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Sample records for aerobic fitness levels

  1. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  2. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  3. Steps Counts among Middle School Students Vary with Aerobic Fitness Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Masurier, Guy C.; Corbin, Charles B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if steps/day taken by middle school students varied based on aerobic fitness classification. Middle school students (N = 223; 112 girls, 111 boys) were assigned to three aerobic fitness categories (HIGH, MOD, LOW) based on results of the FITNESSGRAM PACER test. Four weekdays of pedometer monitoring…

  4. Serum Levels of Choline-Containing Compounds Are Associated with Aerobic Fitness Level: The HUNT-Study

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian T.; Giskeødegård, Guro F.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Bathen, Tone F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of people at risk is continuously growing. New methods for early risk prediction are therefore needed to actuate prevention strategies before the individuals are diagnosed with CVD. Several studies report that aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality in healthy people. Based on this, we wanted to study differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO2max-level to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have potential as early biomarkers of CVD risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum samples from 218 healthy individuals with a low VO2max (n = 108, 63 women) or high VO2max (n = 110, 64 women) were analysed with MR metabolomics. In addition, standard clinical-chemical analyses for glucose, lipids, liver enzymes, micro-CRP, and colorimetric analysis on circulating choline were performed. Individuals in the low VO2max-group had increased serum levels of free choline, decreased phosphatidylcholine, increased glucosę and decreased unsaturated fatty acids compared to the individuals in the high VO2max–group. Conclusions/Significance Aerobic fitness dependent differences in serum levels of free choline and phosphatidylcholine are observed. They should be further studied as potential early markers of CVD risk. PMID:22860113

  5. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  6. Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

  7. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  8. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  9. The Impact of an Obstacle Course Sport Education Season on Students' Aerobic Fitness Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Sluder, J. Brandon; Buchanan, Alice M.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.

    2009-01-01

    A time-honored goal of physical education has been to improve children's fitness and health, particularly given increasing evidence that physical activity is associated with short- and long-term health benefits in youth. Given the need to find ways to help children achieve fitness goals, and that students tend to work harder and treat lessons more…

  10. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  11. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls. PMID:9312450

  12. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  13. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  14. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo; Rebelo, Antonio; Oliveira, José; Brito, João

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo IE1 improved from M1 to M3 (884 ± 496 vs. 1032 ± 596 m; p < 0.05; d = 0.27), with intermediate values for M2 (962 ± 528 m). Peak heart rate (HRpeak) decreased from M1 to M2 and M3 (204 ± 9, 202 ± 9 and 200 ± 9 bpm, respectively; p < 0.05; d = 0.25-0.42). The 7th shuttle of the test (280 m), corresponding to 2.5 min, was identified as the inflection point between the two phases. Also, absolute heart rate at the 7th shuttle decreased progressively throughout the year (185 ± 9, 183 ± 10, and 179 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.05; d = 0.31-0.61). The present study provides evidence of the usefulness of a maximal as well as a submaximal version of Yo-Yo IE1 as a tool to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal children. PMID:25611184

  15. Between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of a child's day is spent at school interacting with certain physical surroundings, teachers, and school friends. Thus, schools could have a marked impact on establishing physical activity habits. The aim of the present study was to assess between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation. Altogether, we tested 1766 nine- and fifteen-year-old children attending 242 school classes at 35 different schools in Denmark in 1997-2003. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for objectively assessed physical activity ranged between 0.06 and 0.18 depending on the dimension of physical activity and the time considered (i.e. school time vs. leisure time). For aerobic fitness, an ICC of 0.10 was observed, whereas that for organized sports participation ranged between 0.01 and 0.10 depending on the age group. Studying between-school variation in physical activity provides information about the extent to which children adjust their physical activity habits according to the social and environmental circumstances that they share, and helps to plan future school-based physical activity studies, especially in terms of sample size and power calculation. PMID:22992067

  16. Beyond vascularization: aerobic fitness is associated with N-acetylaspartate and working memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a promising form of prevention for cognitive decline; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and fitness impacts the human brain. Several studies have postulated that increased regional brain volume and function are associated with aerobic fitness because of increased vascularization rather than increased neural tissue per se. We tested this position by examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the right frontal cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NAA is a nervous system specific metabolite found predominantly in cell bodies of neurons. We reasoned that if aerobic fitness was predominantly influencing the vasculature of the brain, then NAA levels should not vary as a function of aerobic fitness. However, if aerobic fitness influences the number or viability of neurons, then higher aerobic fitness levels might be associated with greater concentrations of NAA. We examined NAA levels, aerobic fitness, and cognitive performance in 137 older adults without cognitive impairment. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we found that higher aerobic fitness levels offset an age-related decline in NAA. Furthermore, NAA mediated an association between fitness and backward digit span performance, suggesting that neuronal viability as measured by NAA is important in understanding fitness-related cognitive enhancement. Since NAA is found exclusively in neural tissue, our results indicate that the effect of fitness on the human brain extends beyond vascularization; aerobic fitness is associated with neuronal viability in the frontal cortex of older adults. PMID:22574272

  17. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  18. The Effect of Four Instructional Formats on Aerobic Fitness of Junior-High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ron W.; Karp, Grace Goc

    2006-01-01

    The low level of fitness in junior-high school students is an area of great concern. An important, but misunderstood, part of the physical education curriculum is the development of aerobic fitness. What is the best way to go about developing aerobic fitness? Four groups of primarily Caucasian (79.9%) Grade 8 and 9 students (n = 144), attending a…

  19. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  20. Skin microvascular reactivity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in relation to levels of physical activity and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Roche, Denise M; Edmunds, Sarah; Cable, Tim; Didi, Mo; Stratton, Gareth

    2008-11-01

    No studies to date have evaluated the relationship between exercise and microvascular function in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Twenty-nine complication free children and adolescents with T1DM were assessed for skin microvascular reactivity, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and physical activity. VO2peak but not physical activity was significantly and independently associated with maximal hyperemia of the skin microcirculation (p < .01). No significant associations were found between venoarteriolar reflex (VAR) vasoconstriction and VO2peak or physical activity. Aerobic fitness may be an important indicator or mediator of effective microvascular endothelial function in youth with T1DM. PMID:19168919

  1. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  2. The Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Low-Fit Children's Activity Level and Aerobic Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene A.; Ethridge, Kriss

    1997-01-01

    Examined the effects of a physical activity program on low-fit 8- to 11-year-old children's activity, mile-run time, and average heart rate. Found that following the program participants were in their target heart rate zone 64% of the time and that mile-run times improved significantly from pre- to posttest. (Author)

  3. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  4. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed. PMID:24893739

  5. Improving aerobic fitness in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Robert J.; Lattanzio, Chastity N.; Shapiro, Sheree; Overend, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Canadian practices, but this was not significantly different from the control group, which received only the exercise prescription. Women in the intervention group showed higher levels of fitness than women in the control group did; men in both groups showed similar improvement. PMID:20463260

  6. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  7. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p <0.01) and the LLLT and exercise group (p <0.05). The results indicate that the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx were higher and statistically significant (p <0.05) in the LLLT/exercise group than those in the LLLT and exercise groups. Young animals presented lesser and statistically significant activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the aged group. The LLLT/exercise group and the LLLT and exercise group could also mitigate the concentration of TBARS (p > 0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT. PMID:26861983

  8. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  9. Longitudinal changes in cardiac autonomic function and aerobic fitness indices in endurance runners: a case study with a high-level team.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Verri, Samara Manzano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Machado, Fabiana Andrade

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of preparatory phase training on aerobic parameters, resting heart rate variability (HRV) and 5-km performance of high-level endurance runners and the relationship between the percentage change (% change) of resting HRV with the % change of aerobic parameters and 5-km performance. Six runners were assessed before and after seven weeks of training. The aerobic parameters were determined in an incremental test. The HRV was assessed by a heart rate monitor. Athletes performed a 5-km running test in a track. The analysis revealed 'likely' and 'very likely' improvements for velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max) (20.0±1.0 km·h(-1) to 21.2±0.6 km·h(-1)) and 5-km performance (18.0±0.4 km·h(-1) to 18.9±0.7 km·h(-1)), respectively, as well as 'likely' decrease in high frequency (41.4±18.5 nu to 30.4±14.3 nu), and increase in low frequency (58.5±18.5 nu to 69.6±14.3 nu) band densities. The variation in the velocity associated with [Formula: see text]O2max showed the highest correlation with 5-km performance (r=0.95). The % change in the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals and standard deviation 1 were highly correlated with variation in 5-km performance (r=0.69 and 0.66). Changes in the velocity associated with [Formula: see text]O2max and vagally mediated HRV were highly associated with 5-km running performance within the investigated team. These results have important implications because these parameters can be assessed longitudinally to monitor adaptation to training. PMID:23998661

  10. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Danilo M L; Rocco, Enéas A; Silva, Alexandre G; Silva, Priscila F; Lazzari, Jaqueline M; Assumpção, Gabriela L; Thies, Sheyla B; Suzaki, Claudia Y; Puig, Raphael S; Furlan, Valter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2) coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years) with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO2<17.5 ml/kg/min), group 2 (n = 67, peak VO2>17.5 and <24.5 ml/kg/min) and group 3 (n = 22, peak VO2>24.5 ml/kg/min). All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05). After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency. PMID:25672429

  11. Aerobic fitness ecological validity in elite soccer players: a metabolic power approach.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Impellizzeri, Franco; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between match metabolic power (MP) categories and aerobic fitness in elite-level male soccer players. Seventeen male professional soccer players were tested for VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), VO2 at ventilatory threshold (VO2VT and %VO2VT), and speed at a selected blood lactate concentration (4 mmol·L(-1), V(L4)). Aerobic fitness tests were performed at the end of preseason and after 12 and 24 weeks during the championship. Aerobic fitness and MP variables were considered as mean of all seasonal testing and of 16 Championship home matches for all the calculations, respectively. Results showed that VO2max (from 0.55 to 0.68), MAS (from 0.52 to 0.72), VO2VT (from 0.72 to 0.83), %VO2maxVT (from 0.62 to 0.65), and V(L4) (from 0.56 to 0.73) were significantly (p < 0.05 to 0.001) large to very large associated with MP variables. These results provide evidence to the ecological validity of aerobic fitness in male professional soccer. Strength and conditioning professionals should consider aerobic fitness in their training program when dealing with professional male soccer players. The MP method resulted an interesting approach for tracking external load in male professional soccer players. PMID:24345968

  12. 1Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Andrew; Young, Daniel E.; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C.; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Stern, Chantal; Schon, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory. PMID:24269495

  13. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-12-01

    In this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activity, aerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years). Specifically, physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement. For example, higher fit children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers. Higher fit children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children. The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain and cognitive benefits compared to a control group. Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the developing brain. This research is important because children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth. PMID:25387414

  14. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Modify the Effect of FTO Variation on Body Composition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Huuskonen, Antti; Lappalainen, Jani; Oksala, Niku; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Poor physical fitness and obesity are risk factors for all cause morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify whether common genetic variants of key energy intake determinants in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) are associated with aerobic and neuromuscular performance, and whether aerobic fitness can alter the effect of these genotypes on body composition. Methods 846 healthy Finnish males of Caucasian origin were genotyped for FTO (rs8050136), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and studied for associations with maximal oxygen consumption, body fat percent, serum leptin levels, waist circumference and maximal force of leg extensor muscles. Results Genotype AA of the FTO SNP rs8050136 associated with higher BMI and greater waist circumference compared to the genotype CC. In general linear model, no significant interaction for FTO genotype-relative VO2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) or FTO genotype-absolute VO2max (L·min−1) on BMI or waist circumference was found. Main effects of aerobic performance on body composition traits were significant (p<0.001). Logistic regression modelling found no significant interaction between aerobic fitness and FTO genotype. LEP SNP rs7799039, LEPR SNPs rs8179183 and rs1137101 did not associate with any of the measured variables, and no significant interactions of LEP or LEPR genotype with aerobic fitness were observed. In addition, none of the studied SNPs associated with aerobic or neuromuscular performance. Conclusions Aerobic fitness may not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits. However, relative aerobic capacity associates with lower BMI and waist circumference regardless of the FTO genotype. FTO, LEP and LEPR genotypes unlikely associate with physical performance. PMID:23284729

  15. Aerobic Fitness, Micronutrient Status, and Academic Achievement in Indian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ishaan K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants’ aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg-1 * min-1) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  16. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  17. Medium-/Long-Term Effects of a Specific Exercise Protocol Combined with Patient Education on Spine Mobility, Chronic Fatigue, Pain, Aerobic Fitness and Level of Disability in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Erika; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Pigatto, Maurizia; Rampudda, Maria Elisa; Doria, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21) or to a control group (CG = 20). Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1), and after 6 months (T6) from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the fatigue severity scale (FSS), the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), tender points count (TPC), and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04). The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. Conclusion. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS. PMID:24616894

  18. Differences in Preseason Aerobic Fitness Screening in Professional and Pre-professional Modern Dancers.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Codman, Emma; Hash-Campbell, Dana; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2016-03-01

    The aerobic demands of today's dance repertoire warrant understanding of the current cardiorespiratory fitness of dancers. The purpose of this study was to compare aerobic fitness levels of professional and pre-professional modern dancers and determine change over time. A retrospective analysis of four groups, two professional, and two pre-professional, was conducted in preseason annual screens, occurring before the professional dancers' rehearsal period and the students' academic training. Resting (HRrest), peak (HRpeak), and recovery (HRrecov) heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) were compared in 577 dancers, using an accelerated 3-minute step test. Smoking, asthma, and aerobic and cross training rates between groups were also compared. A 4 (group) X 2 (gender) MANOVA design determined differences between groups and genders in all dependent variables (p < 0.05). Using a repeated measures ANOVA design, we compared a subgroup over 3 years and one pre-professional group over 4 years. There were differences between groups in systolic BP and all HR variables (p < 0.001). Professional dancers reflected better cardiorespiratory fitness than pre-professional dancers. There were differences between groups in aerobic and cross training activities but no differences in smoking incidence or asthma rates. Pre-professional dancers demonstrated improvement in aerobic fitness over time (p = 0.006) while professionals did not change. Professional dancers display better aerobic fitness, which may reflect their performance demands. Wellness programs appear to enhance fitness in pre-professional dance students over time. Additional aerobic training is recommended for pre-professional modern dance students to prepare them for the performance demands of a professional career. PMID:27025448

  19. Aerobic Fitness and Intra-Individual Variability of Neurocognition in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert Davis; Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and neuroelectric intra-individual variability (IIV) in preadolescent children during a task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. The current study further examined whether IIV was moderated by aerobic fitness level. Participants performed a modified flanker task, comprised of congruent and incongruent…

  20. The Influence of Childhood Aerobic Fitness on Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Lauren B.; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Saliba, Brian J.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. Purpose To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. Methods Forty-eight 9–10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF) performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO) versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS). The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. Results There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy). Conclusions We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy. PMID:24039791

  1. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  2. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  3. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  4. The association of aerobic fitness with injuries in the fire service.

    PubMed

    Poplin, Gerald S; Roe, Denise J; Peate, Wayne; Harris, Robin B; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2014-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to understand the risk of injury in relation to fitness in a retrospective occupational cohort of firefighters in Tucson, Arizona, from 2005 to 2009. Annual medical evaluations and injury surveillance data were linked to compare levels of aerobic fitness in injured employees with those in noninjured employees. The individual outcomes evaluated included all injuries, exercise-related injuries, and sprains and strains. Time-to-event analyses were conducted to determine the association between levels of fitness and injury likelihood. Fitness, defined by relative aerobic capacity (Vo2max), was associated with injury risk. Persons in the lowest fitness level category (Vo2max <43 mL/kg/minute) were 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval: 1.72, 2.88) to sustain injury than were those in the highest fitness level category (Vo2max >48 mL/kg/minute). Those with a Vo2max between 43 and 48 mL/kg/minute were 1.38 times (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.78) more likely to incur injury. Hazard ratios were found to be greater for sprains and strains. Our results suggest that improving relative aerobic capacity by 1 metabolic equivalent of task (approximately 3.5 mL/kg/minute) reduces the risk of any injury by 14%. These findings illustrate the importance of fitness in reducing the risk of injury in physically demanding occupations, such as the fire service, and support the need to provide dedicated resources for structured fitness programming and the promotion of injury prevention strategies to people in those fields. PMID:24186973

  5. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness To Reduce Risk Of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Wessel, James H., III

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). METHODS: Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 +/- 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 +/- 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. RESULTS: An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  6. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness to Reduce Risk of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Wessel, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 plus or minus 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 plus or minus 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  7. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  8. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  9. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  10. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Contribute to Prediction of Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Sather, Tom M.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Alford, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Several investigations have suggested that orthostatic tolerance may be inversely related to aerobic fitness (VO (sub 2max)). To test this hypothesis, 18 males (age 29 to 51 yr) underwent both treadmill VO(sub 2max) determination and graded lower body negative pressures (LBNP) exposure to tolerance. VO(2max) was measured during the last minute of a Bruce treadmill protocol. LBNP was terminated based on pre-syncopal symptoms and LBNP tolerance (peak LBNP) was expressed as the cumulative product of LBNP and time (torr-min). Changes in heart rate, stroke volume cardiac output, blood pressure and impedance rheographic indices of mid-thigh-leg initial accumulation were measured at rest and during the final minute of LBNP. For all 18 subjects, mean (plus or minus SE) fluid accumulation index and leg venous compliance index at peak LBNP were 139 plus or minus 3.9 plus or minus 0.4 ml-torr-min(exp -2) x 10(exp 3), respectively. Pearson product-moment correlations and step-wise linear regression were used to investigate relationships with peak LBNP. Variables associated with endurance training, such as VO(sub 2max) and percent body fat were not found to correlate significantly (P is less than 0.05) with peak LBNP and did not add sufficiently to the prediction of peak LBNP to be included in the step-wise regression model. The step-wise regression model included only fluid accumulation index leg venous compliance index, and blood volume and resulted in a squared multiple correlation coefficient of 0.978. These data do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance as measured by LBNP is lower in individuals with high aerobic fitness.

  11. Poor Aerobic Fitness May Contribute to Cognitive Decline in HIV-infected Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mapstone, Mark; Hilton, Tiffany N; Yang, Hongmei; Guido, Joseph J; Luque, Amneris E; Hall, William J; Dewhurst, Stephen; Shah, Krupa

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-infected older adult (HOA) community is particularly vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Previous studies in the general older adult population have reported that lower scores on tests of cognitive function often correlate negatively with aerobic fitness [5-7]. HIV-infected individuals have significantly reduced aerobic fitness and physical function compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Determining important correlates of cognitive ability may be beneficial in not only detecting precursors to future cognitive impairments, but also target areas for interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and aerobic fitness in HIV-infected older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HOA on antiretroviral therapy (ART) >50 years of age. Domain specific cognitive function was assessed by means of a neuropsychological battery. Aerobic fitness (VO2peak) was assessed using a graded, progressive treadmill test. Thirty-seven HOA on ART (mean±SD: age 59±6 years, BMI 28±5, CD4 663±337 cells/ml, duration since HIV diagnosis 17±7 years; 81% males) completed the cognitive tests. Several domains of cognition were significantly associated with VO2peak by Spearman correlation analysis (p<0.05). By step-wise adjusted regression VO2peak was most frequently and significantly related to many cognitive domains such as verbal and visual memory, visual perception, and language (p<0.05). We found that participants with higher Vo2peak were less likely to have more severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) such as mild neurocognitive disorder (OR=0.65; p=0.01) and HIV-associated dementia (OR=0.64; p=0.0006). In HOA and in conclusion, aerobic fitness is related to cognitive performance on various tasks. The likelihood of cognitive impairment increased with lower fitness levels. Therefore, increased fitness may serve an important factor in maintenance of cognition and neural integrity for aging HIV

  12. Association between aerobic fitness in late pregnancy and duration of labor in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Kardel, Kristin Reimers; Johansen, Bjørn; Voldner, Nanna; Iversen, Per Ole; Henriksen, Tore

    2009-01-01

    It is established that the level of physical activity in the population generally is too low, and data indicate that pregnant women are no exception. Studies of the effects of aerobic fitness on delivery outcomes are limited. In this observational study, we investigated the effect of aerobic fitness on duration of labor in nulliparous women who started labor spontaneously. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured in 40 nulliparous women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Duration of labor was defined as the time between 3 cm cervical dilation with regular uterine contractions and delivery. The mean (SD) maximal oxygen uptake was 2.1 (0.3) L/min and duration of labor 583 (317) minutes. Duration of labor was inversely associated with maximal oxygen uptake after adjusting for birthweight (p = 0.034). We conclude that measurement of maximal oxygen uptake is safe in pregnancy at 35-37 weeks and that increased aerobic fitness was associated with shorter labor in nulliparous women who started labor spontaneously. PMID:19562561

  13. Regular exercise and aerobic fitness in relation to psychological make-up and physiological stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    de Geus, E J; van Doornen, L J; Orlebeke, J F

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed the association of aerobic fitness with psychological make-up and physiological stress-reactivity in a group of untrained men, as well as the effects of 4 and 8 months of exercise training on these parameters. Psychological assessment included questionnaires on personality (Neuroticism, Type A, Hostility), coping styles (Anger In, Anger Out), negative affect (Depression, Anxiety), and self-esteem. Stress reactivity was measured as the cardiovascular and urinary catecholamine response to two competitive reaction time tasks and the cold pressor test. No cross sectional relationships were found between aerobic fitness, defined as the maximal oxygen consumption during an exhaustive exercise test, and any of the psychological variables. In addition, psychological make-up did not change as a consequence of exercise training. In further contrast to our hypothesis, aerobic fitness was associated with high, rather than low, cardiovascular reactivity. Longitudinal effects of training were limited to a reduction in the overall levels of heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. This suggests that regular exercise does not increase the resistance to stress-related disease by influencing psychological make-up or acute psychophysiologic reactivity. PMID:8416085

  14. Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, K; Yano, Y; Senjyu, H

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility and utility of a standardised and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15 mISWRT]) to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 14 middle-aged participants performed the 15-m ISWRT 3 times within one week (Test 1, Test 2, Test 3). Reproducibility of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), HRmax, and VO 2max for each test. The utility of the 15-m ISWRT for evaluating VO 2max over a wide range in middle-aged adults was tested by comparing the range of VO 2max obtained from the portable expired gas analyzer with the VO 2max reference values and ranges for health promotion published by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. A multiple comparison of distance completed in the 15-m ISWRT Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3 found no significant difference between Test 2 and Test 3. The ICC was 0.99 for Test 2 vs. Test 3. VO 2max measured from the 15-m ISWRT in Test 3 had a minimum value of 22.8 ml/kg/min and a maximum value of 38.7 ml/kg/min. In conclusion, the 15-m ISWRT is reliable and useful for evaluating VO 2max in middle-aged adults. PMID:22377946

  15. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  16. Effects of Aerobic Fitness on Aging-Related Changes of Interhemispheric Inhibition and Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Patten, Carolynn; Manini, Todd M.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Crosson, Bruce; Butler, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Physical fitness has been long associated with maintenance and improvement of motor performance as we age. In particular, measures of psychomotor speed and motor dexterity tend to be higher in physically fit aging adults as compared to their sedentary counterparts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we explored the patterns of neural activity that may, in part, account for differences between individuals of varying physical fitness levels. In this study, we enrolled both sedentary and physically fit middle age (40–60) and younger (18–30) adults and measured upper extremity motor performance during behavioral testing. In a follow-up session, we employed TMS and fMRI to assess levels of interhemispheric communication during unimanual tasks. Results show that increased physical fitness is associated with better upper extremity motor performance on distal dexterity assessments and increased levels of interhemispheric inhibition in middle age adults. Further, the functional correlates of changes of ipsilateral activity appears to be restricted to the aging process as younger adults of varying fitness levels do not differ in hemispheric patterns of activity or motor performance. We conclude that sedentary aging confers a loss of interhemispheric inhibition that is deleterious to some aspects of motor function, as early as midlife, but these changes can be mediated by chronic engagement in aerobic exercise. PMID:24198784

  17. The influence of age and aerobic fitness on chromosomal damage in Austrian institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Bernhard; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Oesen, Stefan; Peherstorfer, Heidemarie; Krejci, Klemens; Koller, Birgit; Geider, Karin; Baierl, Andreas; Tosevska, Anela; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Wessner, Barbara; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-01

    Ageing goes hand in hand with altered DNA repair and defence mechanisms against DNA damage. To improve the body's overall resistance against chromosomal damage, maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle is of great concern, especially in the elderly. As more and more people are getting older, they change from home living to an institutionalised situation, which is often accompanied by malnutrition, depression and inactivity. So far, there is a lack of data on chromosomal damage in relation to age and fitness status. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age and aerobic fitness on endpoints of DNA damage in 105 institutionalised women and men (65-98 years) living in Vienna. Chromosomal damage was measured by conducting the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Aerobic fitness of the participants was assessed using the 6-min walking test. To investigate the effect of age on micronuclei (MN) frequency and evaluate the particular age group, our data were merged with data from a recent study by Wallner et al. (Effects of unconjugated bilirubin on chromosomal damage in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome measured with the micronucleus cytome assay. Mutagenesis 2012; 27: 731-735). Age and MN frequency correlated significantly for squared regression (r = 0.577; P = 0.000) and showed a levelling-off at ~60 years of age. Furthermore, we observed a significant negative linear correlation (r = -0.222; P = 0.03) between MN frequency and 6-min walking performance. There was a plateau-like effect of the MN frequency above the age of 60-70 years, indicating a higher resistance against chromosomal damage of the 'survivors' of the regular lifespan. This study suggests that aerobic fitness 'protects' against chromosomal damage at high age. PMID:25217503

  18. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  19. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68–0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49–0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  20. The association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Moeller, Niels Christian; Korsholm, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Wedderkopp, Niels; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-09-01

    The link between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children has been studied in a number of earlier studies and the results have generally shown weak to moderate correlations. This overall finding has been widely questioned partly because of the difficulty in obtaining valid estimates of physical activity. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between aerobic fitness and physical activity in a representative sample of 9 and 15-year-old children (n = 1260 cross-sectional, n = 153 longitudinal). The specific goal was to improve past studies using an objective method of activity assessment and taking into account a number of major sources of error. Data came from the Danish part of the European youth heart study, 1997-2003. The cross-sectional results generally showed a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity with standardized regression coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.33. The longitudinal results revealed a tendency towards an interaction effect of baseline physical activity on the relationship between changes in physical activity and aerobic fitness. Moderate to moderately strong regression effect sizes were observed in the lower quadrant of baseline physical activity compared to weak effect sizes in the remaining quadrants. In conclusion, the present study confirms earlier findings of a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in total population of children. However, the study also indicates that inactive children can achieve notable increase in aerobic fitness by increasing their habitual physical activity level. A potential physiological explanation for these results is highlighted. PMID:20458593

  1. The association between aerobic fitness and language processing in children: implications for academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Scudder, Mark R; Federmeier, Kara D; Raine, Lauren B; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-06-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children's aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. PMID:24747513

  2. The Association between Aerobic Fitness and Language Processing in Children: Implications for Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Scudder, Mark R.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Raine, Lauren B.; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children’s aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. PMID:24747513

  3. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-04-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  4. Exercise volume and aerobic fitness in young adults: the Midwest Exercise Trial-2.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Washburn, Richard A; Honas, Jeffery J; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of exercise volume at a fixed intensity on changes in aerobic fitness. Ninety-two overweight/obese individuals (BMI 25-40 kg m(2)), age 18-30 years, 50 % women, completed a 10 mo, 5 d wk(-1) supervised exercise intervention at 2 levels of exercise energy expenditure (400 or 600 kcal session(-1)) at 70-80 % heart rate (HR) max. Exercise consisted primarily of walking/jogging on motor-driven treadmills. The duration and intensity of all exercise sessions were verified by a downloadable HR monitor set to collect HR in 1-min epochs. All participants were instructed to continue their typical patterns of non-exercise physical activity and dietary intake over the duration of the 10 mo intervention. Maximal aerobic capacity (indirect calorimetry) was assessed on a motor-driven treadmill using a modified Balke protocol at baseline, mid-point (5 mo), and following completion of the 10 mo intervention. VO2 max (L min(-1)) increased significantly in both the 400 (11.3 %) and 600 kcal session(-1) groups (14 %) compared to control (-2.0 %; p < 0.001); however, the differences between exercise groups were not significant. Similar results were noted for change in relative VO2 max (mL kg(-1) min(-1)); however, the magnitude of change was greater than for absolute VO2 max (L min(-1)) (400 group = 18.3 %; 600 group = 20.2 %) due to loss of body weight over the 10-mo intervention in both exercise groups. Our results indicate that exercise volume was not associated with change in aerobic fitness in a sample of previously sedentary, overweight and obese young adults. PMID:27026879

  5. Comparison of aerobic fitness and space motion sickness during the Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Richard T.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Santy, Patricia A.

    1988-01-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) is an important problem for short-duration space flight; 71 percent of STS crewmembers develop SMS symptoms. The search for effective countermeasures and factors that correlate with sensitivity has been extensive. Recently, several investigators have linked aerobic fitness with motion sickness sensitivity in the 1-G or high-G environment. This paper compares the aerobic fitness of 125 Shuttle crewmembers with their SMS symptom category. Aerobic fitness data were obtained from the exercise tolerance test conducted nearest the time of launch. SMS data were derived from the medical debrief summaries. Mean maximum oxygen consumption values for crewmembers in four SMS categories (none, mild, moderate, severe) were 44.55, 44.08, 46.5, and 44.24 ml/kg per min, respectively. Scattergrams with linear regression analysis, comparing aerobic fitness and SMS symptom classification are presented. Correlation coefficients comparing SMS categories vs. aerobic fitness for men and women reveal no definite relationship between the two factors.

