Science.gov

Sample records for aerobic exercise programme

  1. The effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme on cognitive function in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Adam; Zaporojan, Lilia; McNamara, Patricia; Doherty, Colin P; Redmond, Janice; Forde, Cuisle; Gormley, John; Egaña, Mikel; Bergin, Colm

    2016-11-28

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention. Outcomes measured included cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) and the Trail making tests A and B), aerobic fitness (modified Bruce protocol), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index; PSQI) and physical activity levels (seven-day accelerometry). At baseline, higher levels of moderate physical activity were positively correlated with higher MOCA scores and levels of aerobic fitness were negatively associated with Trail A scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively). However, exercise training did not induce any significant improvements in cognitive function or aerobic fitness. The overall mean adherence rate to the exercise programme was 60%. In conclusion, in the present study a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention did not affect the cognitive function of participants with HIV. It is likely that longer intervention periods and/or higher adherence rates to exercise might be needed for an aerobic exercise programme to be effective in improving cognitive function in a cohort with no baseline cognitive impairments.

  2. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  3. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  4. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  5. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  6. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  7. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  8. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  9. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  10. Does an aerobic endurance programme have an influence on information processing in migraineurs?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a disorder of central information processing which is characterized by a reduced habituation of event-related potentials. There might be positive effects of aerobic exercise on brain function and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise on information processing and clinical course of migraine. Methods 33 patients completed a ten-week aerobic exercise programme. To examine the influence of the treatment on information processing and attention, Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, d2-Letter Cancellation Test (LCT) and recordings of the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were performed before and after the training. Results Patients showed a significant reduction of the migraine attack frequency, the iCNV-amplitude and the processing time for TMT-A and TMT-B after treatment. Moreover, there was a significant increase of the habituation and positive changes in parameters of attention (d2-LCT) after the training. Conclusions This study demonstrates that aerobic exercise programme influences central information processing and leads to clinical effects on the migraine symptomatology. The results can be interpreted in terms of an improvement of a dysfunctional information processing and a stimulus selection under aerobic exercise. PMID:24528557

  11. Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

    1998-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In

  12. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  13. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  14. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  15. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  16. Aerobic Exercise Preserves Olfaction Function in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Based on anecdotal reports of improved olfaction following aerobic exercise, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise program on olfaction function in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Thirty-eight participants with idiopathic PD were randomized to either an aerobic exercise group (n = 23) or a nonexercise control group (n = 15). The aerobic exercise group completed a 60-minute cycling session three times per week for eight weeks while the nonexercise control group received no intervention. All participants completed the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at baseline, end of treatment, and a four-week follow up. Results. Change in UPSIT scores between the exercise and nonexercise groups from baseline to EOT (p = 0.01) and from baseline to EOT+4 (p = 0.02) favored the aerobic exercise group. Individuals in the nonexercise group had worsening olfaction function over time, while the exercise group was spared from decline. Discussion. The difference in UPSIT scores suggested that aerobic exercise may be altering central nervous system pathways that regulate the physiologic or cognitive processes controlling olfaction in individuals with PD. While these results provide promising preliminary evidence that exercise may modify the disease process, further systematic evaluation is necessary. PMID:27999706

  17. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  18. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  19. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  20. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  1. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  2. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  3. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.

  4. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Alves-Wagner, Ana B; Hirshman, Michael F; Gallagher, Iain J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Atkins, Ryan; Greenhaff, Paul L; Qi, Nathan R; Gustafsson, Thomas; Fielding, Roger A; Timmons, James A; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a risk factor for diabetes and a strong predictor of mortality, yet some individuals are "exercise-resistant" and unable to improve exercise capacity through exercise training. To test the hypothesis that resistance to aerobic exercise training underlies metabolic disease risk, we used selective breeding for 15 generations to develop rat models of low and high aerobic response to training. Before exercise training, rats selected as low and high responders had similar exercise capacities. However, after 8 weeks of treadmill training, low responders failed to improve their exercise capacity, whereas high responders improved by 54%. Remarkably, low responders to aerobic training exhibited pronounced metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and increased adiposity, demonstrating that the exercise-resistant phenotype segregates with disease risk. Low responders had impaired exercise-induced angiogenesis in muscle; however, mitochondrial capacity was intact and increased normally with exercise training, demonstrating that mitochondria are not limiting for aerobic adaptation or responsible for metabolic dysfunction in low responders. Low responders had increased stress/inflammatory signaling and altered transforming growth factor-β signaling, characterized by hyperphosphorylation of a novel exercise-regulated phosphorylation site on SMAD2. Using this powerful biological model system, we have discovered key pathways for low exercise training response that may represent novel targets for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  5. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  6. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schadler, Keri L.; Thomas, Nicholas J.; Galie, Peter A.; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C.; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S.; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27589843

  7. Aerobic response to exercise of the fastest land crab.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Herreid, C F

    1983-04-01

    To view the aerobic response to exercise, the ghost crab Ocypode guadichaudii was run in a treadmill respirometer at three velocities (0.13, 0.19, and 0.28 km/h) while oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored. A steady-state VO2 that increased linearly with velocity was attained. VO2 transient periods at the beginning and end of exercise were extremely rapid with half times from 50 to 150 s. The magnitude of oxygen deficit and debt were small and both showed increases with an increase in velocity. Oxygen debt was measured at each velocity after 4-, 10-, and 20-min exercise bouts. No change in the magnitude of oxygen debt was observed with respect to exercise duration. Maximal VO2 was 11.9 times the average resting VO2. Oxygen uptake kinetics have shown only very sluggish and reduced rates in five other more sedentary crab species previously tested. The aerobic response pattern observed in the present study is more comparable to that of exercising mammals and highly aerobic ectothermic vertebrates. This suggests that the ghost crab meets the energy demand of sustained exercise by aerobic ATP production in contrast to many other crab species.

  8. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  9. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Sciver, Angela; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Brooks, William M.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. Methods and findings This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361 PMID:28187125

  10. Acute aerobic exercise modulates primary motor cortex inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Ronan A; Coxon, James P; Cirillo, John; Glenny, Helen; Gant, Nicholas; Byblow, Winston D

    2016-12-01

    Aerobic exercise can enhance neuroplasticity although presently the neural mechanisms underpinning these benefits remain unclear. One possible mechanism is through effects on primary motor cortex (M1) function via down-regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The aim of the present study was to examine how corticomotor excitability (CME) and M1 intracortical inhibition are modulated in response to a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Ten healthy right-handed adults were participants. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over left M1 to obtain motor-evoked potentials in the right flexor pollicis brevis. We examined CME, cortical silent period (SP) duration, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI), and late cortical disinhibition (LCD), before and after acute aerobic exercise (exercise session) or an equivalent duration without exercise (control session). Aerobic exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at a workload equivalent to 60 % of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak; heart rate reserve = 75 ± 3 %, perceived exertion = 13.5 ± 0.7). LICI was reduced at 10 (52 ± 17 %, P = 0.03) and 20 min (27 ± 8 %, P = 0.03) post-exercise compared to baseline (13 ± 4 %). No significant changes in CME, SP duration, SICI or LCD were observed. The present study shows that GABAB-mediated intracortical inhibition may be down-regulated after acute aerobic exercise. The potential effects this may have on M1 plasticity remain to be determined.

  11. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  12. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Caram, Laura M. O.; Dourado, Victor Zuniga; de Godoy, Irma; Tanni, Suzana Erico

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years) agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p = 0.004) and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p = 0.008) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p < 0.001). Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p = 0.092), and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe. PMID:28265180

  13. Effects of a structured exercise programme in sedentary dogs with chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Huang, H-P; Lien, Y-H

    2017-03-04

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a structured exercise programme in sedentary dogs with chronic diarrhoea. Twenty-two dogs were enrolled in the study. All dogs received oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days, followed by a tapering dosage) for 10 weeks. After four weeks of prednisolone treatment, dogs were assigned to either the exercise or control group (n=11 each). Owners of dogs in the exercise group were instructed to guide their dogs in structured exercise training (low-intensity to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise three to five days per week). After 10 weeks of prednisolone treatment with concomitant 6 weeks of complementary exercise, the Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (CIBDAI) score had decreased significantly in the exercise group (from 8.8±1.5 at the start of the exercise programme to 2.4±1.5; P<0.001); no such change was observed in the control group (from 9.2±0.9 to 9.2±1.1). CIBDAI scores differed significantly between the groups at the end of the 10-week study period (P<0.001). The exercise programme affected all six CIBDAI parameters significantly; bodyweight (P<0.001, adjusted r(2)=0.722) was most affected. A structured exercise programme may have positive effects on clinical symptoms in sedentary dogs with chronic diarrhoea.

  14. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  15. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  16. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    outside the prescribed exercise intervention was assessed with a physical activity questionnaire by a research member at the end of the study. All...their usual level of physical activity and to not change their eating habits. A thorough description of the exercise intervention has been described...between any of the sex hormones and self-reported physical activity , energy or alcohol intake, or reproductive factors such as age at menarche

  17. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  18. A single aerobic exercise session accelerates movement execution but not central processing.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kit B; Sage, Michael D; Staines, W Richard; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E

    2017-03-27

    Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task. This study examined how a single session of aerobic exercise influences speed of processing and movement execution during a flanker task using electromyography to partition response time into reaction time and movement time, respectively. Movement time decreased during aerobic exercise regardless of flanker congruence but returned to pre-exercise levels immediately after exercise. Reaction time during incongruent flanker trials decreased over time in both an aerobic exercise and non-exercise control condition indicating it was not specifically influenced by exercise. This disparate influence of aerobic exercise on movement time and reaction time indicates the importance of partitioning response time when examining the influence of aerobic exercise on speed of processing. The decrease in reaction time over time independent of aerobic exercise indicates that interpreting pre-to-post exercise changes in behavior requires caution.

  19. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  20. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  1. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    women as a result of a structured exercise regimen. Results from this study will allow us to determine whether physical activity is really capable...cause of death in this population.1 In recent systematic literature reviews, physical activity has been shown to be significantly associated with...proposed mechanisms by which physical activity might lead to reductions in breast cancer risk.4 Specifically, this research project is a randomized

  2. An exercise programme for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulou, K; Johnson, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Home exercise programmes and exercise programmes carried out in a clinical setting are commonly advocated for the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), a very common lesion of the arm with a well-defined clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to describe the use and effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes in the treatment of LET. Eccentric exercises: Slow progressive eccentric exercises for LET should be performed with the elbow in extension, forearm in pronation, and wrist in extended position (as high as possible). However, it is unclear how the injured tendon, which is loaded eccentrically, returns to the starting position without experiencing concentric loading and how the "slowness" of eccentric exercises should be defined. Nor has the treatment regimen of the eccentric exercises of a supervised exercise programme been defined. Stretching exercises: Static stretching is defined as passively stretching a given muscle-tendon unit by slowly placing and maintaining it in a maximal position of stretch. We recommend the position should be held for 30–45 s, three times before and three times after eccentric exercises during each treatment session with a 30 s rest interval between each procedure. The treatment region of static stretching exercises when a supervised exercise programme is performed is unknown. Discussion: A well designed trial is needed to study the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for LET consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises. The issues relating to the supervised exercise programme should be defined so that therapists can replicate the programme. PMID:16306504

  3. Effect of aerobic exercise on patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salek, A K; Khan, M M; Ahmed, S M; Rashid, M I; Emran, M A; Mamun, M A

    2005-07-01

    Sixty eight adult patients of fibromyalgia were included in this prospective study from the Outpatient Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka during the period of January 2003 to June 2003. Study samples were assigned into two treatment groups: Group A (n = 38) with exercise by static bicycle and aerobic walking in addition to tricyclic antidepressant and analgesic and Group B (n = 30) was non exercise group, treated with tricyclic antidepressant and analgesic only. The total duration of treatment was 16 weeks. Pre-treatment (week 0) and post treatment (week 16) evaluation was performed in both groups. Evaluation parameters included pain grade, number of trigger points, occurrence of arousal at night, frequency of micturition and global evaluation by the physician. After 16 weeks, mean improvement of exercise group and non exercise group was 48% and 39% respectively but this difference was not statistically significant. Therefore, from this study it was observed that aerobic exercise showed no significant benefit to fibromyalgia patients.

  4. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Flávio O.; dos Anjos, Carlos A. S.; Covolan, Roberto J. M.; Pinheiro, Fabiano A.; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D.; Magalhães, Fernando H.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  5. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke. Design A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Databases searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched. Inclusion criteria Design: randomized controlled trials; Participants: individuals with stroke; Interventions: aerobic exercise training aimed at improving aerobic capacity; Outcomes Primary outcomes: aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2), peak workload); Secondary outcomes: walking velocity, walking endurance. Data Analysis The methodological quality was assessed by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were performed for all primary and secondary outcomes. Results Nine articles (seven RCTs) were identified. The exercise intensity ranged from 50% to 80% heart rate reserve. Exercise duration was 20–40 minutes for 3–5 days a week. The total number of subjects included in the studies was 480. All studies reported positive effects on aerobic capacity, regardless of the stage of stroke recovery. Meta-analysis revealed a significant homogeneous standardized effect size (SES) in favour of aerobic exercise to improve peak VO2 (SES, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.15 to 0.69; p=0.001) and peak workload (SES, 0.50; 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.73; p<0.001). There was also a significant homogeneous SES in favour of aerobic training to improve walking velocity (SES, 0.26; 95%CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p=0.008) and walking endurance (SES, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.06to 0.55; p=0.008). Conclusions There is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. PMID:16541930

  6. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  7. Aerobic Exercise Decreases the Positive-Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Schmidt, Karl T.; Iordanou, Jordan C.; Mustroph, Martina L.

    2008-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3 mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs. PMID:18585870

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  9. The relationship between aerobic exercise and cognition: is movement medicinal?

    PubMed

    Lojovich, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    Each year approximately 1.5 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injuries often resulting in difficulties in memory and executive function that limit independence. Aerobic exercise not only has been found to impact cardiovascular systems but has also shown benefits to brain function itself and specifically in the domain of memory and learning. Recent evidence is shedding light on the mechanisms possibly impacting cognitive performance following the participation in exercise. Literature has demonstrated increased hemodynamics within the brain, changes in neurotransmitters, and increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor that stimulates neurogenesis, and resistance to further injury. This review article explores the current literature and the possibility of exercise acting as an adjunct treatment to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation.

  10. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly.

  11. Aerobic exercise increases phosphate removal during hemodialysis: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Orcy, Rafael; Antunes, Maria Fernanda; Schiller, Tamires; Seus, Thamires; Böhlke, Maristela

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that exercise during hemodialysis (HD) could increase the efficacy of solute removal, although this hypothesis has not been conclusively evaluated. The goal of this study was to compare the removal of low-molecular weight solutes between HD sessions, with and without aerobic exercise. It was a controlled clinical trial, including HD patients in a randomly cross-over design, such that each patient received a HD session with exercise (intervention) and the next one without exercise (control), three times each. In the exercise sessions, patients pedaled on a cycle ergometer for 60 minutes. The total mass of removed urea, potassium, creatinine, and phosphate were calculated from the solutes concentration in dialysate (continuous spent sampling of dialysate). This was evaluated in a total of 132 HD sessions of patients with a mean age of 54 ± 15 years, 75% male and HD vintage of 3 (2-13) years. Phosphate removal in dialysate during intervention sessions was significantly higher (5.6 [2.5-18.9] vs. 5.1 [1.5-11.2] mg/min) than during control sessions, P = 0.04. The median mass of phosphate removed during control HD session was 1226 (367.8-2697.2) vs. 1348.6 (613.0-4536.2) mg/session during intervention sessions. The exercise did not modify the removal of urea (control 122.6 [61.3-286.0] vs. exercise 112.4 [51.1-250.3] mg/min, P = 0.44), creatinine (control 5.6 [2.5-13.8] vs. exercise 5.6 [2.5-12.8] mg/min, P = 0.49), or potassium (control 13.3 [11.2-15.8] vs. exercise 13.8 [6.6-15.8] mEq/min, P = 0.49). Aerobic exercise during HD increases the efficacy of phosphate removal, without changing urea, creatinine and potassium removal. The implications of this finding in mineral and bone disease and cardiovascular disease need to be evaluated on future clinical trials.

  12. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  13. Group aquatic aerobic exercise for children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's diagnoses included autism spectrum disorder, myelomeningocele, cerebral palsy, or other developmental disability. More than half of the children ambulated independently without aids. Children swam laps and participated in relay races and games with a focus of maintaining a defined target heart rate zone. The strengthening component consisted of exercises using bar bells, aquatic noodles, and water resistance. The following outcomes were measured: half-mile walk/run, isometric muscle strength, timed floor to stand 3-meter test, and motor skills. Complaints of pain or injury were systematically collected. Significant improvements in the half-mile walk/run were observed, but not for secondary outcomes of strength or motor skills. The mean program attendance was 80%, and no injury was reported. Children with disabilities may improve their cardiorespiratory endurance after a group aquatic aerobic exercise program with a high adult:child ratio and specific goals to maintain training heart rates.

  14. A study on macronutrient self-selection after acute aerobic exercise in college females

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Min-Jeong; Cho, Ik-Rae; Won, Yu-Mi; Han, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Kon-Nym; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hee; Chin, Ji-Hyoung; Roh, Jae-Hun; Min, Seung-Hi; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Hyo-Joo; Jang, Kwon; Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kang, Suh-Jung; Shin, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hu-Nyun; Hong, Jae-Seung; Choi, Eun-Hi; An, Nam-Il; Kim, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Mi-Suk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine whether acute aerobic exercise (climbing) is associated with changes in the dietary intake pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Food intake and physical activity data for 15 female college students were sampled for 3 days and categorized according to routine activity or high-intensity activity such as hiking. Nutrient intake based on the data was analyzed using a nutrition program. [Results] Carbohydrate and protein intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before acute aerobic exercise, but lipid intake showed no significant difference. Calorie intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before exercise; however, calorie consumption was significantly increased after exercise. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise causes a decrease in total calories by inducing reduction in carbohydrate and protein intake. Therefore, aerobic exercise is very important for weight (body fat) control since it causes positive changes in the food intake pattern in female students. PMID:27799693

  15. Effects of long-term aerobic exercise on EPOC.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, J D; Jacobsen, D J; Bailey, B W; Mayo, M S; Hill, J O; Smith, B K; Donnelly, J E

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of 16 months of progressive aerobic exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and the extent EPOC contributed to weight management. Twenty-five overweight/obese women and 16 overweight/obese men participated in a 16-month exercise program (moderate-intensity treadmill walking) that progressed across the first 26 weeks to 5 days.wk(-1), 45 min.session(-1), and 75% HRR. Three-hour EPOC was measured at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months by indirect calorimetry in response to an exercise session (treadmill walking), in which energy expenditure (EE) was estimated from the participant's previous 10 exercise sessions. For women, EPOC was 7.5 +/- 4.9, 9.6 +/- 7.6, and 6.5 +/- 6.5 L at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months, respectively (p > 0.05). For men, EPOC increased from baseline (11.8 +/- 6.8 L) to 9 months (13.5 +/- 8.6 L) (p < 0.05) with no further increase at 16 months (13.5 +/- 11.0 L). Change in EPOC was correlated with change in EE at 9 months (r = 0.65; p < 0.05) and 16 months (r = 0.58; p < 0.05) for men but not women. Progressive long-term exercise significantly influenced EPOC in overweight/obese men but not women. Change in volume of exercise likely explained the increase in energy expenditure during EPOC in men. EPOC contributed modestly to EE compared to the exercise itself.

  16. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on spatial learning ability in hypothyroid rats: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, MinYoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyroid function were measured in each group by blood analysis and open field and Morris water maze tests. [Results] After four weeks, blood analysis revealed that the thyroid hormone levels had returned to normal in the aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups, whereas the open field and Morris water maze tests showed that the aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups had faster recovery compared to that of the control group. In addition, comparison of aerobic and anaerobic groups showed that the anaerobic exercise group had faster recovery compared to that of the aerobic group. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that exercise helped to improve lethargy and deteriorated spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism and to recover function in rats. Anaerobic exercise was more beneficial than aerobic exercise in alleviating symptoms. PMID:28174480

  17. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p < 0.005, cluster size ≥10). Regional CBF was increased 18 ± 17 % and reduced 8 ± 12 % following moderate- and low-intensity cycling, respectively. In contrast, CBF changes were similar between sessions in the right lentiform nucleus and mid-frontal gyrus, as well as the left temporal and parietal gyri. Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  18. Effects of muscle strengthening versus aerobic exercise program in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Ciğdem; Karasel, Seide Alev; Akgün, Berrin; El, Ozlem; Alper, Serap

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic training with a muscle-strengthening program in patients with fibromyalgia. Thirty women with fibromyalgia were randomized to either an aerobic exercise (AE) program or a strengthening exercise (SE) program for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the intensity of fibromyalgia-related symptoms, tender point count, fitness (6-min walk distance), hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale, and short-form health survey (SF-36). There were significant improvements in both groups regarding pain, sleep, fatigue, tender point count, and fitness after treatment. HAD-depression scores improved significantly in both groups while no significant change occurred in HAD-anxiety scores. Bodily pain subscale of SF-36 and physical component summary improved significantly in the AE group, whereas seven subscales of SF-36, physical component summary, and mental component summary improved significantly in the SE group. When the groups were compared after treatment, there were no significant differences in pain, sleep, fatigue, tender point count, fitness, HAD scores, and SF-36 scores. AE and SE are similarly effective at improving symptoms, tender point count, fitness, depression, and quality of life in fibromyalgia.

  19. [Cardiovascular resistance to orthostatic stress in athletes after aerobic exercise].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, A A; Popov, S G; Vikulov, A D

    2014-01-01

    In the paper cardiovascular resistance to orthostatic stress in the athletes in the two-hour recovery period after prolonged aerobic exercise was investigated. The reaction of the cardiac (stroke volume and cardiac output) and peripheral blood volumes in the lower and upper limbs, abdominal and neck regions in response to the tilt-test before and during two hours after exercise (30 min, heart rate = 156 +/- 8 beats/min) was determined by impedance method: It is found that: (1) at baseline distribution of blood flow in favor of the neck-region in response to the tilt-test, in spite of the decrease in cardiac output, was more efficient in athletes, that was due to a large decrease in blood flow to the lower extremities, and increased blood flow in the neck region; (2) after exercise it was established symptoms of potential orthostatic intolerance: postural hypotension and tachycardia, reduced peripheral pulse blood volume, expressed in a standing position, and reduced effectiveness of the distribution of blood flow in the direction of the neck region; (3) the abilityto effectively distribute blood flow in favor of the neck region in athletes after exercise remained elevated, which was due to a large decrease in blood flow in the abdominal region at the beginning, and in the lower limbs at the end of the recovery period.

  20. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivi...

  1. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  2. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  3. PATHway: Decision Support in Exercise Programmes for Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Filos, Dimitris; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Buys, Roselien; Cornelissen, Véronique; Budts, Werner; Walsh, Deirdre; Woods, Catherine; Moran, Kieran; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is important for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to improve health outcomes and quality of life. However, adherence to current exercise programmes in cardiac rehabilitation is limited. We present the design and development of a Decision Support System (DSS) for telerehabilitation, aiming to enhance exercise programmes for CVD patients through ensuring their safety, personalising the programme according to their needs and performance, and motivating them toward meeting their physical activity goals. The DSS processes data originated from a Microsoft Kinect camera, a blood pressure monitor, a heart rate sensor and questionnaires, in order to generate a highly individualised exercise programme and improve patient adherence. Initial results within the EU-funded PATHway project show the potential of our approach.

  4. Influence of population and exercise protocol characteristics on hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension.

    PubMed

    Brito, L C; Queiroz, A C C; Forjaz, C L M

    2014-08-01

    Due to differences in study populations and protocols, the hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension (PAEH) are controversial. This review analyzed the factors that might influence PAEH hemodynamic determinants, through a search on PubMed using the following key words: "postexercise" or "post-exercise" combined with "hypotension", "blood pressure", "cardiac output", and "peripheral vascular resistance", and "aerobic exercise" combined only with "blood pressure". Forty-seven studies were selected, and the following characteristics were analyzed: age, gender, training status, body mass index status, blood pressure status, exercise intensity, duration and mode (continuous or interval), time of day, and recovery position. Data analysis showed that 1) most postexercise hypotension cases are due to a reduction in systemic vascular resistance; 2) age, body mass index, and blood pressure status influence postexercise hemodynamics, favoring cardiac output decrease in elderly, overweight, and hypertensive subjects; 3) gender and training status do not have an isolated influence; 4) exercise duration, intensity, and mode also do not affect postexercise hemodynamics; 5) time of day might have an influence, but more data are needed; and 6) recovery in the supine position facilitates systemic vascular resistance decrease. In conclusion, many factors may influence postexercise hypotension hemodynamics, and future studies should directly address these specific influences because different combinations may explain the observed variability in postexercise hemodynamic studies.

  5. Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits.

    PubMed

    Mang, Cameron S; Brown, Katlyn E; Neva, Jason L; Snow, Nicholas J; Campbell, Kristin L; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to "prime" M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings.

  6. Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Cameron S.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Neva, Jason L.; Snow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to “prime” M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings. PMID:27127659

  7. Aerobic Exercise in People with Schizophrenia: Neural and Neurocognitive Benefits.

    PubMed

    Vakhrusheva, Julia; Marino, Brielle; Stroup, T Scott; Kimhy, David

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning. There is also evidence that AE is able to significantly increase serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which are implicated in neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and cognitive improvement. Finally, evidence suggests that AE plays a significant role in improving overall cognition, including improvements in processing speed, working memory, and visual learning. The authors discuss the implications of the findings and provide recommendations for future research and areas of inquiry.

  8. A single bout of aerobic exercise promotes motor cortical neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Buckley, Jonathan D; Opie, George M; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex, but the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare corticospinal excitability and plasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of lower limb cycling at either low or moderate intensity, or a control condition. We recruited 25 healthy adults to take part in three experimental sessions. Cortical excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseus muscle. Levels of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol were assessed throughout the experiments. Following baseline testing, participants cycled on a stationary bike at a workload equivalent to 57% (low intensity, 30 min) or 77% age-predicted maximal heart rate (moderate intensity, 15 min), or a seated control condition. Neuroplasticity within the primary motor cortex was then examined using a continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) paradigm. We found that exercise did not alter cortical excitability. Following cTBS, there was a transient inhibition of first dorsal interosseus motor-evoked potentials during control and low-intensity conditions, but this was only significantly different following the low-intensity state. Moderate-intensity exercise alone increased serum cortisol levels, but brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels did not increase across any condition. In summary, low-intensity cycling promoted the neuroplastic response to cTBS within the motor cortex of healthy adults. These findings suggest that light exercise has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of motor learning or recovery following brain damage.

  9. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  10. Aerobic exercise training intensity in patients with chronic heart failure: principles of assessment and prescription.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Mezzani, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a significant cause of worldwide mortality and morbidity, whose clinical picture is characterized by exercise intolerance and impaired quality of life. Aerobic exercise training is a well-established nonpharmacological tool improving the CHF’s pathophysiological, clinical, and prognostic picture, and prescription of an adequate training intensity is crucial to obtain both exercise-induced benefits and a reasonable control of exercise-related risk. However, clarity is still lacking regarding the definition of exercise intensity domains and the lower and upper intensity limits of prescriptible aerobic exercise in CHF patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the methods for the exercise intensity assessment and continuous aerobic training intensity prescription in the CHF population, furnishing indications useful for implementation of physical rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  11. A community-based approach to trials of aerobic exercise in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vidoni, Eric D; Van Sciver, Angela; Johnson, David K; He, Jinghua; Honea, Robyn; Haines, Brian; Goodwin, Jami; Laubinger, M Pat; Anderson, Heather S; Kluding, Patricia M; Donnelly, Joseph E; Billinger, Sandra A; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating that aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The purpose of this paper is to report the protocol of a current, community-based pilot study of aerobic exercise for AD to guide future investigation. This manuscript provides 1) an overview of possible benefits of exercise in those with dementia, 2) a rationale and recommendations for implementation of a community-based approach, 3) recommendation for implementation of similar study protocols, and 4) unique challenges in conducting an exercise trial in AD.

  12. Maximal explosive power and aerobic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Capelli, C; di Prampero, P E

    1991-09-01

    The maximal explosive power (wmax), i.e. the mechanical power developed over short bursts (less than 5 s) of all-out cycling, or uphill running, in humans attains 12-17 W*kg-1 in non athletics subjects. Thus, in terms of O2 consumption wmax is about four times larger than the subjects VO2max. The peak instantaneous power during a vertical jump off both feet (w) in non athletic subjects is about 50-55 W kg-1 and attains 70-75 W*kg-1 in "power" athletes. Both wmax and w decrease when the all-out efforts is performed from a priming aerobic exercise: if the intensity of this last approaches VO2max, then wmax and w are reduced to about 75% the value attained from rest. Thus, in the course of high intensity efforts, an athlete can develop a still remarkable fraction of his maximal absolute power. The decrease mentioned above is proportional, and presumably causally related, to the decrease of the high energy phosphate concentration occurring in the muscle at the onset of the exercise, and maintained throughout the effort duration.

  13. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  14. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  16. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sedlock, Darlene A; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Flynn, Michael G; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kamimori, Gary H

    2010-08-01

    Literature examining the effects of aerobic exercise training on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is sparse. In this study, 9 male participants (19-32 yr) trained (EX) for 12 wk, and 10 in a control group (CON) maintained normal activity. VO(2max), rectal temperature (T(re)), epinephrine, norepinephrine, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, glucose, blood lactate (BLA), and EPOC were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. EPOC at PRE was measured for 120 min after 30 min of treadmill running at 70% VO(2max). EX completed 2 EPOC trials at POST, i.e., at the same absolute (ABS) and relative (REL) intensity; 1 EPOC test for CON served as both the ABS and REL trial because no significant change in VO(2max) was noted. During the ABS trial, total EPOC decreased significantly (p < .01) from PRE (39.4 ± 3.6 kcal) to POST (31.7 ± 2.2 kcal). T(re), epinephrine, insulin, glucose, and BLA at end-exercise or during recovery were significantly lower and FFA significantly higher after training. Training did not significantly affect EPOC during the REL trial; however, epinephrine was significantly lower, and norepinephrine and FFA, significantly higher, at endexercise after training. Results indicate that EPOC varies as a function of relative rather than absolute metabolic stress and that training improves the efficiency of metabolic regulation during recovery from exercise. Mechanisms for the decreased magnitude of EPOC in the ABS trial include decreases in BLA, T(re), and perhaps epinephrine-mediated hepatic glucose production and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

  17. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p < 0.01). [Formula: see text]O2max was significantly improved in both genders (males: pre: 30.63 ± 2.06 vs. post: 33.19 ± 1.77 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), females: pre: 25.93 ± 1.01 vs. post: 29.51 ± 1.06 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between the change in [Formula: see text]O2max and the change in body weight and BMI (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relative change in [Formula: see text]O2max explained approximately 26% of the variance in the changes for both BMI (p = 0.07) and body weight (p = 0.06). A treatment of exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  18. Associations between aerobic exercise levels and physical and mental health outcomes in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Zopf, E M; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R; Spry, N; Cormie, P; Joseph, D; Chambers, S K; Baumann, F T; Bloch, W; Galvão, D A

    2016-09-20

    Cancer patients with bone metastases have previously been excluded from participation in physical activity programmes due to concerns of skeletal fractures. Our aim was to provide initial information on the association between physical activity levels and physical and mental health outcomes in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Between 2012 and 2015, 55 prostate cancer patients (mean age 69.7 ± 8.3; BMI 28.6 ± 4.0) with bone metastases (58.2% >2 regions affected) undertook assessments for self-reported physical activity, physical and mental health outcomes (SF-36), objective physical performance measures and body composition by DXA. Sixteen men (29%) met the current aerobic exercise guidelines for cancer survivors, while 39 (71%) reported lower aerobic exercise levels. Men not meeting aerobic exercise guidelines had lower physical functioning (p = .004), role functioning (physical and emotional) (p < .05), general health scores (p = .014) as well all lower measures of physical performance (p < .05). Lower levels of aerobic exercise are associated with reduced physical and mental health outcomes in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. While previous research has focused primarily in those with non-metastatic disease, our initial results suggest that higher levels of aerobic exercise may preserve physical and mental health outcomes in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases.

