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Sample records for aerobic high intensity

  1. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  2. Aerobic and anaerobic contributions to exhaustive high-intensity exercise after sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Borden, D O; Darnaby, K M; Hendricks, D N

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep loss on the performance of high-intensity exercise and on the contribution of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems to the exercise. Seven males and seven females performed an all-out cycling exercise test during baseline testing and then on three consecutive days after a sleepless night. The work rates were 5.0 W kg-1 for the females and 6.0 W kg-1 for the males. The aerobic contribution was determined based on measured VO2 and the anaerobic contribution was determined by subtraction of the aerobic contribution from the total amount of work performed. The results of baseline tests and of tests performed following sleep loss were compared for evidence of an effect of sleep deprivation. The 25-30 h of sleep deprivation did not affect total work, the anaerobic contribution or the aerobic contribution (all P > 0.1), although there was a tendency (P = 0.13) for mean VO2 to decrease after the sleepless night. There were no interaction effects involving sex on total work, the anaerobic contribution or the aerobic contribution (all P > 0.1). The mean (+/- S.E.M.) values for total work (kJ) performed were: baseline, 21.9 +/- 2.7; after sleep loss, 21.1 +/- 2.5 (day 1), 21.7 +/- 2.5 (day 2), and 21.9 +/- 2.7 (day 3). It is concluded that, in both males and females, there are no changes in the contributions of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to high-intensity exercise performed following the loss of one night's sleep.

  3. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  4. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C.A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event. PMID:27630434

  5. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  6. The effect of high-intensity aerobic interval training on postinfarction left ventricular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Richard; Theologou, Thomas; Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Binukrishnan, Sukumaran; Wright, Jay; Whyte, Gregory; Ellison, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    This is the third in a series of case studies on an individual with normal coronaries who sustained an idiopathic acute myocardial infarction . Bilateral pulmonary emboli almost 2 years post-myocardial infarction (MI) revealed coagulopathy as the cause. The original MI resulted in 16% myocardial scar tissue. An increasing number of patients are surviving MI, hence the burden for healthcare often shifts to heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (AHIT) is efficacious in improving cardiac function in health and disease. However, its impact on MI scar has never been assessed. Accordingly, the 50-year-old subject of this case study undertook 60 weeks of regular AHIT. Successive cardiac MRI results demonstrate, for the first time, a decrease in MI scar with exercise and, alongside mounting evidence of high efficacy and low risk, suggests AHIT may be increasingly important in future prevention and reversing of disease and or amelioration of symptoms. PMID:23413285

  7. Effects of Anabolic Steroids and High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Skeletal Muscle of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Karina; Campos, Gerson E. R.; Staron, Robert S.; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks). The transgenic mice (CETP+/-LDLr-/+) were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed) and/or training (Ex) mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M). The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M) on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition) in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS) were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB) was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M) and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C) increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M) resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M) caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was even

  8. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  9. High-intensity aerobic exercise training improves the heart in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kemi, Ole Johan; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Regular exercise training confers beneficial effects to the heart as well as to the entire body. This occurs partly because exercise training improves skeletal muscle work capacity and reduces resistance, thus increasing conductance in the peripheral circulation. More directly, exercise training also alters extrinsic modulation of the heart and improves the intrinsic pump capacity of the heart. Together, these effects allow for improved exercise capacity. Accumulating evidence suggests that the magnitude of these benefits increases proportionally with the intensity of individual exercise training sessions constituting the exercise training program. It has emerged that regular exercise training also confers beneficial effects to patients at risk for, or who have, established heart dysfunction and disease and, moreover, that exercise training may reduce the dysfunction of the heart itself and, at least, partly restore its ability to effectively function as a pump. The most recent studies in patients with established heart disease suggest that a high relative, yet aerobic, intensity of the exercise training improves the intrinsic pump capacity of the myocardium, an effect not previously believed to occur with exercise training. However, more and larger studies are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of such exercise training in patients with heart disease. Here, we consider the nature of the intensity dependence of exercise training and the causes of the improved heart function.