  6. Aerobic fitness is associated with inhibitory control in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Hillman, Charles H; Motl, Robert W

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Aerobic fitness might be a target of exercise training interventions for improving cognition in this population. It is unknown if the well-established pattern of associations between higher aerobic fitness and better inhibitory control in the general population exists among persons with MS. The current cross-sectional study examined the effects of aerobic fitness (VO2peak) on inhibitory control, using a modified flanker task, in 28 persons with MS and 28 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and body mass index. This involved performing bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regression analyses on measures of aerobic fitness and inhibitory control. Persons with MS demonstrated lower VO2peak (d = -0.45), slower (d = 0.62-0.84), and less accurate (d = -0.60 to 0.71) performance on the flanker task than controls. VO2peak was similarly associated with reaction time measures of inhibitory control in the MS and control samples (ρ = -0.40 to 0.54). VO2peak (p < .01), but not group (p ≥ .08) (MS vs. control), predicted reaction time on the flanker task, irrespective of age, sex, and education. This supports the development of aerobic exercise interventions for improving reaction time on tasks of inhibitory control in persons with MS, much like what has been successfully undertaken in the general population. PMID:25910783

  7. Obesity and Aerobic Fitness among Urban Public School Students in Elementary, Middle, and High School

    PubMed Central

    White, M. Leanne; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Burlis, Tamara L.; DuPont, Nicholas C.; Wallendorf, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk among urban public school students through a collaborative school district and university partnership. Methods Children and adolescents in grades K-12 from 24 urban public schools participated in measurements of height, weight, and other health metrics during the 2009–2010 school year. Body mass index (BMI) percentiles and z-scores were computed for 4673 students. President’s Challenge 1-mile endurance run was completed by 1075 students ages 9–19 years. Maximal oxygen consumption (⩒O2max) was predicted using an age-, sex-, and BMI-specific formula to determine health-related fitness. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed in 1467 students. Regression analyses were used to compare BMI z-scores, fitness, and age- and sex-specific BP percentiles across grade levels. Chi-square tests were used to explore the effect of sex and grade-level on health-related outcomes. Results Based on BMI, 19.8% were categorized as overweight and 24.4% were obese. Included in the obese category were 454 students (9.7% of sample) classified with severe obesity. Using FITNESSGRAM criteria, 50.2% of students did not achieve the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ); the proportion of students in the Needs Improvement categories increased from elementary to middle school to high school. Male students demonstrated higher fitness than female students, with 61.4% of boys and only 35.4% of girls meeting HFZ standards. Elevated BP was observed among 24% of 1467 students assessed. Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores revealed low correlation with BMI z-scores. Conclusions A community-university collaboration identified obesity, severe obesity, overweight, and low aerobic fitness to be common risk factors among urban public school students. PMID:26378914

  8. School Children and Fitness: Aerobics for Life. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    Physical activity engaged in as a child can encourage fitness throughout the lifespan. School counselors and physical education teachers can invest in multi-intervention programs that encompass the psycho-physiological spectrum of children within the schools. Together, school counselors and physical educators can play an active role in the…

  9. The Role of Aerobic Fitness in Cortical Thickness and Mathematics Achievement in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Kienzler, Caitlin; King, Matthew; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that aerobic fitness benefits the brain and cognition during childhood. The present study is the first to explore cortical brain structure of higher fit and lower fit 9- and 10-year-old children, and how aerobic fitness and cortical thickness relate to academic achievement. We demonstrate that higher fit children (>70th percentile VO2max) showed decreased gray matter thickness in superior frontal cortex, superior temporal areas, and lateral occipital cortex, coupled with better mathematics achievement, compared to lower fit children (<30th percentile VO2max). Furthermore, cortical gray matter thinning in anterior and superior frontal areas was associated with superior arithmetic performance. Together, these data add to our knowledge of the biological markers of school achievement, particularly mathematics achievement, and raise the possibility that individual differences in aerobic fitness play an important role in cortical gray matter thinning during brain maturation. The establishment of predictors of academic performance is key to helping educators focus on interventions to maximize learning and success across the lifespan. PMID:26267897

  10. The role of aerobic fitness in cortical thickness and mathematics achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Kienzler, Caitlin; King, Matthew; Pontifex, Matthew B; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that aerobic fitness benefits the brain and cognition during childhood. The present study is the first to explore cortical brain structure of higher fit and lower fit 9- and 10-year-old children, and how aerobic fitness and cortical thickness relate to academic achievement. We demonstrate that higher fit children (>70th percentile VO2max) showed decreased gray matter thickness in superior frontal cortex, superior temporal areas, and lateral occipital cortex, coupled with better mathematics achievement, compared to lower fit children (<30th percentile VO2max). Furthermore, cortical gray matter thinning in anterior and superior frontal areas was associated with superior arithmetic performance. Together, these data add to our knowledge of the biological markers of school achievement, particularly mathematics achievement, and raise the possibility that individual differences in aerobic fitness play an important role in cortical gray matter thinning during brain maturation. The establishment of predictors of academic performance is key to helping educators focus on interventions to maximize learning and success across the lifespan. PMID:26267897

  11. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise energy expenditure affected whole body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in people of differing aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in aerobi...

  12. The Effects of a Goal Setting Intervention on Aerobic Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Samantha M.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a goal setting intervention on aerobic fitness (AF) in 6 to 8 grade students. Method: Students at the intervention school received a lesson on SMART goal setting. Students in the comparison school served as a measurement-only group. AF was assessed via the PACER multi-stage shuttle run test pre and post…

  13. Effect of Low-Impact Aerobic Dance on the Functional Fitness of Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined effect of low-impact aerobic dance on 53 sedentary older women. After 12 weeks of dance, subjects improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance. (Author/NB)

  14. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change requires dedication ... TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher level of heart-lung fitness may reduce your risk ...

  15. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity. PMID:24164734

  16. Aerobic fitness in women and responses to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Mathes, Karen L.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1987-01-01

    The role of tolerance to orthostatic stress in the maintenance of high aerobic fitness in women was investigated by examining the responses of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, Heather index of contractility, arterial pressure, peripheral resistance, change in calf circumference, and thoracic impedance of healthy female subjects to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) applied for 5 min at -50 mm Hg or until a subject became presyncopal. The testing protocol involved a stepwise reduction in pressure and consisted of two parts: an LBNP test in supine position followed by a treadmill test to peak aerobic capacity. Women were found to exhibit the same response pattern to LBNP as was previously reported by Convertino et al. (1984) for men. The results do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance in women is inversely related to aerobic fitness, as demonstrated by a finding that the peak aerobic capacity of subjects who became presyncopal did not differ from the peak of the tolerant subjects, and that hemodynamic responses to LBNPL were not a function of aerobic capacity.

  17. Long-Term Effects of the RealFit Intervention on Body Composition, Aerobic Fitness, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Maria W.J.; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight reduction program for youth that focuses on nutrition, physical activity (PA), psychology, and parental participation. The short-term effectiveness of the RealFit intervention, in terms of body composition, aerobic fitness, and dietary and PA behavior, having been proven, the present study evaluated the long-term effects of the intervention. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Height, weight, waist circumference, aerobic fitness, and self-reported dietary and PA behavior were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the 13-week RealFit intervention (T1), after 5 months (T2), and 1 year (T3) of follow-up. A total of 86 adolescents participated in the intervention group. The control group (n=32) comprised overweight adolescents who did not receive any treatment. Results: One year after the RealFit intervention, significant decreases in BMI z-score (mean difference [MD]: −0.39) and waist circumference (MD, −3.24) were found. The comparison between the intervention and control groups, controlling for confounders, resulted in a significant difference (BMI z-score: −0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.67 to −0.15; waist circumference: −8.07; 95% CI: −11.58 to −4.56). The results for dietary and PA behavior consistently showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: The RealFit intervention appears to have significant favorable long-term effects on BMI z-score and waist circumference. These changes in body composition obviously represent changes in adolescents' energy balance-related behavior. Taking all results and limitations into account, it may cautiously be concluded that RealFit is an effective weight loss intervention. PMID:25302441

  18. Aerobic fitness in women and responses to lower body negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A; Mathes, K L; Hoffler, G W

    1987-12-01

    High aerobic fitness may be associated with impaired responsiveness to orthostatic challenge. This could be detrimental to astronauts returning from spaceflight. Thus, we examined the cardiovascular responses of a group of 45 healthy women to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) through 5 min at -50 mm Hg or until they become presyncopal. The ages (range = 23-43 years, mean = 30.4) and peak aerobic capacities (range = 23.0-55.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean = 37.8) of these subjects paralleled those of the women astronauts. We monitored heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, Heather index of contractility, arterial pressure, peripheral resistance, change in calf circumference, and thoracic impedance (ZO)--a measure of fluid in the chest. The women in this study exhibited the same response pattern to LBNP as previously reported for male subjects. VO2peak of the six subjects who became presyncopal was not different from VO2peak of the tolerant subjects. At rest, only systolic and mean arterial pressures were significantly correlated with VO2peak. Percent changes in calf circumference (i.e. fluid accumulation in the legs) at -30 and -40 mm Hg were the only responses to LBNP significantly related to VO2peak. The greater pooling of blood in the legs during LBNP by women with higher aerobic fitness, and lower percent body fat may be related to more muscle tissue and vasculature in the legs of the more fit subjects. These data indicated that orthostatic tolerance is not related to aerobic capacity in women, and orthostatic tolerance need not be a concern to aerobically fit women astronauts. PMID:3426487

  19. The effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and acute aerobic exercise on executive functioning and EEG entropy in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael J.; O’Hora, Denis; Kiefer, Markus; Kubesch, Sabine; Kilmartin, Liam; Collins, Peter; Dimitrova, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, identified with a continuous graded cycle ergometry, and aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning and entropy of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in 30 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Higher and lower fit participants performed an executive function task after a bout of acute exercise and after rest while watching a film. EEG entropy, using the sample entropy measure, was repeatedly measured during the 1500 ms post-stimulus interval to evaluate changes in entropy over time. Analysis of the behavioral data for lower and higher fit groups revealed an interaction between fitness levels and acute physical exercise. Notably, lower fit, but not higher fit, participants had higher error rates (ER) for No Go relative to Go trials in the rest condition, whereas in the acute exercise condition there were no differences in ER between groups; higher fit participants also had significantly faster reaction times in the exercise condition in comparison with the rest condition. Analysis of EEG data revealed that higher fit participants demonstrated lower entropy post-stimulus than lower fit participants in the left frontal hemisphere, possibly indicating increased efficiency of early stage stimulus processing and more efficient allocation of cognitive resources to the task demands. The results suggest that EEG entropy is sensitive to stimulus processing demands and varies as a function of physical fitness levels, but not acute exercise. Physical fitness, in turn, may enhance cognition in adolescence by facilitating higher functionality of the attentional system in the context of lower levels of frontal EEG entropy. PMID:26539093

  20. Aerobic Fitness and Response Variability in Preadolescent Children Performing a Cognitive Control Task

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive variability in preadolescent children. METHOD Forty-eight preadolescent children (25 males, 23 females, mean age = 10.1 years) were grouped into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their performance on a test of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Cognitive function was measured via behavioral responses to a modified flanker task. The distribution in reaction time was calculated within each participant to assess intra-individual variability of performance. Specifically, the standard deviation and coefficient variation of reaction time were used to represent cognitive variability. RESULTS Preadolescent children, regardless of fitness, exhibited longer reaction time, increased response variability, and decreased response accuracy to incongruent compared to congruent trials. Further, higher-fit children were less variable in their response time and more accurate in their responses across conditions of the flanker task, while no group differences were observed for response speed. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fitness is associated with better cognitive performance during a task that varies cognitive control demands, and extends this area of research to suggest that intra-individual variability may be a useful measure to examine the relationship between fitness and cognition during preadolescence. PMID:21443340

  1. An accelerated step test to assess dancer pre-season aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Rakov, Sara

    2014-03-01

    As the technical performance demands of dance increase, professional companies and pre-professional schools are implementing pre-season screenings that require an efficient, cost effective way to measure dancer aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess an accelerated 3-minute step test (112 beats·min(-1)) by comparing it to the well-studied YMCA step test (96 beats·min(-1)) and a benchmark standard, an incremental treadmill test, using heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) as variables. Twenty-six professional and pre- professional dancers (age 20 ± 2.02 years) were fitted with a telemetric gas analysis system and HR monitor. They were tested in the following order: 96 step, 112 step, and treadmill test, with rest to return to baseline heart rate between each test. The step and treadmill tests were compared using Intra-class Correlation Coefficients [ICC (3, k)] calculated with analysis of variance (p < 0.05). To determine whether there was a relationship between peak and recovery HR (HRpeak, HRrecov) and VO2(VO2peak, VO2recov) variables, Pearson product moment correlations were used. Differences due to gender or group (pre- professionals versus professionals) were explored with MANOVAs for HRpeak, VO2peak, HRrecov, VO2recov, and fitness category. The 112 step test produced higher HRpeak and VO2peak values than the 96 step test, reflecting a greater workload (p < 0.001). For HRpeak, there were high correlations (r = 0.71) and for HRrecov, moderate correlations (r = 0.60) between the 112 step test and treadmill test. For VO2peak and VO2recov, there were moderate correlations between the 112 step test and treadmill test (r = 0.65 and 0.73). No differences between genders for VO2peak values were found for either step test, but males displayed lower HRpeak values for both step tests and higher VO2peak values during the treadmill test (p < 0.001). Recovery HR was lower in males for the 96 and 112 step tests (p < 0.05). This was reflected in higher

  2. Aerobic Fitness, Heart Rate Recovery and Heart Rate Recovery Time in Indian School Children.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Rajesh Jeniton; Ravichandran, K; Vaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Data on aerobic fitness and heart rate recovery in children are limited. This study was done to evaluate the relation between them in Indian school going children. Three hundred children of 7 to 10.5 years were recruited and their aerobic fitness was predicted using modified Harvard's step test (VO₂max) and 20 meter shuttle test (VO₂peak). The heart rate was monitored for 12 minutes post modified Harvard's step test. The difference between the maximum and the 1st minute HR was noted as HRR1 and the time taken to reach the resting heart rate was also recorded. VO₂max was inversely correlated with HRR1 (r = -0.64, p<0.001). However, the partial correlation of the two was not significant (r(partial) = -0.037, p = 0.55), indicating children with higher basal HR had higher HRR1 and that accounted for the observed association with aerobic fitness. Cox regression analysis showed that the recovery rate per unit time was 3% greater with increasing VO₂max (HR = 1.03, 95% CI:1.01 to 1.05, p = 0.013). The heart rate parameters did not show any associat with VO₂peak This study demonstrates that there is no relation between VO₂max and HRR1 after 3 minutes of modified Harvard's step test in Indian children of 7 to 10.5 years. However, aerobic fitness is a positive predictor of heart rate recovery time in this group. PMID:27530008

  3. Effects of a Cognitively Demanding Aerobic Intervention During Recess on Children's Physical Fitness and Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    van der Niet, Anneke G; Smith, Joanne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scherder, Erik J A; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children's physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8-12 years) were recruited. A quasi-experimental design was used. Children in the intervention group (n = 53; 19 boys, 34 girls) participated in a 22-week physical activity program for 30 min during lunch recess, twice a week. Children in the control group (n = 52; 32 boys, 20 girls) followed their normal lunch routine. Aerobic fitness, speed and agility, and muscle strength were assessed using the Eurofit test battery. Executive functions were assessed using tasks measuring inhibition (Stroop test), working memory (Visual Memory Span test, Digit Span test), cognitive flexibility (Trailmaking test), and planning (Tower of London). Children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than children in the control group on the Stroop test and Digit Span test, reflecting enhanced inhibition and verbal working memory skills, respectively. No differences were found on any of the physical fitness variables. A physical activity program including aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities can enhance aspects of executive functioning in primary school children. PMID:26252883

  4. Selected anthropometric variables and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in children

    PubMed Central

    Szmuchrowski, LA; Prado, LS; Couto, BP; Machado, JCQ; Damasceno, VO; Lamounier, JA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 290 school boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old, randomly selected. Blood was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), height and weight were evaluated according to international standards. Aerobic fitness (AF) was assessed by the 20-metre shuttle-run test. Clustering was considered when three of these factors were present: high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high plasma glucose, high insulin concentrations and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A ROC curve identified the cut-off points of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and AF as predictors of risk factor clustering. BMI, WC and WHR resulted in significant areas under the ROC curves, which was not observed for AF. The anthropometric variables were good predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in both sexes, whereas aerobic fitness should not be used to identify cardiovascular risk factor clustering in these children. PMID:26424930

  5. Selected anthropometric variables and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in children.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R; Szmuchrowski, L A; Prado, L S; Couto, B P; Machado, Jcq; Damasceno, V O; Lamounier, J A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 290 school boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old, randomly selected. Blood was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), height and weight were evaluated according to international standards. Aerobic fitness (AF) was assessed by the 20-metre shuttle-run test. Clustering was considered when three of these factors were present: high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high plasma glucose, high insulin concentrations and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A ROC curve identified the cut-off points of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and AF as predictors of risk factor clustering. BMI, WC and WHR resulted in significant areas under the ROC curves, which was not observed for AF. The anthropometric variables were good predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in both sexes, whereas aerobic fitness should not be used to identify cardiovascular risk factor clustering in these children. PMID:26424930

  6. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  7. Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

  8. Childhood Fitness and Academic Performance: An Investigation into the Effect of Aerobic Capacity on Academic Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity…

  9. Female rats selectively bred for high intrinsic aerobic fitness are protected from ovariectomy-associated metabolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Jaume; Park, Young-Min; Welly, Rebecca J.; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Crissey, Jacqueline M.; Zidon, Terese; Morris, E. Matthew; Meers, Grace M. E.; Thyfault, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovariectomized rodents model human menopause in that they rapidly gain weight, reduce spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and develop metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance. How contrasting aerobic fitness levels impacts ovariectomy (OVX)-associated metabolic dysfunction is not known. Female rats selectively bred for high and low intrinsic aerobic fitness [high-capacity runners (HCR) and low-capacity runners (LCR), respectively] were maintained under sedentary conditions for 39 wk. Midway through the observation period, OVX or sham (SHM) operations were performed providing HCR-SHM, HCR-OVX, LCR-SHM, and LCR-OVX groups. Glucose tolerance, energy expenditure, and SPA were measured before and 4 wk after surgery, while body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue distribution, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle phenotype, hepatic lipid content, insulin resistance via homeostatic assessment model of insulin resistance and AdipoIR, and blood lipids were assessed at death. Remarkably, HCR were protected from OVX-associated increases in adiposity and insulin resistance, observed only in LCR. HCR rats were ∼30% smaller, had ∼70% greater spontaneous physical activity (SPA), consumed ∼10% more relative energy, had greater skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-alpha, and ∼40% more BAT. OVX did not increase energy intake and reduced SPA to the same extent in both HCR and LCR. LCR were particularly affected by an OVX-associated reduction in resting energy expenditure and experienced a reduction in relative BAT; resting energy expenditure correlated positively with BAT across all animals (r = 0.6; P < 0.001). In conclusion, despite reduced SPA following OVX, high intrinsic aerobic fitness protects against OVX-associated increases in adiposity and insulin resistance. The mechanism may involve preservation of resting energy expenditure. PMID:25608751

  10. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  11. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  12. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change ... of the overall population, the study author's explained. "As this benefit remained significant even when adjusting for ...

  13. Aerobic Fitness Is Disproportionately Low in Adult Burn Survivors Years After Injury.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Pearson, James; Schlader, Zachary J; Brothers, Robert Matthew; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Rivas, Eric; Kowalske, Karen J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-01-01

    A maximal aerobic capacity below the 20th percentile is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (Blair 1995). Adult Adult burn survivors have a lower aerobic capacity compared with nonburned adults when evaluated 38 ± 23 days postinjury (deLateur 2007). However, it is unknown whether burn survivors with well-healed skin grafts (ie, multiple years postinjury) also have low aerobic capacity. This project tested the hypothesis that aerobic fitness, as measured by maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), is reduced in well-healed adult burn survivors when compared with normative values from nonburned individuals. Twenty-five burn survivors (36 ± 12 years old; 13 females) with well-healed split-thickness grafts (median, 16 years postinjury; range, 1-51 years) covering at least 17% of their BSA (mean, 40 ± 16%; range, 17-75%) performed a graded cycle ergometry exercise to test volitional fatigue. Expired gases and minute ventilation were measured via a metabolic cart for the determination of VO2max. Each subject's VO2max was compared with sex- and age-matched normative values from population data published by the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Heart Association, and recent epidemiological data (Aspenes 2011). Subjects had a VO2max of 29.4 ± 10.1 ml O2/kg body mass/min (median, 27.5; range, 15.9-53.3). The use of American College of Sports Medicine normative values showed that mean VO2max of the subjects was in the lower 24th percentile (median, 10th percentile). A total of 88% of the subjects had a VO2max below American Heart Association age-adjusted normative values. Similarly, 20 of the 25 subjects had a VO2max in the lower 25% percentile of recent epidemiological data. Relative to nongrafted subjects, 80 to 88% of the evaluated skin-graft subjects had a very low aerobic capacity. On the basis of these findings, adult burn survivors are disproportionally unfit relative to the general U.S. population, and this puts

  14. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. PMID:26631814

  15. Relationships Among Two Repeated Activity Tests and Aerobic Fitness of Volleyball Players.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Yoav; May-Rom, Moran; Ekshtien, Aya; Eisenstein, Tamir; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine performance indices of a repeated sprint test (RST) and to examine their relationships with performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) and with aerobic fitness among trained volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players performed RST (6 × 30 m sprints), RJT (6 sets of 6 consecutive jumps), and an aerobic power test (20-m Shuttle Run Test). Performance indices for the RST and the RJT were (a) the ideal 30-m run time (IS), the total run time (TS) of the 6 sprints, and the performance decrement (PD) during the test and (b) the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the PD during the test, respectively. No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RST and RJT. Significant correlations were found between PD, IS, and TS in the RST protocol and predicted peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = -0.60, -0.75, -0.77, respectively). No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RJT (IJ, TJ, and PD) and peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2. The findings suggest that a selection of repeated activity test protocols should acknowledge the specific technique used in the sport, and that a distinct RJT, rather than the classic RST, is more appropriate for assessing the anaerobic capabilities of volleyball players. The findings also suggest that aerobic fitness plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout characteristic repeated jumping activity of a volleyball game. PMID:25647643

  16. Aerobic Fitness and Trainability in Healthy Youth: Gaps in Our Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Armstong, Neil; McNarry, Melitta

    2016-05-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) is widely recognized as the criterion measure of young people's aerobic fitness. Peak VO2 in youth has been assessed and documented for over 75 years but the interpretation of peak VO2 and its trainability are still shrouded in controversy. Causal mechanisms and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation and sex remain to be resolved. Furthermore, exercise of the intensity and duration required to determine peak VO2 is rarely experienced by most children and adolescents. In sport and in everyday life young people are characterized by intermittent bouts of exercise and rapid changes in exercise intensity. In this context it is the transient kinetics of pulmonary VO2 (pVO2), not peak VO2, which best describe aerobic fitness. There are few rigorously determined and appropriately analyzed data from young people's pVO2 kinetics responses to step changes in exercise intensity. Understanding of the trainability of pVO2 kinetics is principally founded on comparative studies of trained and untrained youth and much remains to be elucidated. This paper reviews peak VO2, pVO2 kinetics, and their trainability in youth. It summarizes "what we know," identifies significant gaps in our knowledge, raises relevant questions, and indicates avenues for future research. PMID:26821346

  17. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity. PMID:26881317

  18. Effect of concurrent aerobic and resistance circuit exercise training on fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E; Islam, Mohammod M; Yamauchi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Eiji; Okada, Akiyoshi

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological effects of a programmed accommodating circuit exercise (PACE) program consisting of aerobic exercise and hydraulic-resistance exercise (HRE) on fitness in older adults. Thirty-five volunteers were randomly divided into two groups [PACE group (PG) 8 men and 10 women, 68.3 (4.9) years, and non-exercise control group (CG) 7 men and 10 women, 68.0 (3.4) years). The PG participated in a 12-week, 3 days per week supervised program consisting of 10 min warm-up and 30 min of PACE (moderate intensity HRE and aerobic movements at 70% of peak heart rate) followed by 10 min cool-down exercise. PACE increased ( P<0.05) oxygen uptake ( V(.)O(2)) at lactate threshold [PG, pre 0.79 (0.20) l min(-1), post 1.02 (0.22) l min(-1), 29%; CG, pre 0.87 (0.14) l min(-1), post 0.85 (0.15) l min(-1), -2%] and at peak V(.)O(2) [PG, pre 1.36 (0.24) l min(-1), post 1.56 (0.28) l min(-1), 15%; CG, pre 1.32 (0.29) l min(-1), post 1.37 (0.37) l min(-1), 4%] in PG measured using an incremental cycle ergometer. Muscular strength evaluated by a HRE machine increased at low to high resistance dial settings for knee extension (9-52%), knee flexion (14-76%), back extension (18-92%) and flexion (50-70%), chest pull (6-28%) and press (3-17%), shoulder press (18-31%) and pull (26-85%), and leg press (21%). Body fat (sum of three skinfolds) decreased (16%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) increased (10.9 mg dl(-1)) for PG. There were no changes in any variables for CG. These results indicate that PACE training incorporating aerobic exercise and HRE elicits significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, body composition, and HDLC for older adults. Therefore, PACE training is an effective well-rounded exercise program that can be utilized as a means to improve health-related components of fitness in older adults. PMID:15293053

  19. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD. PMID:27106271

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND ENERGETICS OF COMPETITIVE GROUP EXERCISE IN FEMALE AEROBIC GYMNASTS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELs OF PERFORMANCE.

    PubMed

    Aleksandraviciene, Roma; Zaicenkoviene, Kristina; Stasiule, Loreta; Stasiulis, Arvydas

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the aerobic fitness and physiologic and energetic responses during competitive exercise in aerobic gymnasts. The gymnasts performed a graded treadmill test and competitive group exercises. Energetic response was calculated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate changes. Peak oxygen uptake was similar in International (M = 45.4 ml · kg(-1) · min.(-1), SD = 3.9) and National (M = 44.7 ml · kg(-1) · min.(-1), SD = 3.6) level groups. During their competitive routines, total energy and the fractions of aerobic, anaerobic alactic, and anaerobic lactic energy were 1,847.7 (SD = 293.9) and 1,747.3 (SD = 196.7) J · kg(-1), 53.5% (SD = 3.1) and 60.3% (SD = 6.1), 25.4% (SD = 5.9) and 21.4% (SD = 5.2), and 21.1% (SD = 5.8) and 18.3% (SD = 4.5) in international and national level athletes, respectively (p > .05). The contribution of anaerobic energy was higher in the international level group (p = .03). It is concluded that the aerobic fitness and absolute energetic and physiological responses of athletes during competitive activities were not different between the aerobic gymnasts groups with different levels of performance, but a higher relative contribution of anaerobic energy was observed in the group with a higher performance level. PMID:25938450

  1. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  2. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hatchett, A; Judge, LW; Breaux, ME; Marcus, L

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success. PMID:26681834

  3. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    PubMed

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success. PMID:26681834

  4. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  5. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  6. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  7. Aerobic fitness of Tasmanian secondary school children using the 20-m shuttle run test.

    PubMed

    Cooley, D; McNaughton, L

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of Tasmanian secondary school children aged 11 to 16 years. A random sample of Tasmanian secondary schools was undertaken and then all children within each grade in the school were tested. In all, 6061 children undertook the test, 2981 boys and 3080 girls. The test consisted of a 20-m shuttle run in time to a prerecorded timing sequence. Each child had to complete as many shuttles as possible while staying in time with the beep. The test ceased for each child when they could no longer reach the marker at the same time or prior to the generated sound. The analyses indicated that there was a significant main effect of grade and sex. Children in lower grades completed fewer shuttles than the children in higher grades, and boys completed more shuttles than girls within each grade. Students in government-run schools completed significantly fewer shuttles than their nongovernment school counterparts (p < .0001). On a regional basis, there were no differences between children in the north and south of Tasmania as each completed 5.7 +/- 0.1 shuttles but children in the northwestern region of the state completed a significantly greater number of shuttles. An estimation of mean VO2max based upon shuttle stages completed indicated that these values ranged from a low of 40.6 ml.kg-1.min-1 in 13-, 14-, and 15-yr-old girls to a high of 50.4 ml.kg-1.min.-1 in 16-yr-old boys. Comparisons between this and similar data suggest that Tasmanian school children are less fit than their counterparts around the world. In conclusion, normative data for Tasmanian school children were developed and distributed to schools throughout Tasmania for use by teachers in evaluating the fitness of their students. PMID:10214643

  8. Aerobic Fitness is Associated with Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M.; Motl, Robert W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing a voxel-based approach to analyses of gray matter and white matter, we specifically examined whether higher levels of fitness in multiple sclerosis participants were associated with preserved gray matter volume and integrity of white matter. We found a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and regional gray matter volumes and higher focal fractional anisotropy values. Statistical mapping revealed that higher levels of fitness were associated with greater gray matter volume in the midline cortical structures including the medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. Further, we also found increasing levels of fitness were associated with higher fractional anisotropy in the left thalamic radiation and right anterior corona radiata. Both preserved gray matter volume and white-matter tract integrity were associated with better performance on measures of processing speed. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness exerts a prophylactic influence on the cerebral atrophy observed early on preserving neuronal integrity in multiple sclerosis, thereby reducing long-term disability. PMID:19560443

  9. Aerobic fitness is associated with gray matter volume and white matter integrity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M; Motl, Robert W; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-06-23

    Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing voxel-based approaches to analysis of gray matter and white matter, we specifically examined whether higher levels of fitness in multiple sclerosis participants were associated with preserved gray matter volume and integrity of white matter. We found a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and regional gray matter volumes and higher focal fractional anisotropy values. Statistical mapping revealed that higher levels of fitness were associated with greater gray matter volume in the midline cortical structures including the medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. Further, we also found that increasing levels of fitness were associated with higher fractional anisotropy in the left thalamic radiation and right anterior corona radiata. Both preserved gray matter volume and white matter tract integrity were associated with better performance on measures of processing speed. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness exerts a prophylactic influence on the structural decline observed early on, preserving neuronal integrity in multiple sclerosis, thereby reducing long-term disability. PMID:19560443

  10. Fitness Levels of University Cross-Country Skiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhling, Robert O.; Storer, Thomas W.