  19. The effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression and body image in Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Zarshenas, Sareh; Houshvar, Parsa; Tahmasebi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, n = 41) or control group (waiting list, n = 41) and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), respectively. The experimental group received four-week aerobic exercise program, and control group had been asked to wait for the next four weeks. Results of this study confirmed the significant decrease in depression symptoms at the experimental group compared to control group (P < 0.5). For the body image dependent variables, significant improvement was also found in appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, health orientation, and illness orientation in aerobic exercise group (P < 0.5).

  20. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Roseann; Darby, Lynn A; Fullenkamp, Adam; Morgan, Amy L

    2015-09-01

    Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11) who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max) exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max) exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times) and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function) were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC) and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these effects were maintained 30 min post-exercise. These findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise, regardless of intensity, can improve performance on tests of executive function in older women. Key pointsFew studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on executive function in older womenExecutive function improved after 20-min of aerobic exercise regardless of exercise intensity in older womenFindings from the study were not confounded by prescribed medications; all participants who were older women were not taking any medications.

  1. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; Hayashi, Yoichi; Sakai, Tomoaki; Yahiro, Tatsuhisa; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Nishihira, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive brain functions of older adults. Twenty-four males (12 older and 12 younger adults) performed a modified flanker task during a baseline session (no exercise) and after light and moderate cycling exercise in counterbalanced order on different days while measures of task performance and the P3 component of an event-related brain potential were collected. The results indicated that, for both age groups, reaction time following moderate exercise was shorter relative to the other sessions, and P3 latencies following both light and moderate exercise were shorter compared with the baseline session. In contrast, P3 amplitude increased only following moderate exercise in younger adults. These findings suggest that light and moderate exercises improve cognitive function across the adult lifespan, although the mechanisms underlying the effects of observed acute aerobic exercise on cognitive function may be age dependent.

  2. Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Blair, S. N.; Mahar, M. T.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop functional aerobic capacity prediction models without using exercise tests (N-Ex) and to compare the accuracy with Astrand single-stage submaximal prediction methods. The data of 2,009 subjects (9.7% female) were randomly divided into validation (N = 1,543) and cross-validation (N = 466) samples. The validation sample was used to develop two N-Ex models to estimate VO2peak. Gender, age, body composition, and self-report activity were used to develop two N-Ex prediction models. One model estimated percent fat from skinfolds (N-Ex %fat) and the other used body mass index (N-Ex BMI) to represent body composition. The multiple correlations for the developed models were R = 0.81 (SE = 5.3 ml.kg-1.min-1) and R = 0.78 (SE = 5.6 ml.kg-1.min-1). This accuracy was confirmed when applied to the cross-validation sample. The N-Ex models were more accurate than what was obtained from VO2peak estimated from the Astrand prediction models. The SEs of the Astrand models ranged from 5.5-9.7 ml.kg-1.min-1. The N-Ex models were cross-validated on 59 men on hypertensive medication and 71 men who were found to have a positive exercise ECG. The SEs of the N-Ex models ranged from 4.6-5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 with these subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. Aerobic Exercise and Neurocognitive Performance: a Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Cooper, Harris; Strauman, Timothy A.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Although the effects of exercise on neurocognition have been the subject of several previous reviews and meta-analyses, they have been hampered by methodological shortcomings and are now outdated as a result of the recent publication of several large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of RCTs examining the association between aerobic exercise training on neurocognitive performance conducted between January, 1966 and July, 2009. Suitable studies were selected for inclusion according to the following criteria: randomized treatment allocation, mean age ≥ 18 years of age, duration of treatment > 1 month, incorporated aerobic exercise components, exercise training was supervised, the presence of a non-aerobic-exercise control group, and sufficient information to derive effect size (ES) data. Results Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria and were included in our analyses, representing data from 2,049 participants and 234 effect sizes. Individuals randomly assigned to receive aerobic exercise training demonstrated modest improvements in attention and processing speed (g = .158 [95% CI: .055 to .260], P = .003), executive function (g = .123 [95% CI: .021 to .225], P = .018), and memory (g = .128 [95% CI: .015 - .241], P = .026). Conclusions Aerobic exercise training is associated with modest improvements in attention and processing speed, executive function, and memory, although the effects of exercise on working memory are less consistent. Rigorous RCTs are needed with larger samples, appropriate controls, and longer follow-up periods. PMID:20223924

  4. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  5. Aerobic Exercise Protects Retinal Function and Structure from Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Eric C.; Han, Moon K.; Sellers, Jana T.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling. PMID:24523530

  6. Aerobic exercise protects retinal function and structure from light-induced retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Eric C; Han, Moon K; Sellers, Jana T; Chrenek, Micah A; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Pardue, Machelle T

    2014-02-12

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling.

  7. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  8. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  9. The effects of acute aerobic exercise on the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aerobic exercise on primary motor cortical excitability is a relevant area of interest for both motor learning and motor rehabilitation. Transient excitability changes that may follow an exercise session are a necessary precursor to more lasting neuroplastic changes. While the number of studies is limited, research suggests that a session of aerobic exercise can create an ideal environment for the early induction of plasticity. Potential mechanisms include the upregulation of neurotransmitter activity, altered cerebral metabolism and cortisol levels, and increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. While there is considerable evidence that chronic physical activity positively impacts brain health and function, studies examining cortical excitability changes and motor performance after a single session of exercise are lacking. Further research is required to determine the clinical utility and feasibility of aerobic exercise.

  10. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear.

  11. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-11-22

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75(NTR) receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  12. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption is unaffected by the resistance and aerobic exercise order in an exercise session.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p < 0.05) in both exercise sessions. In the first 10 minutes of recovery, V(CO2) and RER declined to pre-exercise levels. Moreover, V(CO2) and RER values in A-R were significantly lower than in R-A. In conclusion, the main result of this study suggests that exercise mode order does not affect the EPOC magnitude and duration. Therefore, it is not necessary for an individual to consider the EPOC when making the decision as to which exercise mode is better to start a training session.

  13. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  14. Effect of habitual aerobic exercise on body weight and arterial function in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Misono, Maiko; Saito, Yoko; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Nakata, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2009-09-15

    The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss.

  15. Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vanadium compounds are insulin like drugs which are accompanied with nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as their major side effects. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the role of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Group II received vanadyl sulphate (50 mg/kg/week; i.p.) for 6 weeks. Group III had combination of exercise and vanadyl sulphate therapy as groups 1 and 2. At the end of study, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for the tissues injury determination. Results: Vanadyl sulphate alone increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and kidney weight (KW) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P<0.05). These observations revealed nephrotoxicity induced by vanadyl sulphate, although exercise training did not attenuate these results. In addition, vanadyl sulphate alone induced liver tissue damage score and exercise training intensified it insignificantly, while the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase were greater in exercise alone group than others groups. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise could not attenuate vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings must be considered when vanadyl sulphate is suggested as insulin like drug. PMID:27689120

  17. Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

    2011-08-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes.

  18. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  19. Economic evaluation of aerobic exercise training in older adults with vascular cognitive impairment: PROMoTE trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer C; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Bryan, Stirling; Best, John R; Eng, Janice J; Munkacsy, Michelle; Cheung, Winnie; Chiu, Bryan; Jacova, Claudia; Lee, Philip; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives Evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may slow the progression of subcortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI) by modifying cardiovascular risk factors. Yet the economic consequences relating to aerobic training (AT) remain unknown. Therefore, our primary objective was to estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained of a thrice weekly AT intervention compared with usual care. Design Cost–utility analysis alongside a randomised trial. Setting Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants 70 adults (mean age of 74 years, 51% women) who meet the diagnostic criteria for mild SIVCI. Intervention A 6-month, thrice weekly, progressive aerobic exercise training programme compared with usual care (CON; comparator) with a follow-up assessment 6 months after formal cessation of aerobic exercise training. Measurements Healthcare resource usage was estimated over the 6-month intervention and 6-month follow-up period. Health status (using the EQ-5D-3L) at baseline and trial completion and 6-month follow-up was used to calculate QALYs. The incremental cost–utility ratio (cost per QALY gained) was calculated. Results QALYs were both modestly greater, indicating a health gain. Total healthcare costs (ie, 1791±1369 {2015 $CAD} at 6 months) were greater, indicating a greater cost for the thrice weekly AT group compared with CON. From the Canadian healthcare system perspective, the incremental cost–utility ratios for thrice weekly AT were cost-effective compared with CON, when using a willingness to pay threshold of $CAD 20 000 per QALY gained or higher. Conclusions AT represents an attractive and potentially cost-effective strategy for older adults with mild SIVCI. Trial registration number NCT01027858. PMID:28360247

  20. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  1. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  2. The effects of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on food reward.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether an acute bout of calorie-matched aerobic and resistance exercise alters food reward in a similar manner. Thus, we examined the effects of isocaloric resistance and aerobic exercise sessions on acute food reward. Sixteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary control. The target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal/kg of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 12 repetition-maximum (equivalent to 70% of 1 repetition-maximum). A validated computer task assessed the wanting and liking for visual food cues following exercise, and following an ad libitum lunch. Decreases in the relative preference for high vs. low fat foods were noted following exercise compared to the control session, and this was independent of modality (aerobic: P = 0.04; resistance: P = 0.03). Furthermore, the explicit liking for high vs. low fat foods was lower following resistance exercise compared to the control session (P = 0.04). However, these changes in food reward were not correlated with changes in energy intake (EI) between sessions. Exercise, independent of modality, led to decreases in the relative preference for high fat relative to low fat foods. Additionally, decreases in the hedonic "liking" of high fat foods following resistance, but not aerobic, exercise may imply that modality does influence acute food hedonic responses. However, these decreases in food hedonics were not related to lower EI, thus suggesting that a dissociation may exist between food hedonics and actual EI.

  3. Aerobic exercise modulates intracortical inhibition and facilitation in a nonexercised upper limb muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Investigating the response to exercise in a non-exercised muscle may help to determine the clinical usefulness of lower-body exercise interventions for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Methods In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess input–output curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the extensor carpi radialis muscle in twelve healthy individuals following a single session of moderate stationary biking. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene would affect the response of these measures to exercise. Results We observed significant increases in ICF and decreases in SICI following exercise. No changes in LICI were detected, and no differences were observed in input–output curves following exercise, or between BDNF groups. Conclusions The current results demonstrate that the modulation of intracortical excitability following aerobic exercise is not limited to those muscles involved in the exercise, and that while exercise does not directly modulate the excitability of motor neurons, it may facilitate the induction of experience-dependent plasticity via a decrease in intracortical inhibition and increase in intracortical facilitation. These findings indicate that exercise may create favourable conditions for adaptive plasticity in M1 and may be an effective adjunct to

  4. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  5. The effect of estrogen on muscle damage biomarkers following prolonged aerobic exercise in eumenorrheic women

    PubMed Central

    Walz, E; Lane, AR; Pebole, M; Hackney, AC

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of estrogen (E2) on muscle damage biomarkers [skeletal muscle - creatine kinase (CK); cardiac muscle - CK-MB] responses to prolonged aerobic exercise. Eumenorrheic women (n=10) who were physically active completed two 60-minute treadmill running sessions at ∼60-65% maximal intensity during low E2 (midfollicular menstrual phase) and high E2 (midluteal menstrual phase) hormonal conditions. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise (following supine rest), immediately post-, 30 min post-, and 24 hours post-exercise to determine changes in muscle biomarkers. Resting blood samples confirmed appropriate E2 hormonal levels Total CK concentrations increased following exercise and at 24 hours post-exercise were higher in the midfollicular low E2 phase (p<0.001). However, CK-MB concentrations were unaffected by E2 level or exercise (p=0.442) resulting in the ratio of CK-MB to total CK being consistently low in subject responses (i.e., indicative of skeletal muscle damage). Elevated E2 levels reduce the CK responses of skeletal muscle, but had no effect on CK-MB responses following prolonged aerobic exercise. These findings support earlier work showing elevated E2 is protective of skeletal muscle from exercise-induced damage associated with prolonged aerobic exercise. PMID:26424921

  6. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. Design A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Patients Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 22). Methods Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60–70% heart rate reserve). Results The attendance rate was high (median 89%). None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT) most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group. Conclusion Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371 PMID:27419388

  7. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.

  8. Cardiac autonomic responses at onset of exercise: effects of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    D'Agosto, T; Peçanha, T; Bartels, R; Moreira, D N; Silva, L P; Nóbrega, A C L; Lima, J R P

    2014-09-01

    Analyzes of cardiac autonomic responses at the initial transient of exercise have been used for the investigation of the cardiovascular health. We evaluated the influence of aerobic fitness on HR and HRV responses at the onset of exercise. 25 male subjects (22.3±2.4 years) were divided into 2 groups: 'low aerobic fitness' (36.2±2.6ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=10) and 'high aerobic fitness' (46.4±5.0ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=15). The experimental session consisted of assessing the beat-to-beat HR at rest and during submaximal exercise. The autonomic responses at the onset of exercise were calculated by fitting the HR and HRV (rMSSD-index) curves during the initial 300s of exercise into a first-order exponential equation. The time constant of HR and of the rMSSD index (τonHR and τonrMSSD) were calculated for analysis. We observed lower values of τonrMSSD in the high aerobic fitness group compared to the low aerobic fitness group (26.8±5s vs. 38.0±18s, respectively; p=0.02). The τonHR (42.0±15 vs. 49.3±26s, p=0.38) for the groups showed no difference. Aerobic fitness partially influenced the autonomic responses during exercise, since individuals with higher fitness showed faster decreases in beat-to-beat HRV at the onset of exercise.

  9. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases the cognitive enhancing effects of working memory training.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew M; Spiegler, Kevin M; Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher D; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-11-01

    Increases in performance on tests of attention and learning are often observed shortly after a period of aerobic exercise, and evidence suggests that humans who engage in regular exercise are partially protected from age-related cognitive decline. However, the cognitive benefits of exercise are typically short-lived, limiting the practical application of these observations. Here, we explored whether physical exercise might induce lasting changes in general cognitive ability if that exercise was combined with working memory training, which is purported to broadly impact cognitive performance. Mice received either exercise treatment (6 weeks of voluntary running wheel access), working memory training (in a dual radial-arm maze), both treatments, or various control treatments. After this period of exercise, working memory training was initiated (alternating with days of exercise), and continued for several weeks. Upon completion of these treatments, animals were assessed (2-4 weeks later) for performance on four diverse learning tasks, and the aggregate performance of individual animals across all four learning tasks was estimated. Working memory training alone promoted small increases in general cognitive performance, although any beneficial effects of exercise alone had dissipated by the time of learning assessments. However, the two treatments in combination more than doubled the improvement in general cognitive performance supported by working memory training alone. Unlike the transient effects that acute aerobic exercise can have on isolated learning tasks, these results indicate that an acute period of exercise combined with working memory training can have synergistic and lasting impact on general cognitive performance.

  10. Aerobic exercise improves microvascular dysfunction in fructose fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Boa, B C S; Costa, R R; Souza, M G C; Cyrino, F Z G A; Paes, L S; Miranda, M L; Carvalho, J J; Bouskela, E

    2014-05-01

    Fructose is a major diet component directly related to severe damages to the microcirculation and to diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension to which physical activity is pointed out as an important non-pharmacological treatment since its positive effects precede anthropometric improvements. In this study we have investigated the effects of a light/moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on microcirculatory dysfunction elicited by carbohydrate overload during a period of 5 months. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) whose drinking water was substituted (F) or not (C) by 10% fructose solution, during 20 weeks, associated or not to AET in the last 4 weeks (EC and EF subgroups) had their microcirculatory function evaluated on the cheek pouch preparation, glucose and insulin tolerance (GTT and ITT) tested. Arterial blood was collected for pO2, pCO2, HCO3(-), pH, total CO2, saturated O2 and lactate determinations. Liver fragments were observed using an electron microscope. Microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine [Ach, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator; 10(-8)M - *123.3±7.5% (C), 119.5±1.3% (EC), *98.1±3.2% (F) and 133.6±17.2% (EF); 10(-6)M - *133.0±4.1% (C), 135.6±4.3% (EC), *103.4±4.3% (F) and 134.1±5.9% (EF); 10(-4)M - *167.2±5.0% (C), 162.8±5.4% (EC), *123.8±6.3% (F) and 140.8±5.0% (EF)] and to sodium nitroprusside [SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator; 10(-8)M - 118.8±6.8% (C), 114.0±5.0% (EC), 100.2±2.9% (F), 104.9±4.4% (EF); 10(-6)M - 140.6±11.7% (C), 141.7±5.5% (EC), 125.0±4.7% (F), 138.3±2.8% (EF); 10(-4)M - 150.4±10.9% (C), 147.9±6.5% (EC), 139.2±7.3% (F), 155.9±4.7% (EF)] and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 min ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) procedure [14.4±3.5 (C), 30.0±1.9 (EC), *112.0±8.8 (F) and *22.4±0.9 leaks/cm(2) (EF)] have shown that endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was significantly reduced and I/R induced macromolecular permeability augmented in sedentary fructose (F

  11. Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

  12. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-05

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  13. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  14. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  15. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between 4-AIT, CME, and 1-AIT. Total EPOC was highest after 4-AIT. These data suggest that exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome.

  16. Hemodynamic responses are reduced with aerobic compared with resistance blood flow restriction exercise.

    PubMed

    May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-02-01

    The hemodynamics of light-load exercise with an applied blood-flow restriction (BFR) have not been extensively compared between light-intensity, BFR, and high-intensity forms of both resistance and aerobic exercise in the same participant population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a randomized crossover design to examine the hemodynamic responses to resistance and aerobic BFR exercise in comparison with a common high-intensity and light-intensity non-BFR exercise. On separate occasions participants completed a leg-press (resistance) or treadmill (aerobic) trial. Each trial comprised a light-intensity bout (LI) followed by a light-intensity bout with BFR (80% resting systolic blood pressure (LI+BFR)), then a high-intensity bout (HI). To characterize the hemodynamic response, measures of cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure were taken at baseline and exercise for each bout. Exercising hemodynamics for leg-press LI+BFR most often resembled those for HI and were greater than LI (e.g. for systolic blood pressure LI+BFR = 152 ± 3 mmHg; HI = 153 ± 3; LI = 143 ± 3 P < 0.05). However, exercising hemodynamics for treadmill LI+BFR most often resembled those for LI and were lower than HI (e.g. for systolic pressure LI+BFR = 124 ± 2 mmHg; LI = 123 ± 2; HI = 140 ± 3 P < 0.05). In conclusion, the hemodynamic response for light aerobic (walking) BFR exercise suggests this mode of BFR exercise may be preferential for chronic use to develop muscle size and strength, and other health benefits in certain clinical populations that are contraindicated to heavy-load resistance exercise.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis.

  19. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  20. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  1. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  2. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  3. The effects of statin medications on aerobic exercise capacity and training adaptations.

    PubMed

    Murlasits, Zsolt; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of myopathy increases dramatically in statin users who also exercise, likely limiting the positive impact of this lifesaving medication. New evidence also indicates that statin use can directly compromise aerobic exercise capacity; however, we are just beginning to understand the interactions of statins with exercise training and adaptations. This review focuses on the interactions of statins with aerobic exercise capacity and training adaptations to summarize the available information and draw attention to the gaps in our current knowledge in this area. PubMed, Web of knowledge, and Google scholar databases were searched between January 2000 and December 2013 using the following terms and their combinations: statins, exercise, aerobic capacity, endurance training, adaptations. The reference lists of the relevant articles were also scanned for additional information. Considering the widespread use of statins and the need for exercise for cardiovascular health, a better understanding of the interactions of these interventions as well as practical solutions are needed to reduce statin adverse effects associated with exercise.

  4. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  5. Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained

    PubMed Central

    Lensu, Sanna; Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Johansson, Petra P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Key points Aerobic exercise, such as running, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in rodents.Little is known about the effects of high‐intensity interval training (HIT) or of purely anaerobic resistance training on AHN.Here, compared with a sedentary lifestyle, we report a very modest effect of HIT and no effect of resistance training on AHN in adult male rats.We found the most AHN in rats that were selectively bred for an innately high response to aerobic exercise that also run voluntarily and increase maximal running capacity.Our results confirm that sustained aerobic exercise is key in improving AHN. Abstract Aerobic exercise, such as running, has positive effects on brain structure and function, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and learning. Whether high‐intensity interval training (HIT), referring to alternating short bouts of very intense anaerobic exercise with recovery periods, or anaerobic resistance training (RT) has similar effects on AHN is unclear. In addition, individual genetic variation in the overall response to physical exercise is likely to play a part in the effects of exercise on AHN but is less well studied. Recently, we developed polygenic rat models that gain differentially for running capacity in response to aerobic treadmill training. Here, we subjected these low‐response trainer (LRT) and high‐response trainer (HRT) adult male rats to various forms of physical exercise for 6–8 weeks and examined the effects on AHN. Compared with sedentary animals, the highest number of doublecortin‐positive hippocampal cells was observed in HRT rats that ran voluntarily on a running wheel, whereas HIT on the treadmill had a smaller, statistically non‐significant effect on AHN. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was elevated in both LRT and HRT rats that underwent endurance training on a treadmill compared with those that performed RT by climbing a vertical ladder with weights, despite their significant gain in strength

  6. Enhancing the Efficacy of Behavior Therapy for Obesity: Effects of Aerobic Exercise and a Multicomponent Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…

  7. Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Baudinette, Russell V

    2008-06-01

    Aerobic capacity (VO2max) of endothermic vertebrates is known to increase with exercise training, but this effect has not been found to-date in non-avian reptiles. We exercised juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) to walk at 0.75-0.88 km/h on a treadmill for up to 20 min a day over 16 weeks, and compared their aerobic performance with that of unexercised crocodiles. In the exercised group, VO2max increased from 6.9 to 8.5 mLO2/kg/min (+28%), and locomotor endurance increased from 3.8 to 6.9 min (+82%). Neither VO2max nor endurance changed significantly in the sedentary group. This finding extends the exercise training effect onto another vertebrate clade, and demonstrates that ectothermic amniotes are capable of elevating their aerobic capacity in response to exercise training. We propose that differences in cardiopulmonary structure and function in non-avian reptiles may be responsible for the absence (in squamates) or presence (in crocodilians) of a strong training effect on aerobic capacity.

  8. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  9. Comparison between the effect of 6 weeks of morning or evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Z; Younespour, S; Rajabian Tabesh, M; Haghravan, S

    2017-03-26

    Several studies have shown that exercise is directly related to creating negative energy balance and changes in appetite. However, few studies have examined the effect of exercise time during the day on these factors. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of 6 weeks of morning and evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices. A total of 48 overweight females were recruited to this clinical trial. By the time of exercise, they were divided into two groups (morning or evening) and performed 6 weeks of exercise with a target heart rate on the ventilatory threshold. Appetite change, calorie intake and anthropometric indices were assessed. Consistent changes in appetite scores were not found during the 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Calorie consumption of the morning group decreased significantly more than that of the evening group (P = 0.02) during the 6 weeks. In addition, significant changes in body weight, body mass index, abdominal skin fold thickness and abdominal circumference were seen in the morning group. It appears that moderate- to high-intensity aerobic exercise in the morning could be considered a more effective programme than evening exercise on appetite control, calorie intake and weight loss in inactive overweight women. However, the limitations of the study, such as short-term duration, should be noticed.

  10. Effect of body cooling on subsequent aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, Gregory F; Demartini, Julianne K; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-12-01

    Body cooling has become common in athletics, with numerous studies looking at different cooling modalities and different types of exercise. A search of the literature revealed 14 studies that measured performance following cooling intervention and had acceptable protocols for exercise and performance measures. These studies were objectively analyzed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and 13 of the studies were included in this review. These studies revealed that body cooling by various modalities had consistent and greater impact on aerobic exercise performance (mean increase in performance = 4.25%) compared to anaerobic (mean increase in performance = 0.66%). Different cooling modalities, and cooling during different points during an exercise protocol, had extremely varied results. In conclusion, body cooling seems to have a positive effect on aerobic performance, although the impact on anaerobic performance may vary and often does not provide the same positive effect.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Does Not Predict Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Cortisol Alterations in Depressed Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is related to neurobiological changes that occur in the monoamine system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurogenesis system and the neuroimmune system. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the research of the effects of exercise on brain function, with a special focus on its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol and other biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a review investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and cortisol levels in individuals with depression. It was not possible to establish an interaction between aerobic exercise and concentration of BDNF and cortisol, which may actually be the result of the divergence of methods, such as type of exercises, duration of the sessions, and prescribed intensity and frequency of sessions.

  12. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Wilborn, Colin D; Krieger, James W; Sonmez, Gul T

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that performing aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fat mass and fat-free mass following four weeks of volume-equated fasted versus fed aerobic exercise in young women adhering to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty healthy young female volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a fasted training (FASTED) group that performed exercise after an overnight fast (n = 10) or a post-prandial training (FED) group that consumed a meal prior to exercise (n = 10). Training consisted of 1 hour of steady-state aerobic exercise performed 3 days per week. Subjects were provided with customized dietary plans designed to induce a caloric deficit. Nutritional counseling was provided throughout the study period to help ensure dietary adherence and self-reported food intake was monitored on a regular basis. A meal replacement shake was provided either immediately prior to exercise for the FED group or immediately following exercise for the FASTED group, with this nutritional provision carried out under the supervision of a research assistant. Both groups showed a significant loss of weight (P = 0.0005) and fat mass (P = 0.02) from baseline, but no significant between-group differences were noted in any outcome measure. These findings indicate that body composition changes associated with aerobic exercise in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet are similar regardless whether or not an individual is fasted prior to training.

  13. The effect of feeding during recovery from aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Paul T; Konopka, Adam R; Hinkley, J Matthew; Undem, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-02-01

    We previously reported an increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed recovery from nonexhaustive aerobic exercise (Harber et al., 2010). The current study examined skeletal muscle intracellular signaling in the same subjects to further investigate mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein metabolism with and without feeding following aerobic exercise. Eight males (VO₂peak: 52 ± 2 ml⁻¹·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) performed 60-min of cycle ergometry at 72 ± 1% VO₂peak on two occasions in a counter-balanced design. Exercise trials differed only in the postexercise nutritional intervention: EX-FED (5 kcal, 0.83 g carbohydrate, 0.37 g protein, 0.03 g fat per kg body weight) and EX-FAST (noncaloric, isovolumic placebo) ingested immediately and one hour after exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest (on a separate day) and two hours postexercise to assess intracellular signaling via western blotting of p70S6K1, eEF2, 4EBP1, AMPKα and p38 MAPK. p70S6K1 phosphorylation was elevated (p < .05) in EX-FED relative to REST and EX-FAST. eEF2, 4EBP1, AMPKα and p38 MAPK signaling were unaltered at 2 h after exercise independent of feeding status when expressed as the ratio of phosphorylated to total protein normalized to actin. These data demonstrate that feeding after a nonexhaustive bout of aerobic exercise stimulates skeletal muscle p70S6K1 intracellular signaling favorable for promoting protein synthesis which may, as recent literature has suggested, better prepare the muscle for subsequent exercise bouts. These data provide further support into the role of feeding on mechanisms regulating muscle protein metabolism during recovery from aerobic exercise.

  14. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... WGmsqVUrJ0w. Accessed Jan. 3, 2017. Systrom DM. Exercise physiology. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 3, 2017. DeLee JC, et al. Exercise physiology. DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. ...

  15. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4 weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [14C]-iodoantipyrine 1 week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function. PMID:25747184

  16. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine 1week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function.

  17. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.

  18. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka,, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Sartor, Maureen A.; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 of selection that differed by 615% for maximal treadmill endurance running capacity. On average, LCRs were heavier and had increased blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides compared with HCRs. HCRs were higher for resting metabolic rate, voluntary activity, serum high density lipoproteins, muscle capillarity, and mitochondrial area. Bioinformatic analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression data revealed that many genes up-regulated in HCRs were related to oxidative energy metabolism. Seven mean mRNA expression centroids, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, correlated significantly with several exercise capacity and disease risk phenotypes. These expression-phenotype correlations, together with diminished skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial area in LCR rats, support the general hypothesis that an inherited intrinsic aerobic capacity can underlie disease risks.—Kivelä, R., Silvennoinen, M., Lehti, M., Rinnankoski-Tuikka, R., Purhonen, T., Ketola, T., Pullinen, K., Vuento, M., Mutanen, N., Sartor, M. A., Reunanen, H., Koch, L. G., Britton, S. L., Kainulainen, H. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk. PMID:20643908

  19. Putting the benefits and risks of aerobic exercise in perspective.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Billecke, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although considerable epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that structured exercise, increased lifestyle activity, or both are cardioprotective, the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal complications appear to increase transiently during vigorous physical activity. The estimated relative risk of exercise-related cardiac events ranges from 2.1 to 56 and is highest among habitually sedentary individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease who were performing unaccustomed vigorous physical exertion. Moreover, an estimated 7 million Americans receive medical attention for sports and recreation-related injuries each year. These risks, and their modulators, should be considered when endorsing strenuous leisure time or exercise interventions. If the current mantra "exercise is medicine" is embraced, underdosing and overdosing are possible. Thus, exercise may have a typical dose-response curve with a plateau in benefit or even adverse effects, in some individuals, at more extreme levels.

  20. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  1. The effect of 4-week aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gunendi, Zafer; Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Demirsoy, Nesrin

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Twenty-five postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and 28 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in this study. Balance ability of all subjects was measured by timed up and go test (TUG), four square step test (FSS), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Kinesthetic ability trainer 3000. After completion of initial measurements of balance, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis attended the submaximal aerobic exercise program on treadmill. At the end of the exercise program, balance tests were repeated. Balance tests of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were repeated approximately 4-weeks after the initial measurement. There was statistically significant improvement in all balance scores in the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis after exercise training whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the scores of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis who did not exercise. This study showed that a 4-week submaximal aerobic exercise program provided significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  2. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  3. High-intensity aerobic exercise training improves the heart in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kemi, Ole Johan; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Regular exercise training confers beneficial effects to the heart as well as to the entire body. This occurs partly because exercise training improves skeletal muscle work capacity and reduces resistance, thus increasing conductance in the peripheral circulation. More directly, exercise training also alters extrinsic modulation of the heart and improves the intrinsic pump capacity of the heart. Together, these effects allow for improved exercise capacity. Accumulating evidence suggests that the magnitude of these benefits increases proportionally with the intensity of individual exercise training sessions constituting the exercise training program. It has emerged that regular exercise training also confers beneficial effects to patients at risk for, or who have, established heart dysfunction and disease and, moreover, that exercise training may reduce the dysfunction of the heart itself and, at least, partly restore its ability to effectively function as a pump. The most recent studies in patients with established heart disease suggest that a high relative, yet aerobic, intensity of the exercise training improves the intrinsic pump capacity of the myocardium, an effect not previously believed to occur with exercise training. However, more and larger studies are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of such exercise training in patients with heart disease. Here, we consider the nature of the intensity dependence of exercise training and the causes of the improved heart function.

  4. Effects of a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Versus Resistance Training on Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Kelso, Kerry; Zawilinski, Laci

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise versus resistance training on cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders. Seventy-seven participants (60% female; 84% Caucasian) were randomized to complete 20 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, resistance training, or rest, followed by a 35% CO2/65% O2 inhalation challenge task. Results indicated that aerobic exercise and resistance training were significantly and equally effective in reducing anxiety sensitivity (AS) compared with rest ((η(2)(p ) = 52), though only aerobic exercise significantly attenuated reactivity to the CO2 challenge task. Neither form of exercise generated observable effects on distress tolerance, discomfort intolerance, or state anxiety (all ps >.10). The results of this study are discussed with regard to their implications for the use of exercise interventions for anxiety and related forms of psychopathology, and potential directions for future research are discussed.

  5. The Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Psychological Variables in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Samuel, II; Templer, Donald I.

    1985-01-01

    In a study assessing the psychological effects of exercise in the elderly, a 14-week aerobic program for older adults (N=23) produced a significant increase in self-concept and a significantly greater perceived internal locus of control. Improvement in memory was not found. (Author)

  6. Predicting Aerobic versus Resistance Exercise Using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Angela D.; Rocheleau, Courtney A.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in aerobic versus resistance training, investigating relationships between TPB variables, extroversion, and perceived health among college students who completed initial and follow-up measurements and provided reasons for exercise. TPB variables, extroversion, and perceived health collectively accounted…

  7. Association of calprotectin with leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators following acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Arun; Slusher, Aaron L; Zourdos, Michael C; Whitehurst, Michael; Fico, Brandon G; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether acute aerobic exercise-mediated calprotectin in plasma would be associated with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in healthy individuals. Eleven healthy participants, aged 18 to 30 years, were recruited to perform a 30-min bout of aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen uptake. Acute aerobic exercise elicited a significant elevation across time in plasma calprotectin, MCP-1, MPO, and IL-6. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with calprotectin area-under-the-curve with "respect to increase" (AUCi) and IL-6 AUCi. Furthermore, calprotectin AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi and MPO AUCi, even after controlling for BMI. Although MPO AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi, this relationship no longer existed after controlling for BMI. These results suggest that acute aerobic exercise could mediate innate immune response associated with calprotectin and its related leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators, especially in individuals with elevated BMI.

