, and gait in patients with PD. However, given no evidence on follow-up effects, large-scale RCTs with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings. PMID:24983753

  18. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youths

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English were included published in the last 15 years. It was selected from 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measured with HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting at least 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, and they were published between the years of 2002-2011. The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 males and 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 years except one study, in which the age range was 13-30 years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia, Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt and France. Four studies were aerobic-based, four were combined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and one compared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Available studies had insufficient evidence that any type of exercise or combined training would clearly improve the glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Only three (two aerobic-based and one combined) studies could provide a significant positive change in glycemic control. CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise has several other valuable physiological and health benefits that justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatric diabetes treatment and care. PMID:25897363

  19. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  20. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  1. Energetics of endurance exercise in young horses determined by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Luck, Margaux M; Le Moyec, Laurence; Barrey, Eric; Triba, Mohamed N; Bouchemal, Nadia; Savarin, Philippe; Robert, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Long-term endurance exercise severely affects metabolism in both human and animal athletes resulting in serious risk of metabolic disorders during or after competition. Young horses (up to 6 years old) can compete in races up to 90 km despite limited scientific knowledge of energetic metabolism responses to long distance exercise in these animals. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong effect of endurance exercise on the metabolomic profiles of young horses and that the energetic metabolism response in young horses would be different from that of more experienced horses. Metabolomic profiling is a powerful method that combines Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry with supervised Orthogonal Projection on Latent Structure (OPLS) statistical analysis. (1)H-NMR spectra were obtained from plasma samples drawn from young horses (before and after competition). The spectra obtained before and after the race from the same horse (92 samples) were compared using OPLS. The statistical parameters showed the robustness of the model (R2Y = 0.947, Q2Y = 0.856 and cros-validated ANOVA p < 0.001). For confirmation of the predictive value of the model, a test set of 104 sample spectra were projected by the model, which provided perfect predictions as the area under the receiving-operator curve was 1. The metabolomic profile determined with the OPLS model showed that glycemia after the race was lower than glycemia before the race, despite the involvement of lipid and protein catabolism. An OPLS model was calculated to compare spectra obtained on plasma taken after the race from 6-year-old horses and from experienced horses (cross-validated ANOVA p < 0.001). The comparison of metabolomic profiles in young horses to those from experienced horses showed that experienced horses maintained their glycemia with higher levels of lactate and a decrease of plasma lipids after the race. PMID:26347654

  2. Endurance capacity and high-intensity exercise performance responses to a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jesse; Sharman, Matthew J; Avery, Neva G; Love, Dawn M; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-12-01

    The effects of adaptation to a high-fat diet on endurance performance are equivocal, and there is little data regarding the effects on high-intensity exercise performance. This study examined the effects of a high-fat/moderate protein diet on submaximal, maximal, and supramaximal performance. Twenty non-highly trained men were assigned to either a high-fat/moderate protein (HFMP; 61% fat diet) (n = 12) or a control (C; 25% fat) group (n = 8). A maximal oxygen consumption test, two 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests, and a 45-min timed ride were performed before and after 6 weeks of diet and training. Body mass decreased significantly (-2.2 kg; p < or = .05) in HFMP subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption significantly decreased in the HFMP group (3.5 +/- 0.14 to 3.27 +/- 0.09 L x min(-1)) but was unaffected when corrected for body mass. Perceived exertion was significantly higher during this test in the HFMP group. Main time effects indicated that peak and mean power decreased significantly during bout 1 of the Wingate sprints in the HFMP (-10 and -20%, respectively) group but not the C (-8 and -16%, respectively) group. Only peak power was lower during bout 1 in the HFMP group when corrected for body mass. Despite significantly reduced RER values in the HFMP group during the 45-min cycling bout, work output was significantly decreased (-18%). Adaptation to a 6-week HFMP diet in non-highly trained men resulted in increased fat oxidation during exercise and small decrements in peak power output and endurance performance. These deleterious effects on exercise performance may be accounted for in part by a reduction in body mass and/or increased ratings of perceived exertion.

  3. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  4. Energetics of endurance exercise in young horses determined by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Margaux M.; Le Moyec, Laurence; Barrey, Eric; Triba, Mohamed N.; Bouchemal, Nadia; Savarin, Philippe; Robert, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Long-term endurance exercise severely affects metabolism in both human and animal athletes resulting in serious risk of metabolic disorders during or after competition. Young horses (up to 6 years old) can compete in races up to 90 km despite limited scientific knowledge of energetic metabolism responses to long distance exercise in these animals. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong effect of endurance exercise on the metabolomic profiles of young horses and that the energetic metabolism response in young horses would be different from that of more experienced horses. Metabolomic profiling is a powerful method that combines Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry with supervised Orthogonal Projection on Latent Structure (OPLS) statistical analysis. 1H-NMR spectra were obtained from plasma samples drawn from young horses (before and after competition). The spectra obtained before and after the race from the same horse (92 samples) were compared using OPLS. The statistical parameters showed the robustness of the model (R2Y = 0.947, Q2Y = 0.856 and cros-validated ANOVA p < 0.001). For confirmation of the predictive value of the model, a test set of 104 sample spectra were projected by the model, which provided perfect predictions as the area under the receiving-operator curve was 1. The metabolomic profile determined with the OPLS model showed that glycemia after the race was lower than glycemia before the race, despite the involvement of lipid and protein catabolism. An OPLS model was calculated to compare spectra obtained on plasma taken after the race from 6-year-old horses and from experienced horses (cross-validated ANOVA p < 0.001). The comparison of metabolomic profiles in young horses to those from experienced horses showed that experienced horses maintained their glycemia with higher levels of lactate and a decrease of plasma lipids after the race. PMID:26347654

  5. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Lepers, Romuald; Marcora, Samuele M.

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE) protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output) three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s (P20) and 40 s (P40) post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS) for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001). MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05) and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05). High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion. PMID:27706196

  6. Post-exercise hot water immersion induces heat acclimation and improves endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Zurawlew, M J; Walsh, N P; Fortes, M B; Potter, C

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether daily hot water immersion (HWI) after exercise in temperate conditions induces heat acclimation and improves endurance performance in temperate and hot conditions. Seventeen non-heat-acclimatized males performed a 6-day intervention involving a daily treadmill run for 40 min at 65% V̇O2max in temperate conditions (18 °C) followed immediately by either HWI (N = 10; 40 °C) or thermoneutral (CON, N = 7; 34 °C) immersion for 40 min. Before and after the 6-day intervention, participants performed a treadmill run for 40 min at 65% V̇O2max followed by a 5-km treadmill time trial (TT) in temperate (18 °C, 40% humidity) and hot (33 °C, 40% humidity) conditions. HWI induced heat acclimation demonstrated by lower resting rectal temperature (Tre , mean, -0.27 °C, P < 0.01), and final Tre during submaximal exercise in 18 °C (-0.28 °C, P < 0.01) and 33 °C (-0.36 °C, P < 0.01). Skin temperature, Tre at sweating onset and RPE were lower during submaximal exercise in 18 °C and 33 °C after 6 days in HWI (P < 0.05). Physiological strain and thermal sensation were also lower during submaximal exercise in 33 °C after 6 days in HWI (P < 0.05). HWI improved TT performance in 33 °C (4.9%, P < 0.01) but not in 18 °C. Thermoregulatory measures and performance did not change in CON. Hot water immersion after exercise on 6 days presents a simple, practical, and effective heat acclimation strategy to improve endurance performance in the heat.

  7. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  8. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; de Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms) and errors (n) were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (p<0.001). The number of errors made at the exercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011). Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ) of the exercise session and age (r 2=0.404, p=0.003). Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges. PMID:26564328

  9. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  10. Altered ventriculo-arterial coupling during exercise in athletes releasing biomarkers after endurance running.

    PubMed

    Sahlén, Anders; Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Aagaard, Philip; Manouras, Aristomenis; Winter, Reidar; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2012-12-01

    Exercise can lead to release of biomarkers such as cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a poorly understood phenomenon proposed to especially occur with high-intensity exercise in less trained subjects. We hypothesised that haemodynamic perturbations during exercise are larger in athletes with cTnT release, and studied athletes with detectable cTnT levels after an endurance event (HIGH; n = 16; 46 ± 9 years) against matched controls whose levels were undetectable (LOW; n = 11; 44 ± 7 years). Echocardiography was performed at rest and at peak supine bicycle exercise stress. Left ventricular (LV) end-systolic elastance (E (LV) a load-independent measure of LV contractility), effective arterial elastance (E (A) a lumped index of arterial load) and end-systolic meridional wall stress were calculated from cardiac dimensions and brachial blood pressure. Efficiency of cardiac work was judged from the ventriculo-arterial coupling ratio (E (A)/E (LV): optimal range 0.5-1.0). While subgroups had similar values at rest, we found ventriculo-arterial mismatch during exercise in HIGH subjects [0.47 (0.39-0.58) vs. LOW: 0.73 (0.62-0.83); p < 0.01] due to unopposed increase in E (LV) (p < 0.05). In LOW subjects, a greater increase occurred in E (A) during exercise (+81 ± 67 % vs. HIGH: +39 ± 32 %; p = 0.02) which contributed to a maintained coupling ratio. Subjects with higher baseline NT-proBNP had greater systolic wall stress during exercise (R (2) = 0.39; p < 0.01) despite no correlation at rest (p = ns). In conclusion, athletes with exercise-induced biomarker release exhibit ventriculo-arterial mismatch during exercise, suggesting non-optimal cardiac work may contribute to this phenomenon.

  11. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Methods Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; V˙O2max: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2–4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Results Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). Conclusions The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions. PMID:27532605

  12. Aerobic endurance capacity affects spatial memory and SIRT1 is a potent modulator of 8-oxoguanine repair

    PubMed Central

    Sarga, Linda; Hart, Nikolett; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steve; Hajas, Gyorgy; Boldogh, Istvan; Ba, Xuequing; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Regular exercise promotes brain function via a wide range of adaptive responses, including the increased expression of antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage-repairing systems. Accumulation of oxidized DNA base lesions and strand breaks is etiologically linked to for example aging processes and age-associated diseases. Here we tested whether exercise training has an impact on brain function, extent of neurogenesis, and expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (Ogg1) and SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog). To do so, we utilized strains of rats with low- and high- running capacity (LCR and HCR) and examined learning and memory, DNA synthesis, expression, and posttranslational modification of Ogg1 hippocampal cells. Our results showed that rats with higher aerobic/running capacity had better spatial memory, and expressed less Ogg1, when compared to LCR rats. Furthermore, exercise increased SIRT1 expression and decreased acetylated Ogg1 (AcOgg1) levels, a post-translational modification important for efficient repair of 8-oxoG. Our data on cell cultures revealed that nicotinamide, a SIRT1-specific inhibitor, caused the greatest increase in the acetylation of Ogg1, a finding further supported by our other observations that silencing SIRT1 also markedly increased the levels of AcOgg1. These findings imply that high-running capacity is associated with increased hippocampal function, and SIRT1 level/activity and inversely correlates with AcOgg1 levels and thereby the repair of genomic 8-oxoG. PMID:23973402

  13. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Neuroplasticity within the Motor Cortex following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Kate; Buckley, Jonathan D.; McDonnell, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aerobic exercise is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, but the effect of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity following a stroke is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare corticomotoneuronal excitability and neuroplasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of low intensity lower limb cycling, or a rest control condition. Methods We recruited chronic stroke survivors to take part in three experimental conditions in a randomised, cross-over design. Corticomotoneuronal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials in the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle. Following baseline measures, participants either cycled on a stationary bike at a low exercise intensity for 30 minutes, or remained resting in a seated position for 30 minutes. Neuroplasticity within the motor cortex was then examined using an intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) paradigm. During the third experimental condition, participants cycled for the 30 minutes but did not receive any iTBS. Results Twelve participants completed the study. We found no significant effect of aerobic exercise on corticomotoneuronal excitability when compared to the no exercise condition (P > 0.05 for all group and time comparisons). The use of iTBS did not induce a neuroplastic-like response in the motor cortex with or without the addition of aerobic exercise. Conclusions Our results suggest that following a stroke, the brain may be less responsive to non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms that aim to induce short-term reorganisation, and aerobic exercise was unable to induce or improve this response. PMID:27018862

  14. Enhancing the Efficacy of Behavior Therapy for Obesity: Effects of Aerobic Exercise and a Multicomponent Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…

  15. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    PubMed

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  17. Changes of thioredoxin, oxidative stress markers, inflammation and muscle/renal damage following intensive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Sugama, Kaoru; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yoshitani, Kayo; Shiraishi, Koso; Miura, Shigeki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Mori, Yuichi; Kometani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12 kDa protein that is induced by oxidative stress, scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulates chemotaxis. Furthermore it is thought to play a protective role in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Complement 5a (C5a) is a chemotactic factor of neutrophils and is produced after ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. Both TRX and C5a increase after endurance exercise. Therefore, it may be possible that TRX has an association with C5a in renal disorders and/or renal protection caused by endurance exercise. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate relationships among the changes of urine levels of TRX, C5a and acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia/reperfusion, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress following intensive endurance exercise. Also, we applied a newly-developed measurement system of neutrophil migratory activity and ROS-production by use of ex vivo hydrogel methodology with an extracellular matrix to investigate the mechanisms of muscle damage. Fourteen male triathletes participated in a duathlon race consisting of 5 km of running, 40 km of cycling and 5 km of running were recruited to the study. Venous blood and urine samples were collected before, immediately following, 1.5 h and 3 h after the race. Plasma, serum and urine were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, a free radical analytical system, and the ex vivo neutrophil functional measurement system. These data were analyzed by assigning participants to damaged and minor-damage groups by the presence and absence of renal tubular epithelial cells in the urinary sediments. We found strong associations among urinary TRX, C5a, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1. From the data it might be inferred that urinary TRX, MCP-1 and β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were associated with renal tubular injury. Furthermore, TRX may be influenced by levels of IL-10, regulate