    Dry-land training in preparation for competitive cross-country skiing proved to be effective in increasing athletes' aerobic capacity and physical fitness. Such training included bicycle racing, roller skiing, fartlek running, cross-country running, simulated ski walking on inclines, and interval training over hills. (JD)

  11. Running economy, not aerobic fitness, independently alters thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running

    PubMed Central

    Smoljanić, Jovana; Morris, Nathan B.; Dervis, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine the independent influence of running economy (RE) and aerobic fitness [maximum oxygen consumption (V̇o2max)] on thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running by conducting two studies. In study 1, seven high (HI-FIT: 61 ± 5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) and seven low (LO-FIT: 45 ± 4 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max males matched for physical characteristics and RE (HI-FIT: 200 ± 21; LO-FIT: 200 ± 18 ml O2·kg−1·km−1) ran for 60 min at 1) 60%V̇o2max and 2) a fixed metabolic heat production (Hprod) of 640 W. In study 2, seven high (HI-ECO: 189 ± 15.3 ml O2·kg−1·km−1) and seven low (LO-ECO: 222 ± 10 ml O2·kg−1·km−1) RE males matched for physical characteristics and V̇o2max (HI-ECO: 60 ± 3; LO-ECO: 61 ± 7 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) ran for 60 min at a fixed 1) speed of 10.5 km/h and 2) Hprod of 640 W. Environmental conditions were 25.4 ± 0.8°C, 37 ± 12% RH. In study 1, at Hprod of 640 W, similar changes in esophageal temperature (ΔTes; HI-FIT: 0.63 ± 0.20; LO-FIT: 0.63 ± 0.22°C; P = 0.986) and whole body sweat losses (WBSL; HI-FIT: 498 ± 66; LO-FIT: 497 ± 149 g; P = 0.984) occurred despite different relative intensities (HI-FIT: 55 ± 6; LO-FIT: 39 ± 2% V̇o2max; P < 0.001). At 60% V̇o2max, ΔTes (P = 0.029) and WBSL (P = 0.003) were greater in HI-FIT (1.14 ± 0.32°C; 858 ± 130 g) compared with LO-FIT (0.73 ± 0.34°C; 609 ± 123 g), as was Hprod (HI-FIT: 12.6 ± 0.9; LO-FIT: 9.4 ± 1.0 W/kg; P < 0.001) and the evaporative heat balance requirement (Ereq; HI-FIT: 691 ± 74; LO-FIT: 523 ± 65 W; P < 0.001). Similar sweating onset ΔTes and thermosensitivities occurred between V̇o2max groups. In study 2, at 10.5 km/h, ΔTes (1.16 ± 0.31 vs. 0.78 ± 0.28°C; P = 0.017) and WBSL (835 ± 73 vs. 667 ± 139 g; P = 0.015) were greater in LO-ECO, as was Hprod (13.5 ± 0.6 vs. 11.3 ± 0.8 W/kg; P < 0.001) and Ereq (741 ± 89 vs. 532 ± 130 W; P = 0.007). At Hprod of 640 W, ΔTes (P = 0.910) and WBSL (P = 0.710) were

  12. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  13. Aerobic fitness and body mass index in individuals with schizophrenia: Implications for neurocognition and daily functioning.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2014-12-30

    Previous reports indicate that among healthy individuals low aerobic fitness (AF) and high body-mass index (BMI) predict poor neurocognition and daily-functioning. It is unknown whether these associations extend to disorders characterized by poor neurocognition, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, we compared AF and BMI in individuals with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls, and then within the schizophrenia group we examined the links between AF, BMI, neurocognition and daily-functioning. Thirty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 64 gender- and age-matched controls completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2max) and BMI. The former also completed measures of neurocognition, daily-functioning and physical activity. The schizophrenia group displayed significantly lower AF and higher BMI. In the schizophrenia group, AF was significantly correlated with overall neurocognition (r=0.57), along with executive functioning, working memory, social cognition, and processing speed. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that AF accounted for 22% of the neurocognition variance. Furthermore, AF was significantly correlated with overall daily-functioning (r=0.46). In contrast, BMI displayed significant inverse correlations with neurocognition, but no associations to daily-functioning. AF was significantly correlated physical activity. The authors discuss the potential use of AF-enhancing interventions to improve neurocognitive and daily-functioning in schizophrenia, along with putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying these links, including Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. PMID:25219618

  14. The interrelationship between muscle oxygenation, muscle activation, and pulmonary oxygen uptake to incremental ramp exercise: influence of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jan; Barstow, Thomas J; Celie, Bert; Prieur, Fabrice; Bourgois, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether muscle and ventilatory responses to incremental ramp exercise would be influenced by aerobic fitness status by means of a cross-sectional study with a large subject population. Sixty-four male students (age: 21.2 ± 3.2 years) with a heterogeneous peak oxygen uptake (51.9 ± 6.3 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1), range 39.7-66.2 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed an incremental ramp cycle test (20-35 W·min(-1)) to exhaustion. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was recorded, and muscle activation and oxygenation were measured with surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The integrated electromyography (iEMG), mean power frequency (MPF), deoxygenated [hemoglobin and myoglobin] (deoxy[Hb+Mb]), and total[Hb+Mb] responses were set out as functions of work rate and fitted with a double linear function. The respiratory compensation point (RCP) was compared and correlated with the breakpoints (BPs) (as percentage of peak oxygen uptake) in muscle activation and oxygenation. The BP in total[Hb+Mb] (83.2% ± 3.0% peak oxygen uptake) preceded (P < 0.001) the BP in iEMG (86.7% ± 4.0% peak oxygen uptake) and MPF (86.3% ± 4.1% peak oxygen uptake), which in turn preceded (P < 0.01) the BP in deoxy[Hb+Mb] (88.2% ± 4.5% peak oxygen uptake) and RCP (87.4% ± 4.5% peak oxygen uptake). Furthermore, the peak oxygen uptake was significantly (P < 0.001) positively correlated to the BPs and RCP, indicating that the BPs in total[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.66; P < 0.001), deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.76; P < 0.001), iEMG (r = 0.61; P < 0.001), MPF (r = 0.63; P < 0.001), and RCP (r = 0.75; P < 0.001) occurred at a higher percentage of peak oxygen uptake in subjects with a higher peak oxygen uptake. In this study a close relationship between muscle oxygenation, activation, and pulmonary oxygen uptake was found, occurring in a cascade of events. In subjects with a higher aerobic fitness level this cascade occurred at a higher relative intensity. PMID:26701120

  15. Effects of aerobic fitness on oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity swimming.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana F; Alves, Francisco B; Bruno, Paula M; Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to characterise both the VO2 kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between VO2 kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), first ventilatory threshold (VT), and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO(2 max)) and (2) two square-wave transitions from rest to heavy-intensity exercise, to determine their VO2 kinetics. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of freestyle swimming using a swimming snorkel. VO2 kinetics was modelled with two exponential functions. The mean values for the incremental test were 56.0 ± 6.0 ml min(-1) kg(-1), 1.45 ± 0.08 m s(-1); and 42.1 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) for VO2 max, vVO(2 max) and VT, respectively. For the square-wave transition, the time constant of the primary phase (sp) averaged 17.3 ± 5.4 s and the relevant slow component (A'sc) averaged 4.8 ± 2.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) [representing 8.9% of the end-exercise VO2 (%A'sc)]. sp was correlated with vVO(2 max) (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), but not with either VO2max (r = 0.05, ns) or VT (r = 0.14, ns). The %A' sc did not correlate with either VO2max (r = -0.14, ns) or vVO(2 max) (r = 0.06, ns), but was inversely related with VT (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). This study was the first to describe the VO2 kinetics in heavy-intensity swimming using specific swimming exercise and appropriate methods. As has been demonstrated in cycling, faster VO2 kinetics allow higher aerobic power outputs to be attained. The slow component seems to be reduced in swimmers with higher ventilatory thresholds. PMID:21879352

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  17. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  19. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  20. Diminished forearm vasomotor response to central hypervolemic loading in aerobically fit individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Gallagher, K. M.; SMith, S. A.; Bryant, K. H.; Raven, P. B.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) during central hypervolemic loading was less sensitive in exercise trained high fit individuals (HF) compared to untrained average fit individuals (AF). Eight AF (age: 24 +/- 1 yr and weight: 78.9 +/- 1.7 kg) and eight HF (22 +/- 1 yr 79.5 +/- 2.4 kg) voluntarily participated in the investigation. Maximal aerobic power (determined on a treadmill), plasma volume and blood volume (Evans blue dilution method) were significantly greater in the HF than AF (60.8 +/- 0.7 vs. 41.2 +/- 1.9 ml.kg-1.min-1, 3.96 +/- 0.17 vs 3.36 +/- 0.08 1, and 6.33 +/- 0.23 vs 5.28 +/- 0.13 1). Baseline heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by an intraradial catheter or a Finapres finger cuff), forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography), and FVR, calculated from the ratio (MAP-CVP)/FBF, were not different between the HF and the AF. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP, -5, -10, -15, and -20 torr) and passive leg elevation (LE, 50 cm) combined with lower body positive pressure (LBPP, +5, +10, and +20 torr) were utilized to elicit central hypovolemia and hypervolemia, respectively. Range of CVP (from LBNP to LE+LBPP) was similar in the AF (from -3.9 to +1.9 mm Hg) and HF (from -4.0 to +2.2 mm Hg). However, FVR/CVP was significantly less in the HF (-1.8 +/- 0.1 unit.mm Hg-1) than AF (-34 +/- 0.1 unit.mm Hg-1). The FVR decrease in response to increase in CVP was significantly diminished in the HF (-1.46 +/- 0.45 unit.mm Hg-1) compared to the AF (-4.40 +/- 0.97 unit.mm Hg-1), and during LBNP induced unloading the FVR/CVP of the HF (-2.01 +/- 0.49 unit.mm Hg-1) was less (P < 0.08) than the AF (-3.28 +/- 0.69 unit.mm Hg-1). We concluded that the cardiopulmonary baroreceptor mediated FVR reflex response was significantly less sensitive to changes in CVP in individuals who practice exercise training.

  1. Resting IL-6 and TNF-α level in children of different weight and fitness status.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Hackney, A C; Battaglini, Claudio; Combs, Terry; Harrell, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    Reports suggest children with high aerobic fitness (VO2max; mL/kg/min) have healthier profiles of TNF-α and IL-6; however, research has not accounted for differences in adiposity between high-fit and low-fit individuals. Thus, this study examined differences in inflammatory markers of obese and normal weight children of different fitness levels, using two different VO2max units: per unit of fat free mass (VO2FFM) or total body mass (VO2kg). Children (n = 124; ages 8-12) were divided into four matched groups; normal weight high-fit (NH), normal weight low- fit (NL), obese high-fit (OH), and obese low-fit (OL). Height, weight, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI), and predicted VO2max were measured and a morning, fasting blood sample taken. IL-6 was elevated in the NL and OL groups compared with the NH group, as well as the OL group compared with the OH group. No differences were found in TNF-α. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and the two units of predicted VO2max did not differ suggesting that either VO2FM or VO2kg can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and predicted VO2max, whether expressed per mass or per fat-free mass was similar, suggesting that both can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. Given the polar design of this study, this relationship should be confirmed including overweight subjects. PMID:23504656

  2. A review of the multi-level adaptations for maximizing aerobic dive duration in marine mammals: from biochemistry to behavior.

    PubMed

    Davis, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals exhibit multi-level adaptations, from cellular biochemistry to behavior, that maximize aerobic dive duration. A dive response during aerobic dives enables the efficient use of blood and muscle oxygen stores, but it is exercise modulated to maximize the aerobic dive limit at different levels of exertion. Blood volume and concentrations of blood hemoglobin and muscle myoglobin are elevated and serve as a significant oxygen store that increases aerobic dive duration. However, myoglobin is not homogeneously distributed in the locomotory muscles and is highest in areas that produce greater force and consume more oxygen during aerobic swimming. Muscle fibers are primarily fast and slow twitch oxidative with elevated mitochondrial volume densities and enhanced oxidative enzyme activities that are highest in areas that produce more force generation. Most of the muscle mitochondria are interfibriller and homogeneously distributed. This reduces the diffusion distance between mitochondria and helps maintain aerobic metabolism under hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial volume densities and oxidative enzyme activities are also elevated in certain organs such as liver, kidneys, and stomach. Hepatic and renal function along with digestion and assimilation continue during aerobic dives to maintain physiological homeostasis. Most ATP production comes from aerobic fat metabolism in carnivorous marine mammals. Glucose is derived mostly from gluconeogenesis and is conserved for tissues such as red blood cells and the central nervous system. Marine mammals minimize the energetic cost of swimming and diving through body streamlining, efficient, lift-based propulsive appendages, and cost-efficient modes of locomotion that reduce drag and take advantage of changes in buoyancy with depth. Most dives are within the animal's aerobic dive limit, which maximizes time underwater and minimizes recovery time at the surface. The result of these adaptations is increased breath

  3. Noise Levels during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. Noise levels were measured…

  4. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  5. Self-reported physical activity and objective aerobic fitness: differential associations with gray matter density in healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; McGregor, Keith M.; Towler, Stephen; Nocera, Joe R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness (AF) and self-reported physical activity (srPA) do not represent the same construct. However, many exercise and brain aging studies interchangeably use AF and srPA measures, which may be problematic with regards to how these metrics are associated with brain outcomes, such as morphology. If AF and PA measures captured the same phenomena, regional brain volumes associated with these measures should directly overlap. This study employed the general linear model to examine the differential association between objectively-measured AF (treadmill assessment) and srPA (questionnaire) with gray matter density (GMd) in 29 cognitively unimpaired community-dwelling older adults using voxel based morphometry. The results show significant regional variance in terms of GMd when comparing AF and srPA as predictors. Higher AF was associated with greater GMd in the cerebellum only, while srPA displayed positive associations with GMd in occipito-temporal, left perisylvian, and frontal regions after correcting for age. Importantly, only AF level, and not srPA, modified the relationship between age and GMd, such that higher levels of AF were associated with increased GMd in older age, while decreased GMd was seen in those with lower AF as a function of age. These results support existing literature suggesting that both AF and PA exert beneficial effects on GMd, but only AF served as a buffer against age-related GMd loss. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for use of objective PA measurement and comparability of tools across studies, since results vary dependent upon the measures used and whether these are objective or subjective in nature. PMID:25691866

  6. Decline in Executive Control during Acute Bouts of Exercise as a Function of Exercise Intensity and Fitness Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Bherer, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed, participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling…

  7. Effect of fish oil supplementation and exercise on serum lipids and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Brilla, L R; Landerholm, T E

    1990-06-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation and exercise were investigated in healthy, previously sedentary males, ages 19-34. Thirty-two subjects were assigned to four groups: control (C), fish (F), exercise (E), fish and exercise (FE). The fish groups consumed 4 g.d-1 of omega-3 fatty acids. The exercise groups performed aerobic exercise for one hour three per week. The study was conducted for 10 weeks with pre and post values obtained for cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), percent body fat, and dietary composition of macronutrients and polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) ratio. No significant differences were noted between groups for any of the blood lipid values, percent body fat or dietary variables. VO2max and VAT did exhibit significant changes among groups. VO2max was greater for the exercise groups (E, FE) as compared to the control group (p less than 0.05). E, but not FE, was significantly greater than F. VAT was significantly greater in F, E, and FE as compared to controls, however the control's VAT decreased slightly. The slight improvement, although statistically non-significant, in VO2max and VAT by the F group requires further study. This data indicates an improvement in aerobic metabolism from aerobic exercise, alone or in combination with fish oil, compared to controls. PMID:2402138

  8. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. PMID:26369387

  9. Influence of fitness on the integrated neuroendocrine response to aerobic exercise until exhaustion.

    PubMed

    de Diego Acosta, A M; García, J C; Fernández-Pastor, V J; Perán, S; Ruiz, M; Guirado, F

    2001-12-01

    A group of trained and sedentary men performed an incremental graded exercise-test to exhaustion in order to assess the organic response of the two main stress-activated systems: the sympathetic nervous system with its endocrine component (the adrenal medulla), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Maximal plasma concentrations of ACTH, cortisol and endogenous opioids (beta-endorphins) were obtained at the end of the exercise-test in the trained group. Thus ACTH increased from basal value of 21.25 +/- 2.5 pg/ml to 88.78 +/- 11.8 pg/ml at the end of the exercise (p<0.01); cortisol, from 16.56 microg/dl +/- 4.94 microg/dl to 23.80 +/- 4.57 microg/dl in min 15 of the recovery period (p<0.001); and beta-endorphin from 21.80 +/- 8.33 pmol/ml to 64.36 +/- 9.8 pmol/ml in min 3 of the recovery period (p<0.05). Catecholamine levels were increased from initial values at the end of the effort test in both control and trained groups. Control subjects exhibited a higher responsiveness compared to trained and showed superior intrinsic stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results reveal a different response according to fitness in a physical stress situation. PMID:12005034

  10. Getting Started: What's Your Fitness Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following questions: Determine your current activity level. l How much time do you spend sitting? l How much time and how often are you active? l When you’re active, what kinds of activities ...

  11. Ratings of Perceived Exertion of ACSM Exercise Guidelines in Individuals Varying in Aerobic Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Christopher; Berg, Kris; Noble, John; Thomas, James

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of high (HF) and low fit (LF) individuals at given perceived exercise intensities were compared to ranges provided by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Participants were 7 LF and 8 HF men between the ages of 22 and 26 years. All participants performed a maximum oxygen uptake and lactate threshold test and…

  12. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (P<0.05) and was maintained in EX; however, significant individual variability was observed (CON: -22%, range: -39% to -.5%; EX: -1.8%, range: -16% to 12.6%). The overlap in ranges between groups included 3 CON who experienced smaller reduction in VO2pk (<16%) than the worst responding EX subjects. Individual variability was maintained when VO2pk was normalized to lean mass (range, CON: -33.7% to -5.7%; EX: -15.8% to 11%), and the overlap included 5 CON with smaller reductions in VO2pk than the worst responding EX subjects. High responders to disuse also lost the most lean mass; however, this relationship was not maintained in EX (i.e. the largest gains/losses in lean mass were observed in both high and low

  13. Differential baroreflex control of heart rate in sedentary and aerobically fit individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Fadel, P. J.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Shi, X.; Raven, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared arterial, aortic, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max = 42.2+/-1.9 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and eight high fit (VO2max = 61.9+/-2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) healthy young adults. METHODS: Arterial and aortic (ABR) baroreflex functions were assessed utilizing hypo- and hyper-tensive challenges induced by graded bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside (SN) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively. Carotid baroreflex (CBR) sensitivity was determined using ramped 5-s pulses of both pressure and suction delivered to the carotid sinus via a neck chamber collar, independent of drug administration. RESULTS: During vasoactive drug injection, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly altered in average fit (AF) and high fit (HF) groups. However, the heart rate (HR) response range of the arterial baroreflex was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) in HF (31+/-4 beats x min(-1)) compared with AF individuals (46+/-4 beats x min(-1)). When sustained neck suction and pressure were applied to counteract altered carotid sinus pressure during SN and PE administration, isolating the ABR response, the response range remained diminished (P < 0.05) in the HF population (24+/-3 beats x min(-1)) compared with the AF group (41+/-4 beats x min(-1)). During CBR perturbation, the HF (14+/-1 beats-min(-1)) and AF (16+/-1 beats-min(-1)) response ranges were similar. The arterial baroreflex response range was significantly less than the simple sum of the CBR and ABR (HF, 38+/-3 beats x min(-1) and AF, 57+/-4 beats x min(-1)) in both fitness groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that reductions in arterial-cardiac reflex sensitivity are mediated by diminished ABR function. More importantly, these data suggest that the integrative relationship between the ABR and CBR contributing to arterial baroreflex control of HR is inhibitory in nature and not altered by exercise training.

  14. Decline in Aerobic Fitness After Long-Term Stays on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Peggy A.; Minard, Charles; Moore, Alan; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    U.S. and non-Russian International Partner astronauts who participate in long-term International Space Station (ISS) expeditions perform submaximal cycle exercise tests before, during, and after space flight. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) responses to exercise are used to estimate peak VO2 (EVO2pk). Purpose: To determine if the following factors are associated with the preflight-to-post flight change in EVO2pk: gender, age, body weight (BW), number of aerobic exercise sessions/wk- during flight, length of flight, EVO2pk measured before and late during the flight, ISS Expedition number and time between landing and the first post flight test. Methods: Records of 37 ISS astronauts (30 male, BW=81.6 plus or minus 8.6 kg; 7 female BW=66.1 plus or minus 4.9 kg [mean plus or minus SD]), age 46 plus or minus 4 years, were retrospectively examined. Peak HR and VO2 were measured approximately 9 months before flight to establish the test protocol. The submaximal cycle test consisted of three 5-minute stages designed to elicit 25, 50, and 75% of VO2pk. EVO2pk was calculated using linear least-squares extrapolation of average HR and VO2 during the last minute of each stage to predict VO2 at maximal HR. VO2 was not measured during flight and was assumed to not be different from preflight. Testing was performed 45 days before launch, late during flight, and during the week after landing. A random-intercept multivariate model was used to determine which characteristics significantly contributed to post flight EVO2pk. Results: In-flight aerobic exercise averaged 5.4 plus or minus 1.2 sessions/wk. ISS flight duration averaged 163 plus or minus 39 d. Mean EVO2pk values were 3.41 plus or minus 0.64 L (raised dot) per minute before flight, 3.09 plus or minus 0.57 L (raised dot) per minute late in flight, and 3.02 plus or minus 0.65 L (raised dot) per minute after flight. Late- and after-flight values were lower (p less than 0.05) than preflight values and did not differ

  15. Age-related increases in human lymphocyte DNA damage: is there a role of aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Mota, Maria Paula; Duarte, José Alberto; Collins, Andrew; Gaivão, Isabel

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been advanced as one of the major causes of damage to DNA and other macromolecules. Although physical exercise may also increase oxidative stress, an important role has been recognized for regular exercise in improving the overall functionality of the body, as indicated by an increase in maximal aerobic uptake ((V)O2max), and in resistance to cell damage. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the association between DNA damage in human lymphocytes and age and 2) to evaluate the association between DNA damage in human lymphocytes and ((V)O2max. The sample was composed of 36 healthy and nonsmoking males, aged from 20 to 84 years. ((V)O2max was evaluated through the Bruce protocol with direct measurement of oxygen consumption. The comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage, strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites. We found a positive correlation of age with DNA strand breaks but not with FPG-sensitive sites. ((V)O2max was significantly inversely related with DNA strand breaks, but this relation disappeared when adjusted for age. A significantly positive relation between ((V)O2max and FPG-sensitive sites was verified. In conclusion, our results showed that younger subjects have lower DNA strand breaks and higher (V)O2max compared with older subjects and FPG-sensitive sites are positively related with ((V)O2max, probably as transient damage due to the acute effects of daily physical activity. PMID:24446564

  16. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  17. A diminished aortic-cardiac reflex during hypotension in aerobically fit young men.

    PubMed

    Shi, X; Crandall, C G; Potts, J T; Williamson, J W; Foresman, B H; Raven, P B

    1993-09-01

    We compared the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (AF: VO2max = 44.7 +/- 1.3 ml.kg-1 x min-1) and seven high fit (HF: VO2max = 64.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1 x kg-1) healthy young men during hypotension elicited by steady state sodium nitroprusside (SN) infusion. During SN mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly decreased in AF (-12.6 +/- 1.0 mm Hg) and HF (-12.1 +/- 1.1 mm Hg). However, the increases in heart rate (HR) were less (P < 0.023) in HF (15 +/- 3 bpm) than AF (25 +/- 1 bpm). When sustained neck suction (NS, -22 +/- 1 torr in AF and -20 +/- 1 torr in HF, P > 0.05) was applied to counteract the decreased carotid sinus transmural pressure during SN, thereby isolating the aortic baroreceptors, the increased HR remained less (P < 0.021) in HF (8 +/- 2 bpm) than AF (16 +/- 2 bpm). During both SN infusion and SN+NS, the calculated gains (i.e., delta HR/delta MAP) were significantly greater in AF (2.1 +/- 0.3 and 1.3 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) than HF (1.2 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1). However, the estimated carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., the gain difference between the stage SN and SN + NS) was not different between AF (0.7 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) and HF (0.6 +/- 0.1 bpm.mm Hg-1). These data indicated that the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during hypotension was significantly diminished with endurance exercise training. PMID:8231770

  18. A diminished aortic-cardiac reflex during hypotension in aerobically fit young men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Crandall, C. G.; Potts, J. T.; Williamson, J. W.; Foresman, B. H.; Raven, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    We compared the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (AF: VO2max = 44.7 +/- 1.3 ml.kg-1 x min-1) and seven high fit (HF: VO2max = 64.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1 x kg-1) healthy young men during hypotension elicited by steady state sodium nitroprusside (SN) infusion. During SN mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly decreased in AF (-12.6 +/- 1.0 mm Hg) and HF (-12.1 +/- 1.1 mm Hg). However, the increases in heart rate (HR) were less (P < 0.023) in HF (15 +/- 3 bpm) than AF (25 +/- 1 bpm). When sustained neck suction (NS, -22 +/- 1 torr in AF and -20 +/- 1 torr in HF, P > 0.05) was applied to counteract the decreased carotid sinus transmural pressure during SN, thereby isolating the aortic baroreceptors, the increased HR remained less (P < 0.021) in HF (8 +/- 2 bpm) than AF (16 +/- 2 bpm). During both SN infusion and SN+NS, the calculated gains (i.e., delta HR/delta MAP) were significantly greater in AF (2.1 +/- 0.3 and 1.3 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) than HF (1.2 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1). However, the estimated carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., the gain difference between the stage SN and SN + NS) was not different between AF (0.7 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) and HF (0.6 +/- 0.1 bpm.mm Hg-1). These data indicated that the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during hypotension was significantly diminished with endurance exercise training.

  19. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  20. Physical Fitness Profile in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Differences between Levels of Sport Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular and aerobic capacity can be reduced in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies suggest these individuals might be particularly susceptible to losing basic functions because of poor physical fitness. The aim of this study is to describe the physical fitness profile of adult athletes with ID and identify whether…

  1. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  2. Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Training on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.; Cocreham, Shannon; Johannsen, Neil; Johnson, William; Kramer, Kimberly; Mikus, Catherine R.; Myers, Valerie; Nauta, Melissa; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Sparks, Lauren; Thompson, Angela; Earnest, Conrad P.

    2011-01-01

    Context Exercise guidelines for individuals with diabetes include both aerobic and resistance training although few studies have directly examined this exercise combination. Objective To examine the benefits of aerobic training alone, resistance training alone, and a combination of both on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized controlled trial in which 262 sedentary men and women in Louisiana with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels of 6.5% or higher were enrolled in the 9-month exercise program between April 2007 and August 2009. Intervention Forty-one participants were assigned to the nonexercise control group, 73 to resistance training 3 days a week, 72 to aerobic exercise in which they expended 12 kcal/kg per week; and 76 to combined aerobic and resistance training in which they expended 10 kcal/kg per week and engaged in resistance training twice a week. Main Outcome Change in HbA1c level. Secondary outcomes included measures of anthropometry and fitness. Results The study included 63.0% women and 47.3% nonwhite participants who were a mean (SD) age of 55.8 years (8.7 years) with a baseline HbA1c level of 7.7% (1.0%). Compared with the control group, the absolute mean change in HbA1c in the combination training exercise group was −0.34% (95% confidence interval “CI”, −0.64% to −0.03%; P=.03). The mean changes in HbA1c were not statistically significant in either the resistance training (−0.16%; 95% CI, −0.46% to 0.15%; P=.32) or the aerobic (−0.24%; 95% CI, −0.55% to 0.07%; P=.14) groups compared with the control group. Only the combination exercise group improved maximum oxygen consumption (mean, 1.0 mL/kg per min; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5, P<.05) compared with the control group. All exercise groups reduced waist circumference from −1.9 to −2.8 cm compared with the control group. The resistance training group lost a mean of −1.4 kg fat mass (95% CI, −2.0 to −0.7 kg; P<.05

  3. Teachers' Psychological Contract Perceptions and Person-Environment Fit Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…

  4. Exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses in older and younger men: effect of heat acclimation and aerobic fitness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Y.; Havenith, George; Kenney, W. Larry; Loomis, Joseph L.; Buskirk, Elsworth R.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of aging and aerobic fitness on exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses during heat acclimation. Five younger [Y group - age: 23+/-1 (SEM) years; maximal oxygen consumption (V.O2max): 47+/-3 ml.kg-1.min-1], four highly fit older (HO group - 63+/-3 years; 48+/-4 ml.kg-1.min-1) and five normally fit older men (NO group - 67+/-3 years; 30+/-1 ml.kg-1.min-1) who were matched for height, body mass and percentage fat, were heat acclimated by daily cycle exercise ( 35% V.O2max for 90 min) in a hot (43°C, 30% RH) environment for 8 days. The heat acclimation regimen increased performance time, lowered final rectal temperature (Tre) and percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax), improved thermal comfort and decreased sweat sodium concentration similarly in all groups. Although total body sweating rates (M.sw) during acclimation were significantly greater in the Y and HO groups than in the NO group (P<0.01) (because of the lower absolute workload in the NO group), the M.sw did not change in all groups with the acclimation sessions. Neither were local sweating rates (m.sw) on chest, back, forearm and thigh changed in all groups by the acclimation. The HO group presented greater forearm m.sw (30-90 min) values and the Y group had greater back and thigh m.sw (early in exercise) values, compared to the other groups (P<0.001). In a methylcholine injection test on days immediately before and after the acclimation, the order of sweat output per gland (SGO) on chest, back and thigh was Y>HO>NO, and on the forearm Y=HO>NO. No group differences were observed for activated sweat gland density at any site. The SGO at the respective sites increased in the post-acclimation test regardless of group (P<0.01), but on the thigh the magnitude of the increase was lower in the NO (P<0.02) and HO (P=0.07) groups than in the Y group. These findings suggest that heat tolerance and the improvement with acclimation are little

  5. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (P<0.0001) and 4% (P=0.001), respectively in HIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; P<0.0001). Insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) decreased only in HIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance. PMID:27346646

  6. The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance- and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students.