  8. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its consequences is a serious public health concern. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in sedentary adolescents. Twenty nine p...

  9. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  10. Effects of Physical Activity on Children's Executive Function: Contributions of Experimental Research on Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children's executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic…

  11. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  12. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise energy expenditure affected whole body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in people of differing aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in aerobi...

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers.

  14. Neural Basis of Working Memory Enhancement after Acute Aerobic Exercise: fMRI Study of Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Guo; Zhu, Li-Na; Yan, Jun; Yin, Heng-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Working memory lies at the core of cognitive function and plays a crucial role in children’s learning, reasoning, problem solving, and intellectual activity. Behavioral findings have suggested that acute aerobic exercise improves children’s working memory; however, there is still very little knowledge about whether a single session of aerobic exercise can alter working memory’s brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore, we investigated the effect of acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on working memory and its brain activation patterns in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on working memory in these children. We used a within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order. Nine healthy, right-handed children were scanned with a Siemens MAGNETOM Trio 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they performed a working memory task (N-back task), following a baseline session and a 30-min, moderate-intensity exercise session. Compared with the baseline session, acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise benefitted performance in the N-back task, increasing brain activities of bilateral parietal cortices, left hippocampus, and the bilateral cerebellum. These data extend the current knowledge by indicating that acute aerobic exercise enhances children’s working memory, and the neural basis may be related to changes in the working memory’s brain activation patterns elicited by acute aerobic exercise. PMID:27917141

  15. Neural Basis of Working Memory Enhancement after Acute Aerobic Exercise: fMRI Study of Preadolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ai-Guo; Zhu, Li-Na; Yan, Jun; Yin, Heng-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Working memory lies at the core of cognitive function and plays a crucial role in children's learning, reasoning, problem solving, and intellectual activity. Behavioral findings have suggested that acute aerobic exercise improves children's working memory; however, there is still very little knowledge about whether a single session of aerobic exercise can alter working memory's brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore, we investigated the effect of acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on working memory and its brain activation patterns in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on working memory in these children. We used a within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order. Nine healthy, right-handed children were scanned with a Siemens MAGNETOM Trio 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they performed a working memory task (N-back task), following a baseline session and a 30-min, moderate-intensity exercise session. Compared with the baseline session, acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise benefitted performance in the N-back task, increasing brain activities of bilateral parietal cortices, left hippocampus, and the bilateral cerebellum. These data extend the current knowledge by indicating that acute aerobic exercise enhances children's working memory, and the neural basis may be related to changes in the working memory's brain activation patterns elicited by acute aerobic exercise.

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic contributions to exhaustive high-intensity exercise after sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Borden, D O; Darnaby, K M; Hendricks, D N

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep loss on the performance of high-intensity exercise and on the contribution of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems to the exercise. Seven males and seven females performed an all-out cycling exercise test during baseline testing and then on three consecutive days after a sleepless night. The work rates were 5.0 W kg-1 for the females and 6.0 W kg-1 for the males. The aerobic contribution was determined based on measured VO2 and the anaerobic contribution was determined by subtraction of the aerobic contribution from the total amount of work performed. The results of baseline tests and of tests performed following sleep loss were compared for evidence of an effect of sleep deprivation. The 25-30 h of sleep deprivation did not affect total work, the anaerobic contribution or the aerobic contribution (all P > 0.1), although there was a tendency (P = 0.13) for mean VO2 to decrease after the sleepless night. There were no interaction effects involving sex on total work, the anaerobic contribution or the aerobic contribution (all P > 0.1). The mean (+/- S.E.M.) values for total work (kJ) performed were: baseline, 21.9 +/- 2.7; after sleep loss, 21.1 +/- 2.5 (day 1), 21.7 +/- 2.5 (day 2), and 21.9 +/- 2.7 (day 3). It is concluded that, in both males and females, there are no changes in the contributions of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to high-intensity exercise performed following the loss of one night's sleep.

  17. Effects of aerobic exercise under different thermal conditions on human somatosensory processing.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Oshiro, Misaki; Namba, Mari; Shibasaki, Manabu

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on human somatosensory processing recorded by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) under temperate [TEMP, 20°C and 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (HOT, 35°C and 30% RH) environments. Fifteen healthy subjects performed 4 × 15-min bouts of a moderate cycling exercise [mean power output: 156.5 ± 7.7 (SE) W], with a 10-min rest period and received a posterior tibial nerve stimulation at the left ankle before and after each exercise bout; SEPs were recorded in five sessions; 1st (pre), 2nd (post-1st exercise bout), 3rd (post-2nd exercise bout), 4th (post-3rd exercise bout), and 5th (post-4th exercise bout). The peak latencies and amplitudes of the P37, N50, P60, and N70 components at Cz were evaluated. The latencies of P37, N50, P60, and N70 were significantly shorter with the repetition of aerobic exercise, and these shortened latencies were significantly greater in the HOT condition than in the TEMP condition (P37: 3rd, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.01; P60: 4th, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.01; N70: 4th, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the amplitudes of any SEP component under either thermal condition. These results suggest that the conduction velocity of the ascending somatosensory input was accelerated by increases in body temperature, and aerobic exercise did not alter the strength of neural activity in cortical somatosensory processing.

  18. Aerobic exercise interacts with neurotrophic factors to predict cognitive functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Yau, Suk-Yu; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have suggested that aerobic exercise may have a positive effect on brain functioning, in addition to its well-recognized beneficial effects on human physiology. This study confirmed the cognitive effects of aerobic exercise on the human brain. It also examined the relationships between exercise and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, IGI-1, and VEGF). A total of 91 healthy teens who exercised regularly participated in this study. A between-group design was adopted to compare cognitive functioning subserved by the frontal and temporal brain regions and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors between 45 regular exercisers and 46 matched controls. The exercisers performed significantly better than the controls on the frontal and temporal functioning parameters measured. This beneficial cognitive effect was region-specific because no such positive cognitive effect on task-tapping occipital functioning was observed. With respect to the serum levels of the neurotrophic factors, a negative correlation between neurotrophic factors (BDNF and VEGF) with frontal and medial-temporal lobe function was revealed. Furthermore, the levels of BDNF and VEGF interacted with exercise status in predicting frontal and temporal lobe function. This is the first report of the interaction effects of exercise and neurotrophic factors on cognitive functioning. Herein, we report preliminary evidence of the beneficial effects of regular aerobic exercise in improving cognitive functions in teens. These beneficial effects are region-specific and are associated with the serum levels of neurotrophic factors. Our findings lay the path for future studies looking at ways to translate these beneficial effects to therapeutic strategies for adolescents.

  19. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Moderately Strenuous Aerobic Exercise After an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Glenny, Robb W.; Burr, Robert L.; Flo ARNP, Gayle L.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its salutary effects on health, aerobic exercise is often avoided after receipt of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) because of fears that exercise may provoke acute arrhythmias. We prospectively evaluated the effects of a home aerobic exercise training and maintenance program (EX) on aerobic performance, ICD shocks and hospitalizations exclusively in ICD recipients. Methods and Results One hundred sixty (124 men, 36 women) were randomized who had an ICD for primary (43%) or secondary (57%) prevention to EX or usual care (UC). The primary outcome was peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2), measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline, 8 and 24 weeks. EX consisted of 8 weeks of home walking 1 hour/day, 5 days/week at 60-80% of heart rate reserve, followed by 16 weeks of maintenance home walking for 150 minutes/week. Adherence to EX was determined from exercise logs, ambulatory HR recordings of exercise, and weekly telephone contacts. UC received no exercise directives and were monitored by monthly telephone contact. Adverse events were identified by ICD interrogations, patient reports and medical records. ICD recipients averaged 55±12 years and mean ejection fraction of 40.6±15.7, all were taking beta blocker medications. EX significantly increased peakVO2 ml/kg/min (EX 26.7±7.0; UC 23.9±6.6, p=0.002) at 8 weeks, which persisted during maintenance exercise at 24 weeks (EX 26.9±7,7; UC 23.4±6.0, p<0.001). ICD shocks were infrequent (EX=4 vs UC=8), with no differences in hospitalizations or deaths between groups. Conclusions Prescribed home exercise is safe and significantly improves cardiovascular performance in ICD recipients without causing shocks or hospitalizations. PMID:25792557

  20. Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions.

    PubMed

    Evero, Nero; Hackett, Laura C; Clark, Robert D; Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd A

    2012-05-01

    Acute exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake, but little is known about the effects of exercise on food reward brain regions. After an overnight fast, 30 (17 men, 13 women), healthy, habitually active (age = 22.2 ± 0.7 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), Vo(2peak) = 44.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) individuals completed 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer or 60 min of rest (no-exercise) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. After each condition, blood oxygen level-dependent responses to high-energy food, low-energy food, and control visual cues, were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Exercise, compared with no-exercise, significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to food (high and low food) cues vs. control cues in the insula (-0.37 ± 0.13 vs. +0.07 ± 0.18%), putamen (-0.39 ± 0.10 vs. -0.10 ± 0.09%), and rolandic operculum (-0.37 ± 0.17 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12%). Exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high food vs. control and low food vs. control cues in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (-0.94 ± 0.33%), insula (-0.37 ± 0.13%), and putamen (-0.41 ± 0.10%). No-exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high vs. control and low vs. control cues in the middle (-0.47 ± 0.15%) and inferior occipital gyrus (-1.00 ± 0.23%). Exercise reduced neuronal responses in brain regions consistent with reduced pleasure of food, reduced incentive motivation to eat, and reduced anticipation and consumption of food. Reduced neuronal response in these food reward brain regions after exercise is in line with the paradigm that acute exercise suppresses subsequent energy intake.

  1. Contributions of Astronauts Aerobic Exercise Intensity and Time on Change in VO2peak during Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Buxton, Roxanne; Moore, Alan; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variability among astronauts with respect to changes in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) during International Space Station (ISS) missions, ranging from a 5% increase to 30% decline. Individual differences may be due to in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity on change in VO2peak during ISS missions. METHODS: Astronauts (N=11) performed peak cycle tests approx 60 days before flight (L-60), on flight day (FD) approx 14, and every approx 30 days thereafter. Metabolic gas analysis and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the test using the portable pulmonary function system. HR and duration of each in-flight cycle ergometer and treadmill (TM) session were recorded and averaged in time segments corresponding to each peak test. Mixed effects linear regression with exercise mode (TM or cycle) as a categorical variable was used to assess the contributions of exercise intensity (%time >70% peak HR or %time >90% peak HR) and time (min/wk), adjusted for body weight, on %change in VO2peak during the mission, and incorporating the repeated-measures experimental design. RESULTS: 110 observations were included in the model (4-6 peak cycle tests per astronaut, 2 exercise devices). VO2peak was reduced from preflight throughout the mission (FD14: 13+/-13% and FD 105: 8+/-10%). Exercise intensity (%peak HR: FD14=66+/-14; FD105=75+/-8) and time (min/wk: FD14=82+/-46; FD105=158+/-40) increased during flight. The models showed main effects for exercise time and intensity with no interactions between time, intensity, and device (70% peak HR: time [z-score=2.39; P=0.017], intensity [z-score=3.51; P=0.000]; 90% peak HR: time [zscore= 3.31; P=0.001], intensity [z-score=2.24; P=0.025]). CONCLUSION: Exercise time and intensity independently contribute to %change in VO2peak during ISS missions, indicating that there are minimal values for exercise time and intensity

  2. A new non-exercise-based Vo2max prediction equation for aerobically trained men.

    PubMed

    Malek, Moh H; Housh, Terry J; Berger, Dale E; Coburn, Jared W; Beck, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (a) modify previously published Vo(2)max equations using the constant error (CE = mean difference between actual and predicted Vo(2)max) values from Malek et al. (28); (b) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating Vo(2)max in aerobically trained men; (c) derive a new non- exercise-based equation for estimating Vo(2)max in aerobically trained men if the modified equations are not found to be accurate; and (d) cross-validate the new Vo(2)max equation using the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained men. One hundred and fifty-two aerobically trained men (Vo(2)max mean +/- SD = 4,154 +/- 629 ml.min(-1)) performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine actual Vo(2)max. An aerobically trained man was defined as someone who had participated in continuous aerobic exercise 3 or more sessions per week for a minimum of 1 hour per session for at least the past 18 months. Nine previously published Vo(2)max equations were modified for use with aerobically trained men. The predicted Vo(2)max values from the 9 modified equations were compared to actual Vo(2)max by examining the CE, standard error of estimate (SEE), validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE). Cross-validation of the modified non-exercise-based equations on a random subsample of 50 subjects resulted in a %TE > or = 13% of the mean of actual Vo(2)max. Therefore, the following non-exercise-based Vo(2)max equation was derived from a random subsample of 112 subjects: Vo(2)max (ml.min(-1)) = 27.387(weight in kg) + 26.634(height in cm) - 27.572(age in years) + 26.161(h.wk(-1) of training) + 114.904(intensity of training using the Borg 6-20 scale) + 506.752(natural log of years of training) - 4,609.791 (R = 0.82, R(2) adjusted = 0.65, and SEE = 378 ml.min(-1)). Cross-validation of this equation on the remaining sample of 40 subjects resulted in a %TE of 10

  3. The effects of different exercise programmes on female body composition.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Rosa Maria Soares Costa; de Araújo Júnior, Adenilson Targino; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Fernandes, Helder Miguel

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years). The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG): practitioners of strength training (SG), dance (DG), hydrogymnastics (HG), and a control group (CG) with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ%) were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time × group) were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52) = 24.59, p <0.001, η (2) = 0.22), fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01) = 12.65, p <0.001, η (2) = 0.13) and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66) = 47.38, p <0.001, η (2) = 0.36). The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  4. Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, R C; Lee, K S; Fernandes, J; Oliveira, M G M; Tufik, S; Meeusen, R; de Mello, M T

    2012-01-27

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that exercise has a positive impact on human health, including neurological health. Aerobic exercise, which is supposed to enhance cardiovascular functions and metabolism, also induces neurotrophic factors that affect hippocampal neurons, thereby improving spatial learning and memory. Alternatively, little is known about the effect of resistance exercise on hippocampus-dependent memory, although this type of exercise is increasingly recommended to improve muscle strength and bone density and to prevent age-related disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of resistance training on spatial memory and the signaling pathways of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), comparing these effects with those of aerobic exercise. Adult male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (AERO group) or resistance training on a vertical ladder (RES group). Control and sham groups were also included. After the training period, both AERO and RES groups showed improved learning and spatial memory in a similar manner. However, both groups presented distinct signaling pathways. Although the AERO group showed increased level of IGF-1, BDNF, TrkB, and β-CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) in the hippocampus, the RES group showed an induction of peripheral and hippocampal IGF-1 with concomitant activation of receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) and AKT in the hippocampus. These distinct pathways culminated in an increase of synapsin 1 and synaptophysin expression in both groups. These findings demonstrated that both aerobic and resistance exercise can employ divergent molecular mechanisms but achieve similar results on learning and spatial memory.

  5. Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in men: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise is recommended for improving lipoprotein and lipid levels which at less than their optimal levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Evidence seems lacking for the effectiveness of exercise in reducing these levels, possibly due to small sizes in studies. We concluded a meta-analysis of the studies to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins in adult men. METHODS: Studies were retrieved via computerized literature searches, cross-referencing from retrieved articles, hand-searching, and expert review of our reference list. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, aerobic exercise ≥8 weeks, adult men ≥18 years of age, studies published in journal, dissertation, or master's thesis format, studies published in the English-language between January 1, 1955 and January 1, 2003, and assessment of one or more of the following lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and triglycerides (TG). All coding was conducted by both authors, independent of each other. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Forty-nine randomized controlled trials representing up to 67 outcomes from 2,990 men (1,741 exercise, 1,249 control) were pooled for analysis. Using random-effects modeling, statistically significant improvements were observed for TC, HDL-C and TG, and a trend for decreases was observed for LDL-C. Changes were equivalent to improvements of 2% for TC and HDL-C, 3% of LDL-C, and 9% for TG. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise reduces TC and TG and increases HDL-C in men 18 years of age and older.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substrate utilization following acute aerobic exercise in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Slusher, A L; Whitehurst, M; Zoeller, R F; Mock, J T; Maharaj, A; Huang, C-J

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves as a vital regulator of neuronal proliferation and survival, and has been shown to regulate energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism and body weight maintenance. Elevated concentrations of plasma BDNF have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acute aerobic exercise transiently increases circulating BDNF, potentially correcting obesity-related metabolic impairment. The present study aimed to compare acute aerobic exercise elicited BDNF responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether acute exercise-induced plasma BDNF elevations would be associated with improved indices of insulin resistance, as well as substrate utilization [carbohydrate oxidation (CHOoxi) and fat oxidation (FAToxi)]. Twenty-two healthy, untrained subjects [11 obese (four men and seven women; age = 22.91 ± 4.44 years; body mass index = 35.72 ± 4.17 kg/m(2)) and 11 normal-weight (five men and six women; age = 23.27 ± 2.24 years; body mass index = 21.89 ± 1.63 kg/m(2))] performed 30 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Our analyses showed that the BDNF response to acute aerobic exercise was similar in obese and normal-weight subjects across time (time: P = 0.015; group: P = not significant) and was not associated with indices of IR. Although no differences in the rates of CHOoxi and FAToxi were found between both groups, total relative energy expenditure was significantly lower in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects (3.53 ± 0.25 versus 5.59 ± 0.85; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that acute exercise-elicited BDNF elevation may not be sufficient to modulate indices of IR or the utilization of either carbohydrates or fats in obese individuals.

  7. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  8. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  9. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  10. Effects of active recovery on autonomic and haemodynamic responses after aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Soares, Antonio H G; Oliveira, Tiago P; Cavalcante, Bruno R; Farah, Breno Q; Lima, Aluísio H R A; Cucato, Gabriel G; Cardoso, Crivaldo G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of active recovery on autonomic and haemodynamic responses after exercise in healthy adults. Nineteen healthy young male individuals underwent two experimental sessions: exercise with active recovery (AR) and exercise with passive recovery (PR). The exercise sessions comprised three phases: warm-up (5 min), exercise phase (cycle ergometer, 30 min, intensity between 60 and 70% of the heart rate reserve) and recovery (5 min). In the AR, the subjects remained cycling in the recovery phase at intensity between 30% and 35% of heart rate reserve, while in the PR, the subjects stopped the exercise after finishing the exercise phase. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and over the 30 min after the interventions. There were no differences for systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate and rate pressure product between active and passive recovery sessions. Also, all heart rate variability parameters changed similarly after exercise with passive or active recovery sessions. In summary, exercise with active recovery does not affect the autonomic and haemodynamic responses after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in healthy young male individuals.

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children’s Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control condition. Exercise sessions met 5 day/wk for 15 weeks. The Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), a standardized test of cognitive processes, was administered individually before and following intervention. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores revealed effects on executive function. Group differences emerged for the CAS Planning scale (p = .03). Planning scores for the high-dose group were significantly greater than those of the control group. Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive and social development. PMID:18274222

  12. Optimizing Intramuscular Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate Restriction and Protein Supplementation on Mitochondrial Biogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5′AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise. PMID:24228194

  13. Change in body composition following a 15-week, heart rate monitored aerobic exercise program: The TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The joint goals of the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study are to introduce sedentary college-age individuals to regular exercise and identify genetic factors that influence physiologic response to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the study was to examine ...

  14. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  15. Higher circulating leukocytes in women with PCOS is reversed by aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Covington, Jeffrey D; Tam, Charmaine S; Pasarica, Magdalena; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated circulating leukocytes, and hypothesized to have higher adipose tissue inflammation. Aerobic exercise reduces circulating leukocytes and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals, but the effect of exercise on inflammation in PCOS is not known. We investigated circulating leukocytes, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, serum pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-α, total and high molecular weight adiponectin), and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression of proinflammatory markers in 8 PCOS women and 8 obese control females matched for BMI. Additionally, in a prospective study, the 8 women with PCOS underwent a 16-week aerobic exercise regimen with the same measures performed post-intervention. Compared to controls, white blood cell counts (WBC) were 30% higher (p = 0.04) and circulating total adiponectin levels were 150% lower (p = 0.03) in women with PCOS at baseline/pre-exercise conditions. SAT gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, p < 0.01) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, p < 0.05) were also lower in women with PCOS. In response to 16 weeks of aerobic exercise, insulin sensitivity improved (p < 0.01) and WBC counts decreased (p = 0.02). The exercise-induced change in WBC and circulating neutrophils correlated inversely with changes in glucose disposal rate (r = -0.73, p = 0.03; and r = -0.82, p = 0.01, respectively). Aerobic exercise reduced serum leptin (p < 0.05) after 4 weeks, trended to reduce the ratio of leptin-to-high molecular weight adiponectin (p < 0.1) by the 8th week, and significantly increased serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, p < 0.001) after 16 weeks. In conclusion, women with PCOS have higher circulating leukocytes compared to controls, which can be reversed by aerobic exercise and is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.

  16. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  17. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-01-01

    Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). At the end of the experimental session, ES showed a rise in SBP of 17.4 mmHg (14.3%, p < 0.001) and DBP of 5.4 mmHg (7.8%, p < 0.001) compared to CS. At 10 minutes after exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.

  18. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  19. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  20. Multi-modal characterization of rapid anterior hippocampal volume increase associated with aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Matthews, Lucy; Morris, Martyn; Kolind, Shannon H.; Foxley, Sean; Jenkinson, Mark; Nichols, Thomas E.; Dawes, Helen; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of tasks and experiences. For example, the size of the human hippocampus has been shown to increase in response to aerobic exercise. However, it is currently unknown what underlies these changes. Here we scanned sedentary, young to middle-aged human adults before and after a six-week exercise intervention using nine different neuroimaging measures of brain structure, vasculature, and diffusion. We then tested two different hypotheses regarding the nature of the underlying changes in the tissue. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a vascular change as has been previously reported. Rather, the pattern of changes is better explained by an increase in myelination. Finally, we show hippocampal volume increase is temporary, returning to baseline after an additional six weeks without aerobic exercise. This is the first demonstration of a change in hippocampal volume in early to middle adulthood suggesting that hippocampal volume is modulated by aerobic exercise throughout the lifespan rather than only in the presence of age related atrophy. It is also the first demonstration of hippocampal volume change over a period of only six weeks, suggesting gross morphometric hippocampal plasticity occurs faster than previously thought. PMID:26654786

  1. Cerebral hemodynamics of the aging brain: risk of Alzheimer disease and benefit of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Takashi; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease often coexist with advanced age. Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of vascular disease and its risk factors increase the risk of AD, suggesting a potential overlap of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and stiffening of central elastic arteries have been shown to associate with AD. Currently, there are no effective treatments for the cure and prevention of AD. Vascular risk factors are modifiable via either pharmacological or lifestyle intervention. In this regard, habitual aerobic exercise is increasingly recognized for its benefits on brain structure and cognitive function. Considering the well-established benefits of regular aerobic exercise on vascular health, exercise-related improvements in brain structure and cognitive function may be mediated by vascular adaptations. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the physiological mechanisms by which vascular health alters the structural and functional integrity of the aging brain and how improvements in vascular health, via regular aerobic exercise, potentially benefits cognitive function.

  2. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  3. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    PubMed

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  4. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  5. CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION BEFORE AND AFTER AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING IN PATIETNS WITH INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, Randall E.; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Chin, Lisa M.K.; Nathan, Steven D.; Weir, Nargues A.; Connors, Gerilynn; Drinkard, Bart; Lamberti, James; Chan, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the cardiorespiratory response to exercise before and after aerobic exercise training in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS We performed a clinical study, examining 13 patients (New York Heart Association/World Health Organization Functional Class II or III) before and after 10-weeks of supervised treadmill exercise walking, at 70–80% of heart rate reserve, 30–45 minutes per session, 3 times per week. Outcome variables included measures of cardiorespiratory function during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (tCPET), with additional near infrared spectroscopy measurements of peripheral oxygen extraction and bioimpedance cardiography measurements of cardiac output. 6-minute walk test distance (6MWD) was also measured. RESULTS All subjects participated in at least 24 of their 30, scheduled exercise sessions with no significant adverse events. After training, the mean 6MWD increased by 52±48 meters (P=.001), peak tCPET time increased by 163±130 seconds (P=.001), and time to achieve gas exchange threshold increased by 145±37 seconds (P<.001). Despite a negligible increase in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) with no changes to cardiac output, the overall work rate/VO2 relationship was enhanced after training. Muscle oxygen extraction increased by 16% (P=.049) after training. CONCLUSION Clinically significant improvements in cardiorespiratory function were observed after aerobic exercise training in this group of subjects with ILD. These improvements appear to have been mediated by increases in the peripheral extraction of oxygen rather than changes in oxygen delivery. PMID:25313451

  6. Short-term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Nitroglycerin-induced Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris K.; Potter, Tiffany F.; Cuff, Darcye J.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Older adults are at a high risk for syncope due to orthostatic intolerance (OI), and this risk increases with comorbid type 2 diabetes and vasoactive medications. Despite many benefits, previous investigations have shown worsening OI with aerobic training. We examined whether aerobic exercise reduced OI in older adults with type 2 diabetes who were given a short-acting vasoactive agent (nitroglycerin). Methods Forty older adults (25 males and 15 females, mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years) with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects were randomized to each of 2 groups: an aerobic group (3 months of vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic (no aerobic exercise) group. Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer 3 times per week. After being given 400 μg of sublingual nitroglycerin, each subject was placed in a 70° head-up tilt for 30 minutes. Results When the 2 groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards model, tilt table tolerance was significantly better in the aerobic group as compared to in the nonaerobic group (χ2MC = 7.271, P = 0.007). Conclusions Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention can improve postnitroglycerin orthostatic tolerance in older adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21346593

  7. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  8. Effects of Home Exercise Programmes During Home Visits After Hip Replacement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozlem; Tosun, Bet Uuml L

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the research, focused on the effects of home exercise programmes implemented during home visits after hip replacement on patients. PubMed (MEDLINE), Wiley Online Library, EBSCOhost, Science Direct databases (between 2004 and June 2015) were searched with the keywords "hip replacement, home exercise programme and home visit". Eleven original articles were retrieved. Different parameters were used in the trials to assess the physical functions, mobility and quality of life of patients. In six trials, the intervention group achieved significantly better improvements statistically in all parameters after home exercise programmes. In three trials, the intervention group achieved better but not significant outcomes. Early recovery in daily living activities with home exercise programme was reported only in one trial. Reviewed studies suggest that home exercise programmes, implemented during home visits after hip replacement, improve patients' physical functions and life quality.

  9. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia combined with aerobic exercise improves muscle morphofunctional recovery after eccentric exercise to exhaustion in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Rizo-Roca, D; Ríos-Kristjánsson, J G; Núñez-Espinosa, C; Santos-Alves, E; Gonçalves, I O; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A; Pagès, T; Viscor, G; Torrella, J R

    2017-03-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle morphological and functional alterations, including microvasculature damage, the repair of which is modulated by hypoxia. We present the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and exercise on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD). Soleus muscles from trained rats were excised before (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after a double session of EEIMD protocol. A recovery treatment consisting of one of the following protocols was applied 1 day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), a 4-h daily exposure to passive hypobaric hypoxia at 4,000 m (PHR), or hypobaric hypoxia exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR). EEIMD produced an increase in the percentage of abnormal fibers compared with CTRL, and it affected the microvasculature by decreasing capillary density (CD, capillaries per mm(2)) and the capillary-to-fiber ratio (CF). After 14 days, AHR exhibited CD and CF values similar to those of CTRL animals (789 and 3.30 vs. 746 and 3.06) and significantly higher than PNR (575 and 2.62) and PHR (630 and 2.92). Furthermore, VEGF expression showed a significant 43% increase in AHR when compared with PNR. Moreover, after 14 days, the muscle fibers in AHR had a more oxidative phenotype than the other groups, with significantly smaller cross-sectional areas (AHR, 3,745; PNR, 4,502; and PHR, 4,790 µm(2)), higher citrate synthase activity (AHR, 14.8; PNR, 13.1; and PHR, 12 µmol·min(-1)·mg(-1)) and a significant 27% increment in PGC-1α levels compared with PNR. Our data show that hypoxia combined with exercise attenuates or reverses the morphofunctional alterations induced by EEIMD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides new insights into the use of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia combined with exercise as a strategy to recover muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. We analyzed the effects of hypobaric exposure combined with aerobic exercise on histopathological features of muscle

  10. Effect of Increasing Maximal Aerobic Exercise on Serum Muscles Enzymes in Professional Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, Aynur; Otağ, İlhan; Sezen, Mehmet; Sever, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Exercise results in oxidative enzyme increase and micro-injuries in skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximal aerobic exercise on serum muscle enzymes in professional field hockey players. This study aims to determine the effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels. Material and Methods: 31 young professional field hockey players (13 female and 18 male players) volunteered for this study. All participants underwent the shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken from each participant before the shuttle run test. Post test blood samples were taken immediately after exercise and one hour after respectively. Pre and post test CK, CK-MB, AST and ALT values were measured by means of auto analyzer using original kits. Results: The acute post test measure of the CK level increased in male (p=0.002) and female (p=0.00) sportsmen. CK-MB values obtained one hour after the exercise was lower than those before the exercise in males (p=0.02). In females (p=0.017) and males (p=0.05) AST activity significantly increased immediately after exercise and decreased to resting activity 1 h recovery. ALT significantly increased immediately after exercise in female (p=0.03) and male (p=0.00) athletes and after 1 h recovery ALT activities decreased below resting values. Conclusion: The timing and severity of exercise used in our study increased CK values, decreased CK-MB values and AST, ALT values increased in female and male field hockey players. PMID:25948428

  11. Effects of aerobic exercise intervention on serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and lymphocyte dna damage in obese elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441

  12. Aerobic interval exercise with an eccentric contraction induces muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Takamiya, Naomi; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether an aerobic interval exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The aerobic endurance exercise group ran for 90 min. The aerobic interval exercise group ran for a total of 90 minutes in 5 minute bouts separated by 2 minute rest periods. The exercise groups ran on a downhill treadmill incline, once every three days, for a total of twenty sessions. [Results] The muscle wet weights, the muscle fiber cross-section minor axes, and the tetanus tension results of the aerobic endurance and aerobic interval exercise groups were significantly larger than those of the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobic interval exercise may be an effective method of inducing hypertrophy and augmenting muscular strength in skeletal muscle.

  13. Development of a self-managed loaded exercise programme for rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a self-managed loaded exercise programme which has been designed to address the pain and disability associated with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention has been developed with reference to current self-management theory and with reference to the emerging benefit of loaded exercise for tendinopathy. This self-managed loaded exercise programme is being evaluated within the mixed methods SELF study (ISRCTN 84709751) which includes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted within the UK National Health Service.

  14. Beneficial effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and body composition in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K H; Hornak, J E

    1993-05-01

    Adults with Prader Willi syndrome were subdivided into an experimental group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5) to determine the effects of an aerobic exercise program. Their resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, body weight, and somatotype were determined. Participants in a 6-month walking program showed statistically significant differences in all variables measuring aerobic capacity and a significant variation in weight loss over the 6-month program compared to the control group.

  15. Reducing effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hongwei; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to explore the reductive effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Methods: The related researches were selected from PubMed and Embase databases up to June 2016. Based on specific inclusive criteria, the eligible studies were selected, and the heterogeneities in their results were estimated by χ2-based Q-test and I2 statistics. Quantitative meta-analysis was assessed by R 3.12 software, and results were presented by standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome indicators were systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The publication biases were estimated by Egger test. Besides, the “leave one out” method was used for sensitivity evaluations. Results: As a result, a total of 13 papers with 802 samples were included. Based on the meta-analysis results, there were no significant differences in SBP and DBP between aerobic and control groups before exercise (SMD = 0.15, 95%CI: −0.16–0.46; SMD = 0.16, 95% CI: −0.23–0.55). However, significant reductions were obviously in aerobic group after aerobics, compared with control (SMD = −0.79, 95% CI: −1.29 to −0.28; SMD = −0.63, 95% CI: −1.14 to −0.12). A significant publication bias was detected in SBP (t = −2.2314, P = 0.04549) but not in DBP (t = −1.4962, P = 0.1604). Additionally, the DBP result would be altered after the exclusion of 2 individual papers. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise may be a potential nonpharmacological treatment for blood pressure improvement in essential hypertensive patients. PMID:28296729

  16. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise.