  18. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Adrian B; Randell, Rebecca K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2013-01-01

    There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean ± SD: Age 41 ± 7 y, Height 1.80 ± 0.04 m, Weight 78.9 ± 4.1 kg, VO2 max 58 ± 3 ml • kg(-1) • min(-1)) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (~5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35 ± 1.53, 38.27 ± 1.80, 40.23 ± 1.98, 40.31 ± 1.22 min respectively, p<0.05). The significantly faster performance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294 ± 21 W, 291 ± 22 W, 277 ± 14 W, 276 ± 23 W respectively, p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between placebo and decaf during the TT. The present study illustrates that both caffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:23573201

  19. The Metabolic and Performance Effects of Caffeine Compared to Coffee during Endurance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Adrian B.; Randell, Rebecca K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2013-01-01

    There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean±SD: Age 41±7y, Height 1.80±0.04 m, Weight 78.9±4.1 kg, VO2 max 58±3 ml•kg−1•min−1) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (∼5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35±1.53, 38.27±1.80, 40.23±1.98, 40.31±1.22 min respectively, p<0.05). The significantly faster performance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294±21 W, 291±22 W, 277±14 W, 276±23 W respectively, p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between placebo and decaf during the TT. The present study illustrates that both caffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:23573201

  20. Preliminary Effectiveness and Sustainability of Group Aerobic Exercise Program in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sol; Ryu, Je-Kwang; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Chang, Jhin-Goo; Lee, Hwa-Bock; Kim, Do-Hoon; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and sustained effect of a group aerobic exercise program in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients participated in a group-based individually tailored 90-minute outdoor cycling session per week for 3 months with intervention to enhance motivation. Physical health was evaluated by anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, and blood tests. Mental health was assessed on self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, quality of life, and global function. Attrition rate for the exercise program was 8.3%. Exercise program significantly increased participant's self-esteem, positive relationship, global function, and quality of life. CR fitness significantly improved after 3 months. At the 9-month follow-up, 6 months after program completion, only in interpersonal relationship change the improved effects were maintained. These findings support the feasibility of group aerobic exercise program with high level of adherence and its long-term benefits in positive relationship change. PMID:27218221

  1. Aerobic Exercise Does Not Predict Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Cortisol Alterations in Depressed Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is related to neurobiological changes that occur in the monoamine system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurogenesis system and the neuroimmune system. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the research of the effects of exercise on brain function, with a special focus on its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol and other biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a review investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and cortisol levels in individuals with depression. It was not possible to establish an interaction between aerobic exercise and concentration of BDNF and cortisol, which may actually be the result of the divergence of methods, such as type of exercises, duration of the sessions, and prescribed intensity and frequency of sessions.

  2. Comparative effects of exercise reduction and relaxation training on mood states and Type A scores in habitual aerobic exercisers.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, S; Hughey, A W; Osborne, W L

    1994-12-01

    The comparative effects of exercise reduction and relaxation training on dysphoric mood states and Type A scores in persons who exercise beyond the American College of Sports Medicine's recommended guidelines for cardiovascular fitness were investigated. Using their scores on the Profile of Mood States and the Jenkins Activity Survey, 57 subjects were randomly divided into 3 matched groups based on age, gender, and exercise regimen. Subjects assigned to the control group maintained their current exercise regimen, those in the second group reduced their exercise regimen to include no more than 5 hours of aerobic activity per week, and those in the third group maintained their current exercise regimen and attended 5 1 1/2-hr. relaxation training sessions. Both inventories were administered again after 10 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed no statistically significant differences among group means on the dependent variables. Further research on the use of aerobic exercise and relaxation training as auxiliary treatments for anxiety and depression is recommended. PMID:7870559

  3. Influence of Selected Exercise on Serum Immunoglobulin, Testosterone and Cortisol in Semi-Endurance Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Keyvan; Hosseini, Seyyed-Reza Attarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the levels of serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), testosterone and cortisol in semi-endurance elite runners during general preparation and competition phase of training. Methods Thirteen semi-endurance elite male runners with an average age of 18.92±1.7 years volunteered to take part in this study. The runners participated in the selected training for a period of 14 weeks and 12 sessions per week (in the morning and afternoon). Blood samples were collected during the three phases of training (before-preparation phase, after-preparation phase and before-competition phase). Data were analyzed by repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test, at a significance level of P<0.05. Results The levels of serum IgM in semi-endurance elite runners after preparation phase reduced significantly (P=0.004), while these levels during the competition phase increased even though significantly. The levels of serum IgG and IgA also reduced, however not significantly, during both phases. Moreover, after preparation phase, there was no significant change in serum IgA levels; though, these levels reduced, however not significantly, before competition phase. Cortisol levels significantly decrease after preparation phase (P=0.04); although, it increased before competition phase. Testosterone/cortisol ratio increases significantly after preparation phase (P=0.04), and it decreased before competition phase. Testosterone levels intangibility increased and decreased respectively after preparation and before competition phases. Conclusions Findings indicated that long and intensive exercises weaken the immune system, while moderate and short drills strengthened this system. PMID:23012638

  4. The effect of feeding during recovery from aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Paul T; Konopka, Adam R; Hinkley, J Matthew; Undem, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-02-01

    We previously reported an increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed recovery from nonexhaustive aerobic exercise (Harber et al., 2010). The current study examined skeletal muscle intracellular signaling in the same subjects to further investigate mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein metabolism with and without feeding following aerobic exercise. Eight males (VO₂peak: 52 ± 2 ml⁻¹·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) performed 60-min of cycle ergometry at 72 ± 1% VO₂peak on two occasions in a counter-balanced design. Exercise trials differed only in the postexercise nutritional intervention: EX-FED (5 kcal, 0.83 g carbohydrate, 0.37 g protein, 0.03 g fat per kg body weight) and EX-FAST (noncaloric, isovolumic placebo) ingested immediately and one hour after exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest (on a separate day) and two hours postexercise to assess intracellular signaling via western blotting of p70S6K1, eEF2, 4EBP1, AMPKα and p38 MAPK. p70S6K1 phosphorylation was elevated (p < .05) in EX-FED relative to REST and EX-FAST. eEF2, 4EBP1, AMPKα and p38 MAPK signaling were unaltered at 2 h after exercise independent of feeding status when expressed as the ratio of phosphorylated to total protein normalized to actin. These data demonstrate that feeding after a nonexhaustive bout of aerobic exercise stimulates skeletal muscle p70S6K1 intracellular signaling favorable for promoting protein synthesis which may, as recent literature has suggested, better prepare the muscle for subsequent exercise bouts. These data provide further support into the role of feeding on mechanisms regulating muscle protein metabolism during recovery from aerobic exercise.

  5. Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Cortes, Liliana; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise have differing effects on perceived hunger and circulating levels of appetite-related hormones. However, the effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on actual energy intake has never been compared. This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise, compared with aerobic exercise, on subsequent energy intake and appetite-regulating hormones. Ten active men completed 3 trials in a counterbalanced design: 45 min of resistance exercise (RES; free and machine weights), aerobic exercise (AER; running), or a resting control trial (CON). Following exercise or CON, participants had access to a buffet-style array of breakfast foods and drinks to consume ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of a range of appetite-regulating hormones were measured throughout each trial. Despite significantly higher energy expenditure with AER compared with RES (p < 0.05), there was no difference in total energy intake from the postexercise meal between trials (p = 0.779). Pancreatic polypeptide was significantly higher prior to the meal after both RES and AER compared with CON. In contrast, active ghrelin was lower following RES compared with both CON and AER (p ≤ 0.05), while insulin was higher following RES compared with CON (p = 0.013). In summary, the differential response of appetite-regulating hormones to AER and RES does not appear to influence energy intake in the postexercise meal. However, given the greater energy expenditure associated with AER compared with RES, AER modes of exercise may be preferable for achieving short-term negative energy balance. PMID:22111518

  6. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  7. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4 weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [14C]-iodoantipyrine 1 week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function. PMID:25747184

  8. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine 1week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function.

  9. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.

  10. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  11. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms "Aerobic exercise" AND "Training" AND "Blood pressure" AND "India." This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15-60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of -05.00 mmHg in SBP and -03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  12. Upper body muscle strength and endurance in relation to peak exercise capacity during cycling in healthy sedentary male subjects.

    PubMed

    Segerström, Åsa B; Holmbäck, Anna M; Elzyri, Targ; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Ringsberg, Karin; Groop, Leif; Thorsson, Ola; Wollmer, Per

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between upper body muscle strength and endurance, and exercise capacity during an incremental cycle exercise test in sedentary healthy male subjects before and after 6 months of combined supervised group training. Exercise capacity was measured as maximal oxygen consumption (VO₂peak) and maximum work rate (WR(peak)). Muscle strength and endurance of the upper body were assessed by bench press and isometric measurement of trunk extensor and flexor maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and trunk extensor and flexor endurance. Thirty-one subjects were studied before and after the training period. Bench press and trunk extensor MVC correlated to exercise capacity at baseline and after training. Training improved VO₂peak and WR(peak). The correlation between trunk extensor MVC and exercise capacity improved after training. Upper body strength may affect exercise capacity by increasing the rider's ability to generate force on the handlebar that can be transmitted to the pedals. Resistance training of the arms, chest, and trunk may help improve cycling performance.

  13. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  14. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities. PMID:25251989

  15. Treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure protects leg lean tissue mass and extensor strength and endurance during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Suzanne M; Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Leg muscle mass and strength are decreased during reduced activity and non-weight-bearing conditions such as bed rest (BR) and spaceflight. Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPEX) provides full-body weight loading during BR and may prevent muscle deconditioning. We hypothesized that a 40-min interval exercise protocol performed against LBNPEX 6 days week(-1) would attenuate losses in leg lean mass (LLM), strength, and endurance during 6° head-down tilt BR, with similar benefits for men and women. Fifteen pairs of healthy monozygous twins (8 male and 7 female pairs) completed 30 days of BR with one sibling of each twin pair assigned randomly as the non-exercise control (CON) and the other twin as the exercise subject (EX). Before and after BR, LLM and isokinetic leg strength and endurance were measured. Mean knee and ankle extensor and flexor strength and endurance and LLM decreased from pre- to post-BR in the male CON subjects (P < 0.01), but knee extensor strength and endurance, ankle extensor strength, and LLM were maintained in the male EX subjects. In contrast, no pre- to post-BR changes were significant in the female subjects, either CON or EX, likely due to their lower pre-BR values. Importantly, the LBNPEX countermeasure prevents or attenuates declines in LLM as well as extensor leg strength and endurance. Individuals who are stronger, have higher levels of muscular endurance, and/or have greater LLM are likely to experience greater losses during BR than those who are less fit. PMID:27495299

  16. Treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure protects leg lean tissue mass and extensor strength and endurance during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Suzanne M; Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Leg muscle mass and strength are decreased during reduced activity and non-weight-bearing conditions such as bed rest (BR) and spaceflight. Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPEX) provides full-body weight loading during BR and may prevent muscle deconditioning. We hypothesized that a 40-min interval exercise protocol performed against LBNPEX 6 days week(-1) would attenuate losses in leg lean mass (LLM), strength, and endurance during 6° head-down tilt BR, with similar benefits for men and women. Fifteen pairs of healthy monozygous twins (8 male and 7 female pairs) completed 30 days of BR with one sibling of each twin pair assigned randomly as the non-exercise control (CON) and the other twin as the exercise subject (EX). Before and after BR, LLM and isokinetic leg strength and endurance were measured. Mean knee and ankle extensor and flexor strength and endurance and LLM decreased from pre- to post-BR in the male CON subjects (P < 0.01), but knee extensor strength and endurance, ankle extensor strength, and LLM were maintained in the male EX subjects. In contrast, no pre- to post-BR changes were significant in the female subjects, either CON or EX, likely due to their lower pre-BR values. Importantly, the LBNPEX countermeasure prevents or attenuates declines in LLM as well as extensor leg strength and endurance. Individuals who are stronger, have higher levels of muscular endurance, and/or have greater LLM are likely to experience greater losses during BR than those who are less fit.