    PubMed

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Hukam, Harmel; Metsios, George; Nevill, Alan; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Myszkewycz, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-week aerobic and muscular strength training program on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. The sample consisted of 32 men and women (age 19 +/- 2.2 years) who were randomly assigned into exercise (n = 19) and control (n = 13) groups. Anthropometric and flexibility assessments, treadmill ergometry, strength measurements, and- on a separate day-a dance technique test were conducted pre- and postexercise training in both groups. After the end of the program, the exercise group revealed significant increases in dance (p < 0.02), VO(2)max (p < 0.04), flexibility (p < 0.01), and leg strength (p < 0.001) tests compared to controls. It is concluded that in modern dance students (a) a 3-month aerobic and strength training program has positive effects on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters, (b) aerobic capacity and leg strength improvements do not hinder dance performance as studied herein, and (c) the dance-only approach does not provide enough scope for physical fitness enhancements. PMID:17685714

  7. Maturity Status Does Not Exert Effects on Aerobic Fitness in Soccer Players After Appropriate Normalization for Body Size.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Giovani Santos; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Geremia, Jean Marcel; Leites, Gabriela T; Baptista, Rafael Reimann; Lopes, André Luiz; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pubertal status on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and ventilatory threshold (VT) in young soccer players using different body size descriptors. Seventy-nine soccer players (14 prepubescent, 38 pubescent and 27 postpubescent) participated in this study. A maximal exercise test was performed to determine the VO2peak, RCP, and VT. Ultrasonography was used to measure lower limb muscle volume (LLMV). LLMV (mL-b) was rated as the most effective body size descriptor to normalize VO2peak (mLO2·mL-0.43·min-1), RCP (mLO2·mL-0.48·min-1), and VT (mLO2·mL- 0.40·min-1). The values of VO2peak, RCP, and VT relative to allometric exponents derived by LLMV were similar among groups (p > .05; 0.025 < η2 < 0.059) when the effect of chronological age was controlled. Allometric VO2peak, RCP, and VT values were: 100.1 ± 7.9, 107.5 ± 9.6, and 108.0 ± 10.3 mLO2.mL-0.43·min-1; 51.8 ± 5.3, 54.8 ± 4.7, and 57.3 ± 5.8 mLO2·mL-0.48·min-1; and 75.7 ± 7.1, 79.4 ± 7.0, and 80.9 ± 8.3 mLO2·mL- 0.40·min-1 for prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal groups, respectively. Maturity status showed no positive effect on VO2peak, RCP, and VT when the data were properly normalized by LLMV in young soccer players. Allometric normalization using muscle volume as a body size descriptor should be used to compare aerobic fitness between soccer players heterogeneous in chronological age, maturity status, and body size. PMID:26694739

  8. Decline in executive control during acute bouts of exercise as a function of exercise intensity and fitness level.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Véronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Saïd; Bherer, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed, participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling for key methodological confounds. Thirty-seven participants (M(age)=23. 8 years; SD=2.6) completed a computerized modified-Stroop task (involving denomination, inhibition and switching conditions) while pedalling at 40%, 60% and 80% of their peak power output (PPO). Results showed that in the switching condition of the task, error rates increased as a function of exercise intensity (from 60% to 80% of PPO) in all participants and that lower fit individuals showed increased reaction time variability. This suggests that acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise can momentarily alter executive control and increase performance instability in lower fit individuals. PMID:23146780

  9. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span. PMID:26436463

  10. Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components than would be expected from mutation–selection balance. Here, we used a long-term study of an individually marked population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) to look for evidence of (1) additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success and (2) fitness trade-offs between fitness components, such as male and female fitness or fitness in high- and low-resource environments. “Animal model” analyses of a multigenerational pedigree revealed modest maternal effects on fitness, but very low levels of additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success overall as well as fitness measures within each sex and environment. It therefore appears that there are very low levels of direct genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in red squirrels to facilitate contemporary adaptation in this population. PMID:24963372

  11. A 12 week aerobic exercise program improves fitness, hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in obese Hispanic adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Strictly controlled exercise programs might be useful tools to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk aerobic exerci...

  12. Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults: validity of a 15-m incremental shuttle walk and run test.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, Kotaro; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15mISWRT]), incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 68 middle-aged men performed three tests in random order between one to two week intervals: 15-m ISWRT, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), and 1500-m fast walk. Variables evaluated were 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), VO2max measured by CPX, 1500-m fast walk performance (walking time), and HR response in 15-m ISWRT and 1500-m fast walk. Validity of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing the associations among the 15-m ISWRT performance, VO2max and the 1500-m fast walk performance. Changes in HR response during the 15-m ISWRT and the 1500-m fast walk were also compared. Correlations between each variable were as follows: the correlation between 15- m ISWRT performance and VO2max was very high, r = 0.86 (p < 0.01), the correlation between the 1500-m fast walk and VO2max was r = -0.51 (p < 0.01). HR response during the 15-m ISWRT gently increased initially, whereas HR response during the 1500-m fast walk rapidly increased from the start. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults. Key pointsThe 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults.In comparison with the 1500-m fast walk, the 15-m ISWRT may be a more favourable field-based assessment of aerobic fitness in the middle-aged adults.The 15-m ISWRT could become a valid means for evaluating aerobic fitness as an alternative to CPX in institutions and situations where CPX is difficult to implement. PMID:24149563

  13. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  14. One School District's Strategy to Improve Fitness Levels: A Fitness Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Tass, Brian; Peterson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a district-wide fitness challenge that was implemented by the elementary physical education program in the Waterford (Michigan) public schools. Its purpose was to (1) encourage students to be active outside of the classroom, (2) provide parents and families with information about the importance of fitness and physical…

  15. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1, 5.4±3.0 MJ. day−1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in was explained by sex (partial R2 = 54.7%) and body mass index (partial R2 = 15.9%). Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success. PMID:23805234

  16. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  17. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura.

    PubMed

    Köseoglu, E; Akboyraz, A; Soyuer, A; Ersoy, A O

    2003-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache. Forty patients with migrainous headache without aura (MWOA), firstly exercised on a treadmill and afterwards were asked to continue an aerobic home exercise program for six weeks. On evaluation, basal plasma beta endorphin level was negatively correlated with total duration of attacks in the last month period (P = 0.01). Exercise was found to have beneficial effects on all migraine parameters (P < 0.0001) and to increase beta endorphin levels after the treadmill practice (P < 0.0001) and after the home exercise program except four patients not regularly attended to the program (P < 0.0001). Any of the changes in headache parameters was not correlated with the change in beta endorphin level. However, pre-exercise beta endorphin level was found to be negatively correlated with the changes in the number of attacks (P < 0.05) and total duration of attacks (P = 0.01) and also with the change in beta endorphin level due to exercise (P < 0.0001). As a result, this study emphasizes the beneficial effect of exercise on migrainous headache, especially in patients with lower basal beta endorphin level. PMID:14984230

  18. Slight chronic elevation of C-reactive protein is associated with lower aerobic fitness but does not impair meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein metabolism in healthy old men

    PubMed Central

    Buffière, Caroline; Mariotti, François; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Meunier, Nathalie; Hercberg, Serge; Cano, Noel; Rémond, Didier; Duclos, Martine; Dardevet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    elevation could predict a decrease in aerobic fitness and insulin resistance installation in elderly individuals. Key points Development of low grade inflammation has been correlated with sarcopenia in humans and shown to induce an anabolic resistance of muscle protein metabolism to dietary amino acid intake in an animal model. Low grade inflammation is clinically and routinely detected in humans by measurement of the plasma C-reactive protein level. In healthy elderly individuals presenting a slight but chronic elevation of C-reactive protein, we show that neither muscle, nor whole body protein metabolism was affected. By contrast, a decrease in aerobic fitness, an increase in abdominal fat mass and a post-prandial insulin resistance was detected. Our results show that the unique detection of chronic C-reactive protein elevation could predict a decrease in aerobic fitness and insulin resistance installation in elderly individuals but not muscle anabolic resistance to food intake. PMID:25557160

  19. Effects of ingesting JavaFit Energy Extreme functional coffee on aerobic and anaerobic fitness markers in recreationally-active coffee consumers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Taylor, Lemuel W; Wismann, Jennifer A; Wilborn, Colin D; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ingesting JavaFittrade mark Energy Extreme (JEE) on aerobic and anaerobic performance measures in recreationally-active male and female coffee drinkers. Five male (27.6 +/- 4.2 yrs, 93.2 +/- 11.7 kg, 181.6 +/- 6.9 cm) and five female (29 +/- 4.6 yrs, 61.5 +/- 9.2 kg, 167.6 +/- 6.9 cm) regular coffee drinkers (i.e., 223.9 +/- 62.7 mg.d-1 of caffeine) participated in this study. In a cross-over, randomized design, participants performed a baseline (BASELINE) graded treadmill test (GXT) for peak VO2 assessment and a Wingate test for peak power. Approximately 3-4 d following BASELINE testing, participants returned to the lab for the first trial and ingested 354 ml of either JEE or decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), after which they performed a GXT and Wingate test. Criterion measures during the GXT included an assessment of peakVO2 at maximal exercise, as well as VO2 at 3 minutes and 10 minutes post-exercise. Additionally, time-to-exhaustion (TTE), maximal RPE, mean heart rate (HR), mean systolic pressure (SBP), and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured during each condition. Criterion measures for the Wingate included mean HR, SBP, DBP, peak power, and time to peak power (TTP). Participants then returned to the lab approximately one week later to perform the second trial under the same conditions as the first, except consuming the remaining coffee. Data were analyzed using a one way ANOVA (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that JEE significantly increased VO2 at 3 minutes post-exercise when compared to BASELINE (p = 0.04) and DECAF (p = 0.02) values, which may be beneficial in enhancing post-exercise fat metabolism. PMID:18067677

  20. Peer mentoring is associated with positive change in physical activity and aerobic fitness of grades 4, 5, and 6 students in the heart healthy kids program.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Bower, Jenna; Kirk, Sara F L; Hancock Friesen, Camille

    2014-11-01

    Only 7% of Canadian children achieve activity recommendations, contributing to obesity and preventable disease. The Heart Healthy Kids (H2K) program was designed to test the relationship between peer mentoring, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness. Participants from 10 schools (5 control, 5 intervention) were enrolled in the program. In control schools, H2K included a physical activity challenge and education sessions. Intervention schools included the addition of a peer-mentoring component. Physical activity was measured through daily pedometer recording. Cardiovascular fitness was evaluated using the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) protocol to calculate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Participants included 808 children (average age 9.9 ± 1.0 years). Although control and intervention schools did not differ at baseline, participants with peer mentoring logged significantly more steps per school day, on average, than those in control schools (6,785 ± 3,011 vs. 5,630 ± 2,586; p < .001). Male participants logged significantly more steps per school day than female participants. A significant improvement in VO2 max was also noted in intervention schools, with an average increase of 1.72 ml/mg/min. H2K was associated with positive change in physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, suggesting that peer mentoring shows promise for application in health promotion interventions. PMID:24737774

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise intervention on serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and lymphocyte dna damage in obese elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441

  2. The efficacy of the PACER versus the modified PACER test for assessing aerobic fitness in overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight status is negatively related to health in children. Achieving adequate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may reduce the health problems associated with pediatric overweight. It is important to accurately measure CRF. There is limited research concerning the validity of existing CRF field te...

  3. Changes in gut hormone levels and negative energy balance during aerobic exercise in obese young males.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shin-ya; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Katsura, Yoshihiro; Usui, Tatsuya; Nakao, Hayato; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2009-04-01

    We examined whether changes in gut hormone levels due to a single bout of aerobic exercise differ between obese young males and normal controls, and attempted to determine the involvement of hormonal changes during exercise in the regulation of energy balance (EB) in these obese subjects. Seven obese and seven age-matched subjects of normal weight participated in exercise and rest sessions. Subjects consumed a standardized breakfast that was followed by constant cycling exercise at 50% VO(2max) or rest for 60 min. At lunch, a test meal was presented, and energy intake (EI) and relative energy intake (REI) were calculated. Blood samples were obtained at 30 min intervals during both sessions for measurement of glucose, insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Plasma levels of PYY and GLP-1 were increased by exercise, whereas plasma ghrelin levels were unaffected by exercise. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the time courses of PYY and GLP-1 levels did not significantly differ between the two groups. In contrast, EI and REI were decreased by exercise in both groups, and energy deficit was significantly larger in obese subjects than in normal controls. The present findings suggest that short-term EB during a single exercise session might be regulated not by increased amounts of these gut hormones per se. PMID:19158129

  4. Cracking resistance in steam pipe fittings having various microdamage levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, I.I.; Googe, S.Yu.; Shul`gina, N.G.

    1995-05-01

    Cracking resistance and metal damage are considered in relation to structural state for steam-pipe fittings during use. An approximate scheme is given for estimating the maximum permissible operating time in the plastic state in relation to the depth of an observed crack-type defect.

  5. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  6. Activity profile and physiological requirements of junior elite basketball players in relation to aerobic-anaerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; Jabri, Imed; Battikh, Tahar; El Fazaa, Saloua; El Ati, Jalila

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the demands of competitive basketball games and to study the relationship between athletes' physical capability and game performance. Physical and physiological game demands and the association of relevant field test with game performance were examined in 18 male junior basketball players. Computerized time-motion analysis, heart rate (HR), and blood-lactate concentration [BL] measurements were performed during 6 basketball games. Players were also measured for explosive power, speed, agility, and maximal-strength and endurance performance. During the games, players covered 7,558 +/- 575 m, of which 1,743 +/- 317; 1,619 +/- 280; and 2,477 +/- 339 m were performed at high, moderate, and low intensities, respectively. The 19.3 +/- 3.5 and 56.0 +/- 6.3% of the playing time was spent above 95% and at 85-95% of maximal HR, respectively. Average and mean peak [BL] were 5.75 +/- 1.25 and 6.22 +/- 1.34 mmolxL, respectively. Distances covered at maximal- and high-speed running significantly (p < 0.01) decreased during the second half. Game maximal- and high-speed running were significantly correlated with endurance performance (r = 0.52, p < 0.05 and r = 0.49, p < 0.05, respectively). High-intensity shuffling distance resulted in being negatively related with agility (r = -0.68, p < 0.05). This study showed that basketball players experience fatigue as game time progresses and suggests the potential benefit of aerobic and agility conditioning in junior basketball. PMID:20802281

  7. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  8. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  9. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes. PMID:27190482

  11. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes. PMID:27190482

  12. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  13. Autonomic Function is Associated with Fitness Level in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Morgan H; Hetzler, Ronald K; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Kimura, Iris F; Stickley, Cris D; Lindsey, Rachel A; Nakamoto, Beau K; Chow, Dominic C

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular fitness can improve autonomic function (AF) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Methods Cross-sectional study investigating relationship between AF and cardiovascular fitness in HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Participants’ (n=29) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) were assessed by graded exercise test and scaled allometrically, then divided into tertiles by fitness level (Unfit, Low-fit, and Moderately-fit). Heart rate variability (HRV) and the Autonomic Reflex Screen were used to assess AF. Results Median VO2MAX were 104.9, 130.5, and 150.2 mL•kg−.67•min−1 for Unfit (n=10), Low-fit (n=10), and Moderately-fit (n= 9) groups respectively (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between VO2MAX and HRV (Spearman’s rho range 0.383 to 0.553) were found. Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (QSART) Distal Leg volumes was lower in Unfit compared to Low-fit (p=0.007) and Moderately-fit groups (p=0.018). Unfit QSART total volumes was lower than Moderately-fit (p=0.014). Conclusion A positive relationship existed between AF and fitness levels. HIV+ individuals could benefit from improved fitness. PMID:26213714

  14. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on MDA and TNF-α Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Mihriban; Ipekci, Suleyman Hilmi; Kebapcilar, Levent; Dogan Dede, Nesrin; Kurban, Sevil; Erbay, Ekrem; Gonen, Mustafa Sait

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the DM are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of aerobic exercise on malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the DM. Methods. We randomised 64 participants, who do not exercise regularly, without any diabetic chronic complications in parallel to 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (three times per week, n = 31) and no exercise (control; n = 33). Plasma levels of soluble TNF-α and MDA levels were measured before-after physical training programme and control group. Results. Sixty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were analysed. When comparing the two groups of patients with age, gender, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, lipid profile, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and class of treatment for diabetes were not different between groups. While soluble TNF-α remained essentially unaffected by physical training, plasma concentrations of MDA markedly decreased (P < 0.05); physical training also decreased body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Exercise training favorably affected body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure. A three-weekly, 12-week, aerobic-training programme, without a concomitant weight loss diet, was associated with significant decrease in MDA levels in type 2 diabetic individuals.

  15. Levels of Collaboration: Where Does Your Work Fit In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Betty L.

    2007-01-01

    To collaborate is to share--to collaborate at different levels is to share the responsibility for learning with more and more input. In this article, the author lists the academic areas enhanced by collaboration; the characteristics of collaboration behaviors between educators; and the six elements of successful collaboration. She briefly…

  16. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hao, W.; Wang, H. L.; Ning, T. T.; Yang, F. Y.; Xu, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR. PMID:25925059

  17. Using Heart Rate Monitors in Research on Fitness Levels of Children in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Brad; Reeder, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of heart rate monitors (HRMs) in fitness research and examines heart rate intensity levels of middle school students while they participated in a variety of physical education activities throughout a school year. Research shows the HRM has considerable potential in assessing fitness achievements in school-age children. (GLR)

  18. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  19. Fitness Level and Gross Motor Performance of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess fitness and gross motor performance of children with ADHD, including users and nonusers of methylphenidate medication. Seventy boys took part in the study. Fitness level of children with ADHD using medication or not, including body composition, flexibility, and muscular endurance, was similar to that of a…

  20. Effects of foot-pedal positions by inexperienced cyclists at the highest aerobic level.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; Rubbelke, Sara; Mullin, Tom; Keener, John; Swetkovich, Ryan

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the platform foot-pedal position affected maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max) at the highest aerobic demand in cycling. 21 inexperienced cyclists completed two exercise tests, one in the "normal" platform foot-pedal position and the other in the Biopedal forefoot varus foot-pedal position, cycling on an exercise ergometer. The time between tests ranged from 1 to 3 days depending on the subject's reported fatigue and muscle soreness. The highest aerobic demand was the subject's VO2 max at the point just below the subject's anaerobic threshold. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that the subject's VO2 max performance was similar between the foot-pedal positions. These results did not support the assumption that the Biopedal forefoot varus foot-pedal position would enable the cyclist to be more efficient at the highest aerobic demand when compared to a standard platform foot-pedal position. PMID:15209323

  1. Leptin level lowers in proportion to the amount of aerobic work after four weeks of training in obesity.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, A; Fanari, P; Brunani, A; Marzullo, P; Codecasa, F; Tovaglieri, I; Cornacchia, M; Palmulli, P; Longhini, E

    2015-03-01

    Leptin values are higher in obesity. Physical exercise reduces fat mass (FM) and decreases leptin levels. Intensity of physical training seems to play a role in reducing circulating leptin. In 16 obese subjects (8 men and 8 women, age 38.6±3.9 years, BMI 35.9±1.8 kg/m(2)), leptin was sampled before and after 4 weeks of controlled training. Eight subjects (4 men and 4 women) performed an aerobic training schedule (Group A), the remainders an aerobic training program with a bout of work beyond the anaerobic threshold (AT) (Group B). Training determined a reduction in leptin levels in both groups, which was significant in Group A (12.2 vs. 27.8 μg/l, p<0.05), even when related to the change in FM (0.372 vs. 0.762 μg/l/kg, p<0.05). FM decreased significantly in Group B when compared to Group A (-7.4 vs. -2.6 kg, respectively, p<0.001). While in Group A the slight loss of FM was aggregated to a significant decrease in leptin levels, the opposite occurred in Group B. In Group A, leptin lowering was proportional to the amount of total work performed (p<0.001, R(2)=0.89). In obesity, a reduction is observed in leptin levels after short-term training, which is seemingly dissociated from concomitant decrease of FM. Aerobic training alone appears to be linked to a greater leptin reduction, which is well correlated with the amount of work performed. PMID:25502942

  2. Influence of exercise adherence level on modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors and functional-fitness levels in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, E S; White, J A; Downie, A; Dalzell, G; Doran, D

    1993-01-01

    The study investigated the potential health benefits of two levels of short-term exercise intervention, compared with non-intervention, on selected modifiable coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and functional fitness states in middle-aged men. All subjects underwent medical screening and signed informed consent before carrying out a standardized graded treadmill walk which required exercise up to 85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. The results of the test were used together with musculoskeletal fitness assessments, for the prescription of a personalized exercise programme lasting 14 weeks. In all, 55 subjects were classified by adherence into high (HA, n = 20), low (LA, n = 19), or non-adherence (NA, n = 16) groups according to the degree of documented participation in the programme based on standard criteria (American College of Sports Medicine 1978, 1990). In addition, the respective groups of subjects were classified according to other modifiable and non-modifiable CHD risk factors and compared by self-reported levels of activity and sport involvement as well as perceived body weight classification. The results indicated that there were more comprehensive improvements in functional fitness including significant gains in aerobic endurance capacity, muscular endurance and flexibility in the HA group compared with the LA and NA groups. However, there was little or no change in the modifiable CHD risk factors in any of the respective groups, although anthropometric indices of weight, body mass index (BMI), skinfolds and waist:hips ratio tended to decrease in the HA and LA groups but increased marginally in the NA group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358578

  3. Experimentally elevated levels of testosterone at independence reduce fitness in a territorial bird.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S C; Redpath, S M

    2014-04-01

    Environmental conditions and individual strategies in early life may have a profound effect on fitness. A critical moment in the life of an organism occurs when an individual reaches independence and stops receiving benefits from its relatives. Understanding the consequences of individual strategies at the time of independence requires quantification of their fitness effects. We explored this period in the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). In this system, testosterone and parasite (Trichostrongylus tenuis) levels are known to influence survival and reproduction, the two key components of individual fitness. We experimentally and simultaneously manipulated testosterone and parasites at three levels (high, intermediate, and control levels for both factors) in 195 young males in five populations using a factorial experimental design. We explored the effects of our treatments on fitness by monitoring reproduction and survival throughout the life of all males and estimating lambda(ind), a rate-sensitive index of fitness. Parasite challenges increased the number of worms with a time lag, as previously found. However, we did not find significant effects of parasite manipulations on fitness, possibly because parasite abundance did not increase to harmful levels. Our hormone manipulation was successful at increasing testosterone at three different levels. Such increases in hormone levels decreased overall fitness. This was caused by reduced offspring production in the first breeding attempt rather than by any effect of the treatment on bird survival. Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels at independence, a strategy that might enhance short-term recruitment probability in territorial species such as Red Grouse, has a fitness cost, and can influence the resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and survival later in life. PMID:24933821

  4. Conversion of infrared grey-level image into temperature field by polynomial curve fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Terry Y.; Kuo, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-02-01

    A simple method to convert the infrared gray-level image into temperature field is developed by using least squares polynomial curve fitting. In this method, the correspondence between the infrared gray-level image and the associated temperature field for various emissivity values and temperature range is analyzed first. Then a second-order polynomial can be applied to fit the correspondence between the gray-level image and the associated temperature field as a function of emissivity. For multiple conversions of temperature ranges, the constants of the fitted polynomial in multiple ranges can be further fitted as a function of emissivity and temperature range. Test of the method on a cup of hot water was done. An average error less than 1% was achieved between the proposed method and the commercial ones.

  5. Cognitive Performance and Heart Rate Variability: The Influence of Fitness Level

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Zabala, Mikel; Morales, Esther; Mateo-March, Manuel; Sanabria, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relation between cognitive performance and heart rate variability as a function of fitness level. We measured the effect of three cognitive tasks (the psychomotor vigilance task, a temporal orienting task, and a duration discrimination task) on the heart rate variability of two groups of participants: a high-fit group and a low-fit group. Two major novel findings emerged from this study. First, the lowest values of heart rate variability were found during performance of the duration discrimination task, compared to the other two tasks. Second, the results showed a decrement in heart rate variability as a function of the time on task, although only in the low-fit group. Moreover, the high-fit group showed overall faster reaction times than the low-fit group in the psychomotor vigilance task, while there were not significant differences in performance between the two groups of participants in the other two cognitive tasks. In sum, our results highlighted the influence of cognitive processing on heart rate variability. Importantly, both behavioral and physiological results suggested that the main benefit obtained as a result of fitness level appeared to be associated with processes involving sustained attention. PMID:23437276

  6. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  7. Massively Parallel Interrogation of the Effects of Gene Expression Levels on Fitness.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; Hausser, Jean; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Vainberg Slutskin, Ilya; Alisar, Hadas; Kaminski, Sivan; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2016-08-25

    Data of gene expression levels across individuals, cell types, and disease states is expanding, yet our understanding of how expression levels impact phenotype is limited. Here, we present a massively parallel system for assaying the effect of gene expression levels on fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by systematically altering the expression level of ∼100 genes at ∼100 distinct levels spanning a 500-fold range at high resolution. We show that the relationship between expression levels and growth is gene and environment specific and provides information on the function, stoichiometry, and interactions of genes. Wild-type expression levels in some conditions are not optimal for growth, and genes whose fitness is greatly affected by small changes in expression level tend to exhibit lower cell-to-cell variability in expression. Our study addresses a fundamental gap in understanding the functional significance of gene expression regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the phenotypic effects of expression variation. PMID:27545349

  8. Cross-Sectional Comparison of Executive Attention Function in Normally Aging Long-Term T'ai Chi, Meditation, and Aerobic Fitness Practitioners Versus Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional field study documented the effect of long-term t'ai chi, meditation, or aerobic exercise training versus a sedentary lifestyle on executive function. It was predicted that long-term training in t'ai chi and meditation plus exercise would produce greater benefits to executive function than aerobic exercise. T'ai chi and meditation plus exercise include mental and physical training. Fifty-four volunteers were tested: t'ai chi (n=10); meditation+exercise (n=16); aerobic exercisers (n=16); and sedentary controls (n=12). A one-factor (group), one-covariate (age) multivariate analysis of covariance was performed. Significant main effects of group and age were found (group, 67.9%, p<0.001; age, 76.3%, p=0.001). T'ai chi and meditation practitioners but not aerobic exercisers outperformed sedentary controls on percent switch costs (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), suggesting that there may be differential effects of training type on executive function. PMID:24286339

  9. Fitness level moderates executive control disruption during exercise regardless of age.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Smilovitch, Mark; Bherer, Louis

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise intensity, age, and fitness levels on executive and nonexecutive cognitive tasks during exercise. Participants completed a computerized modified-Stroop task (including denomination, inhibition, and switching conditions) while pedaling on a cycle ergometer at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak power output (PPO). We showed that a bout of moderate-intensity (60% PPO) to high-intensity (80% PPO) exercise was associated with deleterious performance in the executive component of the computerized modified-Stroop task (i.e., switching condition), especially in lower-fit individuals (p < .01). Age did not have an effect on the relationship between acute cardiovascular exercise and cognition. Acute exercise can momentarily impair executive control equivalently in younger and older adults, but individual's fitness level moderates this relation. PMID:24918309

  10. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  11. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  12. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  13. Effects of music aerobic exercise on depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in community dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels. PMID:26075212

  14. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D.

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels. PMID:26075212

  15. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with aerobic plus resistance training to improve inflammatory biomarkers in obese adults.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Aquino, Antonio Eduardo; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Tock, Lian; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-07-01

    Recently, investigations suggest the benefits of low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in noninvasive treatment of cellulite, improvement of body countering, and control of lipid profile. However, the underlying key mechanism for such potential effects associated to aerobic plus resistance training to reduce body fat and inflammatory process, related to obesity in women still unclear. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of combined therapy of LLLT and aerobic plus resistance training in inflammatory profile and body composition of obese women. For this study, it involved 40 obese women with age of 20-40 years. Inclusion criteria were primary obesity and body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m(2) and less than 40 kg/m(2). The voluntaries were allocated in two different groups: phototherapy group and SHAM group. The interventions consisted on physical exercise training and application of phototherapy (808 nm), immediately after the physical exercise, with special designed device. Proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory adipokines were measured. It was showed that LLLT associated to physical exercise is more effective than physical exercise alone to increase adiponectin concentration, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. Also, it showed reduced values of neck circumference (cm), insulin concentration (μU/ml), and interleukin-6 (pg/ml) in LLLT group. In conclusion, phototherapy can be an important tool in the obesity, mostly considering its potential effects associated to exercise training in attenuating inflammation in women, being these results applicable in the clinical practices to control related risk associated to obesity. PMID:25958170

  16. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Jiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor. During the operating period, it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly. Unlike the existing hypothesis, the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions. When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L, low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments. When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone, where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate, they underwent denitrification. However, when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions, denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation. Hence, in order to avoid filamentous bulking, the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L, or alternatively, the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO(3-)-N/g SS. PMID:24520715

  17. Results of a Required Fitness Program.

    PubMed

    Emes, C; Davies, C; Evans, J; Kerr, B; Kinnear, G; Maxwell, T

    1981-12-01

    In brief: Based on the belief that physical education majors should have above-average fitness levels, 128 students were instructed to design and execute their own fitness development project to improve strength, endurance, and flexibility. Most relied on jogging, stair running, swimming, and cycling; others performed weight training, calisthenics, racket sports, and aerobic dancing. Generally, both men and women showed statistically significant increases in all the fitness tests. The authors believe that success was encouraged by the students' daily contact with instructors, the fact that their fitness improvement affected their grades, and the knowledge they gained from the course. PMID:27452707

  18. Are Intensified Physical Education Sessions Able to Elicit Heart Rate at a Sufficient Level To Promote Aerobic Fitness in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baquet, Georges; Berthoin, Serge; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    Determined the effects of intensified physical education sessions on adolescents divided into two groups: high intensity running group (HIRG) and high intensity jumping group (HIJG). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during sessions. There was no significant difference between mean HR for HIRG and HIJG. Mean HR was significantly lower for the control…

  19. General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Kondrič, Miran; Uljević, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontić, Dean; Sekulić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  20. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  2. Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ickmans, Kelly; Clarys, Peter; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Aelbrecht, Senne; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Limited scientific evidence suggests that physical activity is directly related to cognitive performance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To date, no other study has examined the direct relationship between cognitive performance and physical fitness in these patients. This study examined whether cognitive performance and physical fitness are associated in female patients with CFS and investigated the association between cognitive performance and physical activity level (PAL) in the same study sample. We hypothesized that patients who performed better on cognitive tasks would show increased PALs and better performance on physical tests. The study included 31 women with CFS and 13 healthy inactive women. Participants first completed three cognitive tests. Afterward, they undertook a test to determine their maximal handgrip strength, performed a bicycle ergometer test, and were provided with an activity monitor. In patients with CFS, lower peak oxygen uptake and peak heart rate were associated with slower psychomotor speed (p < 0.05). Maximal handgrip strength was correlated with working memory performance (p < 0.05). Both choice and simple reaction time were lower in patients with CFS relative to healthy controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, physical fitness, but not PAL, is associated with cognitive performance in female patients with CFS. PMID:24203542

  3. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  4. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  5. Energy levels fitting and crystal-field calculations of Nd3+ doped in GYSGG crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinyun; Zhang, Qingli; Sun, Dunlu; Luo, Jianqiao; Liu, Wenpeng; Yin, Shaotang

    2012-10-01

    The single crystal Nd3+-doped in GdY2Sc2Ga3O12 (Nd3+:GYSGG) was grown by Czochralski method successfully, and its absorption spectra was analyzed in a wider spectral wavelength range at 7.6 K and 300 K, respectively. The free-ions and crystal-field parameters were fitted to the experimental energy levels at 7.6 K and 300 K with the root mean square deviation of 11.25 and 12.48 cm-1, respectively. According to the crystal-field calculations, 116 levels of Nd3+ at 7.6 K and 114 levels of Nd3+ at 300 K were assigned. The fitting results of free-ions and crystal-field parameters were compared with those already reported of Nd3+:GSGG and Nd3+:YSAG. The results indicated that the free-ions parameters are similar to those of the Nd3+ in GYSGG, GSGG and YSAG crystals, and the crystal-field interaction of GSGG and YSAG is stronger than that of GYSGG, which results in the dual-wavelength properties of Nd3+:GYSGG crystal.