  10. Metabolic response of different high-intensity aerobic interval exercise protocols.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Luc E; Kozlowski, Karl F; DeVinney-Boymel, Lee; Hambridge, Caitlin

    2012-10-01

    Although high-intensity sprint interval training (SIT) employing the Wingate protocol results in significant physiological adaptations, it is conducted at supramaximal intensity and is potentially unsafe for sedentary middle-aged adults. We therefore evaluated the metabolic and cardiovascular response in healthy young individuals performing 4 high-intensity (~90% VO2max) aerobic interval training (HIT) protocols with similar total work output but different work-to-rest ratio. Eight young physically active subjects participated in 5 different bouts of exercise over a 3-week period. Protocol 1 consisted of 20-minute continuous exercise at approximately 70% of VO2max, whereas protocols 2-5 were interval based with a work-active rest duration (in seconds) of 30/30, 60/30, 90/30, and 60/60, respectively. Each interval protocol resulted in approximately 10 minutes of exercise at a workload corresponding to approximately 90% VO2max, but differed in the total rest duration. The 90/30 HIT protocol resulted in the highest VO2, HR, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate, whereas the 30/30 protocol resulted in the lowest of these parameters. The total caloric energy expenditure was lowest in the 90/30 and 60/30 protocols (~150 kcal), whereas the other 3 protocols did not differ (~195 kcal) from one another. The immediate postexercise blood pressure response was similar across all the protocols. These finding indicate that HIT performed at approximately 90% of VO2max is no more physiologically taxing than is steady-state exercise conducted at 70% VO2max, but the response during HIT is influenced by the work-to-rest ratio. This interval protocol may be used as an alternative approach to steady-state exercise training but with less time commitment.

  11. How to regulate the acute physiological response to "aerobic" high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia; Mueller, Alexander; Moser, Othmar; Groeschl, Werner; Hofmann, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The acute physiological processes during "aerobic" high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and their regulation are inadequately studied. The main goal of this study was to investigate the acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory response to long and short HIIE compared to continuous exercise (CE) as well as its regulation and predictability. Six healthy well-trained sport students (5 males, 1 female; age: 25.7 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.04 m; weight: 76.7 ± 6.4 kg; VO2max: 4.33 ± 0.7 l·min(-1)) performed a maximal incremental exercise test (IET) and subsequently three different exercise sessions matched for mean load (Pmean) and exercise duration (28 min): 1) long HIIE with submaximal peak workloads (Ppeak = power output at 95 % of maximum heart rate), peak workload durations (tpeak) of 4 min, and recovery durations (trec) of 3 min, 2) short HIIE with Ppeak according to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET, tpeak of 20 s, and individually calculated trec (26.7 ± 13.4 s), and 3) CE with a target workload (Ptarget) equating to Pmean of HIIE. In short HIIE, mean lactate (Lamean) (5.22 ± 1.41 mmol·l(-1)), peak La (7.14 ± 2.48 mmol·l(-1)), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) (181.00 ± 6.66 b·min(-1)) were significantly lower compared to long HIIE (Lamean: 9.83 ± 2.78 mmol·l(-1); Lapeak: 12.37 ± 4.17 mmol·l(-1), HRpeak: 187.67 ± 5.72 b·min(-1)). No significant differences in any parameters were found between short HIIE and CE despite considerably higher peak workloads in short HIIE. The acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory demand during "aerobic" short HIIE was significantly lower compared to long HIIE and regulable via Pmean. Consequently, short HIIE allows a consciously aimed triggering of specific and desired or required acute physiological responses. Key pointsHigh-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) with short peak workload durations (tpeak) induce a lower acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory response compared to intervals with long tpeak

  12. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  14. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

    PubMed Central

    Roczniok, R.; Maszczyk, A.; Pietraszewski, P.; Zając, A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity (V.O2max) and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS) consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max). The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001). An analysis of the fatigue index (FI) calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%). The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between V.O2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584) was significant (p=0.003). The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in V.O2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78). Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players. PMID:25177097

  15. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between 4-AIT, CME, and 1-AIT. Total EPOC was highest after 4-AIT. These data suggest that exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome.