  17. Oxygen supply and nitric oxide scavenging by myoglobin contribute to exercise endurance and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Merx, Marc W; Gödecke, Axel; Flögel, Ulrich; Schrader, Jürgen

    2005-06-01

    Recent studies of myoglobin (Mb) knockout (myo-/-) mice have extended our understanding of Mb's diverse functions and have demonstrated a complex array of compensatory mechanisms. The present study was aimed at detailed analysis of cardiac function and exercise endurance in myo-/- mice and at providing evidence for Mb's functional relevance. Myo-/- isolated working hearts display decreased contractility (dP/dtmax 3883+/-351 vs. 4618+/-268 mmHg/sec, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.005). Due to a shift in sympathetic/parasympathetic tone, heart rate is reduced in conscious myo mice-/- (615+/-33 vs. 645+/-27 bpm, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001). Oxygen consumption (VO2) under resting conditions (3082+/-413 vs. 4452+/-552 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1), myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001) and exercise endurance, as determined by spiroergometry, are decreased (466+/-113 vs. 585+/-153 m, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.01). Conscious myo-/- mice evaluated by echocardiography display lowered cardiac output (0.64+/-0.06 vs. 0.75+/-0.09 ml x min(-1) x g(-1), myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001), impaired systolic shortening (60+/-3.5 vs. 65+/-4%, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001) and fail to respond to beta1-stimulation. Strikingly, the latter cardiac effects of Mb deficiency can be partially attenuated by NOS inhibition. Loss of Mb results in a distinct phenotype, even under resting conditions, and the importance of oxygen supply and nitric oxide scavenging by Mb is clearly demonstrated at the conscious animal level. PMID:15817640

  18. Oxygen supply and nitric oxide scavenging by myoglobin contribute to exercise endurance and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Merx, Marc W; Gödecke, Axel; Flögel, Ulrich; Schrader, Jürgen

    2005-06-01

    Recent studies of myoglobin (Mb) knockout (myo-/-) mice have extended our understanding of Mb's diverse functions and have demonstrated a complex array of compensatory mechanisms. The present study was aimed at detailed analysis of cardiac function and exercise endurance in myo-/- mice and at providing evidence for Mb's functional relevance. Myo-/- isolated working hearts display decreased contractility (dP/dtmax 3883+/-351 vs. 4618+/-268 mmHg/sec, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.005). Due to a shift in sympathetic/parasympathetic tone, heart rate is reduced in conscious myo mice-/- (615+/-33 vs. 645+/-27 bpm, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001). Oxygen consumption (VO2) under resting conditions (3082+/-413 vs. 4452+/-552 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1), myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001) and exercise endurance, as determined by spiroergometry, are decreased (466+/-113 vs. 585+/-153 m, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.01). Conscious myo-/- mice evaluated by echocardiography display lowered cardiac output (0.64+/-0.06 vs. 0.75+/-0.09 ml x min(-1) x g(-1), myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001), impaired systolic shortening (60+/-3.5 vs. 65+/-4%, myo-/- vs. WT, P<0.001) and fail to respond to beta1-stimulation. Strikingly, the latter cardiac effects of Mb deficiency can be partially attenuated by NOS inhibition. Loss of Mb results in a distinct phenotype, even under resting conditions, and the importance of oxygen supply and nitric oxide scavenging by Mb is clearly demonstrated at the conscious animal level.

  19. Effects of Chronic Heavy Alcohol Consumption and Endurance Exercise on Cancellous and Cortical Bone Microarchitecture in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Teresa L.; Gaddini, Gino; Branscum, Adam J.; Olson, Dawn A.; Caroline-Westerlind, Kim; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone health is influenced by numerous lifestyle factors, including diet and exercise. Alcohol is a major non-essential constituent of diet and has dose and context-dependent effects on bone. Endurance exercise is associated with increased risk for stress fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term independent and combined effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption and endurance exercise (treadmill running) on bone mass and microarchitecture in young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods Six-month-old male rats were randomized into 4 groups (9–13 rats/group): sedentary+control diet, sedentary+ethanol diet, exercise+control diet, or exercise+ethanol diet. Ethanol-fed rats consumed a liquid diet (ethanol comprised 35% of caloric intake) ad libitum. Control rats were pair-fed the same diet with isocaloric substitution of ethanol with maltose-dextran. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill (15% grade for 30 min) 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Femur and 12th thoracic vertebra were analyzed for bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) using densitometry and cortical and cancellous bone architecture using microcomputed tomography. Results Ethanol consumption resulted in lower femur length, BMC, and BMD, and lower midshaft femur cortical volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia. In addition, trabecular thickness was lower in vertebra of ethanol-fed rats. Endurance exercise had no independent effect on any endpoints evaluated. A significant interaction between endurance exercise and ethanol was detected for several cancellous endpoints in the distal femur metaphysis. Ethanol-consuming rats that exercised had lower distal femur metaphysis bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular connectivity density, and trabecular thickness compared to exercising rats that consumed control diet. Conclusions The results obtained in this model suggest that chronic heavy alcohol consumption may reduce skeletal integrity by reducing

  20. The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Eric E; Buckley, James G; Lewis, Stephanie L; Brandauer, Josef; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute oral dose of 3 mg·kg(-1) of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance, perceived exertion, mood, and cognitive function. Subjects (n = 18) ingested either R. rosea or a carbohydrate placebo 1 hour before testing in a double-blind, random crossover manner. Exercise testing consisted of a standardized 10-minute warm-up followed by a 6-mile time trial (TT) on a bicycle ergometer. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 minutes during the TT using a 10-point Borg scale. Blood lactate concentration, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase were measured before warm-up, 2 minutes after warm-up, and 2 minutes after TT (n = 15). A Profile of Mood States questionnaire and a Stroop Color Test were completed before warm-up and after TT. Testing was repeated 2-7 days later with the other condition. Rhodiola rosea ingestion significantly decreased heart rate during the standardized warm-up (R. rosea = 136 ± 17 b·min(-1); placebo = 140 ± 17 b·min(-1); mean ± SD; p = 0.001). Subjects completed the TT significantly faster after R. rosea ingestion (R. rosea = 25.4 ± 2.7 minutes; placebo = 25.8 ± 3.0 minutes; p = 0.037). The mean RPE was lower in the R. rosea trial (R. rosea = 6.0 ± 0.9; placebo = 6.6 ± 1.0; p = 0.04). This difference was even more pronounced when a ratio of the RPE relative to the workload was calculated (R. rosea = 0.048 ± 0.01; placebo = 0.057 ± 0.02; p = 0.007). No other statistically significant differences were observed. Acute R. rosea ingestion decreases heart rate response to submaximal exercise and appears to improve endurance exercise performance by decreasing the perception of effort. PMID:23443221

  1. Effects of Physical Activity on Children's Executive Function: Contributions of Experimental Research on Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children's executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic…

  2. The Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Psychological Variables in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Samuel, II; Templer, Donald I.

    1985-01-01

    In a study assessing the psychological effects of exercise in the elderly, a 14-week aerobic program for older adults (N=23) produced a significant increase in self-concept and a significantly greater perceived internal locus of control. Improvement in memory was not found. (Author)

  3. The Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Anxiety Levels of Recovering Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucarine, Lewis J.

    The effect of an aerobic exercise program on the anxiety levels of recovering alcoholics was studied. Two groups of 25 volunteers each, from 3 alcoholism/rehabilitation programs in New Jersey, were assigned to control and experimental groups. Both groups received pre- and post-tests of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The control…

  4. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its consequences is a serious public health concern. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in sedentary adolescents. Twenty nine p...

  5. Predicting Aerobic versus Resistance Exercise Using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Angela D.; Rocheleau, Courtney A.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in aerobic versus resistance training, investigating relationships between TPB variables, extroversion, and perceived health among college students who completed initial and follow-up measurements and provided reasons for exercise. TPB variables, extroversion, and perceived health collectively accounted…

  6. Association of calprotectin with leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators following acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Arun; Slusher, Aaron L; Zourdos, Michael C; Whitehurst, Michael; Fico, Brandon G; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether acute aerobic exercise-mediated calprotectin in plasma would be associated with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in healthy individuals. Eleven healthy participants, aged 18 to 30 years, were recruited to perform a 30-min bout of aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen uptake. Acute aerobic exercise elicited a significant elevation across time in plasma calprotectin, MCP-1, MPO, and IL-6. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with calprotectin area-under-the-curve with "respect to increase" (AUCi) and IL-6 AUCi. Furthermore, calprotectin AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi and MPO AUCi, even after controlling for BMI. Although MPO AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi, this relationship no longer existed after controlling for BMI. These results suggest that acute aerobic exercise could mediate innate immune response associated with calprotectin and its related leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators, especially in individuals with elevated BMI.

  7. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Gabriele; Simoncini, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-12-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6 F e 1M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence of oxidative stress, as indicated by circulating levels of lipoperoxides, in rest condition and as effect of exercise, and also, to verify if an aerobic training program is able to modify, in these patients, ox-redox balance efficiency. At rest and before training blood level of lipoperoxides was 382.4 ± 37.8 AU, compared to controls (318.7 ± 63.8; P<0.05), this corresponding to a moderate oxidative stress degree according to the adopted scale. During incremental exercise blood level of lipoperoxides did not increase, but maintained significantly higher compared to controls. After an aerobic training of 10 weeks the blood level of lipoperoxides decreased by 13.7% at rest (P<0.01) and 10.4%, 8.6% and 8.5% respectively at the corresponding times during the exercise test (P=0.06). These data indicate that, in mitochondrial patients, oxidative stress occurs and that an aerobic training is useful in partially reverting this condition.

  8. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  9. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  10. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  11. Effects of a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Versus Resistance Training on Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Kelso, Kerry; Zawilinski, Laci

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise versus resistance training on cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders. Seventy-seven participants (60% female; 84% Caucasian) were randomized to complete 20 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, resistance training, or rest, followed by a 35% CO2/65% O2 inhalation challenge task. Results indicated that aerobic exercise and resistance training were significantly and equally effective in reducing anxiety sensitivity (AS) compared with rest ((η(2)(p ) = 52), though only aerobic exercise significantly attenuated reactivity to the CO2 challenge task. Neither form of exercise generated observable effects on distress tolerance, discomfort intolerance, or state anxiety (all ps >.10). The results of this study are discussed with regard to their implications for the use of exercise interventions for anxiety and related forms of psychopathology, and potential directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Effect of acute endurance and resistance exercise on endocrine hormones directly related to lipolysis and skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Meeusen, Romain; Mullens, Annelies; Dendale, Paul

    2012-05-01

    In subjects with obesity, the implementation of long-term exercise intervention increases lean tissue mass and lowers adipose tissue mass. However, data indicate a blunted lipolytic response, and/or skeletal muscle protein synthesis, when subjects with obesity are exposed to acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. Therefore, subjects with obesity seem to display a suboptimal physiological response to acute exercise stimuli. It might be hypothesized that hormonal disturbances contribute, at least in part, to these abnormal physiological reactions in the obese. This review discusses the impact of acute endurance and resistance exercise on endocrine hormones directly related to lipolysis and/or skeletal muscle protein synthesis (insulin, [nor]epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, triiodothyronine, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1), as well as the impact of long-term endurance and resistance exercise intervention on these hormonal responses to acute endurance and resistance exercise. In the obese, some endocrinological disturbances during acute endurance and resistance exercise have been identified: a blunted blood growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide and epinephrine release, and greater cortisol and insulin release. These hormonal disturbances might contribute to a suppressed lipolytic response, and/or suppressed skeletal muscle protein synthesis, as a result of acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. In subjects with obesity, the impact of acute endurance and resistance exercise on other endocrine hormones (norepinephrine, testosterone, triiodothyronine, insulin-like growth factor-1) remains elusive. Furthermore, whether long-term endurance and resistance exercise intervention might reverse these hormonal disturbances during acute endurance and resistance exercise in these individuals remains unknown.

  13. Heart Failure Impairs Muscle Blood Flow and Endurance Exercise Tolerance in COPD.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mayron F; Arbex, Flavio F; Alencar, Maria Clara; Souza, Aline; Sperandio, Priscila A; Medeiros, Wladimir M; Mazzuco, Adriana; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Medina, Luiz A; Santos, Rita; Hirai, Daniel M; Mancuso, Frederico; Almeida, Dirceu; O'Donnell, Denis E; Neder, J Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure, a prevalent and disabling co-morbidity of COPD, may impair cardiac output and muscle blood flow thereby contributing to exercise intolerance. To investigate the role of impaired central and peripheral hemodynamics in limiting exercise tolerance in COPD-heart failure overlap, cycle ergometer exercise tests at 20% and 80% peak work rate were performed by overlap (FEV1 = 56.9 ± 15.9% predicted, ejection fraction = 32.5 ± 6.9%; N = 16), FEV1-matched COPD (N = 16), ejection fraction-matched heart failure patients (N = 15) and controls (N = 12). Differences (Δ) in cardiac output (impedance cardiography) and vastus lateralis blood flow (indocyanine green) and deoxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) between work rates were expressed relative to concurrent changes in muscle metabolic demands (ΔO2 uptake). Overlap patients had approximately 30% lower endurance exercise tolerance than COPD and heart failure (p < 0.05). ΔBlood flow was closely proportional to Δcardiac output in all groups (r = 0.89-0.98; p < 0.01). Overlap showed the largest impairments in Δcardiac output/ΔO2 uptake and Δblood flow/ΔO2 uptake (p < 0.05). Systemic arterial oxygenation, however, was preserved in overlap compared to COPD. Blunted limb perfusion was related to greater muscle deoxygenation and lactate concentration in overlap (r = 0.78 and r = 0.73, respectively; p < 0.05). ΔBlood flow/ΔO2 uptake was related to time to exercise intolerance only in overlap and heart failure (p < 0.01). In conclusion, COPD and heart failure add to decrease exercising cardiac output and skeletal muscle perfusion to a greater extent than that expected by heart failure alone. Treatment strategies that increase muscle O2 delivery and/or decrease O2 demand may be particularly helpful to improve exercise tolerance in COPD patients presenting heart failure as co-morbidity. PMID:26790095

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of strengthening, aerobic, and coordination exercises for patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Heike A; Roos, Ewa M

    2003-03-01

    Exercise has generated interest as an important nonpharmacological treatment for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Effect sizes in exercise interventions are small to moderate for pain and functional improvements and are similar to those observed for improvement in pain for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). However, in contrast to NSAIDS, exercise interventions are safe and improve function through a direct effect on muscle strength and function. Both aerobic and strengthening exercises seem to be equally effective in regard to pain and function in patients with OA. In obese patients with OA, a combination of diet and exercise may be advantageous for optimal benefits in health-related quality-of-life and physical function. This article will focus on recent (September 2001-August 2002) randomized controlled trials with exercise as an intervention in patients with OA.