  6. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    SciTech Connect

    Broitman, Dani; Ayalon, Ofira; Kan, Iddo

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  7. Initial Molecular-Level Response to Artificial Selection for Increased Aerobic Metabolism Occurs Primarily through Changes in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Babik, Wiesław; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Experimental evolution combined with genome or transcriptome resequencing (Evolve and Resequence) represents a promising approach for advancing our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation. Here, we applied this strategy to investigate the effect of selection on a complex trait in lines derived from a natural population of a small mammal. We analyzed the liver and heart transcriptomes of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) that had been selected for increased aerobic metabolism. The organs were sampled from 13th generation voles; at that point, the voles from four replicate selected lines had 48% higher maximum rates of oxygen consumption than those from four control lines. At the molecular level, the response to selection was primarily observed in gene expression: Over 300 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the selected and control lines and the transcriptome-wide pattern of expression distinguished selected lines from controls. No evidence for selection-driven changes of allele frequencies at coding sites was found: No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changed frequency more than expected under drift alone and frequency changes aggregated over all SNPs did not separate selected and control lines. Nevertheless, among genes which showed highest differentiation in allele frequencies between selected and control lines we identified, using information about gene functions and the biology of the selected phenotype, plausible targets of selection; these genes, together with those identified in expression analysis, have been prioritized for further studies. Because our selection lines were derived from a natural population, the amount and the spectrum of variation available for selection probably closely approximated that typically found in populations of small mammals. Therefore, our results are relevant to the understanding of the molecular basis of complex adaptations occurring in natural vertebrate populations. PMID:25739734

  8. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  9. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels. PMID:26447516

  10. A Comparison of Model-Data Fit for Parametric and Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models Using Ordinal-Level Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the model-data fit of a parametric item response theory (PIRT) model to a nonparametric item response theory (NIRT) model to determine the best-fitting model for use with ordinal-level alternate assessment ratings. The PIRT Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (GGUM) was compared to the NIRT Mokken model. Chi-square statistics…

  11. High muscle mitochondrial volume and aerobic capacity in a small marsupial (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) reveals flexible links between energy-use levels in mammals.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Lee, Enhua; Buttemer, William A

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the muscle structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacity of an insectivorous, small (~15 g) marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Family: Dasyuridae), to obtain further insight into energy use patterns in marsupials relative to those in placentals, their sister clade within the Theria (advanced mammals). Disparate hopping marsupials (Suborder Macropodiformes), a kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), show aerobic capabilities as high as those of 'athletic' placentals. Equivalent muscle mitochondrial volumes and cardiovascular features support these capabilities. We examined S. crassicaudata to determine whether highly developed aerobic capabilities occur elsewhere in marsupials, rather than being restricted to the more recently evolved Macropodiformes. This was the case. Treadmill-trained S. crassicaudata attained a maximal aerobic metabolic rate ( or MMR) of 272 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1) (N=8), similar to that reported for a small (~20 g), 'athletic' placental, Apodemus sylvaticus, 264 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1). Hopping marsupials have comparable aerobic levels when body mass variation is considered. Sminthopsis crassicaudata has a basal metabolic rate (BMR) about 75% of placental values but it has a notably large factorial aerobic scope (fAS) of 13; elevated fAS also features in hopping marsupials. The of S. crassicaudata was supported by an elevated total muscle mitochondrial volume, which was largely achieved through high muscle mitochondrial volume densities, Vv(mt,f), the mean value being 14.0±1.33%. These data were considered in relation to energy use levels in mammals, particularly field metabolic rate (FMR). BMR is consistently lower in marsupials, but this is balanced by a high fAS, such that marsupial MMR matches that of placentals. However, FMR shows different mass relationships in the two clades, with the FMR of small (<125 g) marsupials, such as S. crassicaudata, being higher than that in

  12. Clinical protocols for hearing instrument fitting in the Desired Sensation Level method.

    PubMed

    Bagatto, Marlene; Moodie, Sheila; Scollie, Susan; Seewald, Richard; Moodie, Shane; Pumford, John; Liu, K P Rachel

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the protocols used particularly in the clinical application of the Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method is presented in this chapter. In the first section, the measurement and application of acoustic transforms is described in terms of their importance in the assessment phase of the amplification fitting process. Specifically, the implications of individual ear canal acoustics and their impact on accurately defining hearing thresholds are discussed. Detailed information about the statistical strength of the real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measurement and how to obtain the measure in young infants is also provided. In addition, the findings of a study that examined the relationship between behavioral and electrophysiologic thresholds in real-ear SPL is described. The second section presents information related to the electroacoustic verification of hearing instruments. The RECD is discussed in relation to its application in simulated measurements of real-ear hearing instrument performance. In particular, the effects of the transducer and coupling method during the RECD measurement are described in terms of their impact on verification measures. The topics of insertion gain, test signals, and venting are also considered. The third section presents three summary tables that outline the hearing instrument fitting process for infants, children, and adults. Overall, this chapter provides both clinical and scientific information about procedures used in the assessment and verification stages of the DSL Method. PMID:16424946

  13. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  14. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Olivier; Gauthier, Claudine J.; Fraser, Sarah A.; Desjardins-Crèpeau, Laurence; Desjardins, Michèle; Mekary, Said; Lesage, Frederic; Hoge, Rick D.; Pouliot, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., V˙O2max) in order to classify them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit). All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions) in which the change in prefrontal cortex oxygenation was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness × Condition interaction (p < 0.05) such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the Executive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed in the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2), we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion: Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by V˙O2max) show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good cardiorespiratory functions can have a positive impact on cognition, regardless of age. PMID:25741267

  15. Effects of hippotherapy on brain function, BDNF level, and physical fitness in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on brain function and levels of blood-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). [Methods] The hippotherapy group (HRG) included twenty children with ADHD and the control group (CG) included 19 children. All participants’ physical fitness, fMRI brain scans, and blood BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy. [Results] After 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy, the body fat of the HRG was significantly decreased (-1.12 ± 4.20%) and the body fat of the CG was increased (2.38 ± 6.35%) (p=0.049). There was no significant difference of physical fitness in both groups (p>0.05). Although there was a higher decrease in the activated insular area in the HRG (-1.59 ± 0.99) than in the CG (-1.14 ± 1.41), there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05) Also, there was a higher increase in the activated cerebellum area in the HRG (1.97 ± 1.45) than in the CG (1.92 ± 1.81). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). BDNF levels showed an increased tendency in the HRG (166.29 ± 277.52pg) compared to the CG (21.13 ± 686.33pg); otherwise, there was not any significant difference in these blood levels between the two groups (p>0.05). It can be assumed that big individual differences in the level of ADHD in the study participants might not cause any significant results, although there might be positive changes in the brain function of children with ADHD. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that hippotherapy training would need to be modified and developed to increase the efficacy of hippotherapy in children with ADHD. PMID:26244130

  16. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  17. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. PMID:27136128

  18. Cardiovascular Fitness of Young Canadian Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Mike

    2003-01-01

    This study compared cardiovascular fitness of 60 children (mean age 95 months) either with or without mental retardation (MR). Results indicated that nondisabled children exhibited significantly greater levels of aerobic fitness than those with MR and supported the need for a critical examination of physical activity programs for children with MR.…

  19. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A

    1987-10-01

    Many human responses to the weightless environment have been documented from actual spaceflights. These include physiological effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and fluid balance, and the musculoskeletal system, as well as psychological effects. Simulations on Earth have added to our knowledge about the physiology of weightlessness. Early data on orthostatic intolerance after real and simulated spaceflight led some scientists to discourage a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts. They believed it was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth. However, most of the data available today do not support this contention. Furthermore, aerobic fitness is beneficial to cardiovascular function and mental performance. Therefore, it may be important in performing extra-vehicular activities during flight. Some astronauts claim exercise enhances their feeling of well-being and self image. And, although the cardiovascular system and exercise performance may recover more slowly after flight to preflight levels when fitness level prior to flight is high, the musculoskeletal system may recover more rapidly. Research is needed to determine optimal levels of aerobic training for performing tasks in flight, maintaining health and well-being during flight, and assuring satisfactory recovery on return to Earth. PMID:3314852

  20. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  1. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition. PMID:27453812

  2. North York Fall Norms for Boys and Girls Age 12-14 for: CAHPER Tests; Measures of Aerobic Fitness; Peak Flow; Muscle Strength; Percent Body Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia

    Tests are described that were given to 1,000 students randomly selected at grade 7-9 levels with an equal representation from both sexes. Participants were selected from two junior high schools in North York for a study comparing students in a regular physical education program to those in a program to develop cardiovascular endurance. The first…

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  4. Organizing a Program To Increase Fitness Levels in Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Warren A.

    An experienced physical education teacher designed and implemented an 11-week practicum intervention meant to supplement physical education classes and improve the physical fitness of fourth graders with low scores in areas of the Chrysler/Amateur Athletic Union Fitness Test (C/AAUFT). Particular attention was given to the improvement of test…

  5. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels. PMID:26499850

  6. The scientific jigsaw puzzle: Fitting the pieces of the low-level radiation debate

    SciTech Connect

    Beyea, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative risk estimates from exposure to ionizing radiation are dominated by analysis of the one-time exposures received by the Japanese survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three recent epidemiologic studies suggest that the risk from protracted exposure is no lower, and in fact may be higher, than from single exposures. There is near-universal acceptance that epidemiologic data demonstrates an excess risk of delayed cancer incidence above a dose of 0.1 sievert (Sv), which, for the average American, is equivalent to 40 years of unavoidable exposure from natural background radiation. Model fits, both parametric and nonparametric, to the atomic-bomb data support a linear no-threshold model, below 0.1 Sv. On the basis of biologic arguments, the scientific establishment in the United States and many other countries accepts this dose-model down to zero-dose, but there is spirited dissent. The dissent may be irrelevant for developed countries, given the increase in medical diagnostic radiation that has occurred in recent decades; a sizeable percentage of this population will receive cumulative doses from the medical profession in excess of 0.1 Sv, making talk of a threshold or other sublinear response below that dose moot for future releases from nuclear facilities or a dirty bomb. The risks from both medical diagnostic doses and nuclear accident doses can be computed using the linear dose-response model, with uncertainties assigned below 0.1 Sv in a way that captures alternative scientific hypotheses. Then, the important debate over low-level radiation exposures, namely planning for accident response and weighing benefits and risks of technologies, can proceed with less distraction. One of the biggest paradoxes in the low-level radiation debate is that an individual risk can be a minor concern, while the societal risk-the total delayed cancers in an exposed population-can be of major concern.

  7. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  8. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  9. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  10. Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects

    PubMed Central

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing ‘uncoupled’ gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

  11. Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing 'uncoupled' gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

  12. Impact of HLA Selection Pressure on HIV Fitness at a Population Level in Mexico and Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rebecca; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Valenzuela-Ponce, Humberto; Adland, Emily; Leitman, Ellen; Brener, Jacqui; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Branch, Songee; Landis, Clive; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Goulder, Philip

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have demonstrated that effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses drive the selection of escape mutations that reduce viral replication capacity (VRC). Escape mutations, including those with reduced VRC, can be transmitted and accumulate in a population. Here we compared two antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV clade B-infected cohorts, in Mexico and Barbados, in which the most protective HLA alleles (HLA-B*27/57/58:01/81:01) are differentially expressed, at 8% and 34%, respectively. Viral loads were significantly higher in Mexico than in Barbados (median, 40,774 versus 14,200; P < 0.0001), and absolute CD4+ T-cell counts were somewhat lower (median, 380/mm3 versus 403/mm3; P = 0.007). We tested the hypothesis that the disparate frequencies of these protective HLA alleles would be associated with a higher VRC at the population level in Mexico. Analysis of VRC in subjects in each cohort, matched for CD4+ T-cell count, revealed that the VRC was indeed higher in the Mexican cohort (mean, 1.13 versus 1.03; P = 0.0025). Although CD4 counts were matched, viral loads remained significantly higher in the Mexican subjects (P = 0.04). This VRC difference was reflected by a significantly higher frequency in the Barbados cohort of HLA-B*27/57/58:01/81:01-associated Gag escape mutations previously shown to incur a fitness cost on the virus (P = 0.004), a difference between the two cohorts that remained statistically significant even in subjects not expressing these protective alleles (P = 0.01). These data suggest that viral set points and disease progression rates at the population level may be significantly influenced by the prevalence of protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27/57/58:01/81:01 and that CD4 count-based guidelines to initiate antiretroviral therapy may need to be modified accordingly, to optimize the effectiveness of treatment-for-prevention strategies and reduce HIV transmission rates to the absolute minimum. IMPORTANCE Immune

  13. Viral adaptation to an antiviral protein enhances the fitness level to above that of the uninhibited wild type.

    PubMed

    Cherwa, James E; Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Wichman, Holly A; Fane, Bentley A

    2009-11-01

    Viruses often evolve resistance to antiviral agents. While resistant strains are able to replicate in the presence of the agent, they generally exhibit lower fitness than the wild-type strain in the absence of the inhibitor. In some cases, resistant strains become dependent on the antiviral agent. However, the agent rarely, if ever, elevates dependent strain fitness above the uninhibited wild-type level. This would require an adaptive mechanism to convert the antiviral agent into a beneficial growth factor. Using an inhibitory scaffolding protein that specifically blocks phiX174 capsid assembly, we demonstrate that such mechanisms are possible. To obtain the quintuple-mutant resistant strain, the wild-type virus was propagated for approximately 150 viral life cycles in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitory protein. The expression of the inhibitory protein elevated the strain's fitness significantly above the uninhibited wild-type level. Thus, selecting for resistance coselected for dependency, which was characterized and found to operate on the level of capsid nucleation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus evolving a mechanism to productively utilize an antiviral agent to stimulate its fitness above the uninhibited wild-type level. The results of this study may be predictive of the types of resistant phenotypes that could be selected by antiviral agents that specifically target capsid assembly. PMID:19726521

  14. Physical Fitness of University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, H. N.; Barksdale, J. M.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity, aerobic fitness, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in 27 male and 21 female university faculty members. Results of t-tests indicate that the males had significantly greater values for physical activity index, systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness (V02 max), and…

  15. Authentic Teaching of Fitness Concepts to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Kane, Jennifer

    This paper stresses the importance of teaching aerobic and muscle fitness concepts as part of a health-related fitness curriculum in physical education, recommending outcomes for teaching aerobic endurance and muscle/strength endurance in kindergarten through sixth grade. It describes important learning aid materials and presents national…

  16. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  17. 75 FR 44841 - Hazardous Materials: Special Permits and Approvals-Minimum Level of Fitness Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting to discuss Special Permit and Approval applicant fitness determinations. PHMSA will hold a public meeting on August 19, 2010, in Washington, DC, to provide interested persons with an opportunity to submit oral comments and participate in discussions concerning the criteria used when determining an applicant's......

  18. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  19. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  20. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  1. Aerobic scope explains individual variation in feeding capacity

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Sonya K.; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Links between metabolism and components of fitness such as growth, reproduction and survival can depend on food availability. A high standard metabolic rate (SMR; baseline energy expenditure) or aerobic scope (AS; the difference between an individual's maximum and SMR) is often beneficial when food is abundant or easily accessible but can be less important or even disadvantageous when food levels decline. While the mechanisms underlying these context-dependent associations are not well understood, they suggest that individuals with a higher SMR or AS are better able to take advantage of high food abundance. Here we show that juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) with a higher AS were able to consume more food per day relative to individuals with a lower AS. These results help explain why a high aerobic capacity can improve performance measures such as growth rate at high but not low levels of food availability. PMID:26556902

  2. Aerobic scope explains individual variation in feeding capacity.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-11-01

    Links between metabolism and components of fitness such as growth, reproduction and survival can depend on food availability. A high standard metabolic rate (SMR; baseline energy expenditure) or aerobic scope (AS; the difference between an individual's maximum and SMR) is often beneficial when food is abundant or easily accessible but can be less important or even disadvantageous when food levels decline. While the mechanisms underlying these context-dependent associations are not well understood, they suggest that individuals with a higher SMR or AS are better able to take advantage of high food abundance. Here we show that juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) with a higher AS were able to consume more food per day relative to individuals with a lower AS. These results help explain why a high aerobic capacity can improve performance measures such as growth rate at high but not low levels of food availability. PMID:26556902

  3. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; George, L K; Coleman, R E; Riddle, M W; McKee, D C; Reasoner, J; Williams, R S

    1989-09-01

    The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold. Psychological measures included measures of mood, psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning. This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2 and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological changes observed among aerobic exercise participants included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few significant psychological changes could be attributed to aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a number of psychological and behavioral dimensions. PMID:2768768

  4. Exercise and fitness modulate cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Ai-Guo; Hung, Tsung-Min; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on cognitive function and the modulatory role of fitness in the relationship between exercise and cognition. Forty-six healthy older adults, categorized into higher or lower fitness groups, completed the Stroop test after both 30 min of aerobic exercise and a reading control with a counterbalanced order. Our findings demonstrated that acute exercise leads to general improvements in 2 types of cognitive functions and to specific improvements in executive function. Additionally, older adults with initially higher fitness levels experienced greater beneficial effects from acute exercise. PMID:26652724

  5. Force-velocity property of leg muscles in individuals of different level of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Cuk, Ivan; Mirkov, Dragan; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2016-06-01

    The present study explored the method of testing muscle mechanical properties through the linear force-velocity (F-V) relationships obtained from loaded vertical jumps. Specifically, we hypothesised that the F-V relationship parameters depicting the force, power, and velocity of the tested muscles will differ among individuals of different physical fitness. Strength trained, physically active, and sedentary male participants (N = 10 + 10 + 10; age 20-29 years) were tested on maximum countermovement and squat jumps where manipulation of external loads provided a range of F and V data. The observed F-V relationships of the tested leg muscles were approximately linear and mainly strong (median correlation coefficients ranged from 0.77 to 0.92; all p < 0.05), independently of either the tested group or the jump type. The maximum power revealed higher values in the strength trained than in the physically active and sedentary participants. This difference originated from the differences in F-intercepts, rather than from the V-intercepts. We conclude that the observed parameters could be sensitive enough to detect the differences among both the individuals of different physical fitness and various jump types. The present findings support using loaded vertical jumps and, possibly, other maximum performance multi-joint movements for the assessment of mechanical properties of active muscles. PMID:27111493

  6. Double Trouble at High Density: Cross-Level Test of Resource-Related Adaptive Plasticity and Crowding-Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Gergs, André; Preuss, Thomas G.; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels, we used an individual-based population model that is based on dynamic energy budget theory. Each of the hypotheses, represented by a sub-model, is based on specific assumptions on how the uptake and allocation of energy are altered under conditions of resource shortage or crowding. For cross-level testing of different hypotheses, we explored how well the sub-models fit individual level data and also how well they predict population dynamics under different conditions of resource availability. Only operating resource-related and crowding-related hypotheses together enabled accurate model predictions of D. magna population dynamics and size structure. Whereas this study showed that various mechanisms might play a role in the negative feedback between population density and individual life history, it also indicated that different density levels might instigate the onset of the different mechanisms. This study provides an example of how the integration of dynamic energy budget theory and individual-based modelling can facilitate the exploration of mechanisms behind the regulation

  7. Noise levels in fitness classes are still too high: evidence from 1997-1998 and 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nie, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Fitness instructors routinely use high music volumes that may be harmful to hearing. This study assessed noise levels during 35 low-intensity and 65 high-intensity fitness classes in 1997-1998 and 2009-2011. Questionnaires examined instructors' and clients' preferred music volumes and whether they found loud music "stressful" or "motivating." Noise levels in 1997-1998 and 2009-2011 were similar, frequently exceeding 90 dB(A). Although noise levels in low-intensity classes dropped from 88.9 to 85.6 dB(A), they remained high for high-intensity classes, averaging 93.1 dB(A). In 2009-2011, instructors preferred significantly higher volumes than clients for high-intensity classes. In both time periods, about 85% of instructors found loud music motivating, whereas about one fifth of clients found it stressful. The results suggest that noise exposure from fitness classes, particularly high-intensity classes, continues to pose a potential risk to hearing. PMID:24499250

  8. Generation of Antigenic Variants via Gene Conversion: Evidence for Recombination Fitness Selection at the Locus Level in Anaplasma marginale▿

    PubMed Central

    Futse, James E.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Nydam, Seth D.; Palmer, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple bacterial and protozoal pathogens utilize gene conversion to generate antigenically variant surface proteins to evade immune clearance and establish persistent infection. Both the donor alleles that encode the variants following recombination into an expression site and the donor loci themselves are under evolutionary selection: the alleles that encode variants that are sufficiently antigenically unique yet retain growth fitness and the loci that allow efficient recombination. We examined allelic usage in generating Anaplasma marginale variants during in vivo infection in the mammalian reservoir host and identified preferential usage of specific alleles in the absence of immune selective pressure, consistent with certain individual alleles having a fitness advantage for in vivo growth. In contrast, the loci themselves appear to have been essentially equally selected for donor function in gene conversion with no significant effect of locus position relative to the expression site or origin of replication. This pattern of preferential allelic usage but lack of locus effect was observed independently for Msp2 and Msp3 variants, both generated by gene conversion. Furthermore, there was no locus effect observed when a single locus contained both msp2 and msp3 alleles in a tail-to-tail orientation flanked by a repeat. These experimental results support the hypothesis that predominance of specific variants reflects in vivo fitness as determined by the encoding allele, independent of locus structure and chromosomal position. Identification of highly fit variants provides targets for vaccines that will prevent the high-level bacteremia associated with acute disease. PMID:19487473

  9. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater level using Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance metrics and variable variogram fitting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Panagiota G.; Karatzas, George P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Corzo Perez, Gerald A.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater level is an important information in hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods are often employed to map the free surface of an aquifer. In geostatistical analysis using Kriging techniques the selection of the optimal variogram model is very important for the optimal method performance. This work compares three different criteria, the least squares sum method, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Cressie's Indicator, to assess the theoretical variogram that fits to the experimental one and investigates the impact on the prediction results. Moreover, five different distance functions (Euclidean, Minkowski, Manhattan, Canberra, and Bray-Curtis) are applied to calculate the distance between observations that affects both the variogram calculation and the Kriging estimator. Cross validation analysis in terms of Ordinary Kriging is applied by using sequentially a different distance metric and the above three variogram fitting criteria. The spatial dependence of the observations in the tested dataset is studied by fitting classical variogram models and the Matérn model. The proposed comparison analysis performed for a data set of two hundred fifty hydraulic head measurements distributed over an alluvial aquifer that covers an area of 210 km2. The study area is located in the Prefecture of Drama, which belongs to the Water District of East Macedonia (Greece). This area was selected in terms of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The analysis showed that a combination of the Akaike information Criterion for the variogram fitting assessment and the Brays-Curtis distance metric provided the most accurate cross-validation results. The Power-law variogram model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The aforementioned approach for the specific dataset in terms of the Ordinary Kriging method improves the prediction efficiency in comparison to the classical Euclidean distance metric. Therefore, maps of the spatial

  10. Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896

  11. Direct Effects of Elevated CO2 Levels on the Fitness Performance of Asian Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) for Multigenerations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qunfang; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding direct response of insects to elevated CO2 should help to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the effects of elevated CO2 on interactions of insects with plants. This should improve our ability to predict shifts in insect population dynamics and community interactions under the conditions of climate change. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on the fitness-related parameters were examined for multigenerations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). The larvae were allowed to feed on artificial diet, and reared in the closed-dynamic environment chambers with three CO2 levels (ambient, 550 μl/liter, and 750 μl/liter) for six generations. In comparison with the ambient CO2 level, mean larval survival rate decreased 9.9% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level, across O. furnacalis generations, and larval and pupal development times increased 7.5-16.4% and 4.5-13.4%, respectively, in two elevated CO2 levels. Pupal weight was reduced more than 12.2% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level. Across O. furnacalis generations, mean food consumption per larva increased 2.7, 7.0% and frass excretion per larva increased 14.4, 22.5% in the two elevated CO2 levels, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 level. Elevated CO2 levels resulted in the decline mean across O. furnacalis generations in mean relative growth rate, but increased in relative consumption rate. These results suggested that elevated CO2 would reduce the fitness-related parameters such as higher mortality, lower pupal weight, and longer development times in long term. It also reduced the larval food digestibility and utilizing efficiency; in turn, this would result in increase of food consumption. PMID:26314071

  12. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  14. Anger, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and glucose levels in healthy women: the mediating role of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe; Malkin, Amy R; Boyle, Stephen; Vaitkus, Mark; Barko, William; Franco, Edward

    2002-02-01

    The association between anger, lipid profiles, and glucose levels were examined in this study of 103 middle aged, healthy women. A principal component factor analysis of Spielberger's Trait Anger and Anger Expression scales yielded two anger factors: Impulsive Anger-Out and Neurotic Anger. Impulsive anger-out significantly predicted a negative lipid profile (high total serum cholesterol (TSC), low density lipoproteins (LDL), TSC/HDL (high density lipids), and triglyceride levels) and heightened glucose levels, but only in physically unfit women. Neurotic anger did not predict lipid and glucose levels. These findings parallel previous findings regarding the two anger dimensions and CHD, with only impulsive anger-out predicting CHD. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the protective effect of physical fitness, previously documented for men, also occurs in women. PMID:11845555

  15. Estimating uncomfortable loudness levels using evoked potentials to auditory stimuli for hearing aid fitting.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shinobu; Morikawa, Koji; Kato, Yumiko O; Ozawa, Jun; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Determining the loudest sound level that a person can comfortably tolerate (uncomfortable loudness level: UCL) imposes a strain on people suffering from hearing loss. In the present study, we propose a method of estimating UCL based on auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Adults with normal hearing (18 men aged 25-56 years) participated in the study. Three tone bursts (S1, S2 and S3; a triplet) of the same frequency (either 1k, 2k or 4k Hz) were presented to the right or left ear with an interstimulus interval of 300 ms. The sound intensity decreased gradually by 5 dB HL from 80 dB (S1) to 70 dB HL (S3). The interval between triplets was 450 ± 50 ms. The frequency of a given triplet differed from the frequency of the preceding triplet. An electroencephalogram was recorded from three scalp electrode sites (Cz, C3, and C4) with the right mastoid reference. The 900-ms period after the onset of the triplet was transformed to a wavelet coefficient and averaged separately by stimulated ear and tone frequency. The UCLs were estimated by linear discriminant analysis on the basis of trained data of the other participants' subjective UCLs and the wavelet coefficients. The mean estimation error was 4.9 ± 5.0 dB. This result suggests that the UCLs could be estimated successfully on the basis of AEPs to triplets of auditory tones. PMID:23366337

  16. The Psychology, Physiology, and Creativity of Middle School Aerobic Exercisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of aerobic running program on psychological and physical fitness and creative abilities of eight-grade school children. Students (n=85) were randomly assigned to aerobic running treatment groups or to control groups who participated in traditional, nonaerobic physical education. Found statistically significant increases for…

  17. Aerobic Activity--Do Physical Education Programs Provide Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGing, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    High school physical education curricula should concentrate less on sport skill development and competition, and more on health-related fitness and aerobic activity. Results are reported from a study of the type and amount of aerobic exercise provided in 29 high school physical education programs in a large metropolitan area. (IAH)

  18. cAMP levels in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle after an acute bout of aerobic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, A.; Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether exercise duration was associated with elevated and/or sustained elevations of postexercise adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by measuring cAMP levels in skeletal muscle for up to 4 h after acute exercise bouts of durations that are known to either produce (60 min) or not produce (10 min) mitochondrial proliferation after chronic training. Treadmill-acclimatized, but untrained, rats were run at 22 m/min for 0 (control), 10, or 60 min and were killed at various postexercise (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) time points. Fast-twitch white and red (quadriceps) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles were quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and assayed for cAMP with a commercial kit. Unexpectedly, cAMP contents in all three muscles were similar to control (nonexercise) at most (21 of 30) time points after a single 10- or 60-min run. Values at 9 of 30 time points were significantly different from control (P < 0.05); i.e., 3 time points were significantly higher than control and 6 were significantly less than control. These data suggest that the cAMP concentration of untrained skeletal muscle after a single bout of endurance-type exercise is not, by itself, associated with exercise duration.