  16. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic Capacity in Cardiac Patients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Yan, Xianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (INTERVAL) and moderate-intensity continuous training (CONTINUOUS) on aerobic capacity in cardiac patients. Methods. A meta-analysis identified by searching the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases from inception through December 2016 compared the effects of INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS among cardiac patients. Results. Twenty-one studies involving 736 participants with cardiac diseases were included. Compared with CONTINUOUS, INTERVAL was associated with greater improvement in peak VO2 (mean difference 1.76 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.46 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001) and VO2 at AT (mean difference 0.90 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 0.0 to 1.72 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03). No significant difference between the INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS groups was observed in terms of peak heart rate, peak minute ventilation, VE/VCO2 slope and respiratory exchange ratio, body mass, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride or low- or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, flow-mediated dilation, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions. This study showed that INTERVAL improves aerobic capacity more effectively than does CONTINUOUS in cardiac patients. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:28386556

  17. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative (1)H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  18. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  19. Influence of the aerobic fitness on time spent at high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake during a high-intensity intermittent running.

    PubMed

    Panissa, V L; Julio, U F; Pinto-E-Silva, C M; Andreato, L V; Schwartz, J; Franchini, E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate absolute and relative (%V.O2max) oxygen uptake (total, during effort and pause), and time spent above 90% of V.O2max during high-intensity intermittent running in subjects with different training status. Fourteen males were evaluated and divided (moderate and high aerobic power) according to their V.O2max obtained in an incremental treadmill test to volitional exhaustion. They were then submitted to high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise (1 min:1 min at maximum velocity attained during the treadmill test, totalling 4 km). A Student's t test for independent data was conducted to identify differences between groups. The moderate aerobic power group spent more time above 90% V.O2max compared to the high aerobic power group (30.2 ±9.1%; 7.3±6%, respectively, P=0.001). Moreover, the moderate aerobic power group presented lower V.O2total (P=0.011), V.O2effort (P=0.007), higher V.O2total (%V.O2), V.O2effort (P<0.001), V.O2pause (V.O2max%) (P=0.006) compared with the high aerobic power group. There was no difference in V.O2pause between groups (P=0.091), the difference between V.O2 effort and pause was greater for the high aerobic power group compared with the moderate group (4.4±2.1; 7.8±2 mL.kg-1.min-1; P=0.009) and the difference between V.O2 effort and pause (%V.O2max) was not different between groups. To conclude, these results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness spent less time above 90% of the V.O2max and that this response can be due to better capacity to recover during the pause.

  20. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  1. High intensity aerobic exercise training improves chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance without basal autophagy modulation

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Marion; Assense, Allan; Rondon, Aurélie; Thomas, Amandine; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Freyssenet, Damien; Benoit, Henri; Castells, Josiane; Flore, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21–5% FiO2, 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT). After 8 days of HIT (2*24 min, 50 to 90% of Maximal Aerobic Speed or MAS on a treadmill) mice underwent 14 days IH or N. We found that IH induced IR, characterized by a greater glycemia, an impaired insulin sensitivity and lower AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue and liver. Nevertheless, MAS and AKT phosphorylation were greater in muscle after IH. IH associated with HIT induced better systemic insulin sensitivity and AKT phosphorylation in liver. Autophagy markers were not altered in both conditions. These findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced IR without change of basal autophagy. PMID:28255159