  16. Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions.

    PubMed

    Evero, Nero; Hackett, Laura C; Clark, Robert D; Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd A

    2012-05-01

    Acute exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake, but little is known about the effects of exercise on food reward brain regions. After an overnight fast, 30 (17 men, 13 women), healthy, habitually active (age = 22.2 ± 0.7 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), Vo(2peak) = 44.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) individuals completed 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer or 60 min of rest (no-exercise) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. After each condition, blood oxygen level-dependent responses to high-energy food, low-energy food, and control visual cues, were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Exercise, compared with no-exercise, significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to food (high and low food) cues vs. control cues in the insula (-0.37 ± 0.13 vs. +0.07 ± 0.18%), putamen (-0.39 ± 0.10 vs. -0.10 ± 0.09%), and rolandic operculum (-0.37 ± 0.17 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12%). Exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high food vs. control and low food vs. control cues in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (-0.94 ± 0.33%), insula (-0.37 ± 0.13%), and putamen (-0.41 ± 0.10%). No-exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high vs. control and low vs. control cues in the middle (-0.47 ± 0.15%) and inferior occipital gyrus (-1.00 ± 0.23%). Exercise reduced neuronal responses in brain regions consistent with reduced pleasure of food, reduced incentive motivation to eat, and reduced anticipation and consumption of food. Reduced neuronal response in these food reward brain regions after exercise is in line with the paradigm that acute exercise suppresses subsequent energy intake.

  17. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while β-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  18. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Moderately Strenuous Aerobic Exercise After an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Glenny, Robb W.; Burr, Robert L.; Flo ARNP, Gayle L.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its salutary effects on health, aerobic exercise is often avoided after receipt of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) because of fears that exercise may provoke acute arrhythmias. We prospectively evaluated the effects of a home aerobic exercise training and maintenance program (EX) on aerobic performance, ICD shocks and hospitalizations exclusively in ICD recipients. Methods and Results One hundred sixty (124 men, 36 women) were randomized who had an ICD for primary (43%) or secondary (57%) prevention to EX or usual care (UC). The primary outcome was peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2), measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline, 8 and 24 weeks. EX consisted of 8 weeks of home walking 1 hour/day, 5 days/week at 60-80% of heart rate reserve, followed by 16 weeks of maintenance home walking for 150 minutes/week. Adherence to EX was determined from exercise logs, ambulatory HR recordings of exercise, and weekly telephone contacts. UC received no exercise directives and were monitored by monthly telephone contact. Adverse events were identified by ICD interrogations, patient reports and medical records. ICD recipients averaged 55±12 years and mean ejection fraction of 40.6±15.7, all were taking beta blocker medications. EX significantly increased peakVO2 ml/kg/min (EX 26.7±7.0; UC 23.9±6.6, p=0.002) at 8 weeks, which persisted during maintenance exercise at 24 weeks (EX 26.9±7,7; UC 23.4±6.0, p<0.001). ICD shocks were infrequent (EX=4 vs UC=8), with no differences in hospitalizations or deaths between groups. Conclusions Prescribed home exercise is safe and significantly improves cardiovascular performance in ICD recipients without causing shocks or hospitalizations. PMID:25792557

  19. Contributions of Astronauts Aerobic Exercise Intensity and Time on Change in VO2peak during Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Buxton, Roxanne; Moore, Alan; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variability among astronauts with respect to changes in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) during International Space Station (ISS) missions, ranging from a 5% increase to 30% decline. Individual differences may be due to in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity on change in VO2peak during ISS missions. METHODS: Astronauts (N=11) performed peak cycle tests approx 60 days before flight (L-60), on flight day (FD) approx 14, and every approx 30 days thereafter. Metabolic gas analysis and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the test using the portable pulmonary function system. HR and duration of each in-flight cycle ergometer and treadmill (TM) session were recorded and averaged in time segments corresponding to each peak test. Mixed effects linear regression with exercise mode (TM or cycle) as a categorical variable was used to assess the contributions of exercise intensity (%time >70% peak HR or %time >90% peak HR) and time (min/wk), adjusted for body weight, on %change in VO2peak during the mission, and incorporating the repeated-measures experimental design. RESULTS: 110 observations were included in the model (4-6 peak cycle tests per astronaut, 2 exercise devices). VO2peak was reduced from preflight throughout the mission (FD14: 13+/-13% and FD 105: 8+/-10%). Exercise intensity (%peak HR: FD14=66+/-14; FD105=75+/-8) and time (min/wk: FD14=82+/-46; FD105=158+/-40) increased during flight. The models showed main effects for exercise time and intensity with no interactions between time, intensity, and device (70% peak HR: time [z-score=2.39; P=0.017], intensity [z-score=3.51; P=0.000]; 90% peak HR: time [zscore= 3.31; P=0.001], intensity [z-score=2.24; P=0.025]). CONCLUSION: Exercise time and intensity independently contribute to %change in VO2peak during ISS missions, indicating that there are minimal values for exercise time and intensity

  20. Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji-Woong; Shim, Jae-Jung; Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ra, Jehyeon; Ku, Hyung Keun; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Jeung, Woonhee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Huh, Chul-Sung; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement.

  1. Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji-Woong; Shim, Jae-Jung; Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ra, Jehyeon; Ku, Hyung Keun; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Jeung, Woonhee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Huh, Chul-Sung; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement. PMID:26331671

  2. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Conclusions Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to

  3. Improved Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Aerobic Exercise Training in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lisa M. K.; Chan, Leighton; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Christensen, Eric J.; Shenouda, Christian N.; Keyser, Randall E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), prior to and following participation in a supervised 12-week aerobic exercise training program. Methods Ten subjects with non-penetrating TBI (TBI severity: Mild, 50%; Moderate, 40%; Severe, 10%; Time since injury: 6.6 ± 6.8 years, mean ± SD) performed exercise training on a treadmill 3 times a week for 30 minutes at vigorous intensity (70 – 80 % of heart rate reserve). All subjects completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test with gas exchange measured and a questionnaire related to fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) at baseline and following exercise training. Results After training, increases (p<0.01) in peak oxygen consumption (VO2; +3.1 ± 2.4 ml/min/kg), time to volitional fatigue (+1.4 ± 0.8 min), and peak work rate (WR; +59 ± 43 watts) were observed. At the anaerobic threshold, VO2 (+3.6 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min), treadmill time (+1.8 ± 1.1 min) and WR (+37 ± 39 watts) were higher (p<0.01) following exercise training. Subjects also reported significantly lower (p<0.05) FSS composite scores (−0.9 ± 1.3) following exercise training. Conclusion These findings suggest that individuals with TBI may benefit from participation in vigorous aerobic exercise training with improved cardiorespiratory fitness and diminished fatigue. PMID:24901330

  4. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  5. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  6. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Laughlin, M Harold

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply "more is better." Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and improved

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substrate utilization following acute aerobic exercise in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Slusher, A L; Whitehurst, M; Zoeller, R F; Mock, J T; Maharaj, A; Huang, C-J

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves as a vital regulator of neuronal proliferation and survival, and has been shown to regulate energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism and body weight maintenance. Elevated concentrations of plasma BDNF have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acute aerobic exercise transiently increases circulating BDNF, potentially correcting obesity-related metabolic impairment. The present study aimed to compare acute aerobic exercise elicited BDNF responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether acute exercise-induced plasma BDNF elevations would be associated with improved indices of insulin resistance, as well as substrate utilization [carbohydrate oxidation (CHOoxi) and fat oxidation (FAToxi)]. Twenty-two healthy, untrained subjects [11 obese (four men and seven women; age = 22.91 ± 4.44 years; body mass index = 35.72 ± 4.17 kg/m(2)) and 11 normal-weight (five men and six women; age = 23.27 ± 2.24 years; body mass index = 21.89 ± 1.63 kg/m(2))] performed 30 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Our analyses showed that the BDNF response to acute aerobic exercise was similar in obese and normal-weight subjects across time (time: P = 0.015; group: P = not significant) and was not associated with indices of IR. Although no differences in the rates of CHOoxi and FAToxi were found between both groups, total relative energy expenditure was significantly lower in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects (3.53 ± 0.25 versus 5.59 ± 0.85; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that acute exercise-elicited BDNF elevation may not be sufficient to modulate indices of IR or the utilization of either carbohydrates or fats in obese individuals.

  8. Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, R C; Lee, K S; Fernandes, J; Oliveira, M G M; Tufik, S; Meeusen, R; de Mello, M T

    2012-01-27

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that exercise has a positive impact on human health, including neurological health. Aerobic exercise, which is supposed to enhance cardiovascular functions and metabolism, also induces neurotrophic factors that affect hippocampal neurons, thereby improving spatial learning and memory. Alternatively, little is known about the effect of resistance exercise on hippocampus-dependent memory, although this type of exercise is increasingly recommended to improve muscle strength and bone density and to prevent age-related disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of resistance training on spatial memory and the signaling pathways of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), comparing these effects with those of aerobic exercise. Adult male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (AERO group) or resistance training on a vertical ladder (RES group). Control and sham groups were also included. After the training period, both AERO and RES groups showed improved learning and spatial memory in a similar manner. However, both groups presented distinct signaling pathways. Although the AERO group showed increased level of IGF-1, BDNF, TrkB, and β-CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) in the hippocampus, the RES group showed an induction of peripheral and hippocampal IGF-1 with concomitant activation of receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) and AKT in the hippocampus. These distinct pathways culminated in an increase of synapsin 1 and synaptophysin expression in both groups. These findings demonstrated that both aerobic and resistance exercise can employ divergent molecular mechanisms but achieve similar results on learning and spatial memory.

  9. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo; Rebelo, Antonio; Oliveira, José; Brito, João

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo IE1 improved from M1 to M3 (884 ± 496 vs. 1032 ± 596 m; p < 0.05; d = 0.27), with intermediate values for M2 (962 ± 528 m). Peak heart rate (HRpeak) decreased from M1 to M2 and M3 (204 ± 9, 202 ± 9 and 200 ± 9 bpm, respectively; p < 0.05; d = 0.25-0.42). The 7th shuttle of the test (280 m), corresponding to 2.5 min, was identified as the inflection point between the two phases. Also, absolute heart rate at the 7th shuttle decreased progressively throughout the year (185 ± 9, 183 ± 10, and 179 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.05; d = 0.31-0.61). The present study provides evidence of the usefulness of a maximal as well as a submaximal version of Yo-Yo IE1 as a tool to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal children.

  10. A community-based approach to trials of aerobic exercise in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Van Sciver, Angela; Johnson, David K.; He, Jinghua; Honea, Robyn; Haines, Brian; Goodwin, Jami; Laubinger, M. Pat; Anderson, Heather S.; Kluding, Patricia M.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The purpose of this paper is to a report the protocol of a current, community-based pilot study of aerobic exercise for AD to guide future investigation. This manuscript provides 1) an overview of possible benefits of exercise in those with dementia, 2) a rationale and recommendations for implementation of a community-based approach, 3) recommendation for implementation of similar study protocols, 4) unique challenges in conducting an exercise trial in AD. PMID:22903151

  11. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  12. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students’ interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students’ physical fitness. PMID:27065556

  13. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  14. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness. PMID:27065556

  15. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  16. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  17. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  18. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.

  19. Change in body composition following a 15-week, heart rate monitored aerobic exercise program: The TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The joint goals of the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study are to introduce sedentary college-age individuals to regular exercise and identify genetic factors that influence physiologic response to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the study was to examine ...

  20. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  1. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  2. Higher circulating leukocytes in women with PCOS is reversed by aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Covington, Jeffrey D; Tam, Charmaine S; Pasarica, Magdalena; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated circulating leukocytes, and hypothesized to have higher adipose tissue inflammation. Aerobic exercise reduces circulating leukocytes and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals, but the effect of exercise on inflammation in PCOS is not known. We investigated circulating leukocytes, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, serum pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-α, total and high molecular weight adiponectin), and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression of proinflammatory markers in 8 PCOS women and 8 obese control females matched for BMI. Additionally, in a prospective study, the 8 women with PCOS underwent a 16-week aerobic exercise regimen with the same measures performed post-intervention. Compared to controls, white blood cell counts (WBC) were 30% higher (p = 0.04) and circulating total adiponectin levels were 150% lower (p = 0.03) in women with PCOS at baseline/pre-exercise conditions. SAT gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, p < 0.01) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, p < 0.05) were also lower in women with PCOS. In response to 16 weeks of aerobic exercise, insulin sensitivity improved (p < 0.01) and WBC counts decreased (p = 0.02). The exercise-induced change in WBC and circulating neutrophils correlated inversely with changes in glucose disposal rate (r = -0.73, p = 0.03; and r = -0.82, p = 0.01, respectively). Aerobic exercise reduced serum leptin (p < 0.05) after 4 weeks, trended to reduce the ratio of leptin-to-high molecular weight adiponectin (p < 0.1) by the 8th week, and significantly increased serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, p < 0.001) after 16 weeks. In conclusion, women with PCOS have higher circulating leukocytes compared to controls, which can be reversed by aerobic exercise and is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.

  3. Therapeutic exercise for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semble, E L; Loeser, R F; Wise, C M

    1990-08-01

    Therapeutic exercise in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis may be useful in improving aerobic capacity, strengthening muscles, improving endurance and increasing flexibility. This article reviews the major studies of exercise in these conditions and summarizes the authors recommendations regarding the use of therapeutic exercise in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis osteoarthritis.