  17. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S.; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise

  18. Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Defina, Laura F; Keebler, Molly W; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57-75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults.

  19. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive and Neural Decline in Aging and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Forman, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a decline in cognitive functions, particularly in the domains of executive function, processing speed and episodic memory. These age-related declines are exacerbated by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, elevated total cholesterol). Structural and functional alterations in brain regions, including the fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobes, have been linked to age- and CVD-related cognitive decline. Multiple recent studies indicate that aerobic exercise programs may slow the progression of age-related neural changes and reduce the risk for mild cognitive impairment as well as dementia. We review age- and CVD-related decline in cognition and the underlying changes in brain morphology and function, and then clarify the impact of aerobic exercise on moderating these patterns. PMID:25750853

  20. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive and Neural Decline in Aging and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Scott M; Alosco, Michael L; Forman, Daniel E

    2014-12-01

    Aging is characterized by a decline in cognitive functions, particularly in the domains of executive function, processing speed and episodic memory. These age-related declines are exacerbated by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, elevated total cholesterol). Structural and functional alterations in brain regions, including the fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobes, have been linked to age- and CVD-related cognitive decline. Multiple recent studies indicate that aerobic exercise programs may slow the progression of age-related neural changes and reduce the risk for mild cognitive impairment as well as dementia. We review age- and CVD-related decline in cognition and the underlying changes in brain morphology and function, and then clarify the impact of aerobic exercise on moderating these patterns.

  1. A Pilot Study of Women’s Affective Responses to Common and Uncommon Forms of Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Bryan, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the extent to which participants exposed to an uncommon versus common exercise stimulus would result in more favourable affect at post task. Design Experimental design. Participants, (N = 120) American women aged 18–45 years, were randomly assigned to complete 30-minutes of either the uncommon (HOOP; n = 58) or common (WALK; n = 62) exercise stimulus. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported affect and intentions for future exercise were measured before and after the 30-minute exercise bout. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were run to compare post-task affect across the HOOP and WALK conditions. At post-task, participants assigned to HOOP reported more positively valenced affect, higher ratings of positive activated affect, lower ratings of negative deactivated affect, and stronger intentions for future aerobic exercise compared to participants assigned to WALK. Conclusions Participants who completed an uncommon bout of aerobic exercise (HOOP) reported more favourable affect post-exercise, as well as stronger intentions for future exercise, compared to participants who completed a common bout of aerobic exercise (WALK). Future work using a longitudinal design is needed to understand the relationships between familiarity with an exercise stimulus, affective responses to exercise, motivation for future exercise behaviour, and exercise maintenance over time. PMID:26394246

  2. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Sartor, Maureen A; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-11-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 of selection that differed by 615% for maximal treadmill endurance running capacity. On average, LCRs were heavier and had increased blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides compared with HCRs. HCRs were higher for resting metabolic rate, voluntary activity, serum high density lipoproteins, muscle capillarity, and mitochondrial area. Bioinformatic analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression data revealed that many genes up-regulated in HCRs were related to oxidative energy metabolism. Seven mean mRNA expression centroids, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, correlated significantly with several exercise capacity and disease risk phenotypes. These expression-phenotype correlations, together with diminished skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial area in LCR rats, support the general hypothesis that an inherited intrinsic aerobic capacity can underlie disease risks.

  3. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    PubMed

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample.

  4. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  5. Short-Term Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lorna; McFadyen, Angus K.; Marshall-McKenna, Rebecca; Mattison, Paul; Miller, Linda; McFarlane, Niall G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This pilot study was conducted to determine whether a 15-minute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise would affect symptoms (pain and fatigue) and function (Timed 25-Foot Walk test [T25FW] and Timed Up and Go test [TUG]) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and to compare these results with those of a healthy control group. Methods: Eight people with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5–6; Karnofsky score 50–80), eight people with CFS (Karnofsky score 50–80), and eight healthy volunteers participated in the study. Pain and fatigue levels and results of the T25FW and TUG were established at baseline as well as at 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours following a 15-minute stationary cycling aerobic exercise test. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze the findings over time. Results: At baseline there were statistically significant differences between groups in fatigue (P = .039), T25FW (P = .034), and TUG (P = .010). A significant group/time interaction emerged for fatigue levels (P= .005). We found no significant group/time interaction for pain levels or function. Conclusions: Undertaking 15 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise had no significant adverse effects on pain or function in people with MS and CFS (with a Karnofsky score of 50–80) within a 24-hour time period. These initial results suggest that people with MS or CFS may undertake 15 minutes of cycling as moderate aerobic exercise with no expected negative impact on pain or function. PMID:25061431

  6. Effects of aerobic exercise in early evening on the following nocturnal sleep and its haemodynamic response.

    PubMed

    Miura, Akira; Myouken, Shizuka; Yamada, Masako; Fujihara, Chizuko; Miura, Kouhei; Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kouhei; Endo, Masako Y; Koga, Shunsaku; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We determined effect of aerobic exercise in early evening on the quality, quantity, and haemodynamic response of subsequent nocturnal sleep in the home. Ten healthy young participants performed two protocols, with/without cycle ergometer exercise (60 min at 50% heart rate reserve) in early evening. Blood pressure (BP) (Holter) and physical activity (accelerometer) were measured from late afternoon of day 1 until noon of next day (day 2). Additionally, at bedtime participants were equipped with a small device worn on the wrist that identified sleep stage. There were no substantial differences in objective indices of sleep between two protocols (total sleep time: 438 ± 76 vs. 457 ± 64 min; P > 0.10). BP during nocturnal sleep tended to be lowered by prior exercise (MAP: 71 ± 5 vs. 68 ± 6 mmHg; P = 0.08). Aerobic exercise in early evening apparently has no acute effect on sleep per se, but seems to have a residual effect on haemodynamics, i.e. prolongation of post-exercise hypotension.

  7. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C.A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event. PMID:27630434

  8. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels.

  9. The effects of poststroke aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity: a systematic review of animal and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Glynn, Lindsay; Corbett, Dale

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise may be a catalyst to promote neuroplasticity and recovery following stroke; however, the optimal methods to measure neuroplasticity and the effects of training parameters have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of clinical trials and studies in animal models to determine (1) the extent to which aerobic exercise influences poststroke markers of neuroplasticity, (2) the optimal parameters of exercise required to induce beneficial effects, and (3) consistent outcomes in animal models that could help inform the design of future trials. Synthesized findings show that forced exercise at moderate to high intensity increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), nerve growth factor (NGF), and synaptogenesis in multiple brain regions. Dendritic branching was most responsive to moderate rather than intense training. Disparity between clinical stroke and stroke models (timing of initiation of exercise, age, gender) and clinically viable methods to measure neuroplasticity are some of the areas that should be addressed in future research.

  10. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-02-21

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically.

  11. Metabolic and hormonal changes during aerobic exercise in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pastor, V J; Ruiz, M; Diego-Acosta, A M; Avila, C; García, J C; Pérez, F; Guirado, F; Noguer, N

    1999-03-01

    A group of long-distance runners is studied in order to clarify aspects concerning neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating organic adaptation to maximum effort, with special interest in the function of the growth hormone in fat metabolism and the possible use of ketone bodies as an alternative source of energy. A test is designed on a treadmill with a gradient of 3% and progressive increases in speed of 2 Km/h every 10 min, starting at 6 Km/h, and continuing until exhaustion. Masks are worn to enable the breath by breath measurement of expired gases and the subjects are monitored electrocardiographically using V5. For blood sample collection an antecubital vein is catheterized with a system enabling the replacement of the blood volume extracted by means of perfusion with physiological saline solution, and the increasing concentration of hormones in the blood is evaluated. The results obtained, indicate that epinephrine as well as GH hormones increase significatively from 20 min of exercise in runners promoting changes from carbohydrates to lipids as fuels to carry out exercise. The concomitant variations in energy substrates support the former hypothesis of work. Moreover, the muscle could employ acetylCoA originating from acetoacetate as an alternative metabolic source of fuel during maximum effort.

  12. Release of ANP and fat oxidation in overweight persons during aerobic exercise in water.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, M; Schnizer, W; Aebli, N; Schlegel, C; Villiger, B; Disch, A; Gredig, J; Zaugg, T; Krebs, J

    2013-09-01

    Exercise in water compared to land-based exercise (LE) results in a higher release of natriuretic peptides, which are involved in the regulation of exercise-induced adipose tissue lipolysis. The present study was performed to compare the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and free fatty acids (FFA) during prolonged aerobic water-based exercise (WE) with the release after an identical LE. 14 untrained overweight subjects performed 2 steady state workload tests on the same ergometer in water and on land. Before and after exercise, venous blood samples were collected for measuring ANP, FFA, epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin and glucose. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was determined for fat oxidation.The exercises resulted in a significant increase in ANP in LE (61%) and in WE (177%), and FFA increased about 3-fold in LE and WE with no significant difference between the groups. Epinephrine increased, while insulin decreased similarly in both groups. The RER values decreased during the exercises, but there was no significant difference between LE and WE. In conclusion, the higher ANP concentrations in WE had no additional effect on lipid mobilization, FFA release and fat oxidation. Moderate-intensity exercises in water offer no benefit regarding adipose tissue lipolysis in comparison to LE.

  13. Oxidative stress and inflammation response following aerobic exercise: role of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, M J; Goldfarb, A; Garten, R S; Vervaecke, L

    2014-09-01

    African-Americans are at a significantly greater risk for developing several diseases and conditions. These conditions often have underlying oxidative stress mechanisms. Therefore the purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the post-exercise oxidative response to a single bout of aerobic exercise in African-American and Caucasian college-age females. A total of 10 African-American and 10 Caucasian females completed the study. Each subject had her VO2 max measured while exercising on a treadmill. A week later, each subject returned to the laboratory and performed a 30-min run at 70% of her VO2max. Blood samples were taken immediately prior to and following exercise for analysis. Lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase, glutathione in the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, TNFα and interleukin 6 were measured from blood taken before and after exercise. Significance was set at p≤0.05 a priori. Xanthine oxidase was the only measure that did not significantly increase following exercise. All other markers showed a significant elevation in response to the exercise bout with no difference between groups except that the Caucasian group had significantly higher malondialdehyde post-exercise compared to the African-American group. This cohort of college-age African-American and Caucasian females showed little difference in their response to a single 30-min run at 70% of their max in the markers of oxidative stress within the blood.

  14. Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lung Inflammation by IgE Decrement in an OVA Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Camargo Hizume-Kunzler, Deborah; Greiffo, Flavia R; Fortkamp, Bárbara; Ribeiro Freitas, Gabriel; Keller Nascimento, Juliana; Regina Bruggemann, Thayse; Melo Avila, Leonardo; Perini, Adenir; Bobinski, Franciane; Duarte Silva, Morgana; Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Vargas Horewicz, Verônica; Soares Dos Santos, Adair Roberto; Cattelan Bonorino, Kelly

    2017-04-07

    Aerobic exercise (AE) reduces lung function decline and risk of exacerbations in asthmatic patients. However, the inflammatory lung response involved in exercise during the sensitization remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of exercise for 2 weeks in an experimental model of sensitization and single ovalbumin-challenge. Mice were divided into 4 groups: mice non-sensitized and not submitted to exercise (Sedentary, n=10); mice non-sensitized and submitted to exercise (Exercise, n=10); mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, n=10); and mice sensitized, submitted to exercise and exposed to OVA (OVA+Exercise, n=10). 24 h after the OVA/saline exposure, we counted inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), lung levels of total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-1ra, measurements of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and VEGF and NOS-2 expression via western blotting. AE reduced cell counts from BALF in the OVA group (p<0.05), total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 lung levels and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers (p<0.05). There was an increase of NOS-2 expression, IL-10 and IL-1ra lung levels in the OVA groups (p<0.05). Our results showed that AE attenuated the acute lung inflammation, suggesting immunomodulatory properties on the sensitization process in the early phases of antigen presentation in asthma.

  15. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  16. Protein consumption following aerobic exercise increases whole-body protein turnover in older adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cheryl; Miller, Benjamin F

    2010-10-01

    Research measuring whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) after both exercise and nutrition has generally focused on resistance exercise; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the effect of postaerobic exercise nutrition, especially in older adults. It is not known if postexercise protein feeding has a beneficial effect on protein turnover after low- to moderate-intensity exercise. We investigated whether consuming protein plus carbohydrate (PRO) immediately after an acute bout of aerobic exercise has an additive effect over carbohydrate alone (CHO) on WBPT in older individuals. Twelve healthy older adults (age, 59 ± 4 years) were studied on 2 separate occasions after 1 h of exercise at approximately 50% of maximal rate of oxygen uptake, followed by 4 h of recovery. Immediately following exercise, subjects ingested a CHO (60 g) or an isocaloric PRO beverage (40 g carbohydrate, 20 g whey protein). Whole-body protein metabolism was determined using [1-13C]leucine infusion (60 mg prime; 75 mgh(-1) continuous), and sampling blood and expired breath. Rates of whole-body leucine appearance and oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal during the third and fourth hours of postexercise recovery were higher in the PRO group (2.51 ± 0.55, 0.78 ± 0.37, and 1.71 ± 0.44 micromol kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively) than in the CHO group (1.81 ± 0.27, 0.33 ± 0.14, and 1.47 ± 0.25 micromol kg(-1)·min-1, respectively; p = 0.001). Our results indicate that consumption of a PRO beverage after aerobic exercise increased WBPT to a greater extent than a CHO beverage.

  17. Circulating inflammatory miRNA signature in response to different doses of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Dávalos, Alberto; Montero, Ana; García-González, Ángela; Tyshkovska, Iryna; González-Medina, Antonio; Soares, Sara M A; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Rabadán, Manuel; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel E; Úbeda, Natalia; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2015-07-15

    While moderate acute exercise has been associated with strong anti-inflammatory mechanisms, strenuous exercise has been linked to deleterious inflammatory perturbations. It is therefore fundamental to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Information on novel regulators such as circulating inflammatory microRNAs (c-inflammamiRs) is incomplete. In this study, we evaluated the response of a panel of c-inflammamiRs to different doses of acute aerobic exercise. We first studied the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade in serum samples of nine active middle-aged males immediately before and after (0 h, 24 h, 72 h) 10-km, half-marathon, and marathon races. Next, we analyzed the circulating profile of 106 specific c-inflammamiRs immediately before) and after (0 h, 24 h) 10-km (low inflammatory response) and marathon (high inflammatory response) races. Analysis of classical inflammatory parameters revealed a dose-dependent effect of aerobic exercise on systemic inflammation, with higher levels detected after marathon. We observed an increase in miR-150-5p immediately after the 10-km race. Levels of 12 c-inflammamiRs were increased immediately after the marathon (let-7d-3p, let-7f-2-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-424-3p, and miR-424-5p). c-inflammamiRs returned to basal levels after 24 h. Correlation and in silico analyses supported a close association between the observed c-inflammamiR pattern and regulation of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, we found that different doses of acute aerobic exercise induced a distinct and specific c-inflammamiR response, which may be associated with control of the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Our findings point to c-inflammamiRs as potential biomarkers of exercise-induced inflammation, and hence, exercise dose.

  18. Can aerobic exercise complement antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure control in individuals with essential hypertension?

    PubMed

    Maruf, Fatai A; Salako, Babatunde L; Akinpelu, Aderonke O

    2014-06-01

    Achieving adequate blood pressure (BP) control with antihypertensive medication remains an elusive goal for many patients. The advances in knowledge of hypertension and the increasingly improved upon therapeutic strategies seem not to guarantee even sustainable control rates at the population level. In addition, patients who either discontinue their medications or are non-adherent to drug therapy run the risk of developing uncontrolled BP. Number of daily tablets more than two and number of daily drug administration at least three have been associated with poor adherence with drug therapy. However, BP control seems to go beyond adherence with drug therapy as there are other associated factors. Studies have demonstrated beneficial effect of aerobic exercise in the prevention and management of hypertension. It appears, however, that the majority of these studies failed to explore the possible additive or synergistic effect of aerobic exercise on antihypertensive drugs such that fewer drugs would be required to achieve BP control or that the BP control rate would be increased with the same number of drugs. This review presents the evidence for poor BP control in the general population, and the possible means and process of aerobic exercise complementing antihypertensive drug therapy in order to achieve higher BP control rates.

  19. Changes in Cortical Activation Patterns in Language Areas following an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; Mammino, Kevin; McGregor, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic “Spin” exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance). Thirty participants completed their assigned intervention (16 Spin; 14 Balance) with pre- and postintervention assessments of a semantic verbal fluency task during fMRI and estimated VO2max testing. There was a significant increase in the change scores for estimated VO2max of the Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Semantic verbal fluency output within the scanner was also improved in the Spin group as compared to controls at postassessment. Group fMRI comparisons of IFG activity showed lower activity in the right IFG following the intervention in the aerobic Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Regression analysis of imaging data with change in both estimated VO2max and semantic verbal fluency was negatively correlated with activity in right IFG. The current work is registered as clinical trial with NCT01787292 and NCT02787655. PMID:28367334

  20. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  1. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  2. Influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin, and peptide YY in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Broom, David R; Batterham, Rachel L; King, James A; Stensel, David J

    2009-01-01

    Resistance (muscle strengthening) exercise is a key component of exercise recommendations for weight control, yet very little is known about the effects of resistance exercise on appetite. We investigated the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger and circulating levels of the gut hormones acylated ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY). Eleven healthy male students: age 21.1 +/- 0.3 yr, body mass index 23.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2), maximum oxygen uptake 62.1 +/- 1.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (means +/- SE) undertook three, 8-h trials, 1) resistance exercise: a 90-min free weight lifting session followed by a 6.5-h rest period, 2) aerobic exercise: a 60-min run followed by a 7-h rest period, 3) control: an 8-h rest, in a randomized crossover design. Meals were provided 2 and 5 h into each trial. Hunger ratings and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin and PYY were measured throughout. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant (P < 0.05) interaction effects for hunger, acylated ghrelin, and PYY, indicating suppressed hunger and acylated ghrelin during aerobic and resistance exercise and increased PYY during aerobic exercise. A significant trial effect was observed for PYY, indicating higher concentrations on the aerobic exercise trial than the other trials (8 h area under the curve: control 1,411 +/- 110, resistance 1,381 +/- 97, aerobic 1,750 +/- 170 pg/ml 8 h). These findings suggest ghrelin and PYY may regulate appetite during and after exercise, but further research is required to establish whether exercise-induced changes in ghrelin and PYY influence subsequent food intake.

  3. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden.

  4. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (−10.83 ± 2.13 vs. −2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (−11.26 ± 2.13 vs. −3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (−10.87 ± 2.39 vs. −0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  5. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Lars S.; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F.; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in

  6. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, "Cognitive score" was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in "Cognitive score" and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in "Cognitive score" in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why

  7. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  8. Altered extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in blood serum of sedentary individuals after an acute, aerobic, moderate exercise session.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Cesar Eduardo Jacintho; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Rockenbach, Liliana; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Casali, Emerson André; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Nucleotidases participate in the regulation of physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and coagulation. Exercise promotes distinct adaptations, and can influence purinergic signaling. In the present study, we investigated soluble nucleotidase activities in the blood serum of sedentary young male adults at pre- and post-acute moderate aerobic exercise. In addition, we evaluated how this kind of exercise could influence adenine nucleotide concentrations in the blood serum. Sedentary individuals were submitted to moderate aerobic exercise on a treadmill; blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and serum was separated for analysis. Results showed increases in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise values. The ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase was also evaluated, showing an increased activity post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise. Purine levels were analyzed by HPLC in the blood serum, pre- and post-exercise. Decreased levels of ATP and ADP were found post-exercise, in contrast with pre-exercise values. Conversely, post-exercise levels of adenosine and inosine increased compared to pre-exercise levels. Our results indicate an influence of acute exercise on ATP metabolism, modifying enzymatic behavior to promote a protective biological environment.

  9. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  10. Aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation response to maximal exercise in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Oussaidene, Kahina; Prieur, Fabrice; Tagougui, Semah; Abaidia, Abdelbasset; Matran, Regis; Mucci, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether the aerobic fitness level modifies the cerebral oxygenation response to incremental ramp exercise, and more specifically the decline in cerebral oxygenation from heavy exercise up to maximal intensities. 11 untrained (VO2max 47.3±4.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) and 13 endurance-trained (VO2max 61.2±8.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) healthy men performed a maximal ramp cycle exercise. Left prefrontal cortex oxygenation (ΔHbO2) was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. A cerebral oxygenation threshold decline (ThCOx) during exercise was determined. ThCox occurred in all subjects but for higher VO2 (mL min(-1) kg(-1)) in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (P<0.01). At submaximal exercise intensity corresponding to ThCOx, ΔHbO2 was higher in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (P<0.05). VO2 at ThCox was related to VO2 at respiratory compensation point (n=24, r=0.93, P<0.001) and to VO2max (n=24, r=0.92, P<0.001). These findings indicate that above the respiratory compensation point the prefrontal O2 demand exceeds the supply in untrained and in endurance-trained subjects. In addition, the occurrence of ThCOx was delayed to higher absolute exercise intensities in endurance-trained in relation with their higher VO2max than untrained men. These results demonstrated that aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation during exercise.

  11. Acute aerobic exercise influences the inhibitory process in the go/no-go task in humans.

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Kosuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Nakazawa, Sho; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-07-23

    This study evaluated the influence of acute aerobic exercise on the human inhibitory system. For studies on the neural mechanisms of somato-motor inhibitory processing in humans, the go/no-go task is a useful paradigm for recording event-related potentials. Ten subjects performed somatosensory go/no-go tasks in a control condition and exercise condition. In the control condition, the subjects performed the go/no-go task before and after 20 min of rest. In the exercise condition, the subjects performed the go/no-go task before and after 15 min of treadmill running with the exercise intensity set individually for each subject at 50% of peak oxygen intake. We successfully recorded a clear-cut N140 component under all conditions, and found that the peak amplitude of no-go-N140 at Fz and Cz was significantly enhanced during moderate exercise. In contrast, there were no significant changes in Fz and Cz in the control condition. These results suggest that moderate exercise can affect the amplitude of no-go-N140, which could be interpreted as an index of the human inhibition process in the central nervous system. The human inhibitory system is an important cognitive process, and this system may underlie the hypothetical ability of physical exercise to maintain and improve cognitive performance throughout the lifespan.

  12. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  13. Modulation of mitochondrial biomarkers by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and aerobic exercise after eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Rizo-Roca, David; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Santos-Alves, Estela; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, Joan Ramon

    2017-02-02

    Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD), in trained rats, of two recovery protocols based on: 1) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and 2) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress and bioenergetics was evaluated. Soleus muscles were excised before (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after an EEIMD protocol. The following treatments were applied one day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), four-hour daily exposure to passive IHH at 4000m (PHR) or IHH exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR). Citrate synthase activity had reduced 7 and 14 days after application of the EEIMD protocol. However, this reduction was attenuated in AHR rats at day 14. PGC-1α and Sirt3 and TOM20 levels had decreased after 1 and 3 days, but the AHR group exhibited increased expression of these proteins, as well as of Tfam, by the end of the protocol. Mfn2 greatly reduced during the first 72 h, but returned to basal levels passively. At day 14, AHR rats had higher levels of Mfn2, OPA1 and Drp1 than PNR animals. Both groups exposed to IHH showed a lower p66shc(ser36)/p66shc ratio than PNR animals, as well as higher complex IV subunit I and ANT levels. These results suggest that IHH positively modulates key mitochondrial aspects after EEIMD, especially when combined with aerobic exercise.

  14. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Martins-Pinge, M C

    2011-09-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  15. Effect of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Autonomic Functions and its Correlation with the Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    Gupt, Anju Madan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Rajesh; Gupt, Anadi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a proven measure to enhance the cardio-respiratory efficiency. This improvement isprimarily due to improvement in autonomic function where in there is increase in the parasympathetic function and decrease in sympathetic function. Exercise also affects many metabolic activities in our body and may be one of the factors which reduce the oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to see the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training on autonomic function and its correlation with antioxidant status. 30 healthy volunteers in the age group of 18-22 years were screened. Autonomic function tests included activity (tone) and reactivity parameters. Antioxidant status was assessed by the level of malondialdehyde in plasma. We observed a significant change in SBP, DBP, LF nu, HF nu, delta value of DBP in CPT and MDA. Our findings are consistent with earlier findings that short duration physical training is known to reduce blood pressure and that there is a relationship between HF (in HRV) and training response Physical exercise also provides a favorable change in the biochemical parameters such as MDA.

  16. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  17. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  18. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation.

  19. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise and relaxation training on fatigue and physical performance of cancer patients after surgery. A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, Fernando C; Thomas, Frank; Raabe-Menssen, Cornelia; Pröpper, Felix; Mathias, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Fatigue is a frequent problem after surgical treatment of solid tumours. Aerobic exercise and psychosocial interventions have been shown to reduce the severity of this symptom in cancer patients. Therefore, we compared the effect of the two therapies on fatigue in a randomised controlled study. Seventy-two patients who underwent surgery for lung (n=27) or gastrointestinal tumours (n=42) were assigned to an aerobic exercise group (stationary biking 30 min five times weekly) or a progressive relaxation training group (45 min three times per week). Both interventions were carried out for 3 weeks. At the beginning and the end of the study, we evaluated physical, cognitive and emotional status and somatic complaints with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core Module (EORTC-QLQ-30) questionnaire, and maximal physical performance with an ergometric stress test. Physical performance of the training group improved significantly during the programme (9.4+/-20 watts, p=0.01) but remained unchanged in the relaxation group (1.5+/-14.8 watts, p=0.37). Fatigue and global health scores improved in both groups during the intervention (fatigue: training group 21%, relaxation group 19%; global health of both groups 19%, p for all < or =0.01); however, there was no significant difference between changes in the scores of both groups (p=0.67). We conclude that a structured aerobic training programme improves the physical performance of patients recovering from surgery for solid tumours. However, exercise is not better than progressive relaxation training for the treatment of fatigue in this setting.

  1. Acute Effect of Morning and Afternoon Aerobic Exercise on Appetite of Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Mostafaee, Masoumeh; Mazaheri, Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The best time of exercise along the day for weight management in overweight and obese patients is not determined. The time of exercise may influence its effect on appetite and food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different times of exercise during the day on appetite, energy intake, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on overweight women. Patients and Methods: Fifty overweight female subjects were recruited in this interventional study. Two sessions of exercise were performed in the morning and afternoon with the target heart rate corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT). The appetite was evaluated with visual analogue scale, the energy intake was measured with 24 hours food record and the RPE was determined by visual Borg scale; these variables were compared between the two sessions. Results: The behavior of appetite in relation to hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, tendency to salty, savoury, sweet and fatty foods, did not change significantly after both exercise sessions (P > 0.05). Except for the satiety, no significant difference was found among changes in the appetite scores between the two exercise sessions. The median change in the satiety score of the morning exercise was significantly higher than that of the afternoon exercise (5.5 (-8.5, 22.5) vs. -1 (-8, 4.5) respectively, P = 0.01). The median RPE value did not differ significantly between the morning and afternoon sessions (13 (12, 14) vs. 13 (12, 13) respectively, P = 0.46). There was no significant association between the time of exercise and the estimates of the carbohydrate (P = 0.41), fat (P = 0.23), protein (P = 0.13), and calorie intake (P = 0.18). Conclusions: One session of moderate intensity exercise disregarding the time of exercise did not affect appetite significantly. However, morning exercise may cause greater levels of satiety in comparison with afternoon exercise. Moderate intensity aerobic

  2. Effectiveness of a balance training home exercise programme for adults with haemophilia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Fearn, M; Williams, S; Mudge, L; Walsh, C; McCarthy, P; Walsh, M; Street, A

    2010-01-01

    Adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders often develop lower limb musculoskeletal problems associated with bleeds into joints and muscles, which may affect balance performance and increase likelihood of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized balance and strength home exercise programme on improving balance and related outcomes for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. Twenty male adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders (mean age 39.4 years, 95% CI = 33.7-45.1) were recruited to participate. They underwent a comprehensive clinical and force platform assessment of balance and related measures. Based on assessment findings, the assessing physiotherapist provided an individualized home exercise programme of balance, strengthening and walking exercises. Re-assessment occurred after the 4-month exercise programme. Twelve participants (60%) completed the programme and were re-assessed. There were no safety problems or dropouts associated with the exercise programme aggravating joint status. Although there were no statistically significant changes in any of the measures (adjusted for multiple comparisons), there were improvements of between 5% and 22% on 10 of the 16 measures, with the Neurocom modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (P = 0.036) and Timed Sit to Stand (P = 0.064) approaching significance. A tailored home exercise programme targeting balance, strengthening and walking is feasible for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. These results suggest that positive physical outcomes including improved balance and mobility may be achieved with this type of programme.

  3. Prevention of the incubation of cocaine seeking by aerobic exercise in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise can attenuate craving for drugs of abuse and reduce escalation and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in animal models. The present study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on the development of the incubation of cocaine-seeking behavior or the progressive increase in cocaine seeking over a protracted withdrawal period from cocaine self-administration. METHODS Female rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during daily 6-h sessions for 10 days. Subsequently, access to cocaine and cocaine-paired cues was discontinued during a 3- or 30-day withdrawal period when rats had access to either a locked or unlocked running wheel. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were reintroduced to the operant conditioning chamber and reexposed to cocaine-paired cues to examine cocaine-seeking behavior under extinction conditions. RESULTS Rats with access to a locked running wheel during 30 days of withdrawal had significantly greater cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior than rats that had access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 days. Further, there was robust incubation of cocaine seeking in rats with access to a locked running wheel as cocaine seeking was notably elevated at 30 vs. 3 days of withdrawal. However, cocaine-seeking behavior did not differ between rats with access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 vs. 3 days, indicating that incubation of cocaine seeking was suppressed following access to exercise for 30 days. CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise during extended withdrawal from cocaine self-administration decreased incubation of cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and may reduce vulnerability to relapse. PMID:26159456

  4. Pain Response after Maximal Aerobic Exercise in Adolescents across Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Stolzman, Stacy; Danduran, Michael; Hunter, Sandra K; Bement, Marie Hoeger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pain reports are greater with increasing weight status, and exercise can reduce pain perception. It is unknown however, whether exercise can relieve pain in adolescents of varying weight status. The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents across weight status report pain relief following high intensity aerobic exercise (exercise-induced hypoalgesia [EIH]). Methods 62 adolescents (15.1±1.8 years, 29 males) participated in three sessions: 1) Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) before and after quiet rest, clinical pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), and physical activity levels (self-report and ActiSleep Plus Monitors) were measured; 2) PPTs were measured with a computerized algometer at the 4th finger nailbed, middle deltoid muscle, and quadriceps muscle before and after maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2 max Bruce Treadmill Protocol); and 3) Body composition was measured with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results All adolescents met criteria for VO2 max. Based on body mass index z-score, adolescents were categorized as normal weight (n=33) or overweight/obese (n=29). PPTs increased following exercise (EIH) and were unchanged with quiet rest (trial × session: p=0.02). EIH was similar across the 3 sites and between normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. Physical activity and clinical pain were not correlated with EIH. Overweight/obese adolescents had similar absolute VO2 max (L·min-1) but lower relative VO2 max (ml·kg-1·min-1) compared with normal weight adolescents. When adolescents were categorized using FitnessGram standards as unfit (n=15) and fit (n=46), the EIH response was similar between fitness levels. Conclusion This study is the first to establish that adolescents experience EIH in both overweight and normal weight youth. EIH after high intensity aerobic exercise was robust in adolescents regardless of weight status and not influenced by physical fitness. PMID:25856681

  5. Comparison Among Aerobic Exercise and Other Types of Interventions to Treat Depression: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common and disabling disease that affects over 100 million people worldwide and can have a significant impact on physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of chronic aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat depression, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. In this review, the data analyzed allows us to claim that alternative therapies, such as exercise, are effective on controlling and reducing symptoms. 69.3% of the studies that investigated the antidepressant effects of exercise on depressive were significant, and the other 30.7% of the studies improved only in general physiological aspects, such as increased oxygen uptake, increased use of blood glucose and decreased body fat percentage, with no improvement on symptoms of depression. From the sample analyzed, 71.4% was composed of women, and regarding the severity of symptoms, 85% had mild to moderate depression and only 15% had moderate to severe depression. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressants in symptomatology and cognitive function in depression, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  6. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905

  7. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (P<0.05) and was maintained in EX; however, significant individual variability was observed (CON: -22%, range: -39% to -.5%; EX: -1.8%, range: -16% to 12.6%). The overlap in ranges between groups included 3 CON who experienced smaller reduction in VO2pk (<16%) than the worst responding EX subjects. Individual variability was maintained when VO2pk was normalized to lean mass (range, CON: -33.7% to -5.7%; EX: -15.8% to 11%), and the overlap included 5 CON with smaller reductions in VO2pk than the worst responding EX subjects. High responders to disuse also lost the most lean mass; however, this relationship was not maintained in EX (i.e. the largest gains/losses in lean mass were observed in both high and low

  8. 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention enhances the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    During acute exercise, the concentration of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids (ox-HDL) is reported to increase suggesting that HDL may function in decreasing the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids. However, the effect of exercise intervention on the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL is unknown. A randomized controlled trial with sedentary women (N = 161), aged 43-63, with no current use of hormone therapy, were randomized into a 6-month (mo) exercise group and a control group. During the 6-mo intervention, the concentration of ox-HDL increased in the exercise group by 5% and decreased in the control group by 2% (p = .003). Also, the ratio of ox-HDL to HDL-cholesterol increased by 5% in the exercise group and decreased by 1.5% in the control group (p = .036). The concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adiponectin did not change during the intervention. The concentration of serum triglycerides trended to decrease by 6% in the intervention group (p = .051). We found that the concentration of ox-HDL increased during the 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention, but the increase was not related to changes in the levels of CETP or adiponectin. These results, together with earlier studies, suggest that HDL has an active role in the reverse transport of lipid peroxides.