  2. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Conclusion Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  3. A single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise facilitates response to paired associative stimulation and promotes sequence-specific implicit motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Cameron S.; Snow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Ross, Colin J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the impact of a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise on 1) long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity via response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) and 2) the temporal and spatial components of sequence-specific implicit motor learning. Additionally, relationships between exercise-induced increases in systemic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to PAS and motor learning were evaluated. Sixteen young healthy participants completed six experimental sessions, including the following: 1) rest followed by PAS; 2) aerobic exercise followed by PAS; 3) rest followed by practice of a continuous tracking (CT) task and 4) a no-exercise 24-h retention test; and 5) aerobic exercise followed by CT task practice and 6) a no-exercise 24-h retention test. The CT task included an embedded repeated sequence allowing for evaluation of sequence-specific implicit learning. Slope of motor-evoked potential recruitment curves generated with transcranial magnetic stimulation showed larger increases when PAS was preceded by aerobic exercise (59.8% increase) compared with rest (14.2% increase, P = 0.02). Time lag of CT task performance on the repeated sequence improved under the aerobic exercise condition from early (−100.8 ms) to late practice (−75.2 ms, P < 0.001) and was maintained at retention (−79.2 ms, P = 0.004) but did not change under the rest condition (P > 0.16). Systemic BDNF increased on average by 3.4-fold following aerobic exercise (P = 0.003), but the changes did not relate to neurophysiological or behavioral measures (P > 0.42). These results indicate that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise can prime LTP-like neuroplasticity and promote sequence-specific implicit motor learning. PMID:25257866

  4. A single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise facilitates response to paired associative stimulation and promotes sequence-specific implicit motor learning.

    PubMed

    Mang, Cameron S; Snow, Nicholas J; Campbell, Kristin L; Ross, Colin J D; Boyd, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the impact of a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise on 1) long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity via response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) and 2) the temporal and spatial components of sequence-specific implicit motor learning. Additionally, relationships between exercise-induced increases in systemic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to PAS and motor learning were evaluated. Sixteen young healthy participants completed six experimental sessions, including the following: 1) rest followed by PAS; 2) aerobic exercise followed by PAS; 3) rest followed by practice of a continuous tracking (CT) task and 4) a no-exercise 24-h retention test; and 5) aerobic exercise followed by CT task practice and 6) a no-exercise 24-h retention test. The CT task included an embedded repeated sequence allowing for evaluation of sequence-specific implicit learning. Slope of motor-evoked potential recruitment curves generated with transcranial magnetic stimulation showed larger increases when PAS was preceded by aerobic exercise (59.8% increase) compared with rest (14.2% increase, P = 0.02). Time lag of CT task performance on the repeated sequence improved under the aerobic exercise condition from early (-100.8 ms) to late practice (-75.2 ms, P < 0.001) and was maintained at retention (-79.2 ms, P = 0.004) but did not change under the rest condition (P > 0.16). Systemic BDNF increased on average by 3.4-fold following aerobic exercise (P = 0.003), but the changes did not relate to neurophysiological or behavioral measures (P > 0.42). These results indicate that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise can prime LTP-like neuroplasticity and promote sequence-specific implicit motor learning.

  5. Influence of the oxygen uptake slow component on the aerobic energy cost of high-intensity submaximal treadmill running in humans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Maddio, F; Ouattara, S; Jimenez, C; Charpenet, A; Melin, B; Bittel, J

    1998-11-01

    During high-intensity running, the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is characterised by a slow component which delays the attainment of the steady-state beyond the 3rd min of exercise. To assess if the aerobic energy cost of running measured at the 3rd min (C3) adequately reflects the variability of the true aerobic energy cost measured during the steady-state (Css), 13 highly-trained runners completed sessions of square-wave running at intensities above 80% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on a level treadmill. To evaluate the time at which the steady-state VO2 was attained (tss), the VO2 responses were described using a general double-exponential equation and tss was defined as the time at which VO2 was less than 1% below the asymptotic value given by the model. All the subjects achieved a steady state for intensities equal to or greater than 92% VO2max, and 8 out of 13 achieved it at 99% VO2max. In all cases, tss was less than 13 min. For intensities greater than 85% VO2max, Css was significantly higher than C3 and was positively related to %VO2 max (r=0.44; P < 0.001) while C3 remained constant. The C3 only explained moderately the variability of Css (0.39 < r2 < 0.72, depending on the velocity or the (relative intensity at which the relationship was calculated). Moreover, the excess aerobic energy cost of running the (difference between Css and C3) was well predicted by age (0.90 < r2 < 0.93). Therefore, when the aerobic profile of runners is evaluated, it is recommended that their running efficiencies at velocities which reflect their race intensities should be determined, with VO2 data being measured at the true steady-state.