  4. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  5. Multi-modal characterization of rapid anterior hippocampal volume increase associated with aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Matthews, Lucy; Morris, Martyn; Kolind, Shannon H.; Foxley, Sean; Jenkinson, Mark; Nichols, Thomas E.; Dawes, Helen; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of tasks and experiences. For example, the size of the human hippocampus has been shown to increase in response to aerobic exercise. However, it is currently unknown what underlies these changes. Here we scanned sedentary, young to middle-aged human adults before and after a six-week exercise intervention using nine different neuroimaging measures of brain structure, vasculature, and diffusion. We then tested two different hypotheses regarding the nature of the underlying changes in the tissue. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a vascular change as has been previously reported. Rather, the pattern of changes is better explained by an increase in myelination. Finally, we show hippocampal volume increase is temporary, returning to baseline after an additional six weeks without aerobic exercise. This is the first demonstration of a change in hippocampal volume in early to middle adulthood suggesting that hippocampal volume is modulated by aerobic exercise throughout the lifespan rather than only in the presence of age related atrophy. It is also the first demonstration of hippocampal volume change over a period of only six weeks, suggesting gross morphometric hippocampal plasticity occurs faster than previously thought. PMID:26654786

  6. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  7. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  8. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  9. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  10. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  11. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  12. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  13. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  14. Reduction in mdx mouse muscle degeneration by low-intensity endurance exercise: a proteomic analysis in quadriceps muscle of exercised compared with sedentary mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Simona; Schillaci, Odessa; Frinchi, Monica; Giallombardo, Marco; Morici, Giuseppe; Liberto, Valentina Di; Alessandro, Riccardo; De Leo, Giacomo; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Belluardo, Natale; Mudò, Giuseppa

    2015-01-01

    In our recent study was shown a significant recovery of damaged skeletal muscle of mice with X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) following low-intensity endurance exercise, probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. Consequently, in the present work, we aimed to identify proteins involved in the observed reduction in degenerating fibres. To this end, we used proteomic analysis to evaluate changes in the protein profile of quadriceps dystrophic muscles of exercised compared with sedentary mdx mice. Four protein spots were found to be significantly changed and were identified as three isoforms of carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SODC). Protein levels of CA3 isoforms were significantly up-regulated in quadriceps of sedentary mdx mice and were completely restored to wild–type (WT) mice values, both sedentary and exercised, in quadriceps of exercised mdx mice. Protein levels of SODC were down-regulated in quadriceps of sedentary mdx mice and were significantly restored to WT mice values, both sedentary and exercised, in quadriceps of exercised mdx mice. Western blot data were in agreement with those obtained using proteomic analysis and revealed the presence of one more CA3 isoform that was significantly changed. Based on data found in the present study, it seems that low-intensity endurance exercise may in part contribute to reduce cell degeneration process in mdx muscles, by counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:26182375

  15. Reduction in mdx mouse muscle degeneration by low-intensity endurance exercise: a proteomic analysis in quadriceps muscle of exercised compared with sedentary mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Simona; Schillaci, Odessa; Frinchi, Monica; Giallombardo, Marco; Morici, Giuseppe; Di Liberto, Valentina; Alessandro, Riccardo; De Leo, Giacomo; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Belluardo, Natale; Mudò, Giuseppa

    2015-01-01

    In our recent study was shown a significant recovery of damaged skeletal muscle of mice with X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) following low-intensity endurance exercise, probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. Consequently, in the present work, we aimed to identify proteins involved in the observed reduction in degenerating fibres. To this end, we used proteomic analysis to evaluate changes in the protein profile of quadriceps dystrophic muscles of exercised compared with sedentary mdx mice. Four protein spots were found to be significantly changed and were identified as three isoforms of carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SODC). Protein levels of CA3 isoforms were significantly up-regulated in quadriceps of sedentary mdx mice and were completely restored to wild-type (WT) mice values, both sedentary and exercised, in quadriceps of exercised mdx mice. Protein levels of SODC were down-regulated in quadriceps of sedentary mdx mice and were significantly restored to WT mice values, both sedentary and exercised, in quadriceps of exercised mdx mice. Western blot data were in agreement with those obtained using proteomic analysis and revealed the presence of one more CA3 isoform that was significantly changed. Based on data found in the present study, it seems that low-intensity endurance exercise may in part contribute to reduce cell degeneration process in mdx muscles, by counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:26182375

  16. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology. PMID:25874370

  17. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  18. The response of the pulmonary circulation and right ventricle to exercise: exercise-induced right ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling in endurance athletes (2013 Grover Conference series).

    PubMed

    La Gerche, André; Roberts, Timothy; Claessen, Guido

    2014-09-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that exercise results in considerable health benefits. These are the result of positive hormonal, metabolic, neuronal, and structural changes brought about by the intermittent physiological challenge of exercise. However, there is evolving evidence that intense exercise may place disproportionate physiological stress on the right ventricle (RV) and the pulmonary circulation. Both echocardiographic and invasive studies are consistent in demonstrating that pulmonary arterial pressures increase progressively with exercise intensity, such that the harder one exercises, the greater the load on the RV. This disproportionate load can result in fatigue or damage of the RV if the intensity and duration of exercise is sufficiently prolonged. This is distinctly different from the load imposed by exercise on the left ventricle (LV), which is moderated by a greater capacity for reductions in systemic afterload. Finally, given the increasing RV demand during exercise, it may be hypothesized that chronic exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (the so-called athlete's heart) may also disproportionately affect the RV. Indeed, there is evidence, although somewhat inconsistent, that RV volume increases may be relatively greater than those for the LV. Perhaps more importantly, there is a suggestion that chronic endurance exercise may cause electrical remodeling, predisposing some athletes to serious arrhythmias originating from the RV. Thus, a relatively consistent picture is emerging of acute stress, prolonged fatigue, and long-term remodeling, which all disproportionately affect the RV. Thus, we contend that the RV should be considered a potential Achilles' heel of the exercising heart. PMID:25621154

  19. Effect of short-term endurance training on exercise capacity, haemodynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Geny, B; Saini, J; Mettauer, B; Lampert, E; Piquard, F; Follenius, M; Epailly, E; Schnedecker, B; Eisenmann, B; Haberey, P; Lonsdorfer, J

    1996-01-01

    Exercise tolerance of heart transplant patients is often limited. Central and peripheral factors have been proposed to explain such exercise limitation but, to date, the leading factors remain to be determined. We examined how a short-term endurance exercise training programme may improve exercise capacity after heart transplantation, and whether atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise training by minimizing ischaemia and/or cardiac and circulatory congestion through its vasodilatation and haemoconcentration properties. Seven heart transplant recipients performed a square-wave endurance exercise test before and after 6 weeks of supervised training, while monitoring haemodynamic parameters, ANP and catecholamine concentrations. After training, the maximal tolerated power and the total mechanical work load increased from 130.4 (SEM 6.5) to 150.0 (SEM 6.0) W (P < 0.05) and from 2.05 (SEM 0.1) to 3.58 (SEM 0.14) kJ.kg-1 (P < 0.001). Resting heart rate decreased from 100.0 (SEM 3.4) to 92.4 (SEM 3.5) beats.min-1 (P < 0.05) but resting and exercise induced increases in cardiac output, stroke volume, right atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, systemic and pulmonary artery pressures were not significantly changed by training. Exercise-induced decrease of systemic vascular resistance was similar before and after training. After training arterio-venous differences in oxygen content were similar but maximal lactate concentrations decreased from 6.20 (SEM 0.55) to 4.88 (SEM 0.6) mmol.l-1 (P < 0.05) during exercise. Similarly, maximal exercise noradrenaline concentration tended to decrease from 2060 (SEM 327) to 1168 (SEM 227) pg.ml-1. A significant correlation was observed between lactate and catecholamines concentrations. The ANP concentration at rest and the exercise-induced ANP concentration did not change throughout the experiment [104.8 (SEM 13.1) pg.ml-1 vs 116.0 (SEM 13.5) pg.ml-1 and 200.0 (SEM 23.0) pg.ml-1 vs 206

  20. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging.

  1. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Howarth, Krista R; Phillips, Stuart M; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Macdonald, Maureen J; McGee, Sean L; Gibala, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Low-volume 'sprint' interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 +/- 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)) before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s 'all out' Wingate Test (mean power output approximately 500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40-60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited approximately 65% (mean power output approximately 150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (approximately 1.5 versus approximately 4.5 h) and total training volume (approximately 225 versus approximately 2250 kJ week(-1)) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1alpha protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time

  2. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans

    PubMed Central

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Howarth, Krista R; Phillips, Stuart M; Rakobowchuk, Mark; MacDonald, Maureen J; McGee, Sean L; Gibala, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Low-volume ‘sprint’ interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 ± 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s ‘all out’ Wingate Test (mean power output ∼500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40–60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited ∼65% (mean power output ∼150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (∼1.5 versus∼4.5 h) and total training volume (∼225 versus∼2250 kJ week−1) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time-efficient strategy to increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and induce specific metabolic

  3. Effect of aerobic capacity on sweat rate and fluid intake during outdoor exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Nakai, S; Yorimoto, A; Kawabata, T; Morimoto, T

    1995-01-01

    We measured the aerobic capacity, sweat rate and fluid intake of trained athletes during outdoor exercise and examined the relationship between aerobic capacity and thermoregulatory responses at high ambient temperatures. The maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) of the subjects, nine male baseball players of college age, was determined by maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. The subjects practised baseball regularly without drinking fluids from 1330 to 1530 hours. After 30 min rest, they played a baseball game with free access to a sports drink at 15 degrees C from 1600 to 1830 hours. At a mean ambient temperature of 36.7 (SEM 0.2) degree C, the mean percentage of body mass loss (delta mb) and increase of oral temperature (delta To) from 1330 to 1530 hours was 3.47 (SEM 0.12)% and 0.81 (SEM 0.14) degree C, respectively. The sweat loss from 1330 to 1830 hours was 56.53 (SEM 1.56)ml.kg-1 of body mass (mb) while the mean fluid consumption was 44.78 (SEM 2.39)ml.kg-1 of mb, with recovery of 76.08 (SEM 2.81)% of sweat loss. The VO2max was significantly inversely correlated with delta mb, fluid intake and rehydration amount, but showed no correlation with delta To. These results would suggest that at a given exercise intensity in subjects with a higher aerobic capacity body temperature is maintained with a lower sweating rate than that in subjects with a lower aerobic capacity.

  4. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise.

  5. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S.; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise

  6. Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults. PMID:24282403

  7. Beneficial effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and body composition in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K H; Hornak, J E

    1993-05-01

    Adults with Prader Willi syndrome were subdivided into an experimental group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5) to determine the effects of an aerobic exercise program. Their resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, body weight, and somatotype were determined. Participants in a 6-month walking program showed statistically significant differences in all variables measuring aerobic capacity and a significant variation in weight loss over the 6-month program compared to the control group.

  8. A Pilot Study of Women’s Affective Responses to Common and Uncommon Forms of Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Bryan, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the extent to which participants exposed to an uncommon versus common exercise stimulus would result in more favourable affect at post task. Design Experimental design. Participants, (N = 120) American women aged 18–45 years, were randomly assigned to complete 30-minutes of either the uncommon (HOOP; n = 58) or common (WALK; n = 62) exercise stimulus. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported affect and intentions for future exercise were measured before and after the 30-minute exercise bout. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were run to compare post-task affect across the HOOP and WALK conditions. At post-task, participants assigned to HOOP reported more positively valenced affect, higher ratings of positive activated affect, lower ratings of negative deactivated affect, and stronger intentions for future aerobic exercise compared to participants assigned to WALK. Conclusions Participants who completed an uncommon bout of aerobic exercise (HOOP) reported more favourable affect post-exercise, as well as stronger intentions for future exercise, compared to participants who completed a common bout of aerobic exercise (WALK). Future work using a longitudinal design is needed to understand the relationships between familiarity with an exercise stimulus, affective responses to exercise, motivation for future exercise behaviour, and exercise maintenance over time. PMID:26394246

  9. Safety of Aerobic Exercise in People With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Single-Group Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; D'Silva, Linda J.; Yoo, Min; Billinger, Sandra A.; LeMaster, Joseph W.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Herbelin, Laura; Wright, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise is recommended for people with diabetes, but little is known about exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Objective The primary purpose of this preliminary study was to examine adverse events (AEs) during moderate-intensity, supervised aerobic exercise in people with DPN. The secondary purpose was to examine changes in fatigue, aerobic fitness, and other outcomes after intervention. Design This was a single-group preliminary study. Setting The setting was an academic medical center. Participants Participants were 18 people who were sedentary and had type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy (mean age=58.1 years, SD=5). Intervention The intervention was a supervised 16-week aerobic exercise program (3 times per week at 50% to >70% oxygen uptake reserve). Measurements Adverse events were categorized as related or unrelated to the study, anticipated or unanticipated, and serious or not serious. Outcomes included fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen uptake), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), sleep quality, plasma metabolic markers, and peripheral vascular function. Results During the study, 57 nonserious AEs occurred. Improvements were found in general fatigue (mean change=−3.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=−1.3, −5.3), physical fatigue (mean change=−3.1; 95% CI=−1.2, −5.0), peak oxygen uptake (mean change=1.1 mL·kg−1·min−1; 95% CI=0.2, 1.9), total body fat (mean change=−1%; 95% CI=−0.3, −1.7), fat mass (mean change=−1,780 g; 95% CI=−616.2, −2,938.7), and peripheral blood flow (mean change=2.27%; 95% CI=0.6, 4.0). Limitations This was a small-scale, uncontrolled study. A future randomized controlled trial is needed to fully assess the effects of exercise on the outcomes. Conclusions This study provides new support for supervised aerobic exercise in people with DPN. However, it is important for physical therapists to carefully

  10. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C.A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event.