  9. Aerobic exercise regulates Rho/cofilin pathways to rescue synaptic loss in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Li; Gu, Boya; Cai, Jiajia; Lv, Yuanyuan; Yu, Laikang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The role of exercise to prevent or reverse aging-induced cognitive decline has been widely reported. This neuroprotection is associated with changes in the synaptic structure plasticity. However, the mechanisms of exercise-induced synaptic plasticity in the aging brain are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the aging-related alterations of Rho-GTPase and the modulatory influences of exercise training. Methods Young and old rats were used in this study. Old rats were subjected to different schedules of aerobic exercise (12 m/min, 60 min/d, 3d/w or 5d/w) or kept sedentary for 12 w. After 12 w of aerobic exercise, the synapse density in the cortex and hippocampus was detected with immunofluorescent staining using synaptophysin as a marker. The total protein levels of RhoA, Rac1, Cdc42 and cofilin in the cortex and hippocampus were detected with Western Blot. The activities of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 were determined using a pull down assay. Results We found that synapse loss occurred in aging rats. However, the change of expression and activity of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 was different in the cortex and hippocampus. In the cortex, the expression and activity of Rac1 and Cdc42 was greatly increased with aging, whereas there were no changes in the expression and activity of RhoA. In the hippocampus, the expression and activity of Rac1 and Cdc42 was greatly decreased and there were no changes in the expression and activity of RhoA. As a major downstream substrate of the Rho GTPase family, the increased expression of cofilin was only observed in the cortex. High frequency exercise ameliorated all aging-related changes in the cortex and hippocampus. Conclusions These data suggest that aerobic exercise reverses synapse loss in the cortex and hippocampus in aging rats, which might be related to the regulation of Rho GTPases. PMID:28152068

  10. Efficacy of different types of aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy and the optimal type and volume of aerobic exercise (AE) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are not established. We therefore assessed the efficacy of different types and volumes of AE in FMS. Methods The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo and SPORTDISCUS (through April 2009) and the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews on AE in FMS were systematically reviewed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of AE compared with controls (treatment as usual, attention placebo, active therapy) and head-to-head comparisons of different types of AE were included. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. Results Twenty-eight RCTs comparing AE with controls and seven RCTs comparing different types of AE with a total of 2,494 patients were reviewed. Effects were summarised using standardised mean differences (95% confidence intervals) by random effect models. AE reduced pain (-0.31 (-0.46, -0.17); P < 0.001), fatigue (-0.22 (-0.38, -0.05); P = 0.009), depressed mood (-0.32 (-0.53, -0.12); P = 0.002) and limitations of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (-0.40 (-0.60, -0.20); P < 0.001), and improved physical fitness (0.65 (0.38, 0.95); P < 0.001), post treatment. Pain was significantly reduced post treatment by land-based and water-based AE, exercises with slight to moderate intensity and frequency of two or three times per week. Positive effects on depressed mood, HRQOL and physical fitness could be maintained at follow-up. Continuing exercise was associated with positive outcomes at follow-up. Risks of bias analyses did not change the robustness of the results. Few studies reported a detailed exercise protocol, thus limiting subgroup analyses of different types of exercise. Conclusions An aerobic exercise programme for FMS patients should consist of land-based or water-based exercises with slight to moderate intensity two or three times per week for at

  11. Adverse cardiometabolic response to aerobic exercise training: Should this be a concern?

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Eric S.; Church, Timothy S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Karavirta, Laura; Kraus, William E.; Mikus, Catherine; Resnick, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic exercise training in sedentary individuals improves physical fitness and various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Prior reports suggest that exercise training may adversely affect some risk factors in a small segment of the population. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinically significant worsening of CV risk variables was as or more prevalent among individuals randomized to a supervised endurance training program as compared to those randomized to a control condition. Methods Baseline and end of study measurements of resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and were obtained on 1188 healthy sedentary subjects from the following studies: DREW (N=464), INFLAME (N=162), University of Jyvaskyla study (N=140), and STRRIDE (N=422). Each study randomized subjects to 4- to 6-month supervised aerobic exercise programs or to a control group of no supervised exercise training. For our analyses, the respective control and exercise groups for each study were combined to create one control group (N=345) and one exercise group (n=843). For each of the 4 CV risk variables, we calculated the respective proportions of control and exercise group subjects whose baseline-to-followup changes were greater than or equal to prespecified adverse change (AC) thresholds (ref). Those thresholds were increases of ≥ 24 pmol/L for FI, ≥ 0.42 mmol/L for TG, ≥ 10 mm Hg for SBP, and a decrease of ≥ 0.12 mmol/L for HDL-C Results The respective proportions of subjects meeting the AC threshold in the control and exercise groups were 15.2% vs. 9.6% (p=0.02) for FI, 14.9% vs. 13.1% (p=0.37) for TG, 28.6% vs. 22.5% (p=0.03) for HDL-C, and 16.9% vs. 15.8% (p=0.52) for SBP. The mean changes in the control and exercise groups were 1.8 vs. −6.5 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) for FI, −0.03 vs. −0.11 mmol/L (p=0.02) for TG, −0.03 vs. 0.00 mmol/L (p=0.02) for HDL-C, and −1.9 vs. −2.0 mm Hg (p=0

  12. Pilot safety and feasibility study of treadmill aerobic exercise in Parkinson disease with gait impairment.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Patterson, Shawnna L; Shulman, Lisa M; Sorkin, John D; Macko, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of a 3-month progressive treadmill aerobic exercise (TM-AEX) program for persons with Parkinson disease with gait impairment. Eight subjects underwent a treadmill stress test to determine eligibility. Of these subjects, three were referred for further cardiac evaluation and five were enrolled. In 136 TM-AEX sessions, 11 falls or near falls and 9 episodes (8 asymptomatic) of systolic blood pressure drops >20 mmHg occurred. Harness supports prevented injury from falls. TM-AEX significantly improved the subjects' total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores and peak ambulatory workload capacities. This study suggests that an aerobic exercise program is feasible for persons who have Parkinson disease with gait impairment; however, precautions must be taken to prevent falls. Systolic blood pressure instability during exercise points to the need for autonomic dysfunction monitoring. Our data indicate that TM-AEX may reduce symptom severity and improve fitness. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the risks and benefits of TM-AEX in this population.

  13. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S.

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  14. Effect of iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance of iron-depleted female athletes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Blee, Tanya; Goodman, Carmel; Dawson, Brian; Claydon, Gary; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2007-06-01

    This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or to a placebo group (PG). Twenty days after the first injection, exercise and blood testing were repeated. A final blood test occurred on Day 28. Post supplementation, no differences were found between the groups' submaximal or maximal VO2, heart rate, or blood lactate (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was increased in the IG (P < 0.05) but was not greater than that of the PG (P > 0.05). The IG's serum ferritin (SF) was significantly increased on Days 20 and 28 (mean +/- standard error: 19 +/- 3 to 65 +/- 11 to 57 +/- 12 microg/L; P < 0.01), with a percentage change from baseline significantly greater than in the PG (P < 0.01). It was concluded that intramuscular iron injections can effectively increase SF without enhancing submaximal or maximal aerobic-exercise performance in iron-depleted female athletes.

  15. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Battson, Micah L.; Cuevas, Lauren M.; Zigler, Melanie C.; Sindler, Amy L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12;−32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11;−5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running;−0.8±-2.1% and −8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise. PMID:27875805

  16. Responses of Trace Elements to Aerobic Maximal Exercise in Elite Sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    OTAĞ, Aynur; HAZAR, Muhsin; OTAĞ, İlhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, İlyas

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P<0.05 and P<0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  17. Exercise training reverses impaired skeletal muscle metabolism induced by artificial selection for low aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; Stephenson, Erin J.; Yaspelkis, Ben B.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    We have used a novel model of genetically imparted endurance exercise capacity and metabolic health to study the genetic and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities associated with low intrinsic running capacity would be ameliorated by exercise training. Selective breeding for 22 generations resulted in rat models with a fivefold difference in intrinsic aerobic capacity. Low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity runners remained sedentary (SED) or underwent 6 wk of exercise training (EXT). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signal transduction, and rates of palmitate oxidation were lower in LCR SED vs. HCR SED (P < 0.05). Decreases in glucose and lipid metabolism were associated with decreased β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), and reduced expression of Nur77 target proteins that are critical regulators of muscle glucose and lipid metabolism [uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively]. EXT reversed the impairments to glucose and lipid metabolism observed in the skeletal muscle of LCR, while increasing the expression of β2-AR, Nur77, GLUT4, UCP3, and FAT/CD36 (P < 0.05) in this tissue. However, no metabolic improvements were observed following exercise training in HCR. Our results demonstrate that metabolic impairments resulting from genetic factors (low intrinsic aerobic capacity) can be overcome by an environmental intervention (exercise training). Furthermore, we identify Nur77 as a potential mechanism for improved skeletal muscle metabolism in response to EXT. PMID:21048074

  18. Effects of acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise on blood markers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Goldfarb, Allan H; Wideman, Laurie; McKenzie, Michael J; Consitt, Leslie A

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare oxidative modification of blood proteins, lipids, DNA, and glutathione in the 24 hours following aerobic and anaerobic exercise using similar muscle groups. Ten cross-trained men (24.3 +/- 3.8 years, [mean +/- SEM]) performed in random order 30 minutes of continuous cycling at 70% of Vo(2)max and intermittent dumbbell squatting at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), separated by 1-2 weeks, in a crossover design. Blood samples taken before, and immediately, 1, 6, and 24 hours postexercise were analyzed for plasma protein carbonyls (PC), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and whole-blood total (TGSH), oxidized (GSSG), and reduced (GSH) glutathione. Blood samples taken before and 24 hours postexercise were analyzed for serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). PC values were greater at 6 and 24 hours postexercise compared with pre-exercise for squatting, with greater PC values at 24 hours postexercise for squatting compared with cycling (0.634 +/- 0.053 vs. 0.359 +/- 0.018 nM.mg protein(-1)). There was no significant interaction or main effects for MDA or 8-OHdG. GSSG experienced a short-lived increase and GSH a transient decrease immediately following both exercise modes. These data suggest that 30 minutes of aerobic and anaerobic exercise performed by young, cross-trained men (a) can increase certain biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood, (b) differentially affect oxidative stress biomarkers, and (c) result in a different magnitude of oxidation based on the macromolecule studied. Practical applications: While protein and glutathione oxidation was increased following acute exercise as performed in this study, future research may investigate methods of reducing macromolecule oxidation, possibly through the use of antioxidant therapy.

  19. Rapid upregulation and clearance of distinct circulating microRNAs after prolonged aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Baggish, Aaron L; Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y

    2014-03-01

    Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as "circulating" miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499-5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation.

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise and nutrition educationon quality of life and early menopause symptoms:A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Mehrnaz; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the authors in this randomized controlled study was to assess the effect of exercise and nutrition education on quality of life and early menopausal symptoms. This trial was conducted in east Azerbaijan Province, Iran, during the period from 2013 to 2014 with 108 women allocated into one of four groups (n = 27 in each group) by block randomization. The interventions received by the three intervention groups were: nutrition education, aerobic exercise, or exercise plus nutrition education. The control group did not receive any intervention. The Greene and MENQOL menopause symptom scales were completed before and at 8 and 12 weeks after the intervention. The mean Greene score was significantly lower than the control group in the exercise (adjusted mean difference: -5.1) and exercise plus nutrition groups (-8.0) at the end of week 8 and in the nutrition (-4.8), exercise (-8.7), and exercise plus nutrition (-13.2) groups at the end of week 12. Also, the mean MENQOL score was significantly lower than the control group in the exercise (-8.3) and exercise plus nutrition groups (-13.8) at the end of week 8 and in the nutrition (-6.6), exercise (-13.5), and exercise plus nutrition (-22.1) groups at the end of week 12. Nutrition education with aerobic exercise can improve quality of life.

  1. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IGF-1 and cortisol elicited by regular aerobic exercise in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yong Kyun; Ha, Chang Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted on adolescent subjects whose brains are still developing with the purpose of identifying the effect of 8 weeks duration of aerobic exercises on the expression of BDNF, IGF-1 and cortisol, to identify effect of aerobic exercise on the expression of cortisol, BDNF and IGF-1 related to nerve cell growth. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 junior-high school students with no history of physical illness. The students were divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed 3 treadmill exercise times per week for 8 weeks. The exercise time for the consumption of 200 kcal was calculated and the exercises were performed by each individual for 8 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed statistically significant in increases serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but cortisol showed no significant change. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but the difference in cortisol levels was not significant. [Conclusion] We found that long-term regular aerobic exercises has a positive effect on the enhancement of serum BDNF levels at rest and IGF-1 of adolescents who are still undergoing through brain developments. PMID:25931720

  2. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IGF-1 and cortisol elicited by regular aerobic exercise in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong Kyun; Ha, Chang Ho

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted on adolescent subjects whose brains are still developing with the purpose of identifying the effect of 8 weeks duration of aerobic exercises on the expression of BDNF, IGF-1 and cortisol, to identify effect of aerobic exercise on the expression of cortisol, BDNF and IGF-1 related to nerve cell growth. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 junior-high school students with no history of physical illness. The students were divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed 3 treadmill exercise times per week for 8 weeks. The exercise time for the consumption of 200 kcal was calculated and the exercises were performed by each individual for 8 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed statistically significant in increases serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but cortisol showed no significant change. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but the difference in cortisol levels was not significant. [Conclusion] We found that long-term regular aerobic exercises has a positive effect on the enhancement of serum BDNF levels at rest and IGF-1 of adolescents who are still undergoing through brain developments.

  3. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846

  4. EEG recovery enhanced by acute aerobic exercise after performing mental task with listening to unpleasant sound.

    PubMed

    Nishifuji, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigated response of electroencephalogram (EEG) to aerobic exercise with low intensity after performing mental task with listening to acoustic stimuli in order to measure a recovery effect of the acute exercise on the EEG. The mean amplitude of the alpha wave (8-13 Hz) was significantly reduced during performing mental arithmetic and/or listening to 5 KHz unpleasant tone. In particular, the mean reduction rate of the amplitude was more than 20 % in the low-frequency range of the alpha wave (8-10 Hz) under both stressors. On the other hand, the alpha wave was fixed after an acute exercise of 20 min; the mean amplitude of the alpha wave exceeded 30 % of spontaneous level prior to stressed conditions in the low-frequency range but unchanged in the high-frequency range. Response of the theta wave was similar to the low-alpha wave, while beta and gamma waves showed no significant change in response to the stressors and exercise. The observation indicates that the acute exercise with low intensity may be responsible for the rapid recovery and enhancement of the alpha wave in the low-frequency range and theta wave.

  5. Exhaustive exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M; Rourke, Bryan C; Hicks, James W

    2009-11-01

    The oxygen transport system in mammals is extensively remodelled in response to repeated bouts of activity, but many reptiles appear to be 'metabolically inflexible' in response to exercise training. A recent report showed that estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) increase their maximum metabolic rate in response to exhaustive treadmill training, and in the present study, we confirm this response in another crocodilian, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We further specify the nature of the crocodilian training response by analysing effects of training on aerobic [citrate synthase (CS)] and anaerobic [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] enzyme activities in selected skeletal muscles, ventricular and skeletal muscle masses and haematocrit. Compared to sedentary control animals, alligators regularly trained for 15 months on a treadmill (run group) or in a flume (swim group) exhibited peak oxygen consumption rates higher by 27 and 16%, respectively. Run and swim exercise training significantly increased ventricular mass (~11%) and haematocrit (~11%), but not the mass of skeletal muscles. However, exercise training did not alter CS or LDH activities of skeletal muscles. Similar to mammals, alligators respond to exercise training by increasing convective oxygen transport mechanisms, specifically heart size (potentially greater stroke volume) and haematocrit (increased oxygen carrying-capacity of the blood). Unlike mammals, but similar to squamate reptiles, alligators do not also increase citrate synthase activity of the skeletal muscles in response to exercise.

  6. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  7. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans.

  8. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  9. Exercise and cognition in older adults: is there a role for resistance training programmes?

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, T; Donaldson, M G

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong interest in physical activity as a primary behavioural prevention strategy against cognitive decline. A number of large prospective cohort studies have highlighted the protective role of regular physical activity in lowering the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Most prospective intervention studies of exercise and cognition to date have focused on aerobic-based exercise training. These studies highlight that aerobic-based exercise training enhances both brain structure and function. However, it has been suggested that other types of exercise training, such as resistance training, may also benefit cognition. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the evidence regarding resistance training and cognitive benefits. Three recent randomised exercise trials involving resistance training among seniors provide evidence that resistance training may have cognitive benefits. Resistance training may prevent cognitive decline among seniors via mechanisms involving insulin-like growth factor I and homocysteine. A side benefit of resistance training, albeit a very important one, is its established role in reducing morbidity among seniors. Resistance training specifically moderates the development of sarcopenia. The multifactorial deleterious sequelae of sarcopenia include increased falls and fracture risk as well as physical disability. Thus, clinicians should consider encouraging their clients to undertake both aerobic-based exercise training and resistance training not only for "physical health" but also because of the almost certain benefits for "brain health".

  10. Prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation associated with aerobic exercise change aspects of appetite sensation in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rafael A; Okano, Alexandre H; Cunha, Felipe A; Gurgel, Jonas L; Fontes, Eduardo B; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) isolated or combined with aerobic exercise influenced the desire to eat, hunger, and satiety in overweight subjects. Nine volunteers underwent anodal or sham tDCS (2 mA; 20 min) over DLPFC and isocaloric exercise bouts (70%VO(2)R; ~200 kcal). The appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales at four moments: I - Baseline; II - After tDCS; III - Post-Exercise and IV - 30-min Post-Exercise. The tDCS on left DLPFC decreased the desire to eat at baseline (tDCS -26% vs. -14% Sham). The tDCS associated with exercise had greater suppressing effect in desire to eat compared to either tDCS or exercise alone (tDCS -39% vs. -27% Sham). Moreover, the tDCS associated with exercise decreased hunger (tDCS -48% vs. 36% Sham) and increased satiety (tDCS 28% vs. 7% Sham) immediately after exercise. The post-exercise 30-min recovery elicited an overall increase in appetite. However the increase in desire to eat and hunger after recovery was lower after tDCS (29% and 13%, respectively) compared to sham stimulation (77% and 113%, respectively). These findings in overweight subjects indicate that the combination of tDCS over DLPFC and aerobic exercise induced greater decrease in appetite sensations compared to anodal tDCS or exercise alone.

  11. Effects of Physical Activity on Children’s Executive Function: Contributions of Experimental Research on Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children’s executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic exercise benefit executive function equally: Cognitively-engaging exercise appears to have a stronger effect than non-engaging exercise on children’s executive function. This review discusses this evidence as well as the mechanisms that may underlie the association between exercise and executive function. Research from a variety of disciplines is covered, including developmental psychology, kinesiology, cognitive neuroscience, and biopsychology. Finally, these experimental findings are placed within the larger context of known links between action and cognition in infancy and early childhood, and the clinical and practical implications of this research are discussed. PMID:21818169

  12. WIse-2005: Combined Aerobic and Resistive Exercise May Help Mitigate Bone Loss During 60-D Simulated Microgravity in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Trappe, S. M.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise can attenuate bone loss associated with disuse during bed rest (BR), an analog of space flight. Previous studies have examined the efficacy of aerobic or resistive exercise countermeasures, but not in combination. We sought to determine the effect of a combined resistive and aerobic exercise regimen on bone metabolism during BR. After a 20-d ambulatory adaptation to confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-d head-down-tilt BR. Control subjects (CN, n=8) performed no countermeasures. Exercise subjects, (EX, n=8) participated in exercise alternating daily between supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and resistive fly-wheel exercise (6-d wk(sup -1)). In the last week of BR, bone resorption was greater (p less than 79 plus or minus 44%, mean plus or minus SD) and EX groups (64 50%). N-telopeptide also increased (CN: 51 plus or minus 34%; EX: 43 plus or minus 56%). However, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, tended to be higher in EX (26 plus or minus 18%) than in CN (8 plus or minus 33%) groups. The combination of resistive and aerobic exercise does not prevent bone resorption, but may promote formation, potentially mitigating the net bone loss associated with simulated microgravity. This study was supported by CNES, CSA, ESA, NASA, and NASA grant NNJ04HF71G to ARH. MEDES (French Institute for Space Medicine and Physiology) organized the study.

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  15. CHRONIC AEROBIC EXERCISE IMPROVES BLOOD PRESSURE DIPPING STATUS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN NON-DIPPERS

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chenyi; Diaz, Keith M.; Kretzschmar, Jan; Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Perkins, Amanda; Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Williamson, Sheara T.; Lee, Hojun; Grimm, Heather; Babbitt, Dianne M.; Brown, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The effects of exercise training on nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping status remain unclear. African Americans have the highest prevalence of non-dippers compared to other racial/ethnic populations. In this 6-month study we tested the hypothesis that long-term aerobic exercise training would increase the levels of nocturnal BP dipping in African American non-dippers. Methods and Results We recruited African Americans who were non-diabetic, non-smoking and free of cardiovascular (CV) and renal disease. For this analysis, only African Americans with a non-dipping profile, defined as those with absence of a nocturnal decline in systolic or diastolic BP (< 10% of daytime values) which was determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. A pre-post design was employed with baseline and final evaluation including office blood pressure measurement, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, fasted blood sampling, and graded exercise testing. Participants engaged in 6 months of supervised aerobic exercise training (AEXT). Following the AEXT intervention, there were significant increases in systolic BP dipping (baseline: 5.8 ± 3.9% vs. final: 9.4 ± 6.1%, p=0.0055) and pulse pressure dipping (Baseline: −3.1% ± 6.6% vs. final: 5.0% ± 12.8%, p=0.0109). Of the 18 participants with a non-dipping profile at baseline, 8 were non-classified as non-dippers after the AEXT intervention. There were no significant changes in office SBP/DBP following the AEXT intervention. Conclusions This study suggests that the non-dipping pattern of ambulatory BP can be improved by chronic AEXT in African American non-dippers and regardless of a change in 24-hr average BP. This finding may be clinically important because of the target organ implication of non-dipping nocturnal BP. PMID:25100263

  16. Exercise Responses to Gravity-Independent Flywheel Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Cotter, Joshua A.; Haddad, Fadia; Yu, Alvin M.; Camilon, Marinelle L.; Hoang, Theresa; Jimenez, Daniel; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Tesch, Per A.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a number of exercise systems have been developed to mitigate the physiological deconditioning that occurs in microgravity, few have the capacity to positively impact multiple physiological systems and still meet the volume/mass requirements needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. The purpose of this study was to test the gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) for both resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) training stimuli. Methods Eight men and nine women (mean age 22.0±0.4 years) completed five weeks of training on the M-MED: RE 4×7 squats two days a week, and AE 4×4-min rowing bouts at ~90% VO2max three days a week. Pre- and post-training data collection included an aerobic capacity test, MR imaging, strength testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Results VO2max increased 8%, 3RM strength 18%, and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) 10%. Knee extensor strength increased at all isokinetic speeds tested. Subjects also demonstrated improved resistance to fatigue in knee extension. At the cellular and molecular level, the biopsy revealed increases in mixed myofiber CSA (13%), citrate synthase activity (26%), total RNA concentration (24%), IGF-I mRNA (77%), Type IIa Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) mRNA (8%), and concomitant decrease in Type IIx MHC mRNA (−23%). None of the changes were gender-specific. Discussion Both the functional outcomes and biomarker changes indicate that a very low volume of M-MED exercise results in robust adaptation in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The M-MED has the potential to provide a wide range of countermeasure exercises and should be considered for testing in ground-based spaceflight simulation. PMID:26802373

  17. Sweat sodium concentration during exercise in the heat in aerobically trained and untrained humans.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, Nassim; Del Coso, Juan; Ortega, Juan F; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)](sweat)) during exercise in the heat differs between aerobically trained and untrained individuals. On three occasions, ten endurance-trained (Tr) and ten untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak = 4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 0.7 L min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-ventilated environment (36 ± 1°C; 25 ± 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (i.e., 40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). Whole-body (SR(WB)) and back sweat rates (SR(BACK)) were measured. At the conclusion of the study, Na(+) in sweat and blood samples was analyzed to calculate Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates. SR(WB) and SR(BACK) were highly correlated in Tr and UTr (r = 0.74 and 0.79, respectively; P < 0.0001). In both groups, SR(BACK) increased with the increases in exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Likewise, [Na(+)](sweat) increased with the exercise intensity in both groups (P < 0.05) and it tended to be higher in Tr than in UTr at 60 and 80% VO2peak (~22 mmol L(-1) higher; P = 0.06). However, when normalized for SR(BACK), [Na(+)](sweat) was not different between groups. In both groups, Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates increased with the increases in SR(BACK) (P < 0.05). However, Na(+) reabsorption rate was lower in the Tr than in the UTr (mean slope = 48 vs. 82 ηmol cm(-2) min(-1); P = 0.03). In conclusion, using a cross-sectional study design, our data suggest that aerobic fitness level does not reduce sweat Na(+) secretion or enhance Na(+) reabsorption during prolonged exercise in the heat that induced high sweat rates.

  18. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E.; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self‐paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20‐min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time‐locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  19. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement.

  20. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur.

  1. Effects of epinephrine and lactate on the increase in oxygen consumption of non-exercising skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Motohide; Katsumura, Toshihito; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Osada, Takuya; Sako, Takayuki; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Kime, Ryotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure O2 consumption of nonexercising skeletal muscles (VO2nonex) at rest and after aerobic exercise and to investigate the stimulant factors of O2 consumption. In experiment 1, we measured the resting metabolic rate of the finger flexor muscles in seven healthy males by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 15 min arterial occlusion. In experiment 2, the VO2nonex of the finger flexor muscles was measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy at rest, immediate postexercise, and 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min following a cycling exercise at a workload corresponding to 50% of peak pulmonary O2 uptake for 20 min. We also monitored deep tissue temperature in the VO2nonex measurement area and determined catecholamines and lactate concentrations in the blood at rest and immediate postexercise. VO2nonex at rest was 1.1 +/- 0.1 (mu) M O2/s (mean +/- standard error) and VO2nonex after exercise increased 59.6 +/- 7.2% (p < 0.001) from the resting values. There were significant correlations between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01), and between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in lactate concentration (p < 0.05). These results suggest that epinephrine and lactate concentrations are important VO2nonex stimulant factors.

  2. Acute effects of aerobic exercise intensity on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-10-18

    Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg PWV, ankle pulse pressure and BG levels significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the LE trial (P<0·05), but not in the ME trial. Insulin levels and HR significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials (P<0·05). Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, brachial BP and carotid BP did not change from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials. The present findings indicate that aerobic exercise at moderate intensity before glucose ingestion suppresses increases leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

  3. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  4. Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy and Presence of Fetal-Maternal Heart Rate Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E.; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. Methods In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. Results In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. Conclusion The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates. PMID:25162592

  5. Aerobic exercise effects on neuroprotection and brain repair following stroke: a systematic review and perspective.

    PubMed

    Austin, Mark W; Ploughman, Michelle; Glynn, Lindsay; Corbett, Dale

    2014-10-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) enhances neuroplasticity and improves functional outcome in animal models of stroke, however the optimal parameters (days post-stroke, intensity, mode, and duration) to influence brain repair processes are not known. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, the Cochrane Library, and the Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, using predefined criteria, including all years up to July 2013 (English language only). Clinical studies were included if participants had experienced an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We included animal studies that utilized any method of global or focal ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Any intervention utilizing AE-based activity with the intention of improving cardiorespiratory fitness was included. Of the 4250 titles returned, 47 studies (all in animal models) met criteria and measured the effects of exercise on brain repair parameters (lesion volume, oxidative damage, inflammation and cell death, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and markers of stress). Our synthesized findings show that early-initiated (24-48h post-stroke) moderate forced exercise (10m/min, 5-7 days per week for about 30min) reduced lesion volume and protected perilesional tissue against oxidative damage and inflammation at least for the short term (4 weeks). The applicability and translation of experimental exercise paradigms to clinical trials are discussed.

  6. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  7. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

  8. Developing a Mind-Body Exercise Programme for Stressed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Claudia; Seo, Dong-Chul; Geib, Roy W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the process of developing a Health Qigong programme for stressed children using a formative evaluation approach. Methods: A multi-step formative evaluation method was utilised. These steps included (1) identifying programme content and drafting the curriculum, (2) synthesising effective and age-appropriate pedagogies, (3)…

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period

  10. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  11. Numerical simulation of aerobic exercise as a countermeasure in human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.

  13. The effectiveness of aerobic training, cognitive behavioural therapy, and energy conservation management in treating MS-related fatigue: the design of the TREFAMS-ACE programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TREFAMS is an acronym for TReating FAtigue in Multiple Sclerosis, while ACE refers to the rehabilitation treatment methods under study, that is, Aerobic training, Cognitive behavioural therapy, and Energy conservation management. The TREFAMS-ACE research programme consists of four studies and has two main objectives: (1) to assess the effectiveness of three different rehabilitation treatment strategies in reducing fatigue and improving societal participation in patients with MS; and (2) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action that underlie treatment effects and MS-related fatigue in general. Methods/Design Ambulatory patients (n = 270) suffering from MS-related fatigue will be recruited to three single-blinded randomised clinical trials (RCTs). In each RCT, 90 patients will be randomly allocated to the trial-specific intervention or to a low-intensity intervention that is the same for all RCTs. This low-intensity intervention consists of three individual consultations with a specialised MS-nurse. The trial-specific interventions are Aerobic Training, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, and Energy Conservation Management. These interventions consist of 12 individual therapist-supervised sessions with additional intervention-specific home exercises. The therapy period lasts 16 weeks. All RCTs have the same design and the same primary outcome measures: fatigue - measured with the Checklist Individual Strength, and participation - measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. Outcomes will be assessed 1 week prior to, and at 0, 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The assessors will be blinded to allocation. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, salivary cortisol, physical fitness, physical activity, coping, self-efficacy, illness cognitions and other determinants will be longitudinally measured in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action. Discussion The TREFAMS-ACE programme is unique in its aim to

  14. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  15. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  16. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: A meta-analysis of andomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  17. In Hispanic, obese adolescents, a controlled aerobic exercise program teduced visceral and hepatic fat and improved insulin sensitivity, while resistance training only increased lean body mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern. Aerobic and/or resistance exercise are potential strategies to improve metabolism, but data are scarce on the effects of well-controlled exercise programs in adolescents. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk controlled aerobic o...

  18. How to regulate the acute physiological response to "aerobic" high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia; Mueller, Alexander; Moser, Othmar; Groeschl, Werner; Hofmann, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The acute physiological processes during "aerobic" high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and their regulation are inadequately studied. The main goal of this study was to investigate the acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory response to long and short HIIE compared to continuous exercise (CE) as well as its regulation and predictability. Six healthy well-trained sport students (5 males, 1 female; age: 25.7 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.04 m; weight: 76.7 ± 6.4 kg; VO2max: 4.33 ± 0.7 l·min(-1)) performed a maximal incremental exercise test (IET) and subsequently three different exercise sessions matched for mean load (Pmean) and exercise duration (28 min): 1) long HIIE with submaximal peak workloads (Ppeak = power output at 95 % of maximum heart rate), peak workload durations (tpeak) of 4 min, and recovery durations (trec) of 3 min, 2) short HIIE with Ppeak according to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET, tpeak of 20 s, and individually calculated trec (26.7 ± 13.4 s), and 3) CE with a target workload (Ptarget) equating to Pmean of HIIE. In short HIIE, mean lactate (Lamean) (5.22 ± 1.41 mmol·l(-1)), peak La (7.14 ± 2.48 mmol·l(-1)), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) (181.00 ± 6.66 b·min(-1)) were significantly lower compared to long HIIE (Lamean: 9.83 ± 2.78 mmol·l(-1); Lapeak: 12.37 ± 4.17 mmol·l(-1), HRpeak: 187.67 ± 5.72 b·min(-1)). No significant differences in any parameters were found between short HIIE and CE despite considerably higher peak workloads in short HIIE. The acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory demand during "aerobic" short HIIE was significantly lower compared to long HIIE and regulable via Pmean. Consequently, short HIIE allows a consciously aimed triggering of specific and desired or required acute physiological responses. Key pointsHigh-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) with short peak workload durations (tpeak) induce a lower acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory response compared to intervals with long tpeak

  19. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise on plasma lipoproteins in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abazar, Elaheh; Taghian, Farzaneh; Mardanian, Farahnaz; Forozandeh, Dashti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders. The PCOS manifest by hyperandrogenism, hypertension and cholesterol and lipoprotein improper profiles. Changing the life style, e.g. increasing physical activities is the first approach in controlling PCOS. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after medical screening were divided in to two groups: Experimental group (n = 12) and control group (n = 12), with the average age, weight, height, BMI and WHR of 26.87 ± 4.43 years, 75.71 ± 10.65 kg. 159.29 ± 6.44 cm, 29.86 ± 3.22 kg/m2 and 91.75 ± 5.86 respectively. First the body composition such as BMI, WHR, percent body fat, weight and body fat mass were measured. In fasting blood samples the level of HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured. Then the experiment group underwent the effect of an aerobic exercise program. After 12 weeks, all the measured variables before intervention the test were re-measured. Correlated t-test was used for comparing the two groups before and after intervention the test and independent t-test was used for comparing the two groups (P < 0.05). Results: The results showed that after 12 weeks of exercise, BMI, WHR, fat rate, weight and fat mass and triglyceride had significant reduction and HDL had significant increase. But no significant changes happened in LDL, VLDL, and cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Reducing the weight by aerobic exercise in obese women and affected by PCOS can correct lipoprotein profile and improving health. PMID:25878993

  1. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative (1)H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  2. Effect of aerobic fitness on capillary blood volume and diffusing membrane capacity responses to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Tedjasaputra, Vincent; Bouwsema, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Endurance trained athletes exhibit enhanced cardiovascular function compared to non‐athletes, although it is considered that exercise training does not enhance lung structure and function.An increased pulmonary capillary blood volume at rest is associated with a higher V˙O2 max .In the present study, we compared the diffusion capacity, pulmonary capillary blood volume and diffusing membrane capacity responses to exercise in endurance‐trained males compared to non‐trained males.Exercise diffusion capacity was greater in athletes, secondary to an increased membrane diffusing capacity, and not pulmonary capillary blood volume.Endurance‐trained athletes appear to have differences within the pulmonary membrane that facilitate the increased O2 demand needed for high‐level exercise. Abstract Endurance‐trained athletes exhibit enhanced cardiovascular function compared to non‐athletes, allthough it is generally accepted that exercise training does not enhance lung structure and function. Recent work has shown that an increased resting pulmonary capillary blood volume (V C) is associated with a higher maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2 max ), although there have been no studies to date examining how aerobic fitness affects the V C response to exercise. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that endurance‐trained athletes will have greater V C compared to non‐athletes during cycling exercise. Fifteen endurance‐trained athletes (HI: V˙O2 max 64.6 ± 1.8 ml kg−1 min−1) and 14 non‐endurance trained males (LO: V˙O2 max 45.0 ± 1.2 ml kg−1 min−1) were matched for age and height. Haemoglobin‐corrected diffusion capacity (DLCO), V C and diffusing membrane capacity (D M) were determined using the Roughton and Forster (1957) multiple fraction of inspired O2 (FIO2)‐DLCO method at baseline and during incremental cycle exercise up to 90% of peak O2 consumption. During exercise, both groups exhibited increases in DLCO, D M and V C

  3. Metabolic response of different high-intensity aerobic interval exercise protocols.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Luc E; Kozlowski, Karl F; DeVinney-Boymel, Lee; Hambridge, Caitlin

    2012-10-01

    Although high-intensity sprint interval training (SIT) employing the Wingate protocol results in significant physiological adaptations, it is conducted at supramaximal intensity and is potentially unsafe for sedentary middle-aged adults. We therefore evaluated the metabolic and cardiovascular response in healthy young individuals performing 4 high-intensity (~90% VO2max) aerobic interval training (HIT) protocols with similar total work output but different work-to-rest ratio. Eight young physically active subjects participated in 5 different bouts of exercise over a 3-week period. Protocol 1 consisted of 20-minute continuous exercise at approximately 70% of VO2max, whereas protocols 2-5 were interval based with a work-active rest duration (in seconds) of 30/30, 60/30, 90/30, and 60/60, respectively. Each interval protocol resulted in approximately 10 minutes of exercise at a workload corresponding to approximately 90% VO2max, but differed in the total rest duration. The 90/30 HIT protocol resulted in the highest VO2, HR, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate, whereas the 30/30 protocol resulted in the lowest of these parameters. The total caloric energy expenditure was lowest in the 90/30 and 60/30 protocols (~150 kcal), whereas the other 3 protocols did not differ (~195 kcal) from one another. The immediate postexercise blood pressure response was similar across all the protocols. These finding indicate that HIT performed at approximately 90% of VO2max is no more physiologically taxing than is steady-state exercise conducted at 70% VO2max, but the response during HIT is influenced by the work-to-rest ratio. This interval protocol may be used as an alternative approach to steady-state exercise training but with less time commitment.

  4. The Effects of Low to Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Following Clinical Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Method. Lebed-Davis developed a program using ROM exercises to help reduce lymphedema in breast cancer survivors (Sandel, 2005) with a focus on healing...helped facilitate lymphatic drainage and aided with lymphedema . The following 25-30 minutes incorporated low to moderate aerobic dance exercise (30-50...breast cancer survivors (reduce lymphedema and increase range of motion). This may have also have promoted self-efficacy in addition to improved

  5. Menstrual cycle phase effects free testosterone responses to prolonged aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Lane, A R; O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown that total testosterone (tT) levels in women increase acutely during a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise. Few studies, however, have considered the impact of the menstrual cycle phase on this response or have looked at the biologically active free testosterone (fT) form responses. Therefore, this study examined the fT concentration response independently and as a percentage (fT%) of tT to prolonged aerobic exercise during phases of the menstrual cycle with low estrogen-progesterone (L-EP; i.e., follicular phase) and high estrogen-progesterone (H-EP; i.e., luteal phase). Ten healthy, recreationally trained, eumennorrheic women (X ± SD: age = 20 ± 2 y, mass = 58.7 ± 8.3 kg, body fat = 22.3 ± 4.9 %, VO(2max) = 50.7 ± 9.0 ml/kg/min) participated in a laboratory based study and completed a 60-minute treadmill run during the L-EP and H-EP menstrual phases at ~70% of VO(2max). Blood was drawn prior to (PRE), immediately after (POST) and following 30 minutes of recovery (30POST) with each 60-minute run. During H-EP, there was a significant increase in fT concentrations from PRE to POST (p < 0.01) while in L-EP fT levels were unchanged; which resulted in fT being significantly higher at H-EP POST versus L-EP POST (p < 0.03). Area-under-the-curve (AUC) responses were calculated, for fT the total AUC was greater in H-EP than L-EP (p < 0.04). There was no significant interaction of fT% between phases and exercise sampling time. There was, however, a main effect for exercise where fT% POST was a greater proportion of tT than at PRE (p < 0.01). In summary, hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle impact fT response to a prolonged aerobic exercise bout; specifically, there being higher levels under H-EP conditions. This suggests more biologically active T is available during exercise in this phase. This response may be a function of the higher core temperatures found with H-EP causing greater sex hormone binding protein release of T, or could

  6. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bacurau, Aline V.; Cunha, Telma F.; Souza, Rodrigo W.; Voltarelli, Vanessa A.; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Brum, Patricia C.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF) affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS) and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers), is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET) is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF. PMID:26904163

  7. Acute effects of moderate aerobic exercise on specific aspects of executive function in different age and fitness groups: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Whereas a wealth of studies have investigated acute effects of moderate aerobic exercise on executive function, the roles of age, fitness, and the component of executive function in this relationship still remain unclear. Therefore, the present meta-analysis investigates exercise-induced benefits on specific aspects of executive function in different age and aerobic fitness subgroups. Based on data from 40 experimental studies, a small effect of aerobic exercise on time-dependent measures (g = .35) and accuracy (g = .22) in executive function tasks was confirmed. The results further suggest that preadolescent children (g = .54) and older adults (g = .67) compared to other age groups benefit more from aerobic exercise when reaction time is considered as dependent variable. In contrast to age, aerobic fitness and the executive function component had no influence on the obtained effect sizes. Consequently, high aerobic fitness is no prerequisite for temporary improvements of the executive control system, and low- as well as high-fit individuals seem to benefit from exercise in a similar way. However, a higher sensitivity of executive function to acute aerobic exercise was found in individuals undergoing developmental changes. Therefore, preadolescent children and older adults in particular might strategically use a single aerobic exercise session to prepare for a situation demanding high executive control.

  8. A 12 week aerobic exercise program improves fitness, hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in obese Hispanic adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Strictly controlled exercise programs might be useful tools to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk aerobic exerci...

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise, diet, or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise (E), diet (D), or both (ED) on lipids and lipoproteins have led to conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of E, D, and ED on lipids and lipoproteins. METHODS: Using the aggregate data meta-analytic approach, studies were ...

  10. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to determine the combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults. Twelve studies representing 859 men and women (443 intervention, 416 control) were included. Using random-effects models...

  11. Kinematics of the forefoot in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after aerobic exercise load.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Chen, De; Yin, Lu; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure the changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load (a fatigue protocol). [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane after physically demanding aerobic exercise load, an 8 ch wireless Motion Recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was utilized. [Results] Forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane was significantly associated with increased paces during progressive pace treadmill racewalking. Significant increases in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation were observed during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on the instrumented treadmill at 8 km/h and 10 km/h after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation increased during progressive pace barefoot racewalking in the fatigue state after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load, which implies that the kinematic features of the forefoot are changed in the fatigue state.

  12. Kinematics of the forefoot in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after aerobic exercise load

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Chen, De; Yin, Lu; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure the changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load (a fatigue protocol). [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane after physically demanding aerobic exercise load, an 8 ch wireless Motion Recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was utilized. [Results] Forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane was significantly associated with increased paces during progressive pace treadmill racewalking. Significant increases in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation were observed during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on the instrumented treadmill at 8 km/h and 10 km/h after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation increased during progressive pace barefoot racewalking in the fatigue state after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load, which implies that the kinematic features of the forefoot are changed in the fatigue state. PMID:27065538

  13. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630438

  14. Heart Rate Recovery and Variability Following Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and there is compelling evidence of autonomic dysfunction in these individuals. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention produces similar results in cardiac autonomic function between…

  15. Short-term Regular Aerobic Exercise Reduces Oxidative Stress Produced by Acute High Intraluminal Pressure in the Adipose Microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-02-24

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction, and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure.

  16. Reasonable expectations: how much aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life can improve with exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark A; Pozehl, Bunny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the literature that describes the magnitude of functional and quality of life gains with a traditional moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training programs is reviewed, and differences between the impact of exercise training in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction versus heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are discussed.

  17. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  18. Morphological assessment of pancreatic islet hormone content following aerobic exercise training in rats with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Hall, Katharine E; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise has been shown to improve many complications of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) including enhanced glucose tolerance and increased cardiac function. While exercise training has been shown to increase insulin content in pancreatic islets of rats with T1DM, experimental models were severely hyperglycemic and not undergoing insulin treatment. Further, research to date has yet to determine how exercise training alters glucagon content in pancreatic islets. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the impact of a 10-week aerobic training program on pancreatic islet composition in insulin-treated rats with T1DM. Second, it was determined whether the acute, exercise-mediated reduction in blood glucose experienced in rats with T1DM would become larger in magnitude following aerobic exercise training. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by multiple low dose injections of streptozotocin (20mg/kg i.p.) and moderate intensity aerobic exercise training was performed on a motorized treadmill for one hour per day for a total of 10 weeks. Rats with T1DM demonstrated significantly less islet insulin, and significantly more islet glucagon hormone content compared with non-T1DM rats, which did not significantly change following aerobic training. The reduction in blood glucose in response to a single exercise bout was similar across 10 weeks of training. Results also support the view that different subpopulations of islets exist, as small islets (<50 μm diameter) had significantly more insulin and glucagon in rats with and without T1DM.

  19. The Influence of Aerobic Power on Repeated Anaerobic Exercise in Junior Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Cipryan, Lukas; Gajda, Vojtech

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between anaerobic power achieved in repeated anaerobic exercise and aerobic power. The study group consisted of 40 soccer players (age 17.3 ± 1.36 years). All participants performed 3 tests: a running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST), a graded treadmill test (GXT), and a multistage fitness test (20mPST). A statistically significant correlation was found among peak power in the GXT and the maximum (r = 0.365, p=0.02), minimum (r=0.334, p=0.035) and average (r=0.401, p=0.01) power in the RAST. No relationships were found between VO2max obtained from both aerobic tests and any performance indices in the RAST. A statistically significant correlation was found between the VO2max obtained from the spiroergometry examination (GXT) and the calculated VO2max of 20mPST (r=0.382, p=0.015). In conclusion, the level of VO2max does not influence the performance indices in the RAST in elite junior soccer players. It is possible that the modification of anaerobic test protocol or a more heterogeneous study group would influence the results. The estimation of the VO2max in the 20mPST is too inaccurate and should not replace the laboratory spiroergometry examination. PMID:23487409

  20. Aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy response to short-term resistance training.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per A

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that chronic aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) would elicit greater muscle hypertrophy than resistance exercise only (RE). Ten men (25 ± 4 yr) performed 5 wk unilateral knee extensor AE+RE. The opposing limb was subjected to RE. AE completed 6 hr prior to RE consisted of ~45 min one-legged cycle ergometry. RE comprised 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Various indexes of in vivo knee extensor function were measured before and after training. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessed m. quadricep femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA), volume, and signal intensity (SI). Biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis determined fiber CSA, enzyme levels, and gene expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, PGC-1α, and VEGF. Increases (P < 0.05) in isometric strength and peak power, respectively, were comparable in AE+RE (9 and 29%) and RE (11 and 24%). AE+RE showed greater increase (14%; P < 0.05) in QF volume than RE (8%). Muscle fiber CSA increased 17% after AE+RE (P < 0.05) and 9% after RE (P > 0.05). QF SI increased (12%; P < 0.05) after AE+RE, but not RE. Neither AE+RE nor RE showed altered mRNA levels. Citrate synthase activity increased (P < 0.05) after AE+RE. The results suggest that the increased aerobic capacity shown with AE+RE was accompanied by a more robust increase in muscle size compared with RE. Although this response was not carried over to greater improvement in muscle function, it remains that intense AE can be executed prior to RE without compromising performance outcome.

  1. The Gravity-Loading countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) and its effect upon aerobic exercise performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attias, Julia; Philip, A. T. Carvil; Waldie, James; Russomano, Thais; Simon, N. Evetts; David, A. Green

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Pingvin suit is employed as a countermeasure to musculoskeletal atrophy in microgravity, though its 2-stage loading regime is poorly tolerated. The Gravity-Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) has been devised to comfortably compress the body via incrementally increasing longitudinal elastic-fibre tensions from the shoulders to the feet. We tested whether the Mk III GLCS was a feasible adjunct to sub-maximal aerobic exercise and resulting VO2Max predictions. Eight healthy subjects (5♂, 28±6 yr) performed cycle ergometry at 75% VO2Max (derived from an Astrand-Rhyming protocol) whilst wearing a GLCS and gym clothing (GYM). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate (HR), core temperature (TC), and blood lactate (BL) were recorded along with subjective perceived exertion, thermal comfort, movement discomfort and body control. Physiological and subjective responses were compared over TIME and between GYM and GLCS (ATTIRE) with 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests respectively. Resultant VO2Max predictions were compared with paired t-tests between ATTIRE. The GLCS induced greater initial exercise ventilatory responses which stabilised by 20 min. HR and TC continued to rise from 5 min irrespective of ATTIRE, whereas BL was greater in the GLCS at 20 min. Predicted V O2Max did not differ with ATTIRE, though some observed differences in HR were noteworthy. All subjective ratings were exacerbated in the GLCS. Despite increased perception of workload and initial ventilatory augmentations, submaximal exercise performance was not impeded. Whilst predicted VO2Max did not differ, determination of actual VO2Max in the GLCS is warranted due to apparent modulation of the linear HR-VO2 relationship. The GLCS may be a feasible adjunct to exercise and potential countermeasure to unloaded-induced physiological deconditioning on Earth or in space.

  2. Efficacy of home-based exercise programmes for people with chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Rita; Marwick, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Home-based programmes may offer an alternative to conventional programmes or as a means of maintaining physical fitness after graduating from centre-based programmes. We sought to examine the effectiveness of home-based exercise programmes on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure compared with usual medical care. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Protocols included an initial period of centre-based exercise followed by exercise at home, home-based exercise only and concurrent centre and home-based exercise. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption, exercise duration and the six-minute walk test. Nineteen relevant studies were identified for review. The mean improvement in peak oxygen consumption was 2.86 ml/kg per min [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-4.29]. Exercise duration increased by 1.94 min (95% CI: 0.89-2.98) and distance on the six-minute walk test was increased by 30.41 m (95% CI: 6.13-54.68). Other reported benefits of home-based programmes include increased quality of life and lowered hospital admission rates. In conclusion, home-based exercise programmes have been shown to benefit people with heart failure in the short term. Further research is required to investigate the long-term effects of home exercise and to determine the optimal strategies for improving exercise adherence in patients with heart failure.

  3. The effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN-related brain regions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-Yi; Huang, Mao-Mao; Li, Shu-Zhen; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Chen, Li-Dian

    2016-08-05

    Physical activity may play a role in both the prevention and slowing of brain volume loss and may be beneficial in terms of improving the functional connectivity of brain regions. But much less is known about the potential benefit of aerobic exercise for the structure and function of the default mode network (DMN) brain regions. This systematic review examines the effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN brain regions in human adulthood. Seven electronic databases were searched for prospective controlled studies published up to April 2015. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analysis. Finally, 14 studies with 631 participants were identified. Meta-analysis revealed that aerobic exercise could significantly increase right hippocampal volume (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.01-0.51, p = 0.04, I(2) = 7%, 4 studies), and trends of similar effects were observed in the total (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.41, p = 0.43, I(2) = 0%, 5 studies), left (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.37, p = 0.33, I(2) = 14%, 4 studies), left anterior (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.40, p = 0.41, I(2) = 74%, 2 studies) and right anterior (SMD = 0.10, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.38, p = 0.46, I(2) = 76%, 4 studies) hippocampal volumes compared to the no-exercise interventions. A few studies reported that relative to no-exercise interventions, aerobic exercise could significantly decrease the atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, slow the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume loss, increase functional connectivity within the hippocampus and improve signal activation in the cingulate gyrus and ACC. The current review suggests that aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the right hippocampus and potentially beneficial effects on the overall and other parts of the hippocampus, the cingulate cortex and the medial temporal areas of the DMN. Moreover, aerobic exercise

  4. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  5. Effect of hypohydration and altitude exposure on aerobic exercise performance and acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Muza, Stephen R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Sils, Ingrid V; Fulco, Charles S; Kenefick, Robert W; Beidleman, Beth A; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Hypoxia often causes body water deficits (hypohydration, HYPO); however, the effects of HYPO on aerobic exercise performance and prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at high altitude (ALT) have not been reported. We hypothesized that 1) HYPO and ALT would each degrade aerobic performance relative to sea level (SL)-euhydrated (EUH) conditions, and combining HYPO and ALT would further degrade performance more than one stressor alone; and 2) HYPO would increase the prevalence and severity of AMS symptoms. Seven lowlander men (25 ± 7 yr old; 82 ± 11 kg; mean ± SD) completed four separate experimental trials. Trials were 1) SL-EUH, 2) SL-HYPO, 3) ALT-EUH, and 4) ALT-HYPO. In HYPO, subjects were dehydrated by 4% of body mass. Subjects maintained hydration status overnight and the following morning entered a hypobaric chamber (at SL or 3,048 m, 27°C) where they completed 30 min of submaximal exercise immediately followed by a 30-min performance time trial (TT). AMS was measured with the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire-Cerebral Score (AMS-C) and the Lake Louise Scoring System (LLS). The percent change in TT performance, relative to SL-EUH, was -19 ± 12% (334 ± 64 to 278 ± 87 kJ), -11 ± 10% (334 ± 64 to 293 ± 33 kJ), and -34 ± 22% (334 ± 64 to 227 ± 95 kJ), for SL-HYPO, ALT-EUH, and ALT-HYPO, respectively. AMS symptom prevalence was 2/7 subjects at ALT-EUH for AMS-C and LLS and 5/7 and 4/7 at ALT-HYPO for AMS-C and LLS, respectively. The AMS-C symptom severity score (AMS-C score) tended to increase from ALT-EUH to ALT-HYPO but was not significant (P = 0.07). In conclusion, hypohydration at 3,048 m 1) degrades aerobic performance in an additive manner with that induced by ALT; and 2) did not appear to increase the prevalence/severity of AMS symptoms.

  6. Effects of Anabolic Steroids and High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Skeletal Muscle of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Karina; Campos, Gerson E. R.; Staron, Robert S.; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks). The transgenic mice (CETP+/-LDLr-/+) were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed) and/or training (Ex) mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M). The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M) on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition) in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS) were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB) was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M) and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C) increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M) resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M) caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was even

  7. Incongruent changes in heart rate variability and body weight after discontinuing aerobic exercise in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Chih; Liang, Chih-Sung; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Li

    2016-11-01

    A bidirectional connection exists between obesity and altered heart rate variability (HRV). Schizophrenia has been associated with a high risk of obesity and decreased vagal modulation. Few studies have examined the link between obesity and HRV in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on body weight and HRV, and if so, whether these effects could be sustained after discontinuation of exercise training. A total of 18 overweight patients with schizophrenia completed an 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program conducted twice weekly for 50min. Body weight and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, week 8, and 4weeks after discontinuation of exercise training. Compared with the control group (15 overweight patients with schizophrenia without exercise training), the exercise group had reduced 2.3kg at week 8. Furthermore, the exercise program increased the low frequency, high frequency, and low frequency plus high frequency of HRV. However, after discontinuation of the exercise program for 4weeks, the changes in body weight and the HRV parameters diverged. All of the HRV parameters returned to their baseline values, but no change was seen in the reduced body weight. This suggests that HRV analysis is a more sensitive tool to detect health conditions in patients with schizophrenia. Although exercise is an easy and effective way to prevent and improve health problems, mental health providers might have underestimated the benefits of exercise in daily clinical practice. A regular exercise program should be considered as an essential part of treatment strategies for patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients. PMID:27399127

  9. The effects of aerobic exercise intensity and duration on levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmolesky, Matthew T; Webb, David L; Hansen, Rodney A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of aerobic exercise intensity and duration on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) levels in healthy human adult males aged 18-25 years. Forty five participants were randomly assigned to one of six exercise conditions based on varying intensity (80% or 60% of heart rate reserve, or control) and duration (20 or 40 min). Vigorous (80% heart rate reserve, "Vig") and moderate (60% heart rate reserve, "Mod") exercise was carried out on cycle ergometers. Control subjects remained seated and at rest during the exercise period. Pre- and post-exercise blood draws were conducted and sBDNF measured. Physical exercise caused an average ~ 32% increase in sBDNF levels relative to baseline that resulted in concentrations that were 45% higher than control conditions. Comparing the six conditions, sBDNF levels rose consistently among the four exercise conditions (Vig20 = 26.38 ± 34.89%, Vig40 = 28.48 ± 19.11%, Mod20 = 41.23 ± 59.65%, Mod40 = 30.16 ± 72.11%) and decreased consistently among the controls (Con20 = -14.48 ± 16.50, Con40 = -10.51 ± 26.78). Vig conditions had the highest proportion of subjects that experienced a significant (? 10%) increase in sBDNF levels, followed by Mod and control conditions. An analysis of modeled sBDNF integrals (area under the curve) demonstrated substantially greater values for Vig40 and Mod40 conditions compared to Vig20 and Mod20 conditions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that neither duration (20 vs. 40 min) nor intensity (60 vs. 80% HR reserve) significantly affects the benefits of exercise if only the sBDNF increase at a single post-exercise time point is considered. However, when comparing either the probability of achieving a significant BDNF gain or the integral (i.e. the volume of circulating BDNF over time) the Vig40 condition offers maximal benefits. Thus, we conclude that the future study of aerobic exercise effects on BDNF-mediated neuroprotection should take the

  10. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Danielle M; West, Daniel W D; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5-4.5 h) and late (24-28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subject crossover design, eight males (21 ± 1 yr, Vo2peak 46.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two work-matched cycle ergometry exercise trials (LOW: 60 min at 30% Wmax; HIGH: 30 min at 60% Wmax) in the fasted state while undergoing a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 0.5, 4.5, 24, and 28 h postexercise to determine both the "early" and "late" response of MyoPS and MitoPS and the phosphorylation status of selected proteins within both the Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Over 24-28 h postexercise, MitoPS was significantly greater after the HIGH vs. LOW exercise trial (P < 0.05). Rates of MyoPS were increased equivalently over 0.5-4.5 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05) but remained elevated at 24-28 h postexercise only following the HIGH trial. In conclusion, an acute bout of high- but not low-intensity aerobic exercise in the fasted state resulted in a sustained elevation of both MitoPS and MyoPS at 24-28 h postexercise recovery.

  11. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and high-carbohydrate meal on plasma acylated ghrelin and levels of hunger.

    PubMed

    Becker, Geórgia Franco; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Cunha, Giovani Dos Santos; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Laitano, Orlando; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2012-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of an aerobic exercise bout associated with a high-carbohydrate (CHO) meal on plasma levels of acylated ghrelin and hunger sensation. Eight healthy males performed an exercise (ET) and a control (CT) trial. In ET, participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (∼70% of maximal oxygen uptake) after consuming a high-CHO meal. In the CT, participants remained at rest throughout the whole period after consuming the high-CHO meal. Hunger sensation was assessed and blood samples were taken to determine the levels of acylated ghrelin, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). There was suppression of hunger after consuming the meal in ET and CT (p = 0.028 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hunger increased in CT in the period correspondent to the exercise session (p = 0.017) and remained suppressed in the ET. The area under the curve for acylated ghrelin showed that its levels were lower in the ET compared with CT in the period of the exercise plus the immediate period (1 h) postexercise (60.7 vs. 96.75 pg·mL(-1)·2 h(-1), respectively; p = 0.04). Inverse correlations between acylated ghrelin levels and insulin, TC, and TG levels at different time points were observed. In conclusion, these findings suggest that 1 bout of aerobic exercise maintains the meal-induced suppression of hunger. The mechanism underlying this effect may involve the exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin. These results implicate that the combination of a high-CHO meal and aerobic exercise may effectively improve appetite control and body weight management.

  12. The challenge of performing aerobic exercise in tropical environments: applied knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The tropical climate is unique in that the seasons are dominated by the movement of the tropical rain belt, resulting in dry and wet seasons rather than the four-season pattern of changes in temperature and day length seen in other parts of the world. More than 33% of the world population lives in the humid tropics, which are characterized by consistently high monthly temperatures and rainfall that exceeds evapotranspiration for most days of the year. Both the 2014 Football World Cup (in Brazil) and the 2016 Olympic Games (in Rio de Janeiro) will take place in this climate. This review focuses on the effects of the tropical environment on human exercise performance, with a special emphasis on prolonged aerobic exercise, such as swimming, cycling, and running. Some of the data were collected in Guadeloupe, the French West Indies Island where all the French teams will be training for the 2016 Olympic Games. We will first fully define the tropical climate and its effects on performance in these sports. Then we will discuss the types of adaptation that help to enhance performance in this climate, as well as the issues concerning the prescription of adequate training loads. We will conclude with some perspectives for future research.

  13. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on driving performance in adults with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Jeffrey; Mekary, Saïd; Bélanger, Mathieu; Johnson, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been linked to decreases in driving performance and an increased crash risk. Regular exercise has been linked to improved driving performance among healthy adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program and driving performance among individuals with CVD. Twenty-five individuals, including 12 cardiac adults and 13 healthy adults, took part in this study. Simulated driving performance was assessed using a standardized demerit-based scoring system at 0 and 12 weeks. Cardiac participants completed a 12-week CR program between evaluations. At baseline, cardiac participants had a higher number of demerit points than healthy adults (120.9±38.1 vs. 94.7±28.3, P=0.04). At follow-up, there was an improvement in both groups' driving evaluations, but the improvement was greater among the cardiac group such that there was no longer a difference in driving performance between both groups (94.6±30 vs. 86.9±34.8, P=0.51). Participation in an aerobic exercise-based CR program appears to lead to improvements in simulated driving performances of individuals with CVD.

  14. The rate of training response to aerobic exercise affects brain function of rats.

    PubMed

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Mimura, Tatsuya; Pajk, Melitta; Abraham, Dora; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing volume of data connecting capacity to respond to exercise training with quality of life and aging. In this study, we used a rat model in which animals were selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance to test t whether genetic segregation for trainability is associated with brain function and signaling processes in the hippocampus. Rats selected for low response (LRT) and high response training (HRT) were randomly divided into control or exercise group that trained five times a week for 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max. All four groups had similar running distance before training. With training, HRT rats showed significantly greater increases in VO2max and running distance than LRT rats (p < 0.05). On the reverse Morris Maze test HRT-trained rats outperformed HRT control ones. Significant difference was noted between LRT and HRT groups in redox milieu as assessed by levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), carbonylation of proteins, nNOS and S-nitroso-cysteine. Moreover the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ratio of phospho and total cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and apoptotic index, also showed significant differences between LRT and HRT groups. These findings suggest that aerobic training responses are not localized to skeletal muscle, but differently involve signaling processes in the brain of LRT and HRT rats.

  15. Promoting neuroplasticity for motor rehabilitation after stroke: considering the effects of aerobic exercise and genetic variation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Mang, Cameron S; Campbell, Kristin L; Ross, Colin J D; Boyd, Lara A

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of motor function after stroke involves relearning motor skills and is mediated by neuroplasticity. Recent research has focused on developing rehabilitation strategies that facilitate such neuroplasticity to maximize functional outcome poststroke. Although many molecular signaling pathways are involved, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a key facilitator of neuroplasticity involved in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Thus, rehabilitation strategies that optimize BDNF effects on neuroplasticity may be especially effective for improving motor function poststroke. Two potential poststroke rehabilitation strategies that consider the importance of BDNF are the use of aerobic exercise to enhance brain function and the incorporation of genetic information to individualize therapy. Converging evidence demonstrates that aerobic exercise increases BDNF production and consequently enhances learning and memory processes. Nevertheless, a common genetic variant reduces activity-dependent secretion of the BDNF protein. Thus, BDNF gene variation may affect response to motor rehabilitation training and potentially modulate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity. This perspective article discusses evidence that aerobic exercise promotes neuroplasticity by increasing BDNF production and considers how aerobic exercise may facilitate the acquisition and retention of motor skills for poststroke rehabilitation. Next, the impact of the BDNF gene val66met polymorphism on motor learning and response to rehabilitation is explored. It is concluded that the effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and motor learning may be better exploited if aerobic exercise is paired more closely in time with motor training. Additionally, information about BDNF genotype could provide insight into the type and magnitude of effects that aerobic exercise may have across individuals and potentially help guide an individualized prescription of aerobic exercise

  16. Promoting Neuroplasticity for Motor Rehabilitation After Stroke: Considering the Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Genetic Variation on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Cameron S.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Ross, Colin J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of motor function after stroke involves relearning motor skills and is mediated by neuroplasticity. Recent research has focused on developing rehabilitation strategies that facilitate such neuroplasticity to maximize functional outcome poststroke. Although many molecular signaling pathways are involved, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a key facilitator of neuroplasticity involved in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Thus, rehabilitation strategies that optimize BDNF effects on neuroplasticity may be especially effective for improving motor function poststroke. Two potential poststroke rehabilitation strategies that consider the importance of BDNF are the use of aerobic exercise to enhance brain function and the incorporation of genetic information to individualize therapy. Converging evidence demonstrates that aerobic exercise increases BDNF production and consequently enhances learning and memory processes. Nevertheless, a common genetic variant reduces activity-dependent secretion of the BDNF protein. Thus, BDNF gene variation may affect response to motor rehabilitation training and potentially modulate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity. This perspective article discusses evidence that aerobic exercise promotes neuroplasticity by increasing BDNF production and considers how aerobic exercise may facilitate the acquisition and retention of motor skills for poststroke rehabilitation. Next, the impact of the BDNF gene val66met polymorphism on motor learning and response to rehabilitation is explored. It is concluded that the effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and motor learning may be better exploited if aerobic exercise is paired more closely in time with motor training. Additionally, information about BDNF genotype could provide insight into the type and magnitude of effects that aerobic exercise may have across individuals and potentially help guide an individualized prescription of aerobic exercise

  17. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sloth, M; Sloth, D; Overgaard, K; Dalgas, U

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity following SIT. In conclusion, strong evidence support improvement of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT, which coincides with peripheral muscular adaptations. Future RCTs on long-term SIT and underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  18. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-05-02

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  19. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  20. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  1. Exercise Programme in Endometrial Cancer; Protocol of the Feasibility and Acceptability Survivorship Trial (EPEC-FAST)

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Anke; Lopes, Alberto; Das, Nagindra; Bekkers, Ruud; Massuger, Leon; Galaal, Khadra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity has been associated with impaired quality of life and poorer outcomes in endometrial cancer survivors. Lifestyle interventions promoting exercise and weight reduction have been proposed for survivorship care. However, studies evaluating exercise programmes for endometrial cancer survivors are lacking. Purpose The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of an individualised exercise intervention for endometrial cancer survivors to improve quality of life. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility study in which women will undergo a 10-week exercise programme with a personal trainer. The study population comprises women with confirmed diagnosis of endometrial cancer, who have completed surgical treatment with curative intent, and are aged 18 years or older. The study will take place at the Royal Cornwall Hospital Trust, UK. Feasibility will be evaluated in terms of recruitment, adherence and compliance to the programme. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, psychological distress, fatigue, pain and complication rates. In addition, the acceptability of the programme will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained through the Exeter NRES Committee. The study results will be used to optimise the intervention content, and may serve as the foundation for a larger definitive trial. Results will be disseminated through peer-review journals, congresses, relevant clinical groups and presented on the Trust's website. Trial registration number: NCT02367950; pre-results. PMID:26674498

  2. Efficacy of a Peer-Guided Exercise Programme for Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer support is strongly associated with physical activity of adolescents. This study examined the efficacy of a YMCA-based, peer-guided exercise training programme for increasing health-related physical fitness among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Adolescents with intellectual disabilities and…

  3. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick S; Groves, Jessica L; Pettett, Brett J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Dishman, Rod K; Holmes, Philip V

    2010-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for (1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and (2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and (3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running.

  4. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick S.; Groves, Jessica L.; Pettett, Brett J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for three weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel-running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running. PMID:20850488

  5. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p < 0.05), however, post hoc statistical tests did not reveal any differences (p > 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  6. The effect of a long-term exercise programme on the rheumatoid hand.

    PubMed

    Brighton, S W; Lubbe, J E; van der Merwe, C A

    1993-05-01

    Forty-four female patients with sero-positive active RA participated in a 48-month trial to assess the effect of simple hand exercises. Twenty-two patients in the test group were given a daily exercise regime of six exercises. The control group were not given any exercises. At the end of 48 months there was a statistically significant improvement in grip strength (P < 0.0001) and pincer grip strength (P < 0.0005) in the test group. There was a significant deterioration in the control group (P < 0.0000). A simple exercise programme is beneficial for the rheumatoid hand as far as grip and pincer grip strength are concerned.

  7. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  8. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  9. Aerobic Exercise Attenuated Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Th2-Dominant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Junior, Manoel Carneiro; Assumpção-Neto, Erasmo; Brandão-Rangel, Maysa Alves Rodrigues; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Garcia Caldini, Elia; Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira; Teodoro, Walcy Rosolia; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Eickelberg, Oliver; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) in reducing bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice of a Th2-dominant immune background (BALB/c). Methods BALB/c mice were distributed into: sedentary, control (CON), Exercise-only (EX), sedentary, bleomycin-treated (BLEO) and bleomycin-treated+exercised (BLEO+EX); (n = 8/group). Following treadmill adaptation, 15 days following a single, oro-tracheal administration of bleomycin (1.5U/kg), AE was performed 5 days/week, 60min/day for 4 weeks at moderate intensity (60% of maximum velocity reached during a physical test) and assessed for pulmonary inflammation and remodeling, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Results At 45 days post injury, compared to BLEO, BLEO+EX demonstrated reduced collagen deposition in the airways (p<0.001) and also in the lung parenchyma (p<0.001). In BAL, a decreased number of total leukocytes (p<0.01), eosinophils (p<0.001), lymphocytes (p<0.01), macrophages (p<0.01), and neutrophils (p<0.01), as well as reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL-1; p<0.01), (IL-1β; p<0.001), (IL-5; p<0.01), (IL-6; p<0.001), (IL-13; p<0.01) and pro-fibrotic growth factor IGF-1 (p<0.001) were observed. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion AE attenuated bleomycin-induced collagen deposition, inflammation and cytokines accumulation in the lungs of mice with a predominately Th2-background suggesting that therapeutic AE (15–44 days post injury) attenuates the pro-inflammatory, Th2 immune response and fibrosis in the bleomycin model. PMID:27677175

  10. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on neural correlates of attention and inhibition in adolescents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, A W S; MacIntosh, B J; Scavone, A; Ou, X; Korczak, D; Goldstein, B I

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction is common during and between mood episodes in bipolar disorder (BD), causing social and functional impairment. This study investigated the effect of acute exercise on adolescents with BD and healthy control subjects (HC) to test for positive or negative consequences on neural response during an executive task. Fifty adolescents (mean age 16.54±1.47 years, 56% female, 30 with BD) completed an attention and response inhibition task before and after 20 min of recumbent cycling at ~70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in a whole brain voxel-wise analysis and as regions of interest (ROI), examining Go and NoGo response events. In the whole brain analysis of Go trials, exercise had larger effect in BD vs HC throughout ventral prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus; the profile of these effects was of greater disengagement after exercise. Pre-exercise ROI analysis confirmed this 'deficit in deactivation' for BDs in rostral ACC and found an activation deficit on NoGo errors in accumbens. Pre-exercise accumbens NoGo error activity correlated with depression symptoms and Go activity with mania symptoms; no correlations were present after exercise. Performance was matched to controls and results survived a series of covariate analyses. This study provides evidence that acute aerobic exercise transiently changes neural response during an executive task among adolescents with BD, and that pre-exercise relationships between symptoms and neural response are absent after exercise. Acute aerobic exercise constitutes a biological probe that may provide insights regarding pathophysiology and treatment of BD. PMID:27187236

  11. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  12. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  13. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). PrOOH did not change either between baseline measures or after exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women.

  14. A systematic review of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise interventions for children with cerebral palsy: an AACPDM evidence report.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anna; Furler, Barbara-Lynne; Brinks, Stephen; Darrah, Johanna

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of aerobic training interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The target population included children with CP of any severity, aged 2 to 17 years. The following databases were searched for English language studies from 1960 to 2006: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Pascal, Cochrane Library, CSA Neuroscience Abstracts, The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Sport Discus. Search terms included 'cerebral palsy', 'athetoid', 'ataxic', 'spastic diplegia', 'hemiplegia', 'quadriplegia', 'aerobic', 'exercise', 'training', 'physical activity', 'aquatic/water/pool therapy', and 'continuous exercise'. The American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine systematic review guidelines were used to format the review. One thousand, four hundred and eighty nine articles were identified and examined for the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles met the criteria for inclusion. The evidence suggests that aerobic exercise with children with CP can improve physiological outcomes, but the influence of these changes on outcomes representing activity and participation are unknown. Future research needs improved methodological rigour in order to determine a specific set of exercise guidelines and safety considerations.

  15. Aerobic Exercise Improves Signs of Restless Leg Syndrome in End Stage Renal Disease Patients Suffering Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Mojgan; Vahdatpour, Babak; Ghasempour, Aida; Taheri, Diana; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh; Dolatkhah, Bahareh; Dolatkhah, Shahaboddin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is one of the prevalent complaints of patients with end stage renal diseases suffering chronic hemodialysis. Although there are some known pharmacological managements for this syndrome, the adverse effect of drugs causes a limitation for using them. In this randomized clinical trial we aimed to find a nonpharmacological way to improve signs of restless leg syndrome and patients' quality of life. Material and Methods. Twenty-six patients were included in the study and divided into 2 groups of control and exercise. The exercise group used aerobic exercise during their hemodialysis for 16 weeks. The quality of life and severity of restless leg syndrome were assessed at the first week of study and final week. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. The difference of means of RLS signs at the first week of study and final week was −5.5 ± 4.96 in exercise group and −0.53 ± 2.3 in control group. There was not any statistical difference between control group and exercise group in quality of life at the first week of study and final week. Conclusions. We suggest using aerobic exercise for improving signs of restless leg syndrome, but no evidence was found for its efficacy on patient's quality of life. PMID:24307876

  16. Positive effects of aerobic exercise on learning and memory functioning, which correlate with hippocampal IGF-1 increase in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Caner; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Gencoglu, Celal; Baykara, Basak; Aksu, Ilkay; Uysal, Nazan

    2013-08-09

    It is already known that regular aerobic exercise during adolescent period improves learning and memory in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on learning, memory functioning and IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 is known to have positive effects on cognitive functions in adolescent rats. Exercise group was separated into two different groups. First half was run on a treadmill for 30 min per session at a speed of 8m/min and 0° slope, five times a week for 6 weeks. The second half was given free access to a running wheel (diameter 11.5 cm) which was connected to a digital counter and run on a treadmill for 6 weeks. Learning and memory functioning were found to be positively correlated with the exercise activity. Findings suggest increased neuron density in CA1 hippocampal region and dentate gyrus. Increased IGF-1 level was detected in hippocampus and blood serum, while IGF-1 level in liver tissue did not change with exercise activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that learning and memory functioning were positively affected by voluntary and involuntary physical exercise which correlated increased hippocampal activity and elevated IGF-1 levels in adolescent rats.

  17. The influence of aerobic exercise training on the double product break point in low-to-moderate risk adults.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Trent A; Griffin, Diane C; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Whaley, Mitchell H

    2011-02-01

    The double product is the product of the heart rate and systolic blood pressure. The double product break point (DPBP) is a physiologic threshold that occurs at similar exercise intensities to that of the ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of aerobic exercise training on the DPBP has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether aerobic exercise training (ET) increases the exercise intensity at which the DPBP occurs, and whether it increases in a similar fashion to the VT. Seven males and 11 females, all sedentary (mean ± SD: age = 29.9 ± 10.5 years) underwent supervised cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a cycle ergometer ramp protocol at baseline and after 8 weeks of vigorous ET on a cycle ergometer. The VT was determined by gas analysis and the V-slope method. Experienced observers using standardized instructions visually determined the DPBP. Following ET, VO(2 peak), maximal workload, and body composition variables all showed significant positive changes. The VO(2) at which the DPBP and VT occurred increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (P < 0.001). At baseline and at follow-up, the DPBP and VT did not differ. The DPBP and VT were significantly correlated to each other at both time points. Results suggest that the DPBP responds to ET in a similar fashion to that of the VT, and may be an easier and more useful marker of the VT for exercise training purposes.

  18. The impact of acute aerobic exercise on chitinase 3-like protein 1 and intelectin-1 expression in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Slusher, Aaron L; Whitehurst, Michael; Wells, Marie; Maharaj, Arun; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and intelectin 1 (ITLN-1) recognize microbial N-acetylglucosamine polymer and galactofuranosyl carbohydrates, respectively. Both lectins are highly abundant in plasma and seem to play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in obesity and inflammatory-related illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma levels of these lectins in obese subjects are useful for monitoring inflammatory conditions immediately influenced by acute aerobic exercise. Plasma interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also examined. Twenty-two (11 obese and 11 normal-weight) healthy subjects, ages 18-30 years, were recruited to perform a 30 min bout of acute aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max. We confirmed higher baseline levels of plasma CHI3L1, but lower ITLN-1, in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects. The baseline levels of CHI3L1 were negatively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max). However, when controlled for BMI, the relationship between baseline level of CHI3L1 and relative VO2max was no longer observed. While acute aerobic exercise elicited an elevation in these parameters, we found a lower ITLN-1 response in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Our study clearly indicates that acute aerobic exercise elicits a pro-inflammatory response (e.g. CHI3L1) with a lower anti-inflammatory effect (e.g. ITLN-1) in obese individuals. Furthermore, these lectins could be predictors of outcome of exercise interventions in obesity-associated inflammation.

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Retinol Binding Protein4, Insulin Resistance and Blood Lipids in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    TAGHIAN, Farzaneh; ZOLFAGHARI, Maryam; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Retinol binding protein4 (RBP4) is a type of adipokine which transports vitamin A to serum. RBP4 could be a bridge between obesity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercises on RBP4 serum’s concentration and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese women. Methods Twenty obese women with body max index 35.81±3.67Kg/m2, fat percentage 43.98±4.02, and waist to hip ratio 1.03±0.05 were included and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received aerobic exercises for a period of 12 weeks each three sessions on treadmill workout. The treadmill speed were based on a 60-65 and 80-85 maximal heart rate percentage and duration of 15-20 and 45-50 minutes, at the beginning and the end of exercise, respectively. Body composition, serum glucose, insulin, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and RBP4, were measured in both groups before and after the treatment by ELISA method. Insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR. To compare within group differences and between group comparisons t-correlated and t-independent tests were used, respectively. Results After 12 week aerobic exercises; weight, fat percentage, WHR, and BMI in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). RBP4, insulin, insulin resistance, TG and HDL-C had significant differences between two groups. The cholesterol level, LDL-C and glucose did not have any significant changes. Conclusion The aerobic exercises can decrease body composition, insulin resistance, TG, and RBP4, so it can be beneficial for obese women’s health, because it. PMID:26060767

  20. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs induced by aerobic exercise training during heart failure.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rodrigo W A; Fernandez, Geysson J; Cunha, João P Q; Piedade, Warlen P; Soares, Luana C; Souza, Paula A T; de Campos, Dijon H S; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antonio C; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli; Carvalho, Robson F

    2015-11-15

    Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on the myocardium in heart failure (HF) patients and in animal models of induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We hypothesized that if microRNAs (miRNAs) respond to changes following cardiac stress, then myocardial profiling of these miRNAs may reveal cardio-protective mechanisms of aerobic ET in HF. We used ascending aortic stenosis (AS) inducing HF in Wistar rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 wk after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 wk of aerobic ET (HF-ET) or to a heart failure sedentary group (HF-S). ET attenuated cardiac remodeling as well as clinical and pathological signs of HF with maintenance of systolic and diastolic function when compared with that of the HF-S. Global miRNA expression profiling of the cardiac tissue revealed 53 miRNAs exclusively dysregulated in animals in the HF-ET, but only 11 miRNAs were exclusively dysregulated in the HF-S. Out of 23 miRNAs that were differentially regulated in both groups, 17 miRNAs exhibited particularly high increases in expression, including miR-598, miR-429, miR-224, miR-425, and miR-221. From the initial set of deregulated miRNAs, 14 miRNAs with validated targets expressed in cardiac tissue that respond robustly to ET in HF were used to construct miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks that revealed a set of 203 miRNA-target genes involved in programmed cell death, TGF-β signaling, cellular metabolic processes, cytokine signaling, and cell morphogenesis. Our findings reveal that ET attenuates cardiac abnormalities during HF by regulating cardiac miRNAs with a potential role in cardio-protective mechanisms through multiple effects on gene expression.

  1. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    PubMed

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  2. Postprandial improvement in insulin sensitivity after a single exercise session in adolescents with low aerobic fitness and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Short, Kevin R; Pratt, Lauren V; Teague, April M; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute and residual impact of a single exercise bout on meal glucose control in adolescents with habitually low physical activity. Twelve adolescents (seven females/five males, 14 ± 2 yr) completed three trials. One trial [No Exercise (No Ex)] was completed after refraining from vigorous activity for ≥ 3 d. On the other two trials, a 45-min aerobic exercise bout at 75% peak heart rate was performed either 17-h Prior Day Exercise (Prior Day Ex) trial or 1-h Same Day Exercise (Same Day Ex) trial before consuming the test meal (2803 kJ, 45/40/15% energy as carbohydrate/fat/protein, respectively). Compared to No Ex, insulin sensitivity (SI) (minimal model analysis) was increased by 45% (p < 0.03) and 78% (p < 0.01) on the Prior Day Ex and Same Day Ex trials, respectively. This improvement in glucose control was supported by corresponding reductions in the net area under the curve for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide, although there was no change in postprandial suppression of fatty acids. These results show that SI is improved with a single bout of moderate intensity exercise in adolescents with habitually low physical activity and that the residual beneficial effect of exercise lasts at least 17 h. This finding highlights the plasticity of exercise responses in youth and the importance of daily exercise for metabolic health.

  3. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p < 0.05). After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male exercise groups (p < 0.05); however, the male exercise groups increased TB-FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p < 0.05). Male AET altered absolute FM more than male RET altered absolute FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  4. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (P<.05). Within the exercise-trained group there was a 6.3 +/- .15% decrease in systolic pressure (129 +/- 4.6 mm Hg vs. 121 +/- 5.4 mm Hg) (P<.05), and a 5.0 +/- .05% decrement in mean arterial blood pressure (99 +/- 3.3 mm Hg vs 94 +/- 3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05) during the cold pressor test. Pressor reactivity to cold stress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women.

  5. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent. Further, SBP during recovery was, on average, not lower than at rest before exercise, and chronic endurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (P<0.05) with higher intensity. Finally, endurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  6. A Feasibility Study Related To Inactive Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Cancer Controls during Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Drum, Scott N.; Klika, Riggs J.; Carter, Susan D.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Donath, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CA) tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training. Exercise training adaptations of CA finished with primary treatment compared to non-cancer participants (NC) have not yet been extensively elucidated. Thus, the present study compared physiologic responses of CA versus NC following a low-to-moderate intensity, 8-wk aerobic training program. Thirty-seven previously sedentary participants (CA: n = 14, 12 females; NC: n = 23, 19 females) with no heart or metabolic disease did not differ in age, height, weight, and body mass index (51 ± 2 y, 1.66 ± 0.02 m, 83.8 ± 3.2 kg, and 30.5 ± 1 kg·m-2). Each participant underwent baseline, 3-, 6-, and 8-wk VO2peak treadmill testing using the USAFSAM protocol and walked on a treadmill three times per week at 80-90% of ventilatory threshold (VT) for approximately 40-min·session-1. Variables obtained on the VO2peak tests included: HR at stage 2 (HR@stage2), rating of perceived exertion at stage 2 (RPE@stage2), lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT), salivary cortisol at 30-min post VO2peak test (SC@30-minPost),VO2peak level, time of fatigue (TOF), and maximal heart rate (HRmax). NC had significantly (p < 0.05) higher VO2peak, TOF, and HRmax at baseline, 3- and 6-wks of training but not at 8-wks. There were no differences between groups on RPE@stage2 except at baseline (p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) interaction was observed only for RPE@stage2 with CA rating their initial RPE significantly greater at baseline versus NC. CA notably improved submaximal and maximal exercise capacity during 8 weeks of aerobic training and did not show altered adaptability compared to NC. We suggest prescribing aerobic exercise training at low/moderate intensity and duration initially, with progressive increases in duration and intensity after approximately 8-weeks. If available and

  7. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies

    PubMed Central

    Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J. Scott; da Costa, Márcio Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve “Mangalarga Marchador” fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70–80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  8. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Luiza Mendes de; Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J Scott; Costa, Márcio Carvalho da; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo; Ferraz, Guilherme de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve "Mangalarga Marchador" fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70-80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  9. Age Moderates the Association of Aerobic Exercise with Initial Learning of an Online Task Requiring Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Dishman, Rodney K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether people differed in change in performance across the first five blocks of an online flanker task and whether those trajectories of change were associated with self-reported aerobic or resistance exercise frequency according to age. A total of 8752 men and women aged 13-89 completed a lifestyle survey and five 45-s games (each game was a block of ~46 trials) of an online flanker task. Accuracy of the congruent and incongruent flanker stimuli was analyzed using latent class and growth curve modeling adjusting for time between blocks, whether the blocks occurred on the same or different days, education, smoking, sleep, caffeinated coffee and tea use, and Lumosity training status ("free play" or part of a "daily brain workout"). Aerobic and resistance exercise were unrelated to first block accuracies. For the more cognitively demanding incongruent flanker stimuli, aerobic activity was positively related to the linear increase in accuracy [B=0.577%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.112 to 1.25 per day above the weekly mean of 2.8 days] and inversely related to the quadratic deceleration of accuracy gains (B=-0.619% CI, -1.117 to -0.121 per day). An interaction of aerobic activity with age indicated that active participants younger than age 45 had a larger linear increase and a smaller quadratic deceleration compared to other participants. Age moderates the association between self-reported aerobic, but not self-reported resistance, exercise and changes in cognitive control that occur with practice during incongruent presentations across five blocks of a 45-s online, flanker task.

  10. A single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise facilitates response to paired associative stimulation and promotes sequence-specific implicit motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Cameron S.; Snow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Ross, Colin J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the impact of a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise on 1) long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity via response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) and 2) the temporal and spatial components of sequence-specific implicit motor learning. Additionally, relationships between exercise-induced increases in systemic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to PAS and motor learning were evaluated. Sixteen young healthy participants completed six experimental sessions, including the following: 1) rest followed by PAS; 2) aerobic exercise followed by PAS; 3) rest followed by practice of a continuous tracking (CT) task and 4) a no-exercise 24-h retention test; and 5) aerobic exercise followed by CT task practice and 6) a no-exercise 24-h retention test. The CT task included an embedded repeated sequence allowing for evaluation of sequence-specific implicit learning. Slope of motor-evoked potential recruitment curves generated with transcranial magnetic stimulation showed larger increases when PAS was preceded by aerobic exercise (59.8% increase) compared with rest (14.2% increase, P = 0.02). Time lag of CT task performance on the repeated sequence improved under the aerobic exercise condition from early (−100.8 ms) to late practice (−75.2 ms, P < 0.001) and was maintained at retention (−79.2 ms, P = 0.004) but did not change under the rest condition (P > 0.16). Systemic BDNF increased on average by 3.4-fold following aerobic exercise (P = 0.003), but the changes did not relate to neurophysiological or behavioral measures (P > 0.42). These results indicate that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise can prime LTP-like neuroplasticity and promote sequence-specific implicit motor learning. PMID:25257866

  11. A single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise facilitates response to paired associative stimulation and promotes sequence-specific implicit motor learning.

    PubMed

    Mang, Cameron S; Snow, Nicholas J; Campbell, Kristin L; Ross, Colin J D; Boyd, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the impact of a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise on 1) long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity via response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) and 2) the temporal and spatial components of sequence-specific implicit motor learning. Additionally, relationships between exercise-induced increases in systemic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to PAS and motor learning were evaluated. Sixteen young healthy participants completed six experimental sessions, including the following: 1) rest followed by PAS; 2) aerobic exercise followed by PAS; 3) rest followed by practice of a continuous tracking (CT) task and 4) a no-exercise 24-h retention test; and 5) aerobic exercise followed by CT task practice and 6) a no-exercise 24-h retention test. The CT task included an embedded repeated sequence allowing for evaluation of sequence-specific implicit learning. Slope of motor-evoked potential recruitment curves generated with transcranial magnetic stimulation showed larger increases when PAS was preceded by aerobic exercise (59.8% increase) compared with rest (14.2% increase, P = 0.02). Time lag of CT task performance on the repeated sequence improved under the aerobic exercise condition from early (-100.8 ms) to late practice (-75.2 ms, P < 0.001) and was maintained at retention (-79.2 ms, P = 0.004) but did not change under the rest condition (P > 0.16). Systemic BDNF increased on average by 3.4-fold following aerobic exercise (P = 0.003), but the changes did not relate to neurophysiological or behavioral measures (P > 0.42). These results indicate that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise can prime LTP-like neuroplasticity and promote sequence-specific implicit motor learning.

  12. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-04-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Aerobic exercise in adolescents with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test

    PubMed Central

    Klijn, Peter HC; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; van Stel, Henk F

    2007-01-01

    Background Increasing activity levels in adolescents with obesity requires the development of exercise programs that are both attractive to adolescents and easily reproducible. The aim of this study was to develop a modular aerobic training program for adolescents with severe obesity, with a focus on variety, individual targets and acquiring physical skills. We report here the effects on aerobic fitness from a pilot study. Furthermore, we examined the feasibility of the modified shuttle test (MST) as an outcome parameter for aerobic fitness in adolescents with severe obesity. Methods Fifteen adolescents from an inpatient body weight management program participated in the aerobic training study (age 14.7 ± 2.1 yrs, body mass index 37.4 ± 3.5). The subjects trained three days per week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting 30–60 minutes. The modular training program consisted of indoor, outdoor and swimming activities. Feasibility of the MST was studied by assessing construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Results Comparing pretraining and end of training period showed large clinically relevant and significant improvements for all aerobic indices: e.g. VO2 peak 17.5%, effect size (ES) 2.4; Wmax 8%, ES 0.8. In addition, a significant improvement was found for the efficiency of the cardiovascular system as assessed by the oxygen pulse (15.8%, ES 1.6). Construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of the MST were very good. MST was significantly correlated with VO2 peak (r = 0.79) and Wmax (r = 0.84) but not with anthropometric measures. The MST walking distance improved significantly by 32.5%, ES 2.5. The attendance rate at the exercise sessions was excellent. Conclusion This modular, varied aerobic training program has clinically relevant effects on aerobic performance in adolescents with severe obesity. The added value of our aerobic training program for body weight management programs for adolescents with

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on markers of insulin resistance in breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Bruno, E; Roveda, E; Vitale, J; Montaruli, A; Berrino, F; Villarini, A; Venturelli, E; Gargano, G; Galasso, L; Caumo, A; Carandente, F; Pasanisi, P

    2016-12-07

    Insulin may affect breast cancer (BC) risk and prognosis. Exercise reduces insulin in obese BC survivors. We designed a randomised controlled trial to test the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention (AEI) on insulin parameters and body composition in non-obese BC women without insulin resistance. Thirty-eight BC women were randomised into an intervention group (IG = 18) or control group (CG = 20). IG participated in a structured AEI for 3 months, while CG received only the Word Cancer Research Fund/American Institute Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendation to be physically active. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, metabolic parameters and body composition were collected at baseline and after the AEI. IG reduced insulin and HOMA-IR index by 15% and 14%, while CG increased these parameters (+12% and +16%). Insulin changed differently over time in the two randomised groups (pinteraction  = .04). The between-group differences in the change of insulin (IG = -1.2 μU/ml versus CG = +0.8 μU/ml) and HOMA-IR index (IG = -0.26 versus CG = +0.25) were respectively significant (p = .04) and non-significant (p = .06). IG significantly improved lower limb muscle mass in comparison with CG (p = .03). A structured AEI may improve insulin, HOMA-IR index and body composition in non-obese BC survivors without insulin resistance.

  15. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  16. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  17. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Calorie Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    menstrual cycles has produced significant increases in aerobic capacity (28-33%), weight loss ranging from 1.0 to 9 kg, and loss Of body fat ranging...decrease in body fat percent (-3.1%), and no changes in body weight . \\. Despite the highly significant changes in body composition and body weight ...breast cancer. BODY Study Design: The study utilizes a prospective, randomized design that tests the effects of a moderate exercise program (4X/wk; 4

  18. Role of exercise intensity on GLUT4 content, aerobic fitness and fasting plasma glucose in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Verusca Najara; de Paula Lima, Mérica; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; de Andrade, Rosangela Vieira; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia; Lewis, John E; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) results in several metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, clinically characterized by hyperglycaemia due to lower glucose uptake and oxidation. Physical exercise is an effective intervention for glycaemic control. However, the effects of exercising at different intensities have not yet been addressed. The present study analysed the effects of 8 weeks of training performed at different exercise intensities on type 4 glucose transporters (GLUT4) content and glycaemic control of T2D (ob/ob) and non-diabetic mice (ob/OB). The animals were divided into six groups, with four groups being subjected either to low-intensity (ob/obL and ob/OBL: 3% body weight, three times/week/40 min) or high-intensity (ob/obH and ob/OBH: 6% body weight, three times per week per 20 min) swimming training. An incremental swimming test was performed to measure aerobic fitness. After the training intervention period, glycaemia and the content of GLUT4 were quantified. Although both training intensities were beneficial, the high-intensity regimen induced a more significant improvement in GLUT4 levels and glycaemic profile compared with sedentary controls (p < 0.05). Only animals in the high-intensity exercise group improved aerobic fitness. Thus, our study shows that high-intensity training was more effective for increasing GLUT4 content and glycaemia reduction in insulin-resistant mice, perhaps because of a higher metabolic demand imposed by this form of exercise.

  19. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  20. Combining metformin and aerobic exercise training in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and NAFLD in OLETF rats

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Melissa A.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Morris, E. Matthew; Meers, Grace M.; Kearney, Monica L.; Crissey, Jacqueline M.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.; Sowers, James R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we sought to compare the efficacy of combining exercise and metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in hyperphagic, obese, type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats (age: 20 wk, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; n = 10/group) were randomly assigned to sedentary (O-SED), SED plus metformin (O-SED + M; 300 mg·kg−1·day−1), moderate-intensity exercise training (O-EndEx; 20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk treadmill running), or O-EndEx + M groups for 12 wk. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L-SED) rats served as nonhyperphagic controls. O-SED + M, O-EndEx, and O-EndEx + M were effective in the management of type 2 diabetes, and all three treatments lowered hepatic steatosis and serum markers of liver injury; however, O-EndEx lowered liver triglyceride content and fasting hyperglycemia more than O-SED + M. In addition, exercise elicited greater improvements compared with metformin alone on postchallenge glycemic control, liver diacylglycerol content, hepatic mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase, and β-HAD activities and in the attenuation of markers of hepatic fatty acid uptake and de novo fatty acid synthesis. Surprisingly, combining metformin and aerobic exercise training offered little added benefit to these outcomes, and in fact, metformin actually blunted exercise-induced increases in complete mitochondrial palmitate oxidation and β-HAD activity. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training was more effective than metformin administration in the management of type 2 diabetes and NAFLD outcomes in obese hyperphagic OLETF rats. Combining therapies offered little additional benefit beyond exercise alone, and findings suggest that metformin potentially impairs exercise-induced hepatic mitochondrial adaptations. PMID:24326426

  1. Satellite cell activation induced by aerobic muscle adaptation in response to endurance exercise in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Phablo; Mendes, Sávio Victor Diógenes; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Hirabara, Sandro Massao

    2017-02-01

    Although the requirement of satellite cells activation and expansion following injury, mechanical load or growth stimulus provoked by resistance exercise has been well established, their function in response to aerobic exercise adaptation remains unclear. A clear relationship between satellite cell expansion in fiber-type specific myosin heavy chain and aerobic performance has been related, independent of myonuclear accretion or muscle growth. However, the trigger for this activation process is not fully understood yet and it seems to be a multi-faceted and well-orchestrated process. Emerging in vitro studies suggest a role for metabolic pathways and oxygen availability for satellite cell activation, modulating the self-renewal potential and cell fate control. The goal of this review is to describe and discuss the current knowledge about the satellite cell activation and expansion in response to aerobic exercise adaptation in human and rodent models. Additionally, findings about the in vitro metabolic control, which seems be involved in the satellite cell activation and cell fate control, are presented and discussed.

  2. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  3. Adaptation and acclimation of aerobic exercise physiology in Lake Whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Anne C; Martin, Nicolas; Laporte, Martin; Guderley, Helga; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-08-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying local adaptation in natural populations of animals, and whether the same mechanisms contribute to adaptation and acclimation, are largely unknown. Therefore, we tested for evolutionary divergence in aerobic exercise physiology in laboratory bred, size-matched crosses of ancestral, benthic, normal Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and derived, limnetic, more actively swimming "dwarf" ecotypes. We acclimated fish to constant swimming (emulating limnetic foraging) and control conditions (emulating normal activity levels) to simultaneously study phenotypic plasticity. We found extensive divergence between ecotypes: dwarf fish generally had constitutively higher values of traits related to oxygen transport (ventricle size) and use by skeletal muscle (percent oxidative muscle, mitochondrial content), and also evolved differential plasticity of mitochondrial function (Complex I activity and flux through Complexes I-IV and IV). The effects of swim training were less pronounced than differences among ecotypes and the traits which had a significant training effect (ventricle protein content, ventricle malate dehydrogenase activity, and muscle Complex V activity) did not differ among ecotypes. Only one trait, ventricle mass, varied in a similar manner with acclimation and adaptation and followed a pattern consistent with genetic accommodation. Overall, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying acclimation and adaptation to swimming activity in Lake Whitefish differ.

  4. Effect of Single-Session Aerobic Exercise with Varying Intensities on Lipid Peroxidation and Muscle-Damage Markers in Sedentary Males

    PubMed Central

    Moflehi, Daruosh; Kok, Lian-Yee; T-K, Tengku-Fadilah; Amri, Saidon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different intensity levels of single-session aerobic exercise on serum levels of lipid peroxidation and muscle damage markers in sedentary males. Method: Fifty one sedentary healthy males aged 21.76±1.89 years were randomly divided into four groups, with one control (n=10) and three treatment groups that attended single-session aerobic exercise with low (n=14), moderate (n=14), and high (n=13) intensities. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant effect by the intensity levels of aerobic exercise on MDA (P=0.001) and CK (P=0.003) post-test when the participants in the treatment groups were compared with the control. When the intensity of aerobic exercise was increased, the amount of MDA and CK was also found to be increased. Conclusion: Single-session aerobic exercise can increase the amount of MDA and CK, suggesting that low intensity level of aerobic exercise should be utilized for more adaptation, and to prevent lipid peroxidation and muscle damage in sedentary males. PMID:22980341

  5. Perceptions of Participants in a Group, Community, Exercise Programme for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Rosemary; Coote, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of people with multiple sclerosis of a community based, group exercise programme. Method. A pragmatic programme evaluation approach using qualitative research design was adopted. Focus groups were used to gather data from 14 participants who had taken part in a RCT of community based exercise interventions for PwMS who used at most a stick to walk outdoors. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to first identify categories and then to group them into themes. Results. Three themes emerged, psychological benefits, physical benefits, and knowledge gained. The psychological benefits included the role of the group as a social and motivational factor, empowerment, confidence, hope, sense of achievement, and pride. Physical benefits were improved energy and reduced fatigue and improved ability and participation. Knowledge gained caused a shift from thoughts that exercise might do harm, to sufficient knowledge that would give participants confidence to exercise themselves. The role of the group was a key element in the positive outcomes. Conclusions. The qualitative analysis supports the findings of the main trial confirming positive effects of community exercise interventions by reducing the impact of MS and fatigue and improving participation. PMID:26491567

  6. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha < or = 0.05). No significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities at any of the three time points were found. All variables significantly increased from T1 to T3 (CIRC10: difference, d = 0.49 cm, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = 0.000; CIRC15: d = 1.33 cm, CI = 0.78-1.88, P = 0.000; VOL: d = 100 mL, CI = 69-130, P = 0.000). As well, 1-RM significantly increased from T1 to T3 (d = 10.8 kg, CI = 5.6-16.1; P = 0.000). In summary, participation in a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume.

  7. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.

  8. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P < 0.05), plasma NOx level (r = 0.671, P < 0.05), and abdominal visceral fat (r = -0.585, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  9. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  10. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Postprandial Carbohydrate and Lipoprotein Metabolism Following Cookie Ingestion in Healthy Young Women.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Sayuki; Mizutani, Erika; Suzuki, Maiko; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka

    2015-01-01

    We examined the acute effects of postprandial aerobic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism following cookie ingestion. Fifteen healthy young women with a sedentary lifestyle, normal weight and apolipoprotein E3/3 participated. After a 12-h overnight fast, each subject ingested a cookie (1.53 g/kg, Meal Test C) and then performed two trials, one with postprandial exercise (E trial) and one without exercise (C trial), in a randomized crossover design. A single 30-min bout of walking exercise was performed 20 min after the cookie intake. Venous blood samples were drawn before (0 h) and 20 min and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after cookie ingestion. The Δglucose concentration was not significantly different between the two trials, but the Δinsulin concentration at 1 h and the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (0-2 h)-insulin in the E trial were significantly lower than in the C trial. The ratio of glucose/insulin at 1 h was significantly higher in the E trial than in the C trial. The ΔTG, ΔRLP-TG, ΔapoB48 and ΔRemL-C concentrations at 1 h in the E trial were significantly higher than in the C trial. The IAUC (0-2 h)-apoB48 in the E trial was significantly larger than in the C trial. Postprandial exercise showed an insulin-sparing effect following the cookie ingestion by increasing insulin sensitivity. However, postprandial exercise transiently stimulated the secretion of exogenous apoB48-containing lipoprotein during the early period, and no further effects were observed. These results suggest that postprandial aerobic exercise is effective for the promotion of postprandial carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipidemia.

  11. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Sine H.; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K.; van Hall, Gerrit; Solomon, Thomas P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty‐four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2, P > 0.05) underwent a 180‐min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6‐2H2]glucose and ingestion of [U‐13C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C‐peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg−1 min−1) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; RaOGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, RaOGTT, and Rd (all P < 0.0001) in all groups with a tendency for a greater (~20%) peak RaOGTT value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P < 0.05), while unchanged in subjects with IGT and T2D. In conclusion, while a single bout of moderate‐intensity exercise increased the postprandial glucose response in NGT subjects, glucose tolerance following exercise was preserved in the two hyperglycemic groups. Thus, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying degree of glycemic control. PMID:25168869

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes and prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karoline de Morais, Pâmella; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Alves de Almeida, Jeeser; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed. PMID:25642036

  13. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Men, Wei-Wei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Fan, Ming-Xia; Ji, Liu; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  14. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  15. A systematic review on the effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness reveals a differential response in the upper and lower arterial segments.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Andrew F; Cooke, Alexandra B; Saleh, Olivier; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the controversy that still abounds as to the impact of acute aerobic exercise on immediate changes in arterial stiffness. Electronic databases were searched to identify articles assessing the effects of acute aerobic exercise on parameters of arterial stiffness. Eligible studies included arterial stiffness measurements before and after acute aerobic exercise in healthy human subjects. Forty-three studies were included. The effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness was found to be dependent on the anatomical segment assessed, and on the timing of the measurement post-exercise. Arterial stiffness of the central and upper body peripheral arterial segments was found to be increased relative to resting values immediately post-exercise (0-5 min), whereas, thereafter (>5 min), decreased to a level at or below resting values. In the lower limbs, proximal to the primary working muscles, arterial stiffness decreased immediately post-exercise (0-5 min), which persisted into the recovery period post-exercise (>5 min). This systematic review reveals a differential response to acute exercise in the lower and upper/central arterial segments in healthy adult subjects. We further showed that the effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness is dependent on the timing of the measurements post-exercise. Therefore, when assessing the overall impact of exercise on arterial stiffness, it is important to consider the arterial segment being analyzed and measurement time point, as failure to contextualize the measurement can lead to conflicting results and misleading clinical inferences.

  16. Reduction of plasma aldosterone and arterial stiffness in obese pre- and stage1 hypertensive subjects after aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Collier, SR; Sandberg, K; Moody, AM; Frechette, V; Curry, CD; Ji, H; Gowdar, R; Chaudhuri, D; Meucci, M

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related hypertension is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), increasing arterial stiffness. Aerobic exercise decreases pulse wave velocity (PWV), therefore a treatment option for hypertension and obesity. Assess RAAS activity and PWV before and after 4 weeks of aerobic training in unmedicated, pre-to-stage-1 hypertensives. Ten obese subjects (52±3.2 years, body mass index=33.5±1.4) performed 30 min of aerobic exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week at 65% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Descriptive characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), PWV, and a blood draw was performed at baseline, following the 4-week control and training interventions. No differences in descriptive characteristics during the control period were observed, however, a significant decrease in plasma aldosterone (ALDO) (255.4±75 to 215.8±66 pg ml−1, P=0.001), SBP (140±12 to 136±10.4 mm Hg; P=0.02), DBP (89±4.2 to 85±6.3 mm Hg; P =0.03) and central PWV (11.2±0.6 to 9.8±0.8 m s−1; P=0.04) was shown pre-to-post exercise training. Four weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training in obese, hypertensives decreases plasma ALDO independently of body weight and is significantly correlated to decreases in PWV reductions. PMID:24785976

  17. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  18. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  19. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a Randomised Controlled Trial, we may not assume that therapists will automatically supply the programme or that elderly people will automatically join the programme. This study protocol focuses on identifying determinants of implementation, developing implementation strategies and studying the effects of the implementation in daily practice. Methods/Design Phase 1: The systematic identification of determinants of the implementation of FTE among therapists and the elderly. A questionnaire study was conducted in a random sample of 100 therapists, and interviews took place with 23 therapists and 8 elderly people (aged 66 to 80 years). The determinants were broken down into four categories: the characteristics of the environment, the organisation, the therapists, and the training programme. Phase 2: Developing and applying strategies adapted to the determinants identified. Fifteen physiotherapists will be trained to provide FTE and to recruit elderly people living at home. The therapists will then deliver the 12-week programme to two groups of elderly, each consisting of six to twelve people aged 70 years or older. Phase 3: Study of implementation and the impact. To study the actual use of FTE: 1) therapists record information about the selection of participants and how they apply the key features of FTE, 2) the participating elderly will keep an exercise logbook, 3) telephone interviews will take place with the therapists and the elderly and there will be on-site visits. The effects on the elderly people will be studied using: 1) the Patient-Specific Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test and a two performance tests. All tests will be performed at the start of the FTE

  20. Aerobic Fitness Level Typical of Elite Athletes is not Associated With Even Faster VO2 Kinetics During Cycling Exercise.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Tiago R; Caputo, Fabrizio; Machado, Carlos E P; Denadai, Benedito S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the question if the VO2 kinetics is further improved as the aerobic training status increases from trained to elite level athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), work-rate associated to VO2max (IVO2max) and VO2 kinetics of moderate (Mod) and maximal exercise (Max) were determined in fifty- five subjects. Then, they were assigned into three groups: low (LF), intermediate (IF) and high (HF) aerobic fitness level. In average, the VO2max of LF, IF and HF groups were, respectively, 36.0 ± 3.1, 51.1 ± 4.5 and 68.1 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min(-1) (p ≤ 0.05 among each other). VO2 kinetics mean response time of both exercise intensities were significantly faster (p ≤ 0.05) in HF (Mod, 27.5 ± 5.5 s; Max, 32.6 ± 8.3 s) and IF (Mod, 25.0 ± 3.1 s; Max, 42.6 ± 10.4 s) when compared to LF (Mod, 35.7 ± 7.9 s; Max: 57.8 ± 17.8 s). We can conclude that VO2 kinetics is improved as the fitness level is increased from low to intermediate but not further improved as the aerobic fitness level increases from intermediate to high. Key pointsCurrently, it is reasonable to believe that the rate-limiting step of VO2 kinetics depends on exercise intensity.The well known physiological adaptations induced by endurance training are likely the most extreme means to overcome rate-limiting steps determining VO2 kinetics across exercise intensities.However, exercise adaptation leading individuals to the high-end of aerobic fitness level range (VO2max > 65 ml.kg.min-1) is not able to further improve VO2 kinetics during both, moderate and maximal intensity exercise.

  1. Comparing the Effects of Aerobic and Stretching Exercises on the Intensity of Primary Dysmenorrhea in the Students of Universities of Bushehr

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Farideh; Hoseini, Azam; Kamali, Farahnaz; Abdali, Khadijeh; Hadianfard, Mohamadjavad; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of aerobic and stretching exercises on severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 105 female students who were suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. The participants were divided into aerobic exercise, stretching exercise, and control groups. The two intervention groups did the exercises three times a week for eight weeks (two menstrual cycles). The intensity of dysmenorrhea was determined using a modified questionnaire that assessed several symptoms of dysmenorrhea. After all, the data were compared between and within groups through analysis of variance. Results: Before the intervention, the mean intensity of dysmenorrhea was 40.38 ± 5.5, 37.40 ± 3.8, and 38.45±3.3 in aerobic, stretching, and control groups, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. After the intervention, however, a significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the mean intensity of dysmenorrhea in the first and second menstrual cycles. Also, a significant difference was observed between the aerobic group and the control group as well as between the stretching group and the control group. Within group comparisons showed a significant difference in the aerobic and the stretching group before and after the interventions. However, no such difference was observed in control group. Conclusion: Both aerobic and stretching exercises were effective in reducing the severity of dysmenorrhea. Therefore, women could choose one of these two methods with regard to their interest and lifestyle. PMID:25904964

  2. Experimentally induced pain perception is acutely reduced by aerobic exercise in people with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Shepanski, Melissa A; Mackenzie, Sean P; Clifford, Philip S

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether subjects with chronic low back pain demonstrate exercise-induced analgesia to experimentally induced pressure pain. We employed a repeated measures design to study eight subjects with chronic low back pain (mean +/- standard deviation age = 40 +/- 10, duration of pain = 7 +/- 4 years). Pain ratings were measured immediately before and 2 minutes and 32 minutes after 25 minutes of cycle ergometry (5 minutes at 50% peak oxygen uptake, then 20 minutes at 70% peak oxygen uptake). We based the pain ratings on subject input on a visual analog scale at 10-second intervals during the 2-minute pressure pain stimulus to the nondominant index finger. Compared with preexercise values, pain ratings were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after exercise at both 2 and 32 minutes postexercise. We conclude that pressure pain perception can be reduced for more than 30 minutes following aerobic exercise from leg cycling among people with chronic low back pain.

  3. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  4. Effects of short-term step aerobics exercise on bone metabolism and functional fitness in postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Wen, H J; Huang, T H; Li, T L; Chong, P N; Ang, B S

    2017-02-01

    Measurement of bone turnover markers is an alternative way to determine the effects of exercise on bone health. A 10-week group-based step aerobics exercise significantly improved functional fitness in postmenopausal women with low bone mass, and showed a positive trend in reducing resorption activity via bone turnover markers.

  5. Insulin-resistant subjects have normal angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian S; Mula, Jyothi; Long, Douglas E; Zhu, Beibei; Fry, Christopher S; Westgate, Philip M; Lee, Jonah D; Bennett, Tamara; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, exercise training stimulates angiogenesis and modulates transcription of VEGFA, Angpt1, and Angpt2. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training stimulates vessel growth in human adipose tissue, and it remains unknown whether adipose angiogenesis is mediated by angiopoietin signaling. We sought to determine whether insulin-resistant subjects would display an impaired angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training. Insulin-sensitive (IS, N = 12) and insulin-resistant (IR, N = 14) subjects had subcutaneous adipose and muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies before and after 12 weeks of cycle ergometer training. In both tissues, we measured vessels and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Exercise training did not increase insulin sensitivity in IR Subjects. In skeletal muscle, training resulted in increased vessels/muscle fiber and increased Angpt2:Angpt1 ratio in both IR and IS subjects. However, in adipose, exercise training only induced angiogenesis in IS subjects, likely due to chronic suppression of VEGFA expression in IR subjects. These results indicate that skeletal muscle of IR subjects exhibits a normal angiogenic response to exercise training. However, the same training regimen is insufficient to induce angiogenesis in adipose tissue of IR subjects, which may help to explain why we did not observe improved insulin sensitivity following aerobic training.

  6. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  7. Brain activation, affect, and aerobic exercise: an examination of both state-independent and state-dependent relationships.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Tate, A K

    1997-09-01

    Resting electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetry is a biological marker of the propensity to respond affectively to, and a measure of change in affect associated with, acute aerobic exercise. This study examined the EEG-affect-exercise relationship. Twenty participants performed each of three randomly assigned 30-min conditions: (a) a nonexercise control, (b) a cycling exercise at 55% VO2max, and (c) a cycling exercise at 70% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min postcondition. No significant results were seen in the control or 55% conditions. In the 70% exercise condition, greater relative left frontal activation preexercise predicted increased positive affect and reduced state anxiety postexercise. Participants (n = 7) with extreme relative left frontal activation postexercise reported concomitant decreases in anxiety, whereas participants (n = 7) with extreme relative right frontal activation postexercise reported increases in anxiety. These findings (a) replicate prior work, (b) suggest a dose-response intensity effect, and (c) support the idea that exercise is an emotion-eliciting event. Affective responses seem to be mediated in part by differential resting levels of activation in the anterior brain regions. Ongoing anterior brain activation reflected concurrent postexercise affect.

  8. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise on ectopic lipids in patients with growth hormone deficiency before and after growth hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Emanuel R.; Egger, Andrea; Allemann, Sabin; Buehler, Tania; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) increases exercise capacity and insulin resistance while it decreases fat mass in growth hormone-deficient patients (GHD). Ectopic lipids (intramyocellular (IMCL) and intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) are related to insulin resistance. The effect of GHRT on ectopic lipids is unknown. It is hypothesized that exercise-induced utilization of ectopic lipids is significantly decreased in GHD patients and normalized by GHRT. GHD (4 females, 6 males) and age/gender/waist-matched control subjects (CS) were studied. VO2max was assessed on a treadmill and insulin sensitivity determined by a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) fat were quantified by MR-imaging. IHCL and IMCL were measured before and after a 2 h exercise at 50–60% of VO2max using MR-spectroscopy (∆IMCL, ∆IHCL). Identical investigations were performed after 6 months of GHRT. VO2max was similar in GHD and CS and significantly increased after GHRT; GHRT significantly decreased SAT and VAT. 2 h-exercise resulted in a decrease in IMCL (significant in CS and GHRT) and a significant increase in IHCL in CS and GHD pre and post GHRT. GHRT didn’t significantly impact on ∆IMCL and ∆IHCL. We conclude that aerobic exercise affects ectopic lipids in patients and controls. GHRT increases exercise capacity without influencing ectopic lipids. PMID:26792091

  10. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Domone, Sarah; Beedie, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aim Insufficient research examines the treatment effectiveness of real-world physical activity (PA) interventions. Purpose We investigated the effects of 3 interventions on directly measured cardiovascular variables. All treatments and measures were administered in community settings by fitness centre staff. Methods Participants were sedentary individuals receiving no medication to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (n=369, age 43 ±5 years). In a semirandomised design, participants were allocated to a structured gym exercise programme (STRUC), unstructured gym exercise (FREE), physical activity counselling (PAC) or a measurement-only control condition (CONT). Measures were: predicted aerobic capacity (VO2: mL kg min), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC: mmol/L), and were taken at baseline and 48 weeks. Results Data analysis indicated a statistically significant deterioration in TC in CONT (0.8%, SD=0.5, p=0.005), and a statistically significant improvement in MAP in STRUC (2.5%, SD=8.3, p=0.004). Following a median split by baseline VO2, paired-sample t tests indicated significant improvements in VO2 among low-fit participants in STRUC (3.5%, SD=4.8, p=0.003), PAC (3.3%, SD=7.7, p=0.050) and FREE (2.6%, SD=4.8, p=0.006), and significant deterioration of VO2 among high-fit participants in FREE (−2.0%, SD=5.6, p=0.037), and PAC (−3.2%, SD=6.4, p=0.031). Conclusions Several forms of PA may offset increased cholesterol resulting from inactivity. Structured PA (exercise) might be more effective than either unstructured PA or counselling in improving blood pressure, and community-based PA interventions might be more effective in improving VO2 among low-fit than among high-fit participants. PMID:27900172

  11. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  12. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  13. Aerobic exercise prevents age-dependent cognitive decline and reduces anxiety-related behaviors in middle-aged and old rats.

    PubMed

    Pietrelli, A; Lopez-Costa, J; Goñi, R; Brusco, A; Basso, N

    2012-01-27

    Recent research involving human and animals has shown that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity produces the greatest benefit on brain health and behavior. In this study we investigated the effects on cognitive function and anxiety-related behavior in rats at different ages of aerobic exercise, performed regularly throughout life. We designed an aerobic training program with the treadmill running following the basic principles of human training, and assuming that rats have the same physiological adaptations. The intensity was gradually adjusted to the fitness level and age, and maintained at 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption (max.VO(2)). In middle age (8 months) and old age (18 months), we studied the cognitive response with the radial maze (RM), and anxiety-related behaviors with the open field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Aerobically trained (AT) rats had a higher cognitive performance measured in the RM, showing that exercise had a cumulative and amplifier effect on memory and learning. The analysis of age and exercise revealed that the effects of aerobic exercise were modulated by age. Middle-aged AT rats were the most successful animals; however, the old AT rats met the criteria more often than the middle-aged sedentary controls (SC), indicating that exercise could reverse the negative effects of sedentary life, partially restore the cognitive function, and protect against the deleterious effects of aging. The results in the OF and EPM showed a significant decrease in key indicators of anxiety, revealing that age affected most of the analyzed variables, and that exercise had a prominent anxiolytic effect, particularly strong in old age. In conclusion, our results indicated that regular and chronic aerobic exercise has time and dose-dependent, neuroprotective and restorative effects on physiological brain aging, and reduces anxiety-related behaviors.

  14. Synthesising practice guidelines for the development of community-based exercise programmes after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple guidelines are often available to inform practice in complex interventions. Guidance implementation may be facilitated if it is tailored to particular clinical issues and contexts. It should also aim to specify all elements of interventions that may mediate and modify effectiveness, including both their content and delivery. We conducted a focused synthesis of recommendations from stroke practice guidelines to produce a structured and comprehensive account to facilitate the development of community-based exercise programmes after stroke. Methods Published stroke clinical practice guidelines were searched for recommendations relevant to the content and delivery of community-based exercise interventions after stroke. These were synthesised using a framework based on target intervention outcomes, personal and programme proximal objectives, and recommended strategies. Results Nineteen guidelines were included in the synthesis (STRIDES; STroke Rehabilitation Intervention-Development Evidence Synthesis). Eight target outcomes, 14 proximal objectives, and 94 recommended strategies were identified. The synthesis was structured to present best practice recommendations in a format that could be used by intervention programme developers. It addresses both programme content and context, including personal factors, service standards and delivery issues. Some recommendations relating to content, and many relating to delivery and other contextual issues, were based on low level evidence or expert opinion. Where opinion varied, the synthesis indicates the range of best practice options suggested in guidelines. Conclusions The synthesis may assist implementation of best practice by providing a structured intervention description that focuses on a particular clinical application, addresses practical issues involved in programme development and provision, and illustrates the range of best-practice options available to users where robust evidence is lacking. The

  15. Effects of Music Therapy on Endothelial Function in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Participating in Aerobic Exercise Therapy.

    PubMed

    Deljanin Ilic, Marina; Pavlovic, Radmila F; Kocic, Gordana; Simonovic, Dejan; Lazarevic, Gordana

    2017-02-27

    Context • Pleasant music that evokes a positive emotional response may activate brain pathways of the insular cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus, which are involved in the integration of emotional and ambient sensory input, with corresponding autonomic responses. Exercise training can improve endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, both in epicardial coronary vessels and in resistance vessels, for patients with coronary heart disease. Objective • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on endothelial function when patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) listened to their favorite music. Design • The study was a randomized controlled trial. Setting • The study occurred at the Institute of Cardiology, Niska Banja, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis (Nis, Serbia). Participants • Participants were 74 patients with stable CAD. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) exercise training only (T) group (n = 33), (2) listening to music and exercise training (MT) group (n = 31), and listening to music only (M) group (n = 10). Participants in the T and MT groups received usual medical care and underwent 3 wk of supervised aerobic exercise training. In addition to the exercise training, participants in the MT group listened to their favorite music for 1.5 h every day. Participants in the M group received the usual medical care and listened to their favorite music for 1.5 h every day. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, outcomes were assessed through measurement of the changes in circulating blood markers of endothelial function-the stable end product of nitric oxide (NOx), asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, and xanthine oxidase-and through the results of submaximal or symptom-limited exercise test. Results • After 3 wk, the NOx significantly increased in both in MT and T groups, with P < .001 and P < .01, respectively. The level of

  16. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    PubMed

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  17. Topical ibuprofen inhibits blushing during embarrassment and facial flushing during aerobic exercise in people with a fear of blushing.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Minosora, Kate; Little, Gretta; Keay, Wendy

    2013-12-01

    The flush that develops during whole-body heat stress depends partly on prostaglandins production in the skin. Variations in the strength of this local mechanism may contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to blushing and associated anxiety. To investigate this in the present study, the anti-inflammatory agent ibuprofen (which blocks prostaglandins formation) was applied topically to a small area of the cheek in 16 participants with a fear of blushing and in another 14 without this fear. Changes in skin blood flow were monitored at the ibuprofen-treated site and at a mirror image control site while participants sang (to induce embarrassment and blushing) and during aerobic exercise (to induce flushing). The topical ibuprofen treatment inhibited increases in cheek blood flow in both groups during both of these tasks. However, increases in cheek blood flow were greater in participants with high than low fear of blushing immediately after exercise. These findings suggest that prostaglandins contribute to dilatation of facial blood vessels both during emotional arousal (embarrassment) and aerobic exercise. Furthermore, fear of blushing may be associated with mechanisms that delay the resumption of normal vascular tone after a period of vasodilatation. Whether topical ibuprofen gel is suitable for intermittent or long-term use as an aid for blushing control requires further investigation.

  18. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hatchett, A; Judge, LW; Breaux, ME; Marcus, L

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success. PMID:26681834

  19. Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 independent of beta-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohut, M L; McCann, D A; Russell, D W; Konopka, D N; Cunnick, J E; Franke, W D; Castillo, M C; Reighard, A E; Vanderah, E

    2006-05-01

    Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and/or by beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults age 64 were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment (CARDIO) or a flexibility/strength exercise treatment (FLEX) 3 days/week, 45 min/day for 10 months. A subgroup of subjects treated with non-selective beta(1)beta(2) adrenergic antagonists were included to evaluate the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptor adaptations as mediators of an exercise-induced change in inflammation. The inflammatory mediators [C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-18] and the psychosocial factors (depression, perceived stress, optimism, sense of coherence, and social support) were measured pre- and post-intervention. The CARDIO treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 compared to the FLEX treatment (significant treatment x time interaction, p<.05), whereas TNFalpha declined in both groups (main effect of time, p=.001). However, several psychosocial factors (depression, optimism, and sense of coherence) improved in both groups suggesting that the reduction of CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 in the CARDIO group was not mediated by improvements in psychosocial scores. With respect to the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptors, both CARDIO subjects treated with beta-adrenergic antagonists and those who were not treated with those medications demonstrated similar reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, IL-18, and TNFalpha. In summary, we have observed that an aerobic exercise intervention can significantly reduce serum inflammatory mediators, but beta-adrenergic receptors

  20. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and l-arginine ingestion on blood pressure in normotensive postmenopausal women: A crossover study.

    PubMed

    Puga, Guilherme M; de P Novais, Iane; Katsanos, Christos S; Zanesco, Angelina

    2016-04-15

    After menopause the incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases in women. A decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been pointed out to play a major role in this phenomenon. Since it is believed that l-arginine administration could improve NO bioavailability, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of acute l-arginine administration associated with aerobic exercise on blood pressure (BP), redox state and inflammatory biomarkers in normotensive postmenopausal women (NPW). Sixteen volunteers (57±6yr) were subjected to four experimental sessions (crossover design): arginine+exercise (A-E); arginine (ARG); exercise+placebo (EXE); control (CON). Each session was initiated with either 9g of l-arginine ingestion (ARG or A-E days), placebo (EXE day), or nothing (CON day). The participants performed 30min of aerobic exercise (A-E and EXE days) or sitting rest (CON and ARG days). Blood samples were collected before each session and 45min after the intervention. Office BP and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated. NO/cGMP pathway, redox state and inflammatory biomarkers were measured. Systolic BP decreased during the 24-hour in A-E and EXE sessions. However, diastolic BP reduced only in A-E session. No changes were found in the biomarkers concentrations. In conclusion, the association was effective in lowering diastolic BP in NPW. Additionally, physical exercise alone promoted a long lasting effect on systolic BP measured by ABPM in this population, although this beneficial effect was not associated with changes in the cardio-inflammatory biomarkers. Possibly, other factors such as neural influences could be mediating this effect.

  1. Effectiveness of an Upper Extremity Exercise Device Integrated With Computer Gaming for Aerobic Training in Adolescents With Spinal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Lana M; McDonald, Craig M; Abresch, R. Ted

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: To determine whether a new upper extremity exercise device integrated with a video game (GameCycle) requires sufficient metabolic demand and effort to induce an aerobic training effect and to explore the feasibility of using this system as an exercise modality in an exercise intervention. Design: Pre-post intervention. Setting: University-based research facility. Subject Population: A referred sample of 8 adolescent subjects with spina bifida (4 girls, 15.5 ± 0.6 years; 4 boys, 17.5 ± 0.9 years) was recruited to participate in the project. All subjects had some level of mobility impairment that did not allow them to participate in mainstream sports available to their nondisabled peers. Five subjects used a wheelchair full time, one used a wheelchair occasionally, but walked with forearm crutches, and 2 were fully ambulatory, but had impaired gait. Main Outcome Measures: Peak oxygen uptake, maximum work output, aerobic endurance, peak heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and user satisfaction. Results: Six of the 8 subjects were able to reach a Vo2 of at least 50% of their Vo2 reserve while using the GameCycle. Seven of the 8 subjects reached a heart rate of at least 50% of their heart rate reserve. One subject did not reach either 50% of Vo2 reserve or 50% of heart rate reserve. Seven of the 8 subjects increased their maximum work capability after training with the GameCycle at least 3 times per week for 16 weeks. Conclusions: The data suggest that the GameCycle seems to be adequate as an exercise device to improve oxygen uptake and maximum work capability in adolescents with lower extremity disability caused by spinal cord dysfunction. The subjects in this study reported that the video game component was enjoyable and provided a motivation to exercise. PMID:17044386

  2. Monitoring markers of muscle damage during a 3 week periodized drop-jump exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Snieckus, Audrius; Masiulis, Nerijus; Aagaard, Per; Dargeviciute, Gintare; Brazaitis, Marius

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks of stretch-shortening exercise with a progressively increasing load and continued modulation of various key training variables. Eight healthy untrained men performed a drop-jump programme involving a progressive increase in load impact with respect to the number of jumps performed, drop (platform) height, squat depth amplitude, and addition of weights. Maximal concentric and isometric knee extensor strength were assessed immediately before and 10 min after each training session. Voluntary and 100 Hz-stimulation-evoked torque decreased acutely after each training session relative to pre-exercise values (P < 0.05) but recovered before the subsequent training session. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity increased from 162.2 ± 56.2 IU · l(-1) to 284.3 ± 116.3 IU · l(-1) at 48 h after the first training session (P < 0.05) and remained marginally elevated throughout the training period. The present results indicate that detrimental muscle damage can be avoided with drop-jump training even with the gradual introduction of more demanding exercise induced by increasing the volume, intensity, and muscle stretch amplitude. These findings suggest that the human neuromuscular system is highly adaptable to progressively varied loading demands during stretch-shortening exercise