  19. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  20. Detection of Aberrant Responding on a Personality Scale in a Military Sample: An Application of Evaluating Person Fit with Two-Level Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Person-fit assessment is used to identify persons who respond aberrantly to a test or questionnaire. In this study, S. P. Reise's (2000) method for evaluating person fit using 2-level logistic regression was applied to 13 personality scales of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; L. Clark, 1996) that had been administered…

  1. Flea fitness is reduced by high fractional concentrations of CO₂ that simulate levels found in their hosts' burrows.

    PubMed

    Downs, Cynthia J; Pinshow, Berry; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2015-11-01

    Nidicolous ectoparasites such as fleas and gamasid mites that feed on small and medium-sized mammals spend much of their time in their hosts' burrows, which provide an environment for living, and often feeding, to their pre-imaginal and/or adult stages. Thus, these ectoparasites should be adapted to environmental conditions in burrows, including high fractional concentrations of CO2 (F(CO2)). We examined how a high F(CO2) (0.04) affected survival and reproductive success of a hematophagous ectoparasite of burrowing rodents using fleas Xenopsylla ramesis and Sundevall's jirds Meriones crassus. In the first experiment, fleas fed on hosts housed in high-CO2 (F(CO2) =0.04) or atmospheric-CO2 (F(CO2) ≈0.0004) air, and were allowed to breed. In a second experiment, fleas were maintained in high CO2 or CO2-free air with no hosts to determine how CO2 levels affect survival and activity levels. We found that at high F(CO2) fleas laid fewer eggs, reducing reproductive success. In addition, at high F(CO2), activity levels and survival of fleas were reduced. Our results indicate that fleas do not perform well in the F(CO2) used in this experiment. Previous research indicated that the type and intensity of the effects of CO2 concentration on the fitness of an insect depend on the F(CO2) used, so we advise caution when generalizing inferences drawn to insects exposed to other F(CO2). If, however, F(CO2) found in natural mammal burrows brings about reduced fitness in fleas in general, then burrowing hosts may benefit from reduced parasite infestation if burrow air F(CO2) is high. PMID:26582933

  2. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  3. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  4. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  5. Fitting dynamic models to the Geosat sea level observations in the tropical Pacific Ocean. I - A free wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Vazquez, Jorge; Perigaud, Claire

    1991-01-01

    Free, equatorially trapped sinusoidal wave solutions to a linear model on an equatorial beta plane are used to fit the Geosat altimetric sea level observations in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The Kalman filter technique is used to estimate the wave amplitude and phase from the data. The estimation is performed at each time step by combining the model forecast with the observation in an optimal fashion utilizing the respective error covariances. The model error covariance is determined such that the performance of the model forecast is optimized. It is found that the dominant observed features can be described qualitatively by basin-scale Kelvin waves and the first meridional-mode Rossby waves. Quantitatively, however, only 23 percent of the signal variance can be accounted for by this simple model.

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25 years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise. PMID:26180300

  7. Are Sports and Games Effective for Fitness and Weight Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Although traditional aerobic activities such as running, cycling, and swimming may effectively increase activity and aerobic fitness, they may not be suitable or attractive for many people who would rather participate in sports and games. However, some HPER professionals believe that sports and games are not as effective for fitness and weight…

  8. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. PMID:21051843

  9. Virtual Reality as Means to Improve Physical Fitness of Individuals at a Severe Level of Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective and motivating physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with severe IDD when implemented by on-site caregivers. A research group (N…

  10. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of psychological states on physiological responses during exercise is of considerable importance to individuals for which the efficiency of energy production is critical to occupational performance. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic fitness is associated with enhanced cardiovascular efficiency at rest and that responses to mental stress demonstrate evidence of increased sensitivity (relative increase in HR response) and enhanced efficiency (a decrease in absolute HR). However, the effect of aerobic fitness and its impact on cardiorespiratory (CR) responses to psychological stress during exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was three-fold; (1) to examine during exercise, anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses to a mental challenge, (2) to examine anxiety and heart rate (HR) responses from rest to exercise with mental challenge between below average fitness (Low Fit) and well-above average fitness (Hi Fit) individuals (exercising at similar relative intensities), and (3) to examine anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses of Low Fit and Hi Fit individuals to a mental challenge during exercise at a similar relative intensity. Twelve Low Fit and eleven Hi Fit subjects participated in two, 32-minute cycle ergometer rides at 65 % of VO2max. In the mental challenge condition (MCC), subjects rode while participating in mentally challenging tasks (Stroop Color-Word task and mental arithmetic) from min 6 to min 14 of the protocol. In the no mental challenge condition (NMCC), subjects exercised at the same intensity and duration without a stressor. Subjects were counter-balanced between fitness levels and condition. HR, VE, VE/VO2, RR, VO2, RER, effort sense (RPE), and state anxiety (SAI) were assessed at 5, 14, 24, and 30 min. SAI was also assessed at - 5 min before exercise and after 15 min of recovery. In addition, the NASA task load index (NTLX) was used to assess perceived overall workload. SAI increased

  11. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  12. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  13. Sustained improvements in fitness and exercise tolerance in obese adolescents after a 12 week exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Gow, Megan L; van Doorn, Nancy; Broderick, Carolyn R; Hardy, Louise L; Ho, Mandy; Baur, Louise A; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2016-01-01

    A 12 week exercise program was evaluated for its effect on aerobic fitness, anaerobic threshold, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels in obese insulin resistant adolescents post intervention and at follow up. 111 obese insulin resistant 10-17 year olds were recruited to a 12 month lifestyle intervention, known as RESIST. From months 4 to 6, adolescents participated in supervised exercise sessions twice per week (45-60min/session). Aerobic fitness and anaerobic threshold were measured by gas analysis at baseline, 6 months (post intervention) and 12 months (follow up). Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior was measured using the CLASS questionnaire. At 6 months aerobic fitness and time to reach the anaerobic threshold had improved by 5.8% [95% CI: 0.8-11.3] and 19.7% [95% CI: 10.4-29.0], respectively compared with baseline. These improvements were maintained at 12 months. Compared to baseline, 6 month physical activity levels increased by 19min/day [95% CI: 5-33] and screen time decreased by 49min/day [95% CI: 23-74] but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. Improved fitness and anaerobic threshold can be sustained up to 6 months following completion of an exercise program possibly enhancing capacity to perform daily functional tasks. PMID:25959765

  14. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  15. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  16. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  17. [Research advances in aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhong, Wen-hui; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2007-11-01

    This paper reviewed the varieties and characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers, their action mechanisms, and the factors affecting aerobic denitrification. Aerobic denitrifiers mainly include Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus and Bacillus, which are either aerobic or facultative aerobic, and heterotrophic. They can denitrify under aerobic conditions, with the main product being N2O. They can also convert NH4+ -N to gas product. The nitrate reductase which catalyzes the denitrification is periplasmic nitrate reductase rather than membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio are the main factors affecting aerobic denitrification. The main methods for screening aerobic denitrifiers, such as intermittent aeration and selected culture, were also introduced. The research advances in the application of aerobic denitrifiers in aquaculture, waste water processing, and bio-degradation of organic pollutants, as well as the contributions of aerobic denitrifiers to soil nitrogen emission were summarized. PMID:18260473

  18. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  19. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  20. Design and rationale for the PREVAIL study: effect of e-Health individually tailored encouragements to physical exercise on aerobic fitness among adolescents with congenital heart disease--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Søndergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2012-04-01

    Intensive exercise may be an important part of rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, performing regular physical exercise is challenging for many adolescent patients. Consequently, effective exercise encouragements may be needed. Little is known on the effect of e-Health encouragements on physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life in adolescents. This trial is a nationwide interactive e-Health rehabilitation study lasting 1 year, centered on interactive use of mobile phone and Internet technology. We hypothesize that e-Health encouragements and interactive monitoring of intensive exercise for 1 year can improve physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Two hundred sixteen adolescents (age, 13-16 years) with surgically corrected complex CHD but without significant hemodynamic residual defects and no restrictions to participate in physical activity are in the process of being enrolled by invitation after informed consent. Physical fitness is measured as the maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) at baseline and after 12 months by an assessor blinded to the randomization group. After baseline testing, the patients are 1:1 randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Individually fully automated tailored e-Health encouragements--SMS, Internet, and mobile applications--aimed at increasing physical activity are delivered to the participants in the intervention group once a week. The Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory inspires the behavioral theoretical background. The e-Health intervention and the Godfrey cycle ergometer protocol have been feasibility tested and seem applicable to adolescents with CHD. The trial is expected to contribute with new knowledge regarding how physical activity in adolescents with CHD can be increased and, possibly, comorbidity be reduced. PMID:22520519

  1. Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition for Older Adults with Glucose Intolerance, A Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Watson, G. Stennis; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57–83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p = 0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p = 0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p = 0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p = 0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  2. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  3. Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

  4. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. PMID:23419502

  5. Cognitively Engaging Chronic Physical Activity, But Not Aerobic Exercise, Affects Executive Functions in Primary School Children: A Group-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mirko; Jäger, Katja; Egger, Fabienne; Roebers, Claudia M; Conzelmann, Achim

    2015-12-01

    Although the positive effects of different kinds of physical activity (PA) on cognitive functioning have already been demonstrated in a variety of studies, the role of cognitive engagement in promoting children's executive functions is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the effects of two qualitatively different chronic PA interventions on executive functions in primary school children. Children (N = 181) aged between 10 and 12 years were assigned to either a 6-week physical education program with a high level of physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (team games), a physical education program with high physical exertion but low cognitive engagement (aerobic exercise), or to a physical education program with both low physical exertion and low cognitive engagement (control condition). Executive functions (updating, inhibition, shifting) and aerobic fitness (multistage 20-m shuttle run test) were measured before and after the respective condition. Results revealed that both interventions (team games and aerobic exercise) have a positive impact on children's aerobic fitness (4-5% increase in estimated VO2max). Importantly, an improvement in shifting performance was found only in the team games and not in the aerobic exercise or control condition. Thus, the inclusion of cognitive engagement in PA seems to be the most promising type of chronic intervention to enhance executive functions in children, providing further evidence for the importance of the qualitative aspects of PA. PMID:26866766

  6. Detection of aberrant responding on a personality scale in a military sample: an application of evaluating person fit with two-level logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carol M; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Turkheimer, Eric

    2008-06-01

    Person-fit assessment is used to identify persons who respond aberrantly to a test or questionnaire. In this study, S. P. Reise's (2000) method for evaluating person fit using 2-level logistic regression was applied to 13 personality scales of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; L. Clark, 1996) that had been administered to military recruits (N = 2,026). Results revealed significant person-fit heterogeneity and indicated that for 5 SNAP scales (Disinhibition, Entitlement, Exhibitionism, Negative Temperament, and Workaholism), the scale was more discriminating for some people than for others. Possible causes of aberrant responding were explored with several covariates. On all 5 scales, severe pathology emerged as a key influence on responses, and there was evidence of differential test functioning with respect to gender, ethnicity, or both. Other potential sources of aberrancy were carelessness, haphazard responding, or uncooperativeness. Social desirability was not as influential as expected. PMID:18557693

  7. The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

  8. 23S rRNA mutation A2074C conferring high-level macrolide resistance and fitness cost in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2009-12-01

    To examine the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and assess the fitness of the macrolide-resistant mutants, two macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni strains, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33291 and H1, from different geographic areas were exposed to tylosin in vitro. Multiple mutant strains were obtained from the selection. Most of the high-level macrolide-resistant strains derived from the selection exhibited the A2074C transversion in all three copies of 23S rRNA and displayed strong stability in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. The competition experiments demonstrated that the strains containing the A2074C transversion imposed a fitness cost in competition mixtures. In addition, the fitness cost of the mutation was not ameliorated after approximately 500 generations of evolution under laboratory conditions. These findings indicate that the A2074C transversion in C. jejuni is not only correlated with stable and high-level macrolide resistance but also associated with a fitness cost. PMID:19857128

  9. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  10. Effects of a Three-Tiered Intervention Model on Physical Activity and Fitness Levels of Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Dauenhauer, Brian; Keating, Xiaofen; Lambdin, Dolly

    2016-08-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) models are frequently used in schools to tailor academic instruction to the needs of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using RtI to promote physical activity (PA) and fitness in one urban elementary school. Ninety-nine students in grades 2-5 participated in up to three tiers of intervention throughout the course of one school year. Tier one included 150 min/week of physical education (increased from 90 min/week the previous year) and coordinated efforts to improve school health. Tier two consisted of 30 min/week of small group instruction based on goal setting and social support. Tier three included an after-school program for parents and children focused on healthy living. PA, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were assessed before and after the interventions using pedometers, a 20-m shuttle run, and height/weight measurements. From pre- to post-testing, PA remained relatively stable in tier one and increased by 2349 steps/day in tier two. Cardiovascular fitness increased in tiers one and two by 1.17 and 1.35 ml/kg/min, respectively. Although body mass index did not change, 17 of the 99 students improved their weight status over the course of the school year, resulting in an overall decline in the prevalence of overweight/obesity from 59.6 to 53.5 %. Preliminary results suggest that the RtI model can be an effective way to structure PA/health interventions in an elementary school setting. PMID:27059849

  11. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study. PMID:26542389

  12. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  13. Managing for Improved Aerobic Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic deterioration or spoilage of silage is the result of aerobic microorganisms metabolizing components of the silage using oxygen. In the almost 40 years over which these silage conferences have been held, we have come to recognize the typical pattern of aerobic microbial development by which s...

  14. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    PubMed

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-01

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. PMID:25907444

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation of crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea; Zhang, Husen

    2016-03-15

    Cyclohexane and some of its derivatives have been a major concern because of their significant adverse human health effects and widespread occurrence in the environment. The 2014 West Virginia chemical spill has raised public attention to (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), one cyclohexane derivative, which is widely used in coal processing but largely ignored. In particular, the environmental fate of its primary components, cis- and trans-4-MCHM, remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the degradation kinetics and mineralization of cis- and trans-4-MCHM by sediment microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found the removal of cis- and trans-4-MCHM was mainly attributed to biodegradation with little contribution from sorption. A nearly complete aerobic degradation of 4-MCHM occurred within 14 days, whereas the anaerobic degradation was reluctant with residual percentages of 62.6% of cis-4-MCHM and 85.0% of trans-4-MCHM after 16-day incubation. The cis-4-MCHM was degraded faster than the trans under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an isomer-specific degradation could occur during the 4-MCHM degradation. Nitrate addition enhanced 4-MCHM mineralization by about 50% under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both cis- and trans-4-MCHM fit well with the first-order kinetic model with respective degradation rates of 0.46-0.52 and 0.19-0.31 day(-)(1) under aerobic condition. Respective degradation rates of 0.041-0.095 and 0.013-0.052 day(-)(1) occurred under anaerobic condition. One bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading 4-MCHM isomers was isolated from river sediments and identified as Bacillus pumilus at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 97% identity. Our findings will provide critical information for improving the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM and other cyclohexane derivatives with similar structure as well as enhancing the development of feasible treatment

  16. Aerobic capacity is correlated with the ranking of boxers.

    PubMed

    Bruzas, Vidas; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Cepulenas, Algirdas; Mockus, Pranas; Statkeviciene, Birute; Subacius, Vitalijus

    2014-08-01

    The goal was to assess the aerobic capacity of boxers and its relation with sport mastery. Participants were 12 boxers from the Lithuanian national team (VO₂max - 58.03 ± 3.00 ml/kg/min) of different weight classes. Their sport mastery ranking was established according to their achieved results during the last years of participation in amateur boxing contests. In a graduated treadmill running test, the boxers' aerobic capacity indices were established. Running speed at first and second ventilatory thresholds, VO₂max, and maximal oxygen pulse had moderate to strong correlations with the boxers' sport mastery ranking. Aerobic capacity is an important fitness component of boxers in all weight categories. Special attention should be paid to development of cardiac capacity in the boxers' training processes, as with aerobic power and anaerobic threshold training. PMID:25153738

  17. Truth from language and truth from fit: the impact of linguistic concreteness and level of construal on subjective truth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jochim; Wänke, Michaela

    2010-11-01

    In four experiments, the impact of concreteness of language on judgments of truth was examined. In Experiments 1 and 2, it was found that statements of the very same content were judged as more probably true when they were written in concrete language than when they were written in abstract language. Findings of Experiment 2 also showed that this linguistic concreteness effect on judgments of truth could most likely be attributed to greater perceived vividness of concrete compared to abstract statements. Two further experiments demonstrated an additional fit effect: The truth advantage of concrete statements occurred especially when participants were primed with a concrete (vs. abstract) mind-set (Experiment 3) or when the statements were presented in a spatially proximal (vs. distant) location (Experiment 4). Implications for communication strategies are discussed. PMID:20947772

  18. The Effect of a Community-Based Exercise Program on Inflammation, Metabolic Risk, and Fitness Levels Among Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cutrono, Stacy E; Lewis, John E; Perry, Arlette; Signorile, Joseph; Tiozzo, Eduard; Jacobs, Kevin A

    2016-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic remains a top national health priority. Chronic inflammation may be a critical component in the disease course of HIV as C-reactive protein (CRP) is elevated and associated with increased mortality. This study examined the effect of 3 months of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among a diverse cohort of HIV-infected men and women. The fixed effect of time for CRP was found to be non-significant (F[1,57.3] = 1.7, p = 0.19). There was a significant fixed effect for time for upper body (F[1,51.6] = 18.1, p < 0.05) and lower body strength (F[1,48.0] = 15.7, p < 0.05) and significant declines in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002) and waist circumference (p = 0.027). Though levels of CRP were not impacted after 3 months training, participants demonstrated a significant increase in muscular strength as well as beneficial changes in metabolic risk factors. Future studies should focus on determining the optimal exercise intervention length and mode to reduce inflammation among individuals living with HIV. PMID:26607928

  19. Effects of a Long-Term Fitness Program on Professional Baseball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerman, Frederick C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the development of a comprehensive conditioning and education program to ensure total fitness (including aerobic) in professional baseball players on and off season, noting that standard training keeps them fit in every way except aerobically. The program helped them improve playing performance and develop a healthy…

  20. Geometric Morphometrics of Nine Field Isolates of Aedes aegypti with Different Resistance Levels to Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Relative Fitness of One Artificially Selected for Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-O., Nicolás; Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Chaverra-Rodríguez, Duverney

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, a mosquito closely associated with humans, is the principal vector of dengue virus which currently infects about 400 million people worldwide. Because there is no way to prevent infection, public health policies focus on vector control; but insecticide-resistance threatens them. However, most insecticide-resistant mosquito populations exhibit fitness costs in absence of insecticides, although these costs vary. Research on components of fitness that vary with insecticide-resistance can help to develop policies for effective integrated management and control. We investigated the relationships in wing size, wing shape, and natural resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin of nine field isolates. Also we chose one of these isolates to select in lab for resistance to the insecticide. The main life-traits parameters were assessed to investigate the possible fitness cost and its association with wing size and shape. We found that wing shape, more than wing size, was strongly correlated with resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin in field isolates, but founder effects of culture in the laboratory seem to change wing shape (and also wing size) more easily than artificial selection for resistance to that insecticide. Moreover, significant fitness costs were observed in response to insecticide-resistance as proved by the diminished fecundity and survival of females in the selected line and the reversion to susceptibility in 20 generations of the non-selected line. As a practical consequence, we think, mosquito control programs could benefit from this knowledge in implementing efficient strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance. In particular, the knowledge of reversion to susceptibility is important because it can help in planning better strategies of insecticide use to keep useful the few insecticide-molecules currently available. PMID:24801598

  1. Geometric morphometrics of nine field isolates of Aedes aegypti with different resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin and relative fitness of one artificially selected for resistance.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Chaverra-Rodríguez, Duverney

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, a mosquito closely associated with humans, is the principal vector of dengue virus which currently infects about 400 million people worldwide. Because there is no way to prevent infection, public health policies focus on vector control; but insecticide-resistance threatens them. However, most insecticide-resistant mosquito populations exhibit fitness costs in absence of insecticides, although these costs vary. Research on components of fitness that vary with insecticide-resistance can help to develop policies for effective integrated management and control. We investigated the relationships in wing size, wing shape, and natural resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin of nine field isolates. Also we chose one of these isolates to select in lab for resistance to the insecticide. The main life-traits parameters were assessed to investigate the possible fitness cost and its association with wing size and shape. We found that wing shape, more than wing size, was strongly correlated with resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin in field isolates, but founder effects of culture in the laboratory seem to change wing shape (and also wing size) more easily than artificial selection for resistance to that insecticide. Moreover, significant fitness costs were observed in response to insecticide-resistance as proved by the diminished fecundity and survival of females in the selected line and the reversion to susceptibility in 20 generations of the non-selected line. As a practical consequence, we think, mosquito control programs could benefit from this knowledge in implementing efficient strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance. In particular, the knowledge of reversion to susceptibility is important because it can help in planning better strategies of insecticide use to keep useful the few insecticide-molecules currently available. PMID:24801598

  2. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  3. POOLMS: A computer program for fitting and model selection for two level factorial replication-free experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amling, G. E.; Holms, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described that performs a statistical multiple-decision procedure called chain pooling. It uses a number of mean squares assigned to error variance that is conditioned on the relative magnitudes of the mean squares. The model selection is done according to user-specified levels of type 1 or type 2 error probabilities.

  4. CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max – a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Poznań and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI−) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI−/− (GG) and NcoI−/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels. PMID:24511349

  5. Human-relevant levels of added sugar consumption increase female mortality and lower male fitness in mice.

    PubMed

    Ruff, James S; Suchy, Amanda K; Hugentobler, Sara A; Sosa, Mirtha M; Schwartz, Bradley L; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of added sugar has increased over recent decades and is correlated with numerous diseases. Rodent models have elucidated mechanisms of toxicity, but only at concentrations beyond typical human exposure. Here we show that comparatively low levels of added sugar consumption have substantial negative effects on mouse survival, competitive ability, and reproduction. Using Organismal Performance Assays--in which mice fed human-relevant concentrations of added sugar (25% kcal from a mixture of fructose and glucose, modeling high fructose corn syrup) and control mice compete in seminatural enclosures for territories, resources and mates--we demonstrate that fructose/glucose-fed females experience a twofold increase in mortality while fructose/glucose-fed males control 26% fewer territories and produce 25% less offspring. These findings represent the lowest level of sugar consumption shown to adversely affect mammalian health. Clinical defects of fructose/glucose-fed mice were decreased glucose clearance and increased fasting cholesterol. Our data highlight that physiological adversity can exist when clinical disruptions are minor, and suggest that Organismal Performance Assays represent a promising technique for unmasking negative effects of toxicants. PMID:23941916

  6. Early herbivore alert matters: plant-mediated effects of egg deposition on higher trophic levels benefit plant fitness.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Frago, Enric; Griese, Eddie; Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-09-01

    Induction of plant defences, specifically in response to herbivore attack, can save costs that would otherwise be needed to maintain defences even in the absence of herbivores. However, plants may suffer considerable damage during the time required to mount these defences against an attacker. This could be resolved if plants could respond to early cues, such as egg deposition, that reliably indicate future herbivory. We tested this hypothesis in a field experiment and found that egg deposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae on black mustard (Brassica nigra) induced a plant response that negatively affected feeding caterpillars. The effect cascaded up to the third and fourth trophic levels (larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids) by affecting the parasitisation rate and parasitoid performance. Overall, the defences induced by egg deposition had a positive effect on plant seed production and may therefore play an important role in the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores. PMID:26147078

  7. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ... vigorous program for people of all ability and fitness levels. Dance video games and DVDs are also ...

  8. Relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and selected risk factors for coronary heart disease in a population of Canadian men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, M; Sidney, K; Quenneville, J; Landry, F

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined with the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT), and selected risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Canadian population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. On the basis of age-specific and sex-specific national percentile scores, subjects were classified as being in the low-fitness, moderate-fitness or high-fitness category according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) predicted from performance on the CAFT. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4082 male and 1205 female Canadian federal public servants aged 30 to 59 years who participated in a voluntary fitness testing program between 1984 and 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Body composition (body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, sum of four skinfold measurements, predicted percentage of body fat and waist-hip ratio), blood lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C) and hemodynamic measurements (heart rate and blood pressure at rest and during exercise and predicted VO2 max). MAIN RESULTS: For both men and women the mean anthropometric measurements, blood lipid levels and blood pressure measurements at rest and after exercise were significantly associated with fitness category (p less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In both men and women a higher level of aerobic fitness, as defined by VO2 max predicted from performance on the CAFT, is associated with a more favourable CHD risk profile. The results support the use of VO2 max predicted from performance on the CAFT as a valid procedure for classifying people according to fitness level. PMID:1555164

  9. Fitness Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... that gets your heart pumping, such as dancing, running, or swimming laps. How hard you exercise matters, too. You can learn how to measure your workout to see if it is light, medium, or intense. Fitness for all Do you have an illness or ...

  10. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  11. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942 PMID:20678219

  12. Effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone and N-terminal telopeptide in the postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Cho, Hye-Young; Park, Yun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Ki; Kim, Myung-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is characterized by rapid decreases in bone mineral density, aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and balance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) in the postmenopausal women. Subjects were consisted of 20 postmenopausal women, who had not menstruated for at least 1 yr and had follicle-stimulating hormone levels > 35 mIU/L, estradiol levels< 40 pg/mL. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n= 10), new sports tennis type exercise group (n= 10). New sports tennis type exercise was consisted of warm up (10 min), new sports tennis type exercise (40 min), cool down (10 min) 3 days a per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic capacities were increased by 12 weeks new sports tennis type exercise. New sports tennis type exercise significantly increased FSH and NTx levels, indicating biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. These findings indicate that 12 weeks of new sports tennis type exercise can be effective in prevention of bone loss and enhancement of aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women. PMID:24877043

  13. An Evaluation of the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Andrew S.

    From its initial development, the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test has been criticized for (a) not measuring only physical fitness components; (b) forcing performances that may be injurious to students; and (c) not accurately measuring aerobic endurance, a major goal of the tests. The focus of this study is to approach these criticisms and through…

  14. Fitness for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired or Deafblind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of daily physical activity and examples of how individuals who are visually impaired or deaf-blind can access fitness. It describes techniques for running, bicycling, swimming, exercise training in a health club, aerobics, and fitness at home (jumping rope, yoga, and basketball). (Contains references.) (CR)

  15. Aerobic power and the main determinants of blood rheology: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud S; Ali, Nagia; Al-Bayatti, Mudhaffar

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between aerobic power and the main determinants of blood rheology namely plasma viscosity, plasma fibrinogen concentration and haematocrit. Ninety-three normal healthy individuals (VO2max 48.3 ml/kg per min), who were familiarized with the laboratory environment and testing procedures, participated in the study. Aerobic power as assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was determined by using an incremental exercise protocol on either a treadmill or a stationary bike. Oxygen consumption was measured online using a computer-based metabolic system. In a standardized resting condition, venous blood samples were removed from a prominent vein of the nondominant arm. Aliquots of whole blood were measured for haematocrit (in triplicate), whereas plasma was assayed for fibrinogen concentration and viscosity (in duplicate) using semiautomatic coagulometer and capillary viscometer; respectively. The mean values for haematocrit (41.9 +/- 2.5%), plasma viscosity (1.56 +/- 0.27 mPa s) and plasma fibrinogen (272.1 +/- 86.9 mg/dl) were within the normal range for normal participants. Pearson correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used for statistical evaluations. In this population, VO2max negatively correlated with plasma viscosity (P < 0.01) and plasma fibrinogen concentration (P < 0.01). Although VO2max positively correlated with haematocrit, this correlation was not as strong. Thus, high aerobic power as assessed by maximal oxygen consumption appears to be associated with lower plasma viscosity and lower plasma fibrinogen. The significant negative relationships between VO2max and plasma viscosity and plasma fibrinogen might suggest that blood is more dilute in individuals with high aerobic power. This could probably be due to an expansion of plasma volume, which is commonly seen in those who are physically active and exhibit a higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:19786866

  16. Taking a New Look at the Physical Activity Program on the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, James D., Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity programs at the college level should aim toward: (1) maintenance of physical fitness; (2) refinement of skills; (3) introduction to new skills; and (4) development of healthy lifestyles. Innovative activity courses such as aerobic dance, weight lifting, and adventure programs are also being offered to reach these goals. (JN)

  17. Use of evolutionary information in the fitting of atomic level protein models in low resolution cryo-EM map of a protein assembly improves the accuracy of the fitting.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel P; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Rakesh, Ramachandran; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-09-01

    Protein-protein interface residues, especially those at the core of the interface, exhibit higher conservation than residues in solvent exposed regions. Here, we explore the ability of this differential conservation to evaluate fittings of atomic models in low-resolution cryo-EM maps and select models from the ensemble of solutions that are often proposed by different model fitting techniques. As a prelude, using a non-redundant and high-resolution structural dataset involving 125 permanent and 95 transient complexes, we confirm that core interface residues are conserved significantly better than nearby non-interface residues and this result is used in the cryo-EM map analysis. From the analysis of inter-component interfaces in a set of fitted models associated with low-resolution cryo-EM maps of ribosomes, chaperones and proteasomes we note that a few poorly conserved residues occur at interfaces. Interestingly a few conserved residues are not in the interface, though they are close to the interface. These observations raise the potential requirement of refitting the models in the cryo-EM maps. We show that sampling an ensemble of models and selection of models with high residue conservation at the interface and in good agreement with the density helps in improving the accuracy of the fit. This study indicates that evolutionary information can serve as an additional input to improve and validate fitting of atomic models in cryo-EM density maps. PMID:27444391

  18. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  19. Is High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    PubMed

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated as a result of concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: (1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands, (2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests, and (3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its' popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT's injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as "extreme conditioning programs" by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs' popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: (1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities and (2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities. PMID:27391615

  20. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts. PMID:2288546

  1. The impact of acute aerobic exercise on chitinase 3-like protein 1 and intelectin-1 expression in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Slusher, Aaron L; Whitehurst, Michael; Wells, Marie; Maharaj, Arun; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and intelectin 1 (ITLN-1) recognize microbial N-acetylglucosamine polymer and galactofuranosyl carbohydrates, respectively. Both lectins are highly abundant in plasma and seem to play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in obesity and inflammatory-related illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma levels of these lectins in obese subjects are useful for monitoring inflammatory conditions immediately influenced by acute aerobic exercise. Plasma interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also examined. Twenty-two (11 obese and 11 normal-weight) healthy subjects, ages 18-30 years, were recruited to perform a 30 min bout of acute aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max. We confirmed higher baseline levels of plasma CHI3L1, but lower ITLN-1, in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects. The baseline levels of CHI3L1 were negatively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max). However, when controlled for BMI, the relationship between baseline level of CHI3L1 and relative VO2max was no longer observed. While acute aerobic exercise elicited an elevation in these parameters, we found a lower ITLN-1 response in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Our study clearly indicates that acute aerobic exercise elicits a pro-inflammatory response (e.g. CHI3L1) with a lower anti-inflammatory effect (e.g. ITLN-1) in obese individuals. Furthermore, these lectins could be predictors of outcome of exercise interventions in obesity-associated inflammation. PMID:26316585

  2. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  3. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  4. Comparison of Effect of Regular Unstructured Physical Training and Athletic Level Training on Body Composition and Cardio Respiratory Fitness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12–17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student’s t–test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable

  5. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). PrOOH did not change either between baseline measures or after exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women. PMID:21665113

  6. Physical fitness and hematological changes during acclimatization to moderate altitude: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael D; Wilber, Randall L; Byrnes, William C

    2007-01-01

    While high altitude adaptations have been studied extensively, limited research has examined moderate altitude (MA: 1500 to 3000 m) adaptations and their time course, despite the fact that millions of people sojourn to or reside at MA. We retrospectively examined long-term MA acclimatization by analyzing recurring physical fitness test results and hematological data among 2147 college-age male cadets previously residing at either sea level (SL) or MA and currently attending the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), a unique, regimented, and well-controlled military university located at 2210 m. Significant (p < 0.01) differences were found in aerobic and anaerobic fitness test scores between former SL and MA subjects, with MA subjects scoring 27 points (8%) higher during a 1.5-mile aerobic fitness run and 18 points (6%) higher than SL subjects in the anaerobic fitness test for 2 yr. These differences may be partly explained by the hematological differences observed. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher (6.3%; approximately 1 g/dL) in MA subjects prior to arrival at USAFA and acutely, but the difference between altitude conditions was gone at the next retrospective blood draw (+17 months). After 2.5 yr at USAFA, former SL residents had significantly (p < 0.001) higher [Hb] by +10%, or 1.5 g/dL versus prearrival values. This study suggests that significant hematological acclimatization occurs with MA exposure and requires greater than 7 months to reach stability. The altitude-induced erythropoiesis may explain in part the improvements in aerobic performance, but altitude-related anaerobic differences still remain after hematological acclimatization. PMID:17824822

  7. Correlations between physiological variables and performance in high level cross country off road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Impellizzeri, F; Marcora, S; Rampinini, E; Mognoni, P; Sassi, A

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relations between maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness and off road cycling performance in a homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers. Methods: 12 internationally competitive mountain bikers completed the study. Maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2max), peak power output (PPO), power output (PO), and oxygen uptake (V·O2) at first (VT) and second (RCT) ventilatory thresholds were measured in the laboratory, and correlated with race time during a cross country circuit race. Results: The only physiological indices of aerobic fitness correlated with off road cycling performance were PO and V·O2 at RCT when normalised to body mass (r = –0.63 and r = –0.66, respectively; p<0.05). VT, V·O2max, and PPO were not correlated to performance in this homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that submaximal indices of aerobic fitness such as PO and V·O2 at RCT are more important determinants of off road cycling performance than maximal indices such as PPO and V·O2max. This study confirms the importance of body mass for mountain biking performance. As aerobic fitness explained only 40% of the variance, other physiological and technical factors should be investigated, as they may be important determinants of cross country performance among elite mountain bikers. PMID:16183772

  8. The MILE study: a motivational, individual and locally anchored exercise intervention among 30–49 year-olds with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomised controlled study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with high risk of non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality. Physical activity level is the primary determinant of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. However, knowledge on how to motivate people to engage in physical activity and maintain an active lifestyle is lacking. This study aims to investigate whether a motivational, individual, and locally anchored exercise intervention, in primary care, can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in 30 to 49 year olds with a low or very low cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/Design Two-armed randomised controlled trial with 6 and 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness estimated via a maximal incremental exercise test. Secondary outcomes include physical activity level and sedentary behavior (objectively measured), self-reported physical activity, biochemical parameters (HbA1C, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride), anthropometric parameters and health-related quality of life. A total of 236 participants with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness classified at a local health check programme will be randomised. The intervention consists of four motivational interviews, a six months membership to a sport club, and a global positioning watch to upload training activity to Endomondo.com. The comparison group will receive standard care: a one hour motivational interview followed by another interview if requested. Effects will be estimated by evaluating the differences in mean changes in cardiorespiratory fitness between the two groups. Discussion In new and innovative ways the focus of this study will be to improve cardiorespiratory fitness among a 30–49 year-old at-risk group using social media, Global Positioning System-technology, on-going personal support and individually tailored physical activity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (no.NCT01801956). PMID:24365174

  9. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  10. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  11. Measuring Your Fitness Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

  12. Making the Fitness Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

    2005-01-01

    Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

  13. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  14. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SH; Han, JH; Jin, YY; Lee, IH; Hong, HR

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) across incremental levels of physical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans. PMID:26985135

  15. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) across incremental levels of physical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans. PMID:26985135

  16. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  17. The effects of caffeine in women during aerobic-dance bench stepping.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jennifer N; Lloyd, Lisa K; Crixell, Sylvia H; Walker, John L

    2007-02-01

    People of all ages and fitness levels participate regularly in aerobic-dance bench stepping (ADBS) to increase fitness and control body weight. Any reasonable method for enhancing the experience or effectiveness of ADBS would be beneficial. This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of caffeine on physiological responses during ADBS in women. When compared with a placebo, neither a 3- nor a 6-mg/kg dose of caffeine altered physiological responses or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 20 women (age 19-28 y) of average fitness level, not habituated to caffeine, while they performed an ADBS routine. Since neither dose of caffeine had any effect on VO2, VCO2, minute ventilation, respiratory-exchange ratio, rate of energy expenditure, heart rate, or RPE during ADBS exercise, it would not be prudent for a group exercise leader to recommend caffeine to increase energy cost or decrease perception of effort in an ADBS session. Furthermore, caffeine ingestion should not interfere with monitoring intensity using heart rate or RPE during ADBS. PMID:17460331

  18. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  19. Aerobic Capacity and Cognitive Control in Elementary School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Scudder, Mark R.; Lambourne, Kate; Drollette, Eric S.; Herrmann, Stephen; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the relationship between children’s performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) subtest of the FitnessGram® and aspects of cognitive control that are believed to support academic success. Methods Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 2nd and 3rd grade children (n = 397) who completed modified versions of a flanker task and spatial n-back task to assess inhibitory control and working memory, respectively. Results Greater aerobic fitness was significantly related to shorter reaction time and superior accuracy during the flanker task, suggesting better inhibitory control and the facilitation of attention in higher fit children. A similar result was observed for the n-back task such that higher fit children exhibited more accurate target detection and discrimination performance when working memory demands were increased. Conclusion These findings support the positive association between aerobic fitness and multiple aspects of cognitive control in a large sample of children, using a widely implemented and reliable field estimate of aerobic capacity. Importantly, the current results suggest that this relationship is consistent across methods used to assess fitness, which may have important implications for extending this research to more representative samples of children in a variety of experimental contexts. PMID:24743109

  20. Aerobic training for older men with Alzheimer's disease: individual examples of progression.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Leon, Arthur S; Bliss, Donna; Dysken, Maurice; Savik, Kay; Wyman, Jean F

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about cardiorespiratory fitness and aerobic exercise training in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purposes of this article are to describe the change in cardiorespiratory fitness after 2 months of aerobic training and the feasibility of aerobic training in 4 men with moderate-to-severe AD. A one-group, pretest-posttest test design was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness using symptom limited, graded cycle ergometer testing. In exit interviews, participants and spouses identified exercise facilitators and barriers. The results show that cardiorespiratory fitness increased in 2 participants with moderate AD but decreased in 2 with severe AD. Participants showed great variability in exercise progression and doses actually delivered. In conclusion, older men with moderate-to-severe AD can engage in aerobic training. Two months might be better used as the adaptive period for longer duration aerobic training, such as a 6-month program. Suggestions and implications for future exercise research in AD are detailed. PMID:21417188

  1. Aerobic capacity as a mediator of the influence of birth weight and school performance.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, A

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with cognitive impairments persisting into adolescence and early adulthood. The purposes of this study was two-fold: to analyse the association between birth weight (BW) and school performance, and to determine the influence of adolescent aerobic capacity and muscular strength on the association between BW and school performance in children at 12-13 years. The study included 395 children (50.4% boys, aged 12-13 years). Self-reported BW was evaluated. We measured school performance (mean of the grades obtained in language and mathematics) and two physical fitness tests (aerobic capacity and muscular strength). Analysis of variance was used to analyse the differences in school performance according to BW categories (⩽2500, 2500-3500 and ⩾3500 g). Linear regression models fitted for mediation analyses examined whether the association between BW and school performance was mediated by aerobic capacity and/or muscular strength. Higher BW was associated with better school performance independent of current body mass index. These differences disappeared after controlling for aerobic capacity, which also mediated the association between BW and school performance (13.4%). The relationship between BW and school performance seems to be dependent on aerobic capacity fitness. Our results are of importance because the consequences of BW tend to continue into childhood, and current physical fitness of the children may potentially be modified to improve school performance. PMID:27020122

  2. Single-Point but Not Tonic Cuff Pressure Pain Sensitivity Is Associated with Level of Physical Fitness – A Study of Non-Athletic Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people. PMID:25933412

  3. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  4. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:25474335

  5. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout, contract status, and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players aged eight to eighteen years.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Dieter N; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this article was twofold, and a 2-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a "club group" or a "dropout group." In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age = 16.2 years). Generally, club players outperformed their dropout peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance, and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and dropout players. Contract players jumped further (p = 0.011) and had faster times for a 5-m sprint (p = 0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2,869.3 + 14.6 × standing broad jump. Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance, and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future dropout players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:26010800

  6. Performance of Healthy Braced Participants During Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E.; Niven, Brian; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Woollard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces were introduced in sports approximately 30 years ago. However, the effects of a functional knee brace (FKB) on aerobic and anaerobic performance after fatigue are unknown. Objective: To investigate whether FKB use in noninjured participants hindered performance during aerobic (Léger beep test) and anaerobic (repeated high-intensity shuttle test [RHIST]) tasks. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age = 19.4 ± 3.0 years, range, 17–26 years; height = 182.6 ± 6.8 cm, range, 168–196 cm; mass = 80.0 ± 9.1 kg, range, 66–108 kg). Interventions : Each participant was provided a custom-fitted FKB and performed 5 nonbraced (NBR) testing sessions over 3 days, followed by 5 braced (BR) testing sessions over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 hours of testing per condition. During each testing session, participants performed 1 trial of the Léger beep test and 1 trial of the RHIST in each condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): Predicted maximal oxygen consumption (V˙o2max) and time performance measures were recorded for each NBR and BR trial. Results: Initial performance levels were lower for BR than NBR for both the Léger beep test (BR = 44.3 mL/kg/min, NBR = 47.3 mL/kg/min; F1,26 = 8.726; P = .007) and the RHIST (BR = 16.5 seconds, NBR = 16.2 seconds; F1,26 = 13.98, P = .001). However, with continued FKB use, the aerobic performance measure remained higher for only the first 2 BR testing sessions (NBR = 46.9 mL/kg/min, BR = 42.4 mL/kg/min; F3.0,79.8 = 4.95, P = .003). For the anaerobic test, no performance difference was noted between the testing conditions (NBR = 16.2 seconds, BR = 16.4 seconds; P = .7), whereas fatigue levels were lower during BR testing sessions (NBR = 33%, BR = 31%). After 14.0 hours of FKB use, performance levels were almost equal between the testing conditions (NBR = 47.6 mL/kg/min, BR = 46.1 m

  7. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  8. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  9. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65-95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  10. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S.

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  11. Forced Aerobic Exercise Enhances Motor Recovery After Stroke: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Rasanow, Matthew; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Previously, we demonstrated that forced aerobic exercise (FE) increases the pattern of neural activation in Parkinson’s disease. We sought to evaluate whether FE, when coupled with repetitive task practice, could promote motor recovery poststroke. METHOD. A 46-yr-old man with ischemic stroke exhibited chronic residual upper-extremity deficits, scoring 35/66 on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) at baseline. He completed 24 training sessions comprising 45 min of FE on a motorized stationary bicycle followed by 45 min of upper-extremity repetitive task practice. RESULTS. From baseline to end of treatment, the FMA score improved by 20 points, perceived level of recovery on the Stroke Impact Scale increased by 20 percentage points, and cardiovascular function measured by peak oxygen uptake improved 30%. These improvements persisted 4 wk after the intervention ceased. CONCLUSION. FE may be a safe and feasible rehabilitation approach to augment recovery of motor and nonmotor function while improving aerobic fitness in people with chronic stroke. PMID:26114455

  12. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX) are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™) from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water) and placebo (PL) 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR), time to exhaustion (Time), and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA) during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P < 0.01). The mean value for Time was also observed to be greater for the PRX trial compared to PL (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of FA during submaximal stages of the exercise test was greater for PRX trial in comparison to PL (P < 0.01). Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA) during graded exercise testing. PMID:20222976

  13. Personality, Metabolic Rate and Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Chan, Wayne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO2) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r =  −0.12) and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11), openness (r = 0.13), and conscientiousness (r = 0.09) had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity. PMID:23372763

  14. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  15. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  16. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Long, Xi; Zheng, Min; Qiu, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the environment face the threat of antibiotics. However, most studies investigating the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics have been conducted on microorganisms in aerobic conditions, while studies examining the anaerobic toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics are still limited. In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on Escherichia coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)>log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)≈log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) value, which represents the affinity between SAs and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) but rather on the total binding energy. Furthermore, SAs with greatly similar structures were categorized into different groups. This deep insight into the difference between aerobic and anaerobic toxicities will benefit environmental science, and the results of this study will serve as a reference for the risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. PMID:26748048

  17. Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Grigollo, Leoberto Ricardo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23), adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11) and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81). CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength. PMID:25511000

  18. "Aerobic" Writing: A Writing Practice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Sally Chandler

    "Aerobic writing" is a writing center strategy designed to keep students in writing "shape." Like aerobic exercise, aerobic writing is sustained for a certain length of time and done on a regular basis at prescribed time intervals. The program requires students to write at least two times a week for approximately an hour each time. Students write,…

  19. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  20. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  1. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  2. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  3. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  4. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mathes, K. L.; Lasley, M. L.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Frey, M. A.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic challenge is associated with interactions between strength and aerobic power. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) and isokinetic dynamometer tests to determine knee extensor strength. Based on predetermined criteria, subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each, matched for age, height, and body mass: (a) low strength/average aerobic fitness, (b) low strength/high aerobic fitness, (c) high strength/average aerobic fitness, and (d) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 0.11 rad (6 degrees) head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP to -6.7 kPa or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min, while hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses were measured. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences between high and low strength characteristics. Subjects with high aerobic power exhibited greater (P < 0.05) stroke volume and lower (P < 0.05) heart rate, vascular peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure during rest, HDT, and LBNP. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. These subjects showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure during LBNP, had greater elevations in vasopressin, and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Neither VO2max nor leg strength were associated with fall in arterial pressure or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that interactions between aerobic and strength fitness characteristics do not influence responses to LBNP challenge.

  5. Fitness Costs and Stability of a High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance Phenotype in Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis: Reduced Infectivity Associated with Decreased Expression of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fitness costs associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance were examined in phenotypically and genotypically characterized ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis mutants (104-cip and 5408-cip, MIC > 32 µg/ml). The stability of the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype in both mut...

  6. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  7. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  8. An Assessment of the Nature and Extent of Community and Employee Fitness Programs and Levels of Participation. Final Report. Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzo, Robert; And Others

    This report presents an assessment and comparison of the nature and extent of general population, employee, and school fitness programs. Chapter I provides an overview of the research effort and the research questions developed as a framework for delineating issues to be examined. Chapter II identifies the generic approach used to examine the…

  9. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... supporting your weight against gravity. This promotes bone density and protects against osteoporosis. What does cardiovascular exercise ... doing different activities, such as tennis and swimming. Water-based activities, such as swimming or water aerobics, ...

  10. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ridenhour, Suzanne E; Shukla, Shivendra D; Thyfault, John P; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide "metabolic protection" from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  11. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R. Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M.; Ridenhour, Suzanne E.; Shukla, Shivendra D.; Thyfault, John P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide “metabolic protection” from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  12. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  13. Supplementary low-intensity aerobic training improves aerobic capacity and does not affect psychomotor performance in professional female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-03-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas' psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  14. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  15. Fitness characteristics of a suburban special weapons and tactics team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Colburn, Deanna; Crill, Matthew T; Hostler, David P; Suyama, J

    2012-03-01

    Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) operators are specialized law enforcement officers who traditionally perform their duties with higher anticipated workloads because of additional body armor, weapons, and equipment used for enhanced operations and protection. This elevated workload increases the need for SWAT operators to improve or maintain their physical fitness to consistently perform routine operations. Typical tasks require trunk rotation, overhead upper extremity use, upper and lower body strength use, and long waiting periods followed by explosive movements while wearing additional equipment. Eleven male SWAT operators from 1 SWAT team performed flexibility, strength, power, and aerobic capacity tests and a variety of job-related tasks. Data were compared with age- and gender-based normative data. Fitness testing revealed that officers ranked high on tests of muscular strength (leg strength, 90th percentile; bench press, 85th percentile); however, body composition (55th percentile), core body strength, and flexibility ranked lower. Furthermore, aerobic capacity and muscular power had a wide range of scores and were also not ideal to support maximal performance during routine operations. These data can assist exercise specialists choose fitness programs specifically for job-related tasks of SWAT operators when creating fitness programs. Fitness programming for law enforcement should focus on improving aerobic fitness, flexibility, core strength, and muscular power while maintaining muscular strength to meet the needs of these specialized officers. PMID:22289693

  16. Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Hélène; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s−1•mg−1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N = 3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N = 32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ∼78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new

  17. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  18. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  19. Association of physical fitness and fatness with cognitive function in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Artero, Enrique G; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virgina A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Casimiro-Andújar, Antonio J; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the association of fitness and fatness with cognitive function in women with fibromyalgia, and the independent influence of their single components on cognitive tasks. A total of 468 women with fibromyalgia were included. Speed of information processing and working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task), as well as immediate and delayed recall, verbal learning and delayed recognition (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were assessed. Aerobic fitness, muscle strength, flexibility and motor agility were assessed with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Body mass index, percent body fat, fat-mass index and waist circumference were measured. Aerobic fitness was associated with attention and working memory (all, p < 0.05). All fitness components were generally associated with delayed recall, verbal learning and delayed recognition (all, p < 0.05). Aerobic fitness showed the most powerful association with attention, working memory, delayed recall and verbal learning, while motor agility was the most powerful indicator of delayed recognition. None of the fatness parameters were associated with any of the outcomes (all, p > 0.05). Our results suggest that fitness, but not fatness, is associated with cognitive function in women with fibromyalgia. Aerobic fitness appears to be the most powerful fitness component regarding the cognitive tasks evaluated. PMID:26783946

  20. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  1. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  2. Partnerships for the Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    The YMCA has helped train and employ fitness leaders while educating the public on physical fitness. Colleges and universities can help develop careers in fitness while maintaining their traditional role of developing teachers and coaches. (DF)

  3. The effects of cadence, impact, and step on physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise.

    PubMed

    Darby, L A; Browder, K D; Reeves, B D

    1995-09-01

    The physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise of varied impact (high, low), step (less arm movement vs. more arm movement), and cadence (124 vs. 138 beats.min-1) were investigated. Experienced, female aerobic dancers (N = 16) performed activities that combined the levels of impact and step for 3 trials of 8-min each. Dependent variables included heart rate, percentage of maximal heart rate, oxygen consumption, percentage of maximal oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant Impact x Step interaction whereby oxygen consumption was greater for the high impact-less arm movement activity (jog), while the low impact-more arm movement activity (power jack) was greater for heart rate. The interaction of aerobic dance characteristics (e.g., impact, arm movement) that may alter physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise should be identified in future aerobic dance routines and studies. PMID:7481084

  4. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Mandrick, Kevin; Bernard, Pierre Louis; Perrey, Stéphane; Blain, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin [HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin [HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Thirty-four women aged 60-77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting (CNT) task and the Random Number Generation (RNG) task at two different paces (1 number/1 s and 1 number/1.5 s), allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance. PMID:25339900

  5. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Albinet, Cédric T.; Mandrick, Kevin; Bernard, Pierre Louis; Perrey, Stéphane; Blain, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin [HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin [HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Thirty-four women aged 60–77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting (CNT) task and the Random Number Generation (RNG) task at two different paces (1 number/1 s and 1 number/1.5 s), allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance. PMID:25339900

  6. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  7. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity. PMID:25866877

  8. Physical fitness and changes in mortality: the survival of the fittest.

    PubMed

    Erikssen, G

    2001-01-01

    Physical fitness is a term describing maximal aerobic capacity adjusted for body size and composition, and is an integrated measure of cardiorespiratory and neuromusculo-skeletal function, oxygen transport and delivery, and psychological drive. Accordingly, high physical fitness requires that all these important body functions function normally, while low physical fitness suggests malfunction of one or more of them. High levels of physical fitness--maintained through heavy daily exercise--has probably been a necessary requirement for survival in the earlier history of humans. In modern, industrialised countries the demand for physical activity to sustain life is declining, and a decline in physical fitness is observed in many populations. Epidemiological studies over the past 50 years have unanimously shown that low physical activity and physical fitness is associated with high cardiovascular and total mortality. Recent data also suggest that low physical activity and physical fitness is followed by an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and nonfatal cardiovascular diseases. A number of unfavourable biochemical and physiological aberrations following physical inactivity probably explain these observations. However, recent studies also indicate that changes in physical activity, and especially changes that bring increases in physical fitness, can reverse this rather pessimistic scenario. The Global Burden of Disease Study initiated by the World Health Organization included physical inactivity among the most important risk factors threatening global health. A sedentary life style may be as detrimental to health as smoking. Encouragement of physical activity is an important and difficult task, as society is becoming increasingly successful in reducing our need to move. PMID:11475318

  9. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Verstynen, Timothy D; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the behavioral importance of higher levels of white matter microstructural organization with greater fitness levels remains a matter of speculation. Here we tested whether cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) levels were associated with white matter microstructure and whether this relationship constituted an indirect pathway between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in two large, cognitively and neurologically healthy older adult samples. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine white matter microstructure in two separate groups: Experiment 1, N=113 (mean age=66.61) and Experiment 2, N=154 (mean age=65.66). Using a voxel-based regression approach, we found that higher VO2max was associated with higher fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructure, in a diverse network of white matter tracts, including the anterior corona radiata, anterior internal capsule, fornix, cingulum, and corpus callosum (PFDR-corrected<.05). This effect was consistent across both samples even after controlling for age, gender, and education. Further, a statistical mediation analysis revealed that white matter microstructure within these regions, among others, constituted a significant indirect path between VO2max and spatial working memory performance. These results suggest that greater aerobic fitness levels are associated with higher levels of white matter microstructural organization, which may, in turn, preserve spatial memory performance in older adulthood. PMID

  10. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  11. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  12. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  13. New Routes for Aerobic Biodegradation of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Gilchrist, Darrin C.

    1991-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an osmolyte in marine plants, is biodegraded by cleavage of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or by demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA). Sequential demethylation has been observed only with anoxic slurries of coastal sediments. Bacteria that grew aerobically on MMPA and DMSP were isolated from marine environments and phytoplankton cultures. Enrichments with DMSP selected for bacteria that generated DMS, whereas MMPA enrichments selected organisms that produced methanethiol (CH3SH) from either DMSP or MMPA. A bacterium isolated on MMPA grew on MMPA and DMSP, but rapid production of CH3SH from DMSP occurred only with DMSP-grown cells. Low levels of MPA accumulated during growth on MMPA, indicating demethylation as well as demethiolation of MMPA. The alternative routes for DMSP biodegradation via MMPA probably impact on net DMS fluxes to the marine atmosphere. PMID:16348607

  14. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  15. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  16. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  17. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  18. Coaches as Fitness Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Zillifro, Traci D.; Nichols, Ronald; Hull, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of physical activity, low fitness levels, and elevated obesity rates as high as 32% of today's youth are well documented. Many strategies and grants have been developed at the national, regional, and local levels to help counteract these current trends. Strategies have been developed and implemented for schools, households (parents), and…

  19. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all P<0.05). Weight loss in E-then-D in the 16 weeks without exercise lowered HOMA to the E+D levels and maintained blood pressure at trained levels. Our data suggest that a new lifestyle combination consisting of aerobic interval training followed by weight loss diet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet. PMID:26667921

  20. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  1. Let's Get Fit!: Fitness Activities for Children with Severe/Profound Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Scott J.; Cox, Thomas Alan

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a physical activity program for students with severe/profound disabilities address medical clearance; levels of participation; staffing; equipment; and program components, including warm-up, range of motion/flexibility activities, aerobics, resistance training, and cool-down. (DB)

  2. Fitness of the US workforce.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2015-03-18

    Fitness matters for the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss, excess medical care costs, loss of income or family earnings, and other social and economic concerns. The workforce may be viewed as a corporate strategic asset, yet its fitness level appears to be relatively low and declining. Over the past half-century, obesity rates have doubled, physical activity levels are below par, and cardiorespiratory fitness often does not meet minimum acceptable job standards. During this time, daily occupational energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories. Employers should consider best practices and design workplace wellness programs accordingly. Particular attention should be paid to human-centered cultures. Research should address ongoing surveillance needs regarding fitness of the US workforce and close gaps in the evidence base for fitness and business-relevant outcomes. Policy priorities should consider the impact of both state and federal regulations, adherence to current regulations that protect and promote worker health, and the introduction of incentives that allow employers to optimize the fitness of their workforce through supportive legislation and organizational policies. PMID:25785887

  3. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents. PMID:18492054

  4. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  6. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  7. Perspectives on Aerobic and Strength Influences on Military Physical Readiness: Report of an International Military Physiology Roundtable.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Knapik, Joseph J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Baumgartner, Neal; Groeller, Herbert; Taylor, Nigel A S; Duarte, Antonio F A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Jones, Bruce H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness training of military recruits is an enduring focus of armies. This is important for safe and effective performance of general tasks that anyone may have to perform in a military setting as well as preparation for more specialized training in specific job specialties. Decades of studies on occupationally specific physical requirements have characterized the dual aerobic and strength demands of typical military tasks; however, scientifically founded strategies to prepare recruits with a good mix of these 2 physiologically opposing capabilities have not been well established. High levels of aerobic training can compromise resistance training gains and increase injury rates. Resistance training requires a greater commitment of time and resources as well as a greater understanding of the science to produce true strength gains that may be beneficial to military performance. These are critical issues for modern armies with increased demands for well-prepared soldiers and fewer injury losses. The actual physical requirements tied to metrics of success in military jobs are also under renewed examination as women are increasingly integrated into military jobs previously performed only by men. At the third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance, a roundtable of 10 physiologists with military expertise presented comparative perspectives on aerobic and strength training. These topics included the physiological basis of training benefits, how to train effectively, how to measure training effectiveness, considerations for the integration of women, and the big perspective. Key discussion points centered on (a) the significance of findings from research on integrated training, (b) strategies for effective strength development, and PMID:26506170

  8. Physical fitness among urban and rural Ecuadorian adolescents and its association with blood lipids: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical fitness has been proposed as a marker for health during adolescence. Currently, little is known about physical fitness and its association with blood lipid profile in adolescents from low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is therefore to assess physical fitness among urban and rural adolescents and its associations with blood lipid profile in a middle-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2008 and April 2009 in 648 Ecuadorian adolescents (52.3% boys), aged 11 to 15 years, attending secondary schools in Cuenca (urban n = 490) and Nabón (rural n = 158). Data collection included anthropometric measures, application of the EUROFIT battery, dietary intake (2-day 24 h recall), socio-demographic characteristics, and blood samples from a subsample (n = 301). The FITNESGRAM standards were used to evaluate fitness. The associations of fitness and residential location with blood lipid profile were assessed by linear and logistic regression after adjusting for confounding factors. Results The majority (59%) of the adolescents exhibited low levels of aerobic capacity as defined by the FITNESSGRAM standards. Urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores in five EUROFIT tests (20 m shuttle, speed shuttle run, plate tapping, sit-up and vertical jump) and significantly most favorable improved plasma lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL) as compared to rural adolescents. There was a weak association between blood lipid profile and physical fitness in both urban and rural adolescents, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions Physical fitness, in our sample of Ecuadorian adolescents, was generally poor. Urban adolescents had better physical fitness and blood lipid profiles than rural adolescents. The differences in fitness did not explain those in blood lipid profile between urban and rural adolescents. PMID:24745348

  9. Temporal Trends and Correlates of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness among School-Aged Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; Leblanc, Allana G.; Francis, Claire E.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent physical activity (PA) and fitness transitions, identified as behavioural shifts from traditionally active lifestyles to more industralised and sedentary lifestyles, have been observed among school-aged children. There is a wealth of supporting evidence of such behavioural transitions in high income countries; however, a paucity of data on lower income countries exists. These transitions pose a particular threat to the welfare of children by accelerating the onset of chronic diseases. This systematic review investigated the evidence for a PA and fitness transition among Sub-Saharan Africa’s school-aged children. Temporal trends and correlates of PA, SB, and fitness were examined. Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases, and were included if they measured outcomes of interest in apparently healthy samples of children (5‒17 years). A total of 71 articles met the inclusion criteria (40 informed PA, 17 informed SB, and 37 informed fitness). Vast heterogeneity in study methodology complicated analysis of transitions over time and no temporal trends were immediately discernible. However, higher socioeconomic status, urban living, and female children were found to engage in lower levels of PA, higher SB, and performed worse on aerobic fitness measures compared to lower socioeconomic status, rural living, and male children. Data revealed that urbanization was associated with a trend towards decreased PA, increased SB, and decreased aerobic fitness over time. Representative, temporally sequenced data examining a PA and fitness transition are lacking in this region (PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013004399). PMID:24658411

  10. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model. PMID:25735013

  11. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  12. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping ...

  13. Fitness Shoes and Clothes

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Fitness Shoes and Clothes Choosing the right clothing and ... be a great motivator! Download the Tip Sheet Fitness Shoes and Clothes (PDF, 436.87 KB) You ...