  11. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei Dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C A

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event.

  12. Oxidation-reduction processes in ice swimmers after ice-cold water bath and aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2015-06-01

    The effect of an ice-cold water (ICW) bath as a recovery intervention from aerobic exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers was determined. Twenty ice swimmers aged 31.2 ± 6.3 years performed a 30-min cycloergometer exercise test at room temperature (20°C, RT), followed by recovery at RT or in a pool of ice-cold water (ICW bath, 3°C, 5 min). Blood for laboratory assays was collected from the basilic vein two times: before the exercise (baseline) and 40 min after the RT or ICW recovery. The concentrations of plasma and erythrocytic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (plTBARS and erTBARS, respectively), serum concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde, along with the erythrocytic activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the serum level of total antioxidant capacity, were assessed. No statistically significant changes were observed. However, a statistically significant negative linear correlation between the erTBARS concentration and the SOD activity was found 40 min after the combination of exercise/RT recovery (r=-0.571, P<0.01). The baseline CAT and SOD activities were also linearly correlated (r=0.469, P<0.05). Both the 5-min ICW bath and the 30-min aerobic exercise have practically no impact on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers.

  13. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei Dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C A

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event. PMID:27630434

  14. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C.A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event. PMID:27630434

  15. Oxidation-reduction processes in ice swimmers after ice-cold water bath and aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2015-06-01

    The effect of an ice-cold water (ICW) bath as a recovery intervention from aerobic exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers was determined. Twenty ice swimmers aged 31.2 ± 6.3 years performed a 30-min cycloergometer exercise test at room temperature (20°C, RT), followed by recovery at RT or in a pool of ice-cold water (ICW bath, 3°C, 5 min). Blood for laboratory assays was collected from the basilic vein two times: before the exercise (baseline) and 40 min after the RT or ICW recovery. The concentrations of plasma and erythrocytic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (plTBARS and erTBARS, respectively), serum concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde, along with the erythrocytic activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the serum level of total antioxidant capacity, were assessed. No statistically significant changes were observed. However, a statistically significant negative linear correlation between the erTBARS concentration and the SOD activity was found 40 min after the combination of exercise/RT recovery (r=-0.571, P<0.01). The baseline CAT and SOD activities were also linearly correlated (r=0.469, P<0.05). Both the 5-min ICW bath and the 30-min aerobic exercise have practically no impact on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers. PMID:25910677

  16. Release of ANP and fat oxidation in overweight persons during aerobic exercise in water.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, M; Schnizer, W; Aebli, N; Schlegel, C; Villiger, B; Disch, A; Gredig, J; Zaugg, T; Krebs, J

    2013-09-01

    Exercise in water compared to land-based exercise (LE) results in a higher release of natriuretic peptides, which are involved in the regulation of exercise-induced adipose tissue lipolysis. The present study was performed to compare the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and free fatty acids (FFA) during prolonged aerobic water-based exercise (WE) with the release after an identical LE. 14 untrained overweight subjects performed 2 steady state workload tests on the same ergometer in water and on land. Before and after exercise, venous blood samples were collected for measuring ANP, FFA, epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin and glucose. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was determined for fat oxidation.The exercises resulted in a significant increase in ANP in LE (61%) and in WE (177%), and FFA increased about 3-fold in LE and WE with no significant difference between the groups. Epinephrine increased, while insulin decreased similarly in both groups. The RER values decreased during the exercises, but there was no significant difference between LE and WE. In conclusion, the higher ANP concentrations in WE had no additional effect on lipid mobilization, FFA release and fat oxidation. Moderate-intensity exercises in water offer no benefit regarding adipose tissue lipolysis in comparison to LE.

  17. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura.

    PubMed

    Köseoglu, E; Akboyraz, A; Soyuer, A; Ersoy, A O

    2003-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache. Forty patients with migrainous headache without aura (MWOA), firstly exercised on a treadmill and afterwards were asked to continue an aerobic home exercise program for six weeks. On evaluation, basal plasma beta endorphin level was negatively correlated with total duration of attacks in the last month period (P = 0.01). Exercise was found to have beneficial effects on all migraine parameters (P < 0.0001) and to increase beta endorphin levels after the treadmill practice (P < 0.0001) and after the home exercise program except four patients not regularly attended to the program (P < 0.0001). Any of the changes in headache parameters was not correlated with the change in beta endorphin level. However, pre-exercise beta endorphin level was found to be negatively correlated with the changes in the number of attacks (P < 0.05) and total duration of attacks (P = 0.01) and also with the change in beta endorphin level due to exercise (P < 0.0001). As a result, this study emphasizes the beneficial effect of exercise on migrainous headache, especially in patients with lower basal beta endorphin level. PMID:14984230

  18. Aerobic exercise improves oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Zeynep; Duger, Tulin; Atalay-Guzel, Nevin; Aral, Arzu; Basturk, Bilkay; Haznedaroglu, Seminur; Goker, Berna

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Although oxidative stress is known to be present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the effects of exercise on oxidative parameters are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on serum oxidant and antioxidant levels in patients with RA. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients with RA and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. All participants wore polar telemeters and walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a speed eliciting 60-75% of maximal heart rates. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately and 24 hours after exercise and malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sulfhydrile group (RSH) levels were measured. [Results] Both groups had similar heart rates during the test but the treadmill speed of the RA patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy volunteers. Serum MDA levels were lower than in both groups immediately after exercise, with greater decrements in the RA patients than controls. MDA levels returned to baseline 24 hours after the exercise only in the controls; they remained low in the RA patients. There was a slight increase in serum RSH levels after exercise compared to baseline in both groups. [Conclusion] Moderate intensity treadmill exercise did not have any adverse effect on the oxidant-antioxidant balance. The results suggest that such an exercise may be safely added to the rehabilitation program of RA for additional antioxidant effects. Morever, this antioxidant environment is maintained longer in RA patients.

  19. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    PubMed

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample.

  20. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    PubMed

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample. PMID:23161338

  1. Dynamics of anaerobic and aerobic energy supplies during sustained high intensity exercise on cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Kanehisa, H

    1995-01-01

    Eight male subjects were examined for the transition from anaerobic to aerobic energy supplies during supramaximal pedalling for 120 s on a cycle ergometer. The O2 debt and O2 deficit were measured for anaerobic supply, while O2 intake during exercise was measured for aerobic supply. The lactic acid system was also observed through postexercise peak blood lactate concentration [la-]b,peak. Since a continuous observation of O2 debt and [la-]b,peak during a single period of pedalling is not possible, pedalling of seven varying durations (5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 s) were repeated. Mechanical power output reached its peak immediately after the beginning of exercise, then rapidly declined, becoming gradual after 60 s. The O2 debt and O2 deficit were highest immediately after the beginning of exercise, then rapidly decreased to nil in 60 s. The O2 intake was small at the beginning, then rapidly increased to attain a steady state in 30 s at 80%-90% of the maximal O2 intake of the subject. Energy supply from the lactic acid system indicated by the increment in [la-]b,peak reached its highest value during the period between 5 and 15 s, then rapidly decreased to nil in 60 s. The results would suggest that anaerobic supply was the principal contributor during the initial stage of exercise, but that aerobic supply gradually took over. In 60 s anaerobic supply ceased, and aerobic supply became the principal contributor. The cessation of anaerobic energy supply took place much sooner than the 2 min that is conventionally suggested.

  2. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition. PMID:25387489

  3. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  4. Circulating inflammatory miRNA signature in response to different doses of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Dávalos, Alberto; Montero, Ana; García-González, Ángela; Tyshkovska, Iryna; González-Medina, Antonio; Soares, Sara M A; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Rabadán, Manuel; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel E; Úbeda, Natalia; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2015-07-15

    While moderate acute exercise has been associated with strong anti-inflammatory mechanisms, strenuous exercise has been linked to deleterious inflammatory perturbations. It is therefore fundamental to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Information on novel regulators such as circulating inflammatory microRNAs (c-inflammamiRs) is incomplete. In this study, we evaluated the response of a panel of c-inflammamiRs to different doses of acute aerobic exercise. We first studied the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade in serum samples of nine active middle-aged males immediately before and after (0 h, 24 h, 72 h) 10-km, half-marathon, and marathon races. Next, we analyzed the circulating profile of 106 specific c-inflammamiRs immediately before) and after (0 h, 24 h) 10-km (low inflammatory response) and marathon (high inflammatory response) races. Analysis of classical inflammatory parameters revealed a dose-dependent effect of aerobic exercise on systemic inflammation, with higher levels detected after marathon. We observed an increase in miR-150-5p immediately after the 10-km race. Levels of 12 c-inflammamiRs were increased immediately after the marathon (let-7d-3p, let-7f-2-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-424-3p, and miR-424-5p). c-inflammamiRs returned to basal levels after 24 h. Correlation and in silico analyses supported a close association between the observed c-inflammamiR pattern and regulation of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, we found that different doses of acute aerobic exercise induced a distinct and specific c-inflammamiR response, which may be associated with control of the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Our findings point to c-inflammamiRs as potential biomarkers of exercise-induced inflammation, and hence, exercise dose.

  5. Influence of acute aerobic exercise on adiponectin oligomer concentrations in middle-aged abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Katayama, Yasutomi; Hayashi, Yoichi; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2011-02-01

    Exercise intensity may induce changes in total adiponectin and adiponectin oligomer levels. However, the effects of acute aerobic exercise on total adiponectin and adiponectin oligomers in middle-aged abdominally obese men remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of aerobic exercise intensity on changes in the concentrations of total adiponectin and adiponectin oligomers (high-molecular weight [HMW] and middle- plus low-molecular weight [MLMW] adiponectin), and the endocrine mechanisms involved in exercise-induced changes in adiponectin oligomer profiles in middle-aged abdominally obese men. Using a crossover design, 9 middle-aged abdominally obese men (age, 54.1 ± 2.4 years; body mass index, 27.9 ± 0.6 kg/m²) underwent 2 trials that consisted of 60 minutes of stationary cycle exercise at either moderate-intensity (ME) or high-intensity (HE) aerobic exercise (50% or 70% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively). Blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of adiponectin oligomers, hormones (catecholamines, insulin, and growth hormone), metabolites (free fatty acid, glycerol, triglyceride, and glucose), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α). After exercise, plasma catecholamine concentrations were higher during HE than during ME (P < .05). Total adiponectin concentration decreased at the end of HE (P < .05), but remained unchanged after ME. The HMW adiponectin concentration did not change at either intensity, whereas the MLMW concentration decreased at the end of HE (P < .05). The ratio of HMW to total adiponectin concentration increased significantly (P < .05), whereas the ratio of MLMW to total adiponectin concentration decreased significantly (P < .05), at the end of HE. The percentage changes in epinephrine concentration from baseline to the end of exercise were correlated with the percentage changes in total adiponectin concentration (r = -0.67, P < .05) and MLMW adiponectin concentration (r

  6. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  7. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  8. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  9. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden.

  10. A survey of social support for exercise and its relationship to health behaviours and health status among endurance Nordic skiers

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Paul J; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Design Survey. Setting The largest Nordic ski race in North America. Participants 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Outcome measures Social support, health behaviours and health status. Results The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=−16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Conclusions Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. PMID:27338876

  11. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  12. Exercise and depressive symptoms: a comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Penninx, Brenda W J H; Rejeski, W Jack; Pandya, Jasma; Miller, Michael E; Di Bari, Mauro; Applegate, William B; Pahor, Marco

    2002-03-01

    This study examines and compares the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on emotional and physical function among older persons with initially high or low depressive symptomatology. Data are from the Fitness, Arthritis and Seniors Trial, a trial among 439 persons 60 years or older with knee osteoarthritis randomized to health education (control), resistance exercise, or aerobic exercise groups. Depressive symptoms (assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scale) and physical function (disability, walking speed, and pain) were assessed at baseline and after 3, 9, and 18 months. Compared with results for the control group, aerobic exercise significantly lowered depressive symptoms over time. No such effect was observed for resistance exercise. The reduction in depressive symptoms with aerobic exercise was found both among the 98 participants with initially high depressive symptomatology and among the 340 participants with initially low depressive symptomatology and was the strongest for the most compliant persons. Aerobic and resistance exercise significantly reduced disability and pain and increased walking speed both, and to an equal extent, in persons with high depressive symptomatology and persons with low depressive symptomatology.

  13. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  14. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  15. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue -17 ± 15%, control -15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, p < 0.001) in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort

  16. Strength training increases endurance time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise despite no change in critical power.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Stokes, David G; Womack, Christopher J; Morton, R Hugh; Weltman, Arthur; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether improvements in endurance exercise performance elicited by strength training were accurately reflected by changes in parameters of the power-duration hyperbola for high-intensity exercise. Before and after 8 weeks of strength training (N = 14) or no exercise, control (N = 5), 19 males (age: 20.6 ± 2.0 years; weight: 78.2 ± 15.9 kg) performed a maximal incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer and also cycled to exhaustion during 4 constant-power exercise bouts. Critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (W') were estimated using nonlinear and linear models. Subjects in the strength training group improved significantly more than controls (p < 0.05) for strength (~30%), power at V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (7.9%), and time to exhaustion (TTE) for all 4 constant-power tests (~39%). Contrary to our hypothesis, CP did not change significantly after strength training (p > 0.05 for all models). Strength training improved W' (mean range of improvement = +5.8 to +10.0 kJ; p < 0.05) for both linear models. Increases in W' were consistently positively correlated with improvements in TTE, whereas changes in CP were not. Our findings indicate that strength training alters the power-duration hyperbola such that W' is enhanced without any improvement in CP. Consequently, CP may not be robust enough to track changes in endurance capacity elicited by strength training, and we do not recommend it to be used for this purpose. Conversely, W' may be the better indicator of improvement in endurance performance elicited by strength training.