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on apoptosis, oxidative stress and metabolism of the infarcted myocardium in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Yang, Yuan; Hu, Dayi; Ding, Rongjing

    2015-08-01

    The optimal aerobic exercise training (AET) protocol for patients following myocardial infarction (MI) has remained under debate. The present study therefore aimed to compare the effects of continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiac functional recovery, and to investigate the potential associated mechanisms in a post-MI rat model. Female Sprague Dawley rats (8-10 weeks old) undergoing MI or sham surgery were subsequently submitted to CMT or HIT, or kept sedentary for eight weeks. Prior to and following AET, echocardiographic parameters and exercise capacity of the rats were measured. Western blotting was used to evaluate the levels of apoptosis and associated signaling pathway protein expression. The concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress were also determined by ELISA assay. Messenger (m)RNA levels and activity of the key enzymes for glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, as well as the rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, were also measured. Compared with the MI group, exercise capacity and cardiac function were significantly improved following AET, particularly following HIT. Left ventricular ejection fraction and fraction shortening were further improved in the MI-HIT group in comparison to that of the MI-CMT group. The two forms of AET almost equally attenuated apoptosis of the post-infarction myocardium. CMT and HIT also alleviated oxidative stress by decreasing the concentration of malondialdehyde and increasing the concentration of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In particular, HIT induced a greater increase in the concentration of GPx than that of CMT. AET, and HIT in particular, significantly increased the levels of mRNA and the maximal activity of phosphofructokinase-1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, as well as the maximal ratio of ATP synthesis. In addition, compared with the MI group, the expression of signaling proteins PI3K, Akt, p38mapk and AMPK

  7. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (P<0.0001) and 4% (P=0.001), respectively in HIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; P<0.0001). Insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) decreased only in HIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance.

  8. High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Improves Both Hepatic Fat Content and Stiffness in Sedentary Obese Men with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sechang; So, Rina; Shida, Takashi; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Kim, Bokun; Akiyama, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Shoda, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    We compared the effects of 12-week programs of resistance training (RT), high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT), and moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (MICT). The primary goal was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the exercise modalities for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 61 sedentary obese men with NAFLD were randomized into one of the following exercise regimens (RT, HIAT, or MICT). Hepatic fat content was decreased to a similar extent in the RT, HIAT, and MICT groups (−14.3% vs. −13.7% vs. −14.3%) without significant changes in weight and visceral fat. The gene expression levels of fatty acid synthesis were significantly decreased in the subjects’ monocytes. Hepatic stiffness was decreased only in the HIAT group (−16.8%). The stiffness change was associated with restored Kupffer cell phagocytic function (+17.8%) and decreased levels of inflammation such as leptin (−13.2%) and ferritin (−14.1%). RT, HIAT, and MICT were equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content, but only HIAT was effective in improving hepatic stiffness and restoring Kupffer cell function. These benefits appeared to be independent of detectable weight and visceral fat reductions; the benefits were acquired through the modulation of in vivo fatty acid metabolism and obesity-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:28223710

  9. Leg vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high-intensity exercise training are enhanced in the early postmenopausal phase.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Andersen, Caroline B; Hansen, Karen M B E; Hergel, Ida-Marie F; Valbak-Andersen, Nicholai; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-02-23

    Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included. Before training, leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, and lactate release during knee-extensor exercise were similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, lactate release, blood pressure and heart rate during the same absolute workloads in the postmenopausal women. These effects were not detected in the premenopausal women. Quadriceps muscle protein contents of mitochondrial complex II, III, and IV, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX.1), COX-2, and oestrogen related receptor α (ERRα) were increased (P < 0.05) with training in the postmenopausal women whereas only the levels of mitochondrial complex V, eNOS, and COX-2 were increased (P < 0.05) in the premenopausal women. These findings demonstrate that vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high intensity exercise training are more pronounced in recent post- compared to premenopausal women, possibly as an effect of enhanced ERRα signalling. Also, the hyperaemic response to acute exercise appears to be preserved in the early postmenopausal phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of High- versus Low-Intensity Supervised Aerobic and Resistance Training on Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes; The Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)

    PubMed Central

    Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Bazuro, Alessandra; Pugliese, Luca; Maccora, Carla; Iacobini, Carla; Conti, Francesco G.; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background While current recommendations on exercise type and volume have strong experimental bases, there is no clear evidence from large-sized studies indicating whether increasing training intensity provides additional benefits to subjects with type 2 diabetes. Objective To compare the effects of moderate-to-high intensity (HI) versus low-to-moderate intensity (LI) training of equal energy cost, i.e. exercise volume, on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Design Pre-specified sub-analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES), a randomized multicenter prospective trial comparing a supervised exercise intervention with standard care for 12 months (2005–2006). Setting Twenty-two outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy. Patients Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (n = 303). Interventions Subjects were randomized by center to LI (n = 142, 136 completed) or HI (n = 161, 152 completed) progressive aerobic and resistance training, i.e. at 55% or 70% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and at 60% or 80% of predicted 1-Repetition Maximum, respectively, of equal volume. Main Outcome Measure(s) Hemoglobin (Hb) A1c and other cardiovascular risk factors; 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores. Results Volume of physical activity, both supervised and non-supervised, was similar in LI and HI participants. Compared with LI training, HI training produced only clinically marginal, though statistically significant, improvements in HbA1c (mean difference −0.17% [95% confidence interval −0.44,0.10], P = 0.03), triglycerides (−0.12 mmol/l [−0.34,0.10], P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (−0.24 mmol/l [−0.46, −0.01], P = 0.04), but not in other risk factors and CHD risk scores. However, intensity was not an independent predictor of reduction of any of these parameters. Adverse event rate was similar in HI and

  11. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Gustavo G.; Papoti, Marcelo; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A. R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  12. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Gustavo G; Papoti, Marcelo; Dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  13. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  14. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  15. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  16. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Allan; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Pires, Flávio O.; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.; Deslandes, Andrea C.; Santos, Tony M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on mountain biking (MTB) race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO), lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). Methods Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7–10 x [4–6 min—highest sustainable intensity / 4–6 min—CR100 10–15]) and SIT (8–12 x [30 s—all-out intensity / 4 min—CR100 10–15]) protocols were included in the participants’ regular training programs three times per week. Results Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT) in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94). The Cohen’s d effect size (ES) showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56). The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08), with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43). A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases) was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046). Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043) group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5%) with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8%) compared to SIT. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865 PMID:26789124

  17. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Methods Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean ± SD age = 21.1 ± 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 ± 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 ± 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 ± 0.85 l·min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 ± 7.1%) were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13) or placebo (PL, n = 11) group. The active supplement (Game Time®, Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO) was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne® 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI). Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC) of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject. Percent body fat

  18. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  19. Effect of training intensity distribution on aerobic fitness variables in elite soccer players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Bordon, Claudio; Manzi, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to quantify the distribution of training intensities and its effect on aerobic fitness in professional elite soccer players. Fourteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (6 weeks). Treadmill running speed and heart rates (HRs) at 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1) blood-lactate concentrations were assessed pre and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (


    intensity (between HR 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1)), and high intensity (>HR 4 mmol · L(-1)). Analysis of the 504 individual training sessions showed that 73 ± 2.5, 19 ± 2.8, and 8 ± 1.4% of the total training time was spent at low, moderate, and high intensity, respectively (p < 0.001). Speed at 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1) significantly improved posttraining (5 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.01). Training spent at high intensity was significantly related to relative speed improvements at 2 mmol · L(-1) (r = 0.84, p < 0.001;) and 4 mmol · L(-1) (r = 0.65, p = 0.001). Players spent almost two-thirds of their training time at low intensities. However, only the time spent at high intensity (>90% of maximal HR) was related to changes in aerobic fitness. These results support the usefulness of the quantification of aerobic training load using HR. Furthermore, it stresses the effectiveness of the high-intensity training in soccer.

  20. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68–0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49–0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  1. The role of music intensity in aerobics: implications for hearing conservation.

    PubMed

    Wilsont, Wayne J; Herbstein, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Aerobics becomes an at-risk activity for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) when high intensity music is played in its classes. Attempts to reduce this risk through hearing conservation have generally failed, possibly because participants find the high intensity music enjoyable and motivating, and therefore not "too loud". To investigate this further, the median noise (music) intensifies in four high impact aerobics classes were fixed at 80, 85, 89 and 97 dB(A), rated as very low, low, at and high-risk for temporary threshold shift (TTS) and NIHL respectively, and participant (n=236) responses were measured via a post-class questionnaire. The results showed noise (music) intensity was related to perceived music loudness, enjoyment and motivation to work (p<0.001). Also, perceived music loudness, enjoyment and motivation to work were related to each other (p<0.001), but not to previous knowledge that exposure to loud sounds can permanently damage hearing (p>0.05). These results, and their implications on hearing conservation in aerobics, were discussed.

  2. Short-term changes in 10-km race pace aerobic demand and gait mechanics following a bout of high-intensity distance running.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W; Strohmeyer, H S; Daniels, J T; Beaudoin, C C; Craib, M W; Borden, R A; Greer, P J; Burleson, C L

    1996-01-01

    Following treadmill accommodation and a 3-day period of tapered running, ten well-trained male distance runners [x maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) = 71.3 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed two 10-min level treadmill runs designed to assess running economy at 90% VO2max. Video recordings were obtained during the last minute of each run to quantify selected gait descriptors. Two to 3 days following the second economy run, each subject completed 30 min of high-intensity (HI) running at 90% VO2max. One 2, and 4 days after the HI run, subjects repeated the 10-min economy runs. Compared to pre HI-run values, no significant change (P > 0.05) in running economy was observed during the post-HI runs. Biomechanical analyses also revealed that running style remained unaltered after the HI run. These results support earlier findings obtained on moderately trained subjects featuring measurement of running economy and gait mechanics at less-demanding intensities and suggest that among well-trained athletes, 30 min of HI running does not elicit an increase in VO2 or disrupt gait mechanics over the short term in subsequent distance runs performed at near-maximal speeds.

  3. High-intensity training in football.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  4. Influence of aeration intensity on mature aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Aeration intensity is well known as an important factor in the formation of aerobic granules. In this research, two identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with aeration intensity of 0.8 (R1) and 0.2 m(3)/h (R2) were operated to investigate the characteristics and kinetics of matured aerobic granules. Results showed that both aeration intensity conditions induced granulation, but they showed different effects on the characteristics of aerobic granules. Compared with the low aeration intensity (R2), the aerobic granules under the higher aeration intensity (R1) had better physical characteristics and settling ability. However, the observed biomass yield (Y obs) in R1 [0.673 kg mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)] was lower than R2 (0.749 kg MLVSS/kg COD). In addition, the maximum specific COD removal rates (q max) and apparent half rate constant (K) of mature aerobic granular sludge under the two aeration intensities were at a similar level. Therefore, the matured aerobic granule system does not require to be operated in a higher aeration intensity, which will reduce the energy consumption.

  5. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  6. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?

    PubMed

    Laursen, P B

    2010-10-01

    Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ∼75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events.

  7. Aerobic exercise training intensity in patients with chronic heart failure: principles of assessment and prescription.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Mezzani, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a significant cause of worldwide mortality and morbidity, whose clinical picture is characterized by exercise intolerance and impaired quality of life. Aerobic exercise training is a well-established nonpharmacological tool improving the CHF’s pathophysiological, clinical, and prognostic picture, and prescription of an adequate training intensity is crucial to obtain both exercise-induced benefits and a reasonable control of exercise-related risk. However, clarity is still lacking regarding the definition of exercise intensity domains and the lower and upper intensity limits of prescriptible aerobic exercise in CHF patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the methods for the exercise intensity assessment and continuous aerobic training intensity prescription in the CHF population, furnishing indications useful for implementation of physical rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  8. Role of exercise intensity on GLUT4 content, aerobic fitness and fasting plasma glucose in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Verusca Najara