  14. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  15. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  16. An Escherichia coli Strain, PGB01, Isolated from Feral Pigeon Faeces, Thermally Fit to Survive in Pigeon, Shows High Level Resistance to Trimethoprim

    PubMed Central

    Kachhap, Sangita; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, of the hundred Escherichia coli strains isolated from feral Pigeon faeces, eighty five strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and fifteen sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. The only strain (among all antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates) that possessed class 1 integron was PGB01. The dihydrofolate reductase gene of the said integron was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli JM109. Since PGB01 was native to pigeon’s gut, we have compared the growth of PGB01 at two different temperatures, 42°C (normal body temperature of pigeon) and 37°C (optimal growth temperature of E. coli; also the human body temperature), with E. coli K12. It was found that PGB01 grew better than the laboratory strain E. coli K12 at 37°C as well as at 42°C. In the thermal fitness assay, it was observed that the cells of PGB01 were better adapted to 42°C, resembling the average body temperature of pigeon. The strain PGB01 also sustained more microwave mediated thermal stress than E. coli K12 cells. The NMR spectra of the whole cells of PGB01 varied from E. coli K12 in several spectral peaks relating some metabolic adaptation to thermotolerance. On elevating the growth temperature from 37°C to 42°C, susceptibility to kanamycin (both strains were sensitive to it) of E. coli K12 was increased, but in case of PGB01 no change in susceptibility took place. We have also attempted to reveal the basis of trimethoprim resistance phenotype conferred by the dfrA7 gene homologue of PGB01. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation study of docked complexes, PGB01-DfrA7 and E. coli TMP-sensitive-Dfr with trimethoprim (TMP) showed loss of some of the hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction between TMP and mutated residues in PGB01-DfrA7-TMP complex compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr-TMP complex. This loss of interaction entails decrease in affinity of TMP for PGB01-DfrA7 compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr. PMID:25750990

  17. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Felipe S.; Burton, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

  18. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  19. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  20. Physiological Responses of General vs. Specific Aerobic Endurance Exercises in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Zouhal, Hassane; LeMoal, Emmeran; Wong, Del P.; BenOunis, Omar; Castagna, Carlo; Duluc, Corentin; Owen, Adam L.; Drust, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The study aimed to compare the physiological and perceptual responses of two high intensity intermittent aerobic exercises (HIIE), i.e. the 15s/15s exercise and an exercise on the Hoff track (HTE). Methods In this within-subject repeated measures study, seven high-level soccer players (Age: 24.1± 4.5yr; Height: 175± 0.04cm; Body mass: 67.9± 9.0kg;% Body fat: 14.2± 2.4%) performed the two exercises with same total duration (25 minutes) in a randomized order: 1) a 15s/15s protocol at 120% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and 2) HTE. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured continuously throughout both exercises. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured 15 min after the end of each exercise. Blood lactate concentration ([La]) was measured at rest before each exercise, between and at the end of each set. Results The mean VO2 during HTE was significantly higher than 15s/15s exercise (39.3±2.3 vs. 36.8±1.9 mL/min/kg, P<0.05. The total O2 consumed was significantly higher (P<0.05) during HTE (66.8±7.6 L) than during the 15s/15s (62.3±8.6 L). Blood lactate [La] after the first set of HTE was significantly higher than the 15s/15s (12.5±2.0 vs. 10.6±2.0 mmol/L, P<0.05). However, RPE provided by players suggested that the 15s/15s was more intense than the HTE (13±1.8 vs. 11.7±1.4, P<0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that VO2 and [La] were higher during HTE than during the 15s/15s when matched with duration. However, HTE was perceived less intense than 15s/15s. Thus, the use of HTE appears as an effective alternative for fitness coaches to develop aerobic endurance in soccer players. PMID:24427481

  1. Physical fitness, aging, and sexuality.

    PubMed Central

    Bortz, W M; Wallace, D H

    1999-01-01

    Sexuality is a major quality-of-life issue, even into advanced age. Although relatively few studies have addressed sexuality, most studies have emphasized the decline in both sexual performance and satisfaction with aging. In an effort to assess possible positive modifiers of the decline, we included questions concerning sexuality in a multipurpose 90-item questionnaire submitted to members of the Fifty Plus Fitness Association based in Stanford, California. This group is unique in its commitment to a very active lifestyle and has served as a cohort for many prior studies related to fitness and medical outcomes. Sixty-seven percent of the membership returned the mail questionnaire, and 59% of these respondents replied to the sexually relevant items. The results indicated a high level of sexual activity and satisfaction in both older men and women of the Fifty Plus Fitness Association members. Further, sexual satisfaction seemed to correlate with the degree of fitness. We conclude that physical fitness and high levels of sexual activity are mutually supportive elements of successful aging. PMID:10214104

  2. BLS: Box-fitting Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Zucker, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2016-07-01

    BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares) is a box-fitting algorithm that analyzes stellar photometric time series to search for periodic transits of extrasolar planets. It searches for signals characterized by a periodic alternation between two discrete levels, with much less time spent at the lower level.

  3. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year. PMID:26731202

  4. Quantifying differences in the "fat burning" zone and the aerobic zone: implications for training.

    PubMed

    Carey, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship of the "fat burning" and aerobic zones. Subjects consisted of 36 relatively fit runners (20 male, 16 female) who completed a maximal exercise test to exhaustion on a motor-driven treadmill. The lower and upper limit of the "fat burning" zone was visually assessed by examining each individual graph. Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) was determined to be that point during the test at which fat metabolism in fat calories per minute peaked. The lower limit of the aerobic zone was assessed as 50% of heart rate reserve, whereas the upper limit was set at anaerobic threshold. Although the lower and upper limits of the "fat burning" zone (67.6-87.1% maximal heart rate) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than their counterparts in the aerobic zone (58.9-76.2%), the considerable overlap of the 2 zones would indicate that training for fat oxidation and training for aerobic fitness are not mutually exclusive and may be accomplished with the same training program. Furthermore, it was determined that this training program could simultaneously meet the requirements of the American College of Sports Medicine for both aerobic fitness and weight control. Maximal fat oxidation occurred at 54.2% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). However, the great variability in response between individuals would preclude the prediction of both the "fat burning" zone and MFO, indicating a need for measurement in the laboratory. If laboratory testing is not possible, the practitioner or subject can be reasonably confident MFO lies between 60.2% and 80.0% of the maximal heart rate. PMID:19855335

  5. Inhibition of mitomycin C's aerobic toxicity by the seleno-organic antioxidant PZ-51.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D L; Pritsos, C A

    1991-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a bioreductive alkylating agent that is capable of generating oxygen radicals. Porfiromycin (PM) is an analog to MMC that generates oxygen radicals at a significantly lower level than the parent compound. Under aerobic conditions, the toxicity of MMC to EMT6 cells is 2.5-fold that of PM, whereas hypoxically the two are equitoxic. In the present studies, the protective effect of PZ-51 in combination with NAC was assessed against the dose-dependent toxicity of either MMC or PM under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Aerobically, the PZ-51 and NAC combination inhibited the toxicity of MMC at concentrations of between 0.25 and 2 microM but had no effect on PM toxicity. Under hypoxic conditions, the PZ-51 and NAC combination had no effect on either MMC or PM toxicity. These findings support a role for oxygen radical generation in the aerobic toxicity of MMC at clinically relevant doses. PMID:1906786

  6. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Menopause may increase risk of hypertension and abnormal lipid profile. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of morning and afternoon aerobic exercises on hypertension and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Forty five women aged from 49 to 60 years were randomly assigned into three groups. Group (A) 15 patients received medicine, (B) 15 patients performed morning aerobic exercises and received medicine, and group (C) 15 patients performed afternoon aerobic exercises and received medicine. Blood pressure measurement and lipid profile tests were performed before and after the study. The results showed that there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, favoring group C. Also there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in lipid levels, favoring group C. Therefore, it can be concluded that morning aerobic exercises were more effective in reducing the blood pressure and lipids than afternoon exercises in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:26171380

  7. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  8. Changes in peak oxygen uptake and plasma volume in fit and unfit subjects following exposure to a simulation of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of reduction in plasma volume and work capacity following exposure to simulated microgravity is dependent on the initial level of aerobic fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured in a group of physically fit subjects and compared with VO2peak in a group of relatively unfit subjects before and after 10 days of continuous 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT). Ten fit subjects (40 +/- 2 year) with mean +/- SE VO2peak = 48.9 +/- 1.7 mL kg-1 min-1 were matched for age, height, and lean body weight with 10 unfit subjects (VO2peak = 37.7 +/- 1.6 mL kg-1 min-1). Before and after HDT, plasma, blood, and red cell volumes and body composition were measured and all subjects underwent a graded supine cycle ergometer test to determine VO2peak period needed. Reduced VO2peak in fit subjects (-16.2%) was greater than that of unfit subjects (-6.1%). Similarly, reductions in plasma (-18.3%) and blood volumes (-16.0%) in fit subjects were larger than those of unfit subjects (blood volume = -5.6%; plasma volume = -6.6%). Reduced plasma volume was associated with greater negative body fluid balance during the initial 24 h of HDT in the fit group (912 +/- 154 mL) compared with unfit subjects (453 +/- 200 mL). The percentage change for VO2peak correlated with percentage change in plasma volume (r = +0.79). Following exposure to simulated microgravity, fit subjects demonstrated larger reductions in VO2peak than unfit subjects which was associated with larger reductions in plasma and blood volume. These data suggest that the magnitude of physical deconditioning induced by exposure to microgravity without intervention of countermeasures was influenced by the initial fitness of the subjects.

  9. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  10. "Getting Fit Basically Just Means, Like, Nonfat": Children's Lessons in Fitness and Fatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Darren; Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Current concerns about a childhood obesity crisis and children's physical activity levels have combined to justify fitness lessons as a physical education practice in New Zealand primary (elementary) schools. Researchers focused on children's understandings of fitness lessons argue that they construct fitness as a quest for an "ideal"…

  11. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  12. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  13. Aerobic Dance for Children: Resources and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Denise A.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic dance classes may be safe for older children, but are inappropriate for children in the fourth grade and under. Programs for these children should emphasize creativity. Resources for program development are given. (MT)

  14. Aerobic dynamic feeding as a strategy for in situ accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate in aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-06-01

    Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV). PMID:24725384

  15. The effects of a multisite aerobic exercise intervention on asthma morbidity in sedentary adults with asthma: the Ex-asthma study randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Bourbeau, Jean; Ernst, Pierre; Maghni, Karim; Gautrin, Denyse; Labrecque, Manon; Pepin, Veronique; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aerobic exercise can improve cardiovascular fitness and does not seem to be detrimental to patients with asthma, though its role in changing asthma control and inflammatory profiles is unclear. The main hypothesis of the current randomised controlled trial is that aerobic exercise will be superior to usual care in improving asthma control. Key secondary outcomes are asthma quality of life and inflammatory profiles. Design A total of 104 sedentary adults with physician-diagnosed asthma will be recruited. Eligible participants will undergo a series of baseline assessments including: the asthma control questionnaire; the asthma quality-of-life questionnaire and the inflammatory profile (assessed from both the blood and sputum samples). On completion of the assessments, participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation) to either 12-weeks of usual care or usual care plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise will consist of three supervised training sessions per week. Each session will consist of taking a short-acting bronchodilator, 10 min of warm-up, 40 min of aerobic exercise (50–75% of heart rate reserve for weeks 1–4, then 70–85% for weeks 5–12) and a 10 min cool-down. Within 1 week of completion, participants will be reassessed (same battery as at baseline). Analyses will assess the difference between the two intervention arms on postintervention levels of asthma control, quality of life and inflammation, adjusting for age, baseline inhaled corticosteroid prescription, body weight change and pretreatment dependent variable level. Missing data will be handled using standard multiple imputation techniques. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by all relevant research ethics boards. Written consent will be obtained from all participants who will be able to withdraw at any time. Results The result will be disseminated to three groups of stakeholder groups: (1) the scientific and professional community; (2) the research

  16. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  17. Physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S; Armstrong, G; Sutherland, R; Wilson, J; Aitchison, T; Paul, E; Henderson, S

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session entitled 'popmobility'. A popmobility session consists of 20 min of aerobic activities, 5 min of local muscular endurance exercises and 5 min of flexibility exercises. Ten regular participants of these sessions, women of mean(s.d.) age 21.2(1.5) years, took part in the study. A maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) treadmill test was performed by each subject to obtain VO2max and maximum heart rate values. In a laboratory, heart rate and VO2 were measured throughout a popmobility session for each subject. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 min throughout the session. The mean intensity of the aerobic part of the session ranged from 67.7-82.6% of the subject's VO2max (mean of 76.4% VO2max). The mean heart rate reserve for the aerobic section was 75.6%. While the relative oxygen consumption remained fairly static during the aerobic section, the RPE score rose. The mean(s.d.) total energy expenditure was 236.6(28.4) kcal (range 203-288). The popmobility session is of adequate intensity to improve the aerobic fitness of its participants. Heart rate, as used as a measure of intensity during a popmobility session, would appear to be a fairly accurate indicator of intensity. However, the use of RPE for exercise prescription in popmobility sessions is inappropriate. Popmobility could also be useful in a weight-reduction programme. PMID:8242271

  18. Physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session.

    PubMed

    Grant, S; Armstrong, G; Sutherland, R; Wilson, J; Aitchison, T; Paul, E; Henderson, S

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session entitled 'popmobility'. A popmobility session consists of 20 min of aerobic activities, 5 min of local muscular endurance exercises and 5 min of flexibility exercises. Ten regular participants of these sessions, women of mean(s.d.) age 21.2(1.5) years, took part in the study. A maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) treadmill test was performed by each subject to obtain VO2max and maximum heart rate values. In a laboratory, heart rate and VO2 were measured throughout a popmobility session for each subject. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 min throughout the session. The mean intensity of the aerobic part of the session ranged from 67.7-82.6% of the subject's VO2max (mean of 76.4% VO2max). The mean heart rate reserve for the aerobic section was 75.6%. While the relative oxygen consumption remained fairly static during the aerobic section, the RPE score rose. The mean(s.d.) total energy expenditure was 236.6(28.4) kcal (range 203-288). The popmobility session is of adequate intensity to improve the aerobic fitness of its participants. Heart rate, as used as a measure of intensity during a popmobility session, would appear to be a fairly accurate indicator of intensity. However, the use of RPE for exercise prescription in popmobility sessions is inappropriate. Popmobility could also be useful in a weight-reduction programme. PMID:8242271

  19. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  20. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  1. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  2. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  3. Metabolic and hormonal responses to low-impact aerobic dance during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Hackney, A C; Guion, W K; Katz, V L

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the plasma glucose, free fatty acids (NEFA), lactate, triglyceride, cortisol, and insulin responses of pregnant women (22-28 wk) to a 40-min aerobic dance program and 40-min treadmill walking at similar heart rate intensities. The heart rates during exercise averaged 135 +/- 5 bt.min-1 for both trials. Immediate post-exercise plasma glucose levels were lower than resting levels for both exercise trials (P < 0.05), and remained below resting levels 20 min after exercise. Plasma triglycerides and NEFA were increased immediately post-exercise (P < 0.05), and returned toward rest 20 min after exercise. The NEFA responses at the end of the walking trials were significantly greater than at the end of the aerobic dance trials (P < 0.05). For both trials, immediate post-exercise plasma insulin levels were below resting levels (P < 0.05) and remained attenuated 20 min post-exercise. Plasma cortisol concentrations were unchanged throughout the aerobic dance trial. However, a mean increase of 105 nmol.l-1 immediately post-exercise was evident during the walking trials (P < 0.05). The results suggest that 40 min of walking or aerobic dance reduces blood glucose but does not cause hypoglycemia. Further, the results suggest that 40 min of walking or aerobic dance does not expose the mother to serious metabolic consequences that might adversely affect the fetus. PMID:8775353

  4. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ratnadeep; Dey, Netai Chandra; Samanta, Amalendu; Biswas, Rajib

    2011-01-01

    Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording) and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II) during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs) had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2 ± 3.38 mL/kg/min) compared to (42.4 ± 2.03 mL/kg/min) compared to (42.4 ± 2.03 mL/kg/min) the youngest group (20–29 yrs). It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r = −0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively) and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r = 0.57 – 0.68, P ≤ 0.001). Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India. PMID:21961020

  5. Crash Testing of Helicopter Airframe Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Charles W.; Townsend, William; Boitnott, Richard

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Rotary Wing Structures Technology Demonstration (RWSTD) program, a surrogate RAH-66 seat attachment fitting was dynamically tested to assess its response to transient, crash impact loads. The dynamic response of this composite material fitting was compared to the performance of an identical fitting subjected to quasi-static loads of similar magnitude. Static and dynamic tests were conducted of both smaller bench level and larger full-scale test articles. At the bench level, the seat fitting was supported in a steel fixture, and in the full-scale tests, the fitting was integrated into a surrogate RAH-66 forward fuselage. Based upon the lessons learned, an improved method to design, analyze, and test similar composite material fittings is proposed.

  6. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  7. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  8. [Relationship between overweight, physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged boys in Bogotá Colombia].

    PubMed

    Tovar, Gustavo; Poveda, Javier Gutiérrez; Pinilla, Milciades Ibáñez; Lobelo, Felipe

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and its association with physical activity and fitness among boys attending a private school in Bogotá, Colombia. 655 boys between 7 and 18 years self-reported their physical activity habits and underwent anthropometric (weight, height, fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance), and physical fitness measurements (PACER, sit and reach, curl-ups, push-ups and hand dynamometry). The association between weight status and physical activity and fitness were assessed by logistic regression models. The outcome was that 38% of the boys were overweight according to the BMI of the Colombian population (WHO criteria), 17,7% according to international BMI cut-offs and 16.9% showed values of % fat over 25 (Fitnessgram criteria). A relation was found between being overweight and having poor performance in the aerobic fitness test (adjusted OR: 3.7, IC 95%: 1.6-8.3) and reported not walking or riding a bicycle for at least 30 minutes, 5 times a week (OR adjusted 3.6, IC 95%: 1-13.0). These results did not change when different criteria to define overweight was applied. The best level of agreement for overweight classification was found between fat per centage and the international BMI cut-offs (kappa=0.616, p<0.001). Overweight was not associated to TV watching time, video games or use of Internet. The final conclusion was that the prevalence of overweight was high in this population of school-aged boys. There was a significant relationship between poor physical fitness, low levels of physical activity, and overweight. It is important to encourage and monitor children's levels of physical activity as well as the results of fitness test for the prevention of overweight and related cardio-metabolic complications. PMID:19137989

  9. Cross-Validation of Aerobic Capacity Prediction Models in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan Donald; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Greg J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74-0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg⁻¹,min⁻¹ to 8.27 ml·kg⁻¹.min⁻¹. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31-0.62; Agreement = 75.5-89.9%; F = 0.08-0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones. PMID:26186536

  10. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Function of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Yu; Shan, Chun-Lei; Qing, He; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yi; Yin, Meng-Mei; Machado, Sergio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Wu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of moderate intensity of aerobic exercise on elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease, we recruited fifty volunteers aged 50 years to 80 years with cognitive impairment. They were randomized into two groups: aerobic group (n=25) or control group (n=25). The aerobic group was treated with cycling training at 70% of maximal intensity for 40 min/d, 3 d/wk for 3 months. The control group was only treated with heath education. Both groups were received cognitive evaluation, laboratory examination before and after 3 months. The results showed that the Minimum Mental State Examination score, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease score and the plasma Apo-a1 level was significantly increased (P<0.05), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition score, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire score was significantly decreased.(P<0.05) in aerobic group before and after 3 months in aerobic group. For the control group, there was no significant difference in scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease, Apo-a1 (P>0.05), while Minimum Mental State Examination scores decreased significantly after 3 months (P<0.05). In conclusion, moderate intensity of aerobic exercise can improve cognitive function in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26556080

  11. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  12. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  13. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  14. Fun Fitness Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantling, Ed; Strand, Brad

    1997-01-01

    Fitness runs are planned activities that make running more interesting. The paper outlines five types of fitness runs, all of which can be modified to conform to different facilities, age groups, or available time. The activities have students playing detective, playing cards, deciphering words, learning about calories, and playing wolf. (SM)

  15. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  16. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  17. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  18. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  19. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  20. Taxonomy of Aerobic Marine Eubacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D.

    1972-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  1. Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria.

    PubMed

    Baumann, L; Baumann, P; Mandel, M; Allen, R D

    1972-04-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  2. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology. PMID:25874370

  3. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  4. Are American Children and Youth Fit?: It's Time We Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The current state of physical fitness in American youth is unknown. While evidence exists that obesity levels are increasing in children and youth, data on declines in physical fitness measures (i.e., cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness) are lacking. Tracking of physical fitness components has been poorly done. Surveillance of behaviors…

  5. The Role of Physical Fitness in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannigan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the research indicating a direct relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, physical fitness levels of students are decreasing in many schools, along with opportunities for physical fitness. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, as…

  6. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  7. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  8. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  9. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thermogenic capacity of bank voles selected for increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Grzebyk, Katherine; Rudolf, Agata M; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Agro-chemicals potentially cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. The rate of animal energy metabolism can influence their susceptibility to pesticides by influencing food consumption, biotransformation and elimination rates of toxicants. We used experimental evolution to study the effects of inherent differences in energy metabolism rate and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) on thermogenic capacity in a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes = Clethrionomys glareolus). The voles were sampled from four replicate lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and four unselected control (C) lines. Thermogenic capacity, measured as the maximum cold-induced rate of oxygen consumption (VO2cold), was higher in the A - than C lines, and it decreased after continuous exposure to CPF via food or after a single dose administered via oral gavage, but only when measured shortly after exposure. VO2cold measured 24 h after repeated exposure was not affected. In addition, gavage with a single dose led to decreased food consumption and loss in body mass. Importantly, the adverse effects of CPF did not differ between the selected and control lines. Therefore, exposure to CPF has adverse effects on thermoregulatory performance and energy balance in this species. The effects are short-lived and their magnitude is not associated with the inherent level of energy metabolism. Even without severe symptoms of poisoning, fitness can be compromised under harsh environmental conditions, such as cold and wet weather. PMID:26878110

  10. Are Physical Education Majors Models for Fitness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamla, James; Snyder, Ben; Tanner, Lori; Wash, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2002) has taken a firm stance on the importance of adequate fitness levels of physical education teachers stating that they have the responsibility to model an active lifestyle and to promote fitness behaviors. Since the NASPE declaration, national initiatives like Let's Move…

  11. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  12. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  13. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  14. Occurrence and Fate of Trace Contaminants during Aerobic and Anaerobic Sludge Digestion and Dewatering.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Paula; Kleywegt, Sonya; Payne, Michael; Svoboda, M Lewina; Lee, Hing-Biu; Reiner, Eric; Kolic, Terry; Metcalfe, Chris; Smyth, Shirley Anne

    2015-07-01

    Digestion of municipal wastewater biosolids is a necessary prerequisite to their beneficial use in land application, in order to protect public health and the receiving environment. In this study, 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), 11 musks, and 17 polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed in 84 samples including primary sludge, waste activated sludge, digested biosolids, dewatered biosolids, and dewatering centrate or filtrate collected from five wastewater treatment plants with aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Aerobic digestion processes were sampled during both warm and cold temperatures to analyze seasonal differences. Among the studied compounds, triclosan, triclocarban, galaxolide, and BDE-209 were the substances most frequently detected under different treatment processes at levels up to 30,000 ng/g dry weight. Comparing aerobic and anaerobic digestion, it was observed that the levels of certain PPCPs and musks were significantly higher in anaerobically digested biosolids, relative to the residues from aerobic digestion. Therefore, aerobic digestion has the potential advantage of reducing levels of PPCPs and musks. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion has the advantage of recovering energy from the biosolids in the form of combustible gases while retaining the nutrient and soil conditioning value of this resource. PMID:26437100

  15. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level. PMID:27297837

  16. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  17. WOLF: FITS file processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2012-12-01

    WOLF processes FITS files and generates photometry files, annotated JPGs, opacity maps, background, transient detection and luminance changes detection. This software was used to process data for the Night Sky Live project.

  18. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Strengthen your bones and muscles Improve your mental health and mood Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise ...

  19. The association of socio-economic factors with physical fitness and activity behaviours, spinal posture and retinal vessel parameters in first graders in urban Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Katharina; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bean-Eisenhut, Salome; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2016-07-01

    Socio-economic status during childhood has been shown to be a strong predictor of adult health outcome. Therefore, we examined associations of parental educational level, household income and migrant background with physical fitness, spinal flexibility, spinal posture as well as retinal vessel diameters in children of an urban Swiss region. A total of 358 first graders of the Swiss canton Basel-Stadt (age: 7.3, SD: 0.4) were examined. Physical fitness (20 m shuttle run test, 20 m sprint, jumping sidewards and balancing backwards), spinal flexibility and spinal posture (MediMouse(®), Idiag, Fehraltdorf, Switzerland) and retinal microcirculation (Static Retinal Vessel Analyzer, Imedos Systems UG, Jena, Germany) were assessed. Parental education, household income, migrant background and activity behaviour were evaluated with a questionnaire. Parental education was associated with child aerobic fitness (P = 0.03) and screen time (P < 0.001). Household income was associated with jumping sidewards (P = 0.009), balancing backwards (P = 0.03) and sports club participation (P = 0.02). Migrant background was associated with BMI (P = 0.001), body fat (P = 0.03), aerobic fitness (P = 0.007), time spent playing outdoors (P < 0.001) and screen time (P < 0.001). For spinal flexibility and retinal vessel diameter, no associations were found (0.06 < P < 0.8). Low parental education, low household income and a migrant background are associated with poor physical fitness, higher BMI and body fat percentage and low-activity behaviour. PMID:26548899

  20. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  1. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  2. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  3. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  4. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  5. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

  6. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  7. Fit for Life: A Plea for P.E. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that movement and physical activity are essential for intellectual growth of Montessori students. Outlines important concepts and procedures for developing a physical education program. Advocates "Fit for Life" approach, involving daily aerobic activities and muscular development routines. Describes how one teacher prepared his 9-12…

  8. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  9. Cardiovascular program to improve physical fitness in those over 60 years old – pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Minguet, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 50% of 60-year-olds are obese. Obesity is a disease with serious cardiovascular risks. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in Spain is 31.1%. Objectives To improve aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and balance, and body composition (BC) in persons over 60 years old. Materials and methods A clinical intervention study of 24 participants was carried out over a period of 3 months. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test. Upper-body strength was evaluated with an ad hoc test. Flexibility and balance were evaluated using the Sit and Reach Test and the Stork Balance Stand Test, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance. Results After 3 months of training, aerobic fitness was improved, as demonstrated by improved test times (pretest 13.04 minutes, posttest 12.13 minutes; P<0.05). Body composition was also improved, but the results were not statistically significant (fat mass pretest 31.58%±5.65%, posttest 30.65%±6.31%; skeletal muscle mass pretest 43.99±9.53 kg, posttest 46.63±10.90 kg). Conclusion Our data show that in subjects over 60 years old, aerobic fitness was improved due to program intervention. However, these results should be treated with caution, because of the limited sample size and the brief time period of this pilot study. A more rigorous study would include a sample of at least 100 participants. PMID:25143714

  10. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  11. Functional Connectivity: A Source of Variance in the Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Chaddock, Laura; Malkowski, Edward; Alves, Heloisa; Kim, Jennifer S.; Morris, Katherine S.; White, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Hu, Liang; Szabo, Amanda; Klamm, Emily; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Over the next 20 years the number of Americans diagnosed with dementia is expected to more than double (CDC, 2007). It is, therefore, an important public health initiative to understand what factors contribute to the longevity of a healthy mind. Both default mode network (DMN) function and increased aerobic fitness have been associated with better…

  12. Intrinsic aerobic capacity impacts susceptibility to acute high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthew Morris, E.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Lopez, Jordan L.; Kearney, Monica L.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Meers, Grace M. E.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Stephen L.; Scott Rector, R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic capacity/fitness significantly impacts susceptibility for fatty liver and diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we utilized rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity to examine the mechanisms by which aerobic capacity impacts metabolic vulnerability for fatty liver following a 3-day high-fat diet (HFD). Indirect calorimetry assessment of energy metabolism combined with radiolabeled dietary food was employed to examine systemic metabolism in combination with ex vivo measurements of hepatic lipid oxidation. The LCR, but not HCR, displayed increased hepatic lipid accumulation in response to the HFD despite both groups increasing energy intake. However, LCR rats had a greater increase in energy intake and demonstrated greater daily weight gain and percent body fat due to HFD compared with HCR. Additionally, total energy expenditure was higher in the larger LCR. However, controlling for the difference in body weight, the LCR has lower resting energy expenditure compared with HCR. Importantly, respiratory quotient was significantly higher during the HFD in the LCR compared with HCR, suggesting reduced whole body lipid utilization in the LCR. This was confirmed by the observed lower whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation in LCR compared with HCR. Furthermore, LCR liver homogenate and isolated mitochondria showed lower complete fatty acid oxidation compared with HCR. We conclude that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity show greater susceptibility for dietary-induced hepatic steatosis, which is associated with a lower energy expenditure and reduced whole body and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation. PMID:24961240

  13. A Pilot Study of Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunctive Treatment for Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory G.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention to increase exercise in drug dependent patients represents a potentially useful yet unexplored strategy for preventing relapse. However, there are currently no established exercise interventions for use with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment among drug dependent patients. Participants included 16 (31% female, 38.3 years old) drug dependent patients who participated in a 12-week, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention. Participants attended a mean of 8.6 sessions (out of 12). Participants demonstrated a significant increase in percent days abstinent for both alcohol and drugs at the end of treatment, and those who attended at least 75% of the exercise sessions had significantly better substance use outcomes than those who did not. In addition, participants showed a significant increase in their cardiorespiratory fitness by the end of treatment. While preliminary, this study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating aerobic exercise during drug abuse treatment. Future randomized control trials are a necessary next step to test the efficacy of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention as an adjunct to drug abuse treatment in this patient population. PMID:20582151

  14. Children Are Fit but Not Active!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Neil

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between exercise, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Data is presented from a study of 300 British children which indicated surprisingly low levels of physical activity, with significant differences occurring along age and gender lines. (IAH)

  15. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  16. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Scotty J; Neyedly, Tyler J; Horvey, Karla J; Benko, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit “Workouts of the Day” (WODs). Materials and methods Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs “Grace” (30 clean and jerks for time), “Fran” (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions), and “Cindy” (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats), as well as the “CrossFit Total” (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing. Results Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total) (r=−0.88 and −0.65, respectively) and anaerobic threshold (r=−0.61 and −0.53, respectively); however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively). There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy. Conclusion CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training, CrossFit athletes should likely ensure an adequate level of strength and aerobic endurance to optimize performance on at least some benchmark WODs. PMID:26261428

  17. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures. PMID:24765580

  18. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  19. Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day−1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51 mL O2/kg∗min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

  20. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201