  17. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery. PMID:26988766

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  19. The effect of six weeks endurance training on dynamic muscular control of the knee following fatiguing exercise.

    PubMed

    Hassanlouei, H; Falla, D; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Kersting, U G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether six weeks of endurance training minimizes the effects of fatigue on postural control during dynamic postural perturbations. Eighteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either a 6-week progressive endurance training program on a cycle ergometer or a control group. At week 0 and 7, dynamic exercise was performed on an ergometer until exhaustion and immediately after, the anterior-posterior centre of pressure (COP) sway was analyzed during full body perturbations. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee flexors and extensors, muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) of the vastus lateralis and medialis during sustained isometric knee extension contractions, and power output were measured. Following the training protocol, maximum knee extensor and flexor force and power output increased significantly for the training group with no changes observed for the control group. Moreover, the reduction of MFCV due to fatigue changed for the training group only (from 8.6% to 3.4%). At baseline, the fatiguing exercise induced an increase in the centre of pressure sway during the perturbations in both groups (>10%). The fatiguing protocol also impaired postural control in the control group when measured at week 7. However, for the training group, sway was not altered after the fatiguing exercise when assessed at week 7. In summary, six weeks of endurance training delayed the onset of muscle fatigue and improved the ability to control balance in response to postural perturbations in the presence of muscle fatigue. Results implicate that endurance training should be included in any injury prevention program.

  20. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Yi-Jean; Tang, Tze-Chun; Liu, Mei-Fang; Chen, Ming-De

    2016-10-30

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether these exercise-induced cognitive benefits persist beyond the training period. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the immediate and maintenance effects of AE on a wide range of cognitive functions in 75 schizophrenia patients randomized to 12 weeks of either moderate-intensity treadmill exercise or stretching and toning exercise that served as a control. Participants completed assessments of neurocognition and cardiovascular fitness at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the AE group outperformed the controls on processing speed and attention at the end of intervention. The two groups did not differ significantly in any cognitive outcome measured at follow-up; however, improvement over time was noted in certain cognitive domains in AE group. The average effect sizes at follow-up were 0.53 and 0.35 for AE and control groups, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in aerobic fitness at posttest and follow-up, and that fitness level was not related to changes in cognitive performance. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a trend towards beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition over a short follow-up period in favor of AE. PMID:27525830

  1. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Yi-Jean; Tang, Tze-Chun; Liu, Mei-Fang; Chen, Ming-De

    2016-10-30

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether these exercise-induced cognitive benefits persist beyond the training period. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the immediate and maintenance effects of AE on a wide range of cognitive functions in 75 schizophrenia patients randomized to 12 weeks of either moderate-intensity treadmill exercise or stretching and toning exercise that served as a control. Participants completed assessments of neurocognition and cardiovascular fitness at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the AE group outperformed the controls on processing speed and attention at the end of intervention. The two groups did not differ significantly in any cognitive outcome measured at follow-up; however, improvement over time was noted in certain cognitive domains in AE group. The average effect sizes at follow-up were 0.53 and 0.35 for AE and control groups, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in aerobic fitness at posttest and follow-up, and that fitness level was not related to changes in cognitive performance. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a trend towards beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition over a short follow-up period in favor of AE.

  2. Test-retest reliability of the Aerobic Power Index submaximal exercise test in an obese population.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Karen E; Campbell, Leanne

    2007-06-01

    Many overweight and obese individuals have difficulty in performing aerobic fitness tests that require maximal exertion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the Aerobic Power Index (API) submaximal aerobic exercise test, as well as associated variables consisting of oxygen uptake (mlkg(-1)min(-1)) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in an obese population. Twenty-two obese subjects (3 males and 19 females) aged between 36 and 68 years (mean=45.7+/-9.8 years), with BMI's ranging between 30.45 and 39.18kgm(-2) (mean=33.63+/-2.6), participated in two trials that was performed on the same weekday at the same time, but 1 week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores for power output (Wkg(-1)) and oxygen uptake O(2) (mlkg(-1)min(-1)) were highly reliable (R(1)=0.95 and 0.96, respectively), while the ICC score for RPE was moderately reliable (R(1)=0.88). Technical error of measurement results for power output (Wkg(-1)), O(2) (mlkg(-1)min(-1)), and RPE were 0.07Wkg(-1), 0.71mlkg(-1)min(-1), and 0.92, respectively. Additionally, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient demonstrated a strong relationship between power output (Wkg(-1)) and O(2) (mlkg(-1)min(-1)) for trial 1 (r=0.90) and for trial 2 (r=0.89). Results from this study demonstrated that the API submaximal aerobic exercise test is a highly reliable protocol for use in an obese population, and can be considered as an alternative exercise test to other submaximal cycle tests.

  3. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26755735

  4. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation.

  5. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  6. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  7. Cardiovagal Modulation and Efficacy of Aerobic Exercise Training in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Baynard, Tracy; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Sosnoff, Ruth F.; Fernhall, Bo; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with poor exercise tolerance and peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) even when compared to obese non-diabetic peers. Exercise training studies have demonstrated improvements in VO2peak among T2D, yet there is a large amount of variability in this response. Recent evidence suggests that cardiac autonomic modulation may be an important factor when considering improvements in aerobic capacity. Purpose To determine the effects of a 16 wk aerobic exercise program on VO2peak in obese individuals, with and without T2D, who were classified as having either high or low cardiovagal modulation (HCVM or LCVM) at baseline. Methods Obese individuals (38 women/19 men; BMI = 36.1 kg/m2) were studied in the fasted state. ECG recordings were obtained while seated for 3 min, prior to and after 4 mo of exercise training (4 d/wk, 65% VO2peak). The ECG recording was analyzed for HRV in the spectral domain. Groups were split on a marker of CVM (normalized high frequency (HFnu)) at the 50th percentile, as either high (H) or low (L) CVM. Results VO2peak only increased with exercise training among those classified as having HCVM, regardless of diabetes status (T2D: HCVM 20.3 to 22.5 mL/kg/min, LCVM 24.3 to 25.0 mL/kg/min; Obese non-diabetics: HCVM 24.5 to 26.3 mL/kg/min, LCVM 23.1 to 23.7 mL/kg/min) (p<0.05). No change in VO2peak was observed for the LCVM group. Changes in weight do not explain the change in VO2peak among the HCVM group. Glucose tolerance only improved among the LCVM group with T2D. Conclusion Obese individuals, with or without T2D, when classified as having relatively HCVM prior to exercise training, have a greater propensity to improve VO2peak following a 16-week aerobic training program. PMID:23899888

  8. Acute Effect of Morning and Afternoon Aerobic Exercise on Appetite of Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Mostafaee, Masoumeh; Mazaheri, Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The best time of exercise along the day for weight management in overweight and obese patients is not determined. The time of exercise may influence its effect on appetite and food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different times of exercise during the day on appetite, energy intake, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on overweight women. Patients and Methods: Fifty overweight female subjects were recruited in this interventional study. Two sessions of exercise were performed in the morning and afternoon with the target heart rate corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT). The appetite was evaluated with visual analogue scale, the energy intake was measured with 24 hours food record and the RPE was determined by visual Borg scale; these variables were compared between the two sessions. Results: The behavior of appetite in relation to hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, tendency to salty, savoury, sweet and fatty foods, did not change significantly after both exercise sessions (P > 0.05). Except for the satiety, no significant difference was found among changes in the appetite scores between the two exercise sessions. The median change in the satiety score of the morning exercise was significantly higher than that of the afternoon exercise (5.5 (-8.5, 22.5) vs. -1 (-8, 4.5) respectively, P = 0.01). The median RPE value did not differ significantly between the morning and afternoon sessions (13 (12, 14) vs. 13 (12, 13) respectively, P = 0.46). There was no significant association between the time of exercise and the estimates of the carbohydrate (P = 0.41), fat (P = 0.23), protein (P = 0.13), and calorie intake (P = 0.18). Conclusions: One session of moderate intensity exercise disregarding the time of exercise did not affect appetite significantly. However, morning exercise may cause greater levels of satiety in comparison with afternoon exercise. Moderate intensity aerobic

  9. The effect of exposure to negative air ions on the recovery of physiological responses after moderate endurance exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryushi, T.; Kita, Ichirou; Sakurai, Tomonobu; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Isokawa, Masanori; Aihara, Yasutugu; Hama, Kotaro

    This study examined the effects of negative air ion exposure on the human cardiovascular and endocrine systems during rest and during the recovery period following moderate endurance exercise. Ten healthy adult men were studied in the presence (8,000-10,000 cm-3) or absence (200-400 cm-3) of negative air ions (25° C, 50% humidity) after 1 h of exercise. The level of exercise was adjusted to represent a 50-60% load compared with the subjects' maximal oxygen uptake, which was determined using a bicycle ergometer in an unmodified environment (22-23° C, 30-35% humidity, 200-400 negative air ions.cm-3). The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values during the recovery period were significantly lower in the presence of negative ions than in their absence. The plasma levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) were significantly lower in the presence of negative ions than in their absence. These results demonstrated that exposure to negative air ions produced a slow recovery of DBP and decreases in the levels of 5-HT and DA in the recovery period after moderate endurance exercise. 5-HT is thought to have contributed to the slow recovery of DBP.

  10. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on skeletal muscle after endurance exercise training in rats

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Livia; Yamashita, Fernanda; Magri, Angela M. P.; Fernandes, Kelly R.; Yamauchi, Liria; Renno, Ana C. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be effective in optimizing skeletal muscle performance in animal experiments and in clinical trials. However, little is known about the effects of LLLT on muscle recovery after endurance training. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied after an endurance training protocol on biochemical markers and morphology of skeletal muscle in rats. METHOD: Wistar rats were divided into control group (CG), trained group (TG), and trained and laser irradiated group (TLG). The endurance training was performed on a treadmill, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk at 60% of the maximal speed reached during the maximal effort test (Tmax) and laser irradiation was applied after training. RESULTS: Both trained groups showed significant increase in speed compared to the CG. The TLG demonstrated a significantly reduced lactate level, increased tibialis anterior (TA) fiber cross-section area, and decreased TA fiber density. Myogenin expression was higher in soleus and TA muscles in both trained groups. In addition, LLLT produced myogenin downregulation in the TA muscle of trained animals. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach for stimulating recovery during an endurance exercise protocol. PMID:26647747

  11. Prevention of the incubation of cocaine seeking by aerobic exercise in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise can attenuate craving for drugs of abuse and reduce escalation and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in animal models. The present study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on the development of the incubation of cocaine-seeking behavior or the progressive increase in cocaine seeking over a protracted withdrawal period from cocaine self-administration. METHODS Female rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during daily 6-h sessions for 10 days. Subsequently, access to cocaine and cocaine-paired cues was discontinued during a 3- or 30-day withdrawal period when rats had access to either a locked or unlocked running wheel. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were reintroduced to the operant conditioning chamber and reexposed to cocaine-paired cues to examine cocaine-seeking behavior under extinction conditions. RESULTS Rats with access to a locked running wheel during 30 days of withdrawal had significantly greater cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior than rats that had access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 days. Further, there was robust incubation of cocaine seeking in rats with access to a locked running wheel as cocaine seeking was notably elevated at 30 vs. 3 days of withdrawal. However, cocaine-seeking behavior did not differ between rats with access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 vs. 3 days, indicating that incubation of cocaine seeking was suppressed following access to exercise for 30 days. CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise during extended withdrawal from cocaine self-administration decreased incubation of cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and may reduce vulnerability to relapse. PMID:26159456

  12. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  13. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.

    PubMed

    Davis, Randall W; Williams, Terrie M

    2012-08-01

    When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation. In free-diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response (i.e., tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation) during physical exertion. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged. We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. Here, we show that heart rate (HR) does indeed increase with flipper or fluke stroke frequency (SF) during voluntary, aerobic dives in Weddell seals (HR = 1.48SF - 8.87) and bottlenose dolphins (HR = 0.99SF + 2.46), respectively, two marine mammal species with different evolutionary lineages. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion. PMID:22585422

  14. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905

  15. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (P<0.05) and was maintained in EX; however, significant individual variability was observed (CON: -22%, range: -39% to -.5%; EX: -1.8%, range: -16% to 12.6%). The overlap in ranges between groups included 3 CON who experienced smaller reduction in VO2pk (<16%) than the worst responding EX subjects. Individual variability was maintained when VO2pk was normalized to lean mass (range, CON: -33.7% to -5.7%; EX: -15.8% to 11%), and the overlap included 5 CON with smaller reductions in VO2pk than the worst responding EX subjects. High responders to disuse also lost the most lean mass; however, this relationship was not maintained in EX (i.e. the largest gains/losses in lean mass were observed in both high and low

  16. Aerobic exercise before diving reduces venous gas bubble formation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dujić, Željko; Duplančic, Darko; Marinovic-Terzić, Ivana; Baković, Darija; Ivančev, Vladimir; Valic, Zoran; Eterović, Davor; Petri, Nadan M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown in a rat model that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise 20h before a simulated dive reduces bubble formation and after the dive protects from lethal decompression sickness. The present study investigated the importance of these findings in man. Twelve healthy male divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 280kPa at a rate of 100kPamin−1 breathing air and remaining at pressure for 80min. The ascent rate was 9mmin−1 with a 7min stop at 130kPa. Each diver underwent two randomly assigned simulated dives, with or without preceding exercise. A single interval exercise performed 24h before the dive consisted of treadmill running at 90% of maximum heart rate for 3min, followed by exercise at 50% of maximum heart rate for 2min; this was repeated eight times for a total exercise period of 40min. Venous gas bubbles were monitored with an ultrasonic scanner every 20min for 80min after reaching surface pressure. The study demonstrated that a single bout of strenuous exercise 24h before a dive to 18 m of seawater significantly reduced the average number of bubbles in the pulmonary artery from 0.98 to 0.22 bubbles cm−2(P= 0.006) compared to dives without preceding exercise. The maximum bubble grade was decreased from 3 to 1.5 (P= 0.002) by pre-dive exercise, thereby increasing safety. This is the first report to indicate that pre-dive exercise may form the basis for a new way of preventing serious decompression sickness. PMID:14755001

  17. Markers of Human Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Quality Control: Effects of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in mitochondrial health may foster age-related losses of aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle size. However, limited data exist regarding mitochondrial dynamics in aging human skeletal muscle and the influence of exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, VO2peak, and skeletal muscle size before and after aerobic exercise training in young men (20 ± 1 y) and older men (74 ± 3 y). Exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurred independent of age, whereas the improvement in VO2peak was more pronounced in young men. Aerobic exercise training increased proteins involved with mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and fission, independent of age. This is the first study to examine pathways of mitochondrial quality control in aging human skeletal muscle with aerobic exercise training. These data indicate normal aging does not influence proteins associated with mitochondrial health or the ability to respond to aerobic exercise training at the mitochondrial and skeletal muscle levels. PMID:23873965

  18. Markers of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control: effects of age and aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Wolff, Christopher A; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perturbations in mitochondrial health may foster age-related losses of aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle size. However, limited data exist regarding mitochondrial dynamics in aging human skeletal muscle and the influence of exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, VO2peak, and skeletal muscle size before and after aerobic exercise training in young men (20 ± 1 y) and older men (74 ± 3 y). Exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurred independent of age, whereas the improvement in VO2peak was more pronounced in young men. Aerobic exercise training increased proteins involved with mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and fission, independent of age. This is the first study to examine pathways of mitochondrial quality control in aging human skeletal muscle with aerobic exercise training. These data indicate normal aging does not influence proteins associated with mitochondrial health or the ability to respond to aerobic exercise training at the mitochondrial and skeletal muscle levels.

  19. moBeat: Using interactive music to guide and motivate users during aerobic exercising.

    PubMed

    van der Vlist, Bram; Bartneck, Christoph; Mäueler, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of people are having trouble staying fit and maintaining a healthy bodyweight because of lack of physical activity. Getting people to exercise is crucial. However, many struggle with developing healthy exercising habits, due to hurdles like having to leave the house and the boring character of endurance exercising. In this paper, we report on a design project that explores the use of audio to motivate and provide feedback and guidance during exercising in a home environment. We developed moBeat, a system that provides intensity-based coaching while exercising, giving real-time feedback on training pace and intensity by means of interactive music. We conducted a within-subject comparison between our moBeat system and a commercially available heart rate watch. With moBeat, we achieved a comparable success rate: our system has a significant, positive influence on intrinsic motivation and attentional focus, but we did not see significant differences with regard to either perceived exertion or effectiveness. Although promising, future research is needed.

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis function after exercise in sedentary and endurance trained elderly males.

    PubMed

    Strüder, H K; Hollmann, W; Platen, P; Rost, R; Weicker, H; Weber, K

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPAA) and -gonadal (HPGA) axis responses to post-exercise (30 min at 65% VO2max) combined corticotrophin, luteinizing hormone and thyrotrophin releasing hormone challenge (0.7 microg/ kg body mass) in elderly distance runners (DR; age: 68.9+/-4.2 year) and sedentary individuals (SI; age: 69.1+/-2.6 year). Plasma cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and total testosterone (T) concentrations pre- and post-exercise as well as in response to stimulation did not differ between DR and SI. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone returned to pre-exercise level in DR 60 min and in SI 90 min post-stimulation. Free T was lower in DR at all time points. Our results do not support the notion of altered releasing hormone-stimulable HPAA and HPGA synthesis-secretion capacity in elderly males after endurance training.

  1. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  2. Acute aerobic exercise increases exogenously infused bone marrow cell retention in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Erica N; Ding, Dennis; Muthukumaran, Geetha; Houser, Steven R; Starosta, Tim; Mu, Anbin; Margulies, Kenneth B; Libonati, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce infarct size. Exercise training, in the form of cardiac rehabilitation, is an essential part of patient care post-MI. Hence, we tested the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on stem cell retention and cardiac remodeling post-MI. Small epicardial MI’s were induced in 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice via cryoinjury. Two weeks post-MI, vehicle infusion (N = 4) or GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells (BMC) were injected (tail vein I.V.) immediately after acute exercise (N = 14) or sedentary conditions (N = 14). A subset of mice continued a 5-week intervention of chronic treadmill exercise (10–13 m/min; 45 min/day; 4 days/week; N = 7) or remained sedentary (N = 6). Exercise tolerance was assessed using a graded exercise test, and cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. Acute exercise increased GFP+ BMC retention in the infarcted zone of the heart by 30% versus sedentary (P < 0.05). This was not associated with alterations in myocardial function or gene expression of key cell adhesion molecules. Animals treated with chronic exercise increased exercise capacity (P < 0.05) and cardiac mass (P < 0.05) without change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), infarct size, or regional wall thickness (P = NS) compared with sedentary. While BMC’s alone did not affect exercise capacity, they increased LVEF (P < 0.05) and Ki67+ nuclei number in the border zone of the heart (P < 0.05), which was potentiated with chronic exercise training (P < 0.05). We conclude that acute exercise increases BMC retention in infarcted hearts and chronic training increases exogenous BMC-mediated effects on stimulating the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. These preclinical results suggest that exercise may help to optimize stem cell therapeutics following MI. PMID:26486160

  3. Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Rebecca A.; Brunn, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

  4. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S.

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  5. The Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline Improves Endurance Exercise Performance in Two Consecutive Days

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Shiung; Wang, Yi-Wen; Chen, I-Fan; Hsu, Gi-Sheng; Hsueh, Chun-Fang; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system plays a crucial role in fatigue during endurance exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) could reduce cerebral serotonin synthesis by competing with its precursor tryptophan for crossing the blood brain barrier. Arginine and citrulline could prevent excess hyperammonemia accompanied by BCAA supplementation. This study investigated the combination of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on endurance performance in two consecutive days. Seven male and three female endurance runners ingested 0.17 g·kg-1 BCAA, 0.05 g·kg-1 arginine and 0.05 g·kg-1 citrulline (AA trial) or placebo (PL trial) in a randomized cross-over design. Each trial contained a 5000 m time trial on the first day, and a 10000 m time trial on the second day. The AA trial had significantly better performance in 5000 m (AA: 1065.7 ± 33.9 s; PL: 1100.5 ± 40.4 s) and 10000 m (AA: 2292.0 ± 211.3 s; PL: 2375.6 ± 244.2 s). The two trials reported similar ratings of perceived exertion. After exercise, the AA trial had significantly lower tryptophan/BCAA ratio, similar NH3, and significantly higher urea concentrations. In conclusion, the supplementation could enhance time-trial performance in two consecutive days in endurance runners, possibly through the inhibition of cerebral serotonin synthesis by BCAA and the prevention of excess hyperammonemia by increased urea genesis. Key points The combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline could enhance performance in 5000 m and 10000 m in 2 consecutive days in competitive runners. The supplementation may be helpful in multi-day competitions. The supplemented BCAA may alleviate central fatigue, allowing the subjects to run faster at the same degree of perceived exertion. The hyperammonemia that is usually accompanied with BCAA supplementation may be prevented by arginine and citrulline through increased urea genesis. PMID:27803630

  6. Aerobic fitness determines whole-body fat oxidation rate during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whole-body fat oxidation in endurance-trained (TR) and untrained (UNTR) subjects exercising at different intensities in the heat. On 3 occasions, 10 TR cyclists and 10 UNTR healthy subjects (peak oxygen uptake = 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.05) exercised at 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake in a hot, dry environment (36 °C; 25% relative humidity). To complete the same amount of work in all 3 trials, exercise duration varied (107 ± 4, 63 ± 1, and 45 ± 0 min for 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake, respectively). Substrate oxidation was calculated using indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were collected at the end of exercise to determine plasma epinephrine ([EPI]plasma) and norepinephrine ([NEPI]plasma) concentrations. The maximal rate of fat oxidation was achieved at 60% peak oxygen uptake for the TR group (0.41 ± 0.01 g·min-1) and at 40% peak oxygen uptake for the UNTR group (0.28 ± 0.01 g·min-1). TR subjects oxidized absolutely (g·min-1) and relatively (% of total energy expenditure) more fat than UNTR subjects at 60% and 80% peak oxygen uptake (p < 0.05). At these exercise intensities, TR subjects also had higher [NEPI]plasma concentrations than UNTR subjects (p < 0.05). In the heat, whole-body peak fat oxidation occurs at higher relative exercise intensities in TR than in UNTR subjects (60% vs. 40% peak oxygen uptake). Moreover, TR subjects oxidize more fat than UNTR subjects when exercising at moderate to high intensities (>60% peak oxygen uptake).

  7. Muscle Physiology Changes Induced by Every Other Day Feeding and Endurance Exercise in Mice: Effects on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Peña Amaro, José; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J.; Carrión, Ángel M.; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Every other day feeding (EOD) and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage. PMID:21085477

  8. Rapid upregulation and clearance of distinct circulating microRNAs after prolonged aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Baggish, Aaron L; Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y

    2014-03-01

    Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as "circulating" miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499-5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation.

  9. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  10. Protein Requirements Are Elevated in Endurance Athletes after Exercise as Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuya; Bannai, Makoto; Moore, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    A higher protein intake has been recommended for endurance athletes compared with healthy non-exercising individuals based primarily on nitrogen balance methodology. The aim of this study was to determine the estimated average protein requirement and recommended protein intake in endurance athletes during an acute 3-d controlled training period using the indicator amino acid oxidation method. After 2-d of controlled diet (1.4 g protein/kg/d) and training (10 and 5km/d, respectively), six male endurance-trained adults (28±4 y of age; Body weight, 64.5±10.0 kg; VO2peak, 60.3±6.7 ml·kg-1·min-1; means±SD) performed an acute bout of endurance exercise (20 km treadmill run) prior to consuming test diets providing variable amounts of protein (0.2–2.8 g·kg-1·d-1) and sufficient energy. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on the composition of egg protein with [1-13C]phenylalanine provided to determine whole body phenylalanine flux, 13CO2 excretion, and phenylalanine oxidation. The estimated average protein requirement was determined as the breakpoint after biphasic linear regression analysis with a recommended protein intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux (68.8±8.5 μmol·kg-1·h-1) was not affected by protein intake. 13CO2 excretion displayed a robust bi-phase linear relationship (R2 = 0.86) that resulted in an estimated average requirement and a recommended protein intake of 1.65 and 1.83 g protein·kg-1·d-1, respectively, which was similar to values based on phenylalanine oxidation (1.53 and 1.70 g·kg-1·d-1, respectively). We report a recommended protein intake that is greater than the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1) and current recommendations for endurance athletes (1.2–1.4 g·kg-1·d-1). Our results suggest that the metabolic demand for protein in endurance-trained adults on a higher volume training day is greater than their sedentary peers and current recommendations for athletes based primarily on

  11. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IGF-1 and cortisol elicited by regular aerobic exercise in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yong Kyun; Ha, Chang Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted on adolescent subjects whose brains are still developing with the purpose of identifying the effect of 8 weeks duration of aerobic exercises on the expression of BDNF, IGF-1 and cortisol, to identify effect of aerobic exercise on the expression of cortisol, BDNF and IGF-1 related to nerve cell growth. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 junior-high school students with no history of physical illness. The students were divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed 3 treadmill exercise times per week for 8 weeks. The exercise time for the consumption of 200 kcal was calculated and the exercises were performed by each individual for 8 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed statistically significant in increases serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but cortisol showed no significant change. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but the difference in cortisol levels was not significant. [Conclusion] We found that long-term regular aerobic exercises has a positive effect on the enhancement of serum BDNF levels at rest and IGF-1 of adolescents who are still undergoing through brain developments. PMID:25931720

  12. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  13. EEG recovery enhanced by acute aerobic exercise after performing mental task with listening to unpleasant sound.

    PubMed

    Nishifuji, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigated response of electroencephalogram (EEG) to aerobic exercise with low intensity after performing mental task with listening to acoustic stimuli in order to measure a recovery effect of the acute exercise on the EEG. The mean amplitude of the alpha wave (8-13 Hz) was significantly reduced during performing mental arithmetic and/or listening to 5 KHz unpleasant tone. In particular, the mean reduction rate of the amplitude was more than 20 % in the low-frequency range of the alpha wave (8-10 Hz) under both stressors. On the other hand, the alpha wave was fixed after an acute exercise of 20 min; the mean amplitude of the alpha wave exceeded 30 % of spontaneous level prior to stressed conditions in the low-frequency range but unchanged in the high-frequency range. Response of the theta wave was similar to the low-alpha wave, while beta and gamma waves showed no significant change in response to the stressors and exercise. The observation indicates that the acute exercise with low intensity may be responsible for the rapid recovery and enhancement of the alpha wave in the low-frequency range and theta wave.

  14. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans. PMID:21722657

  15. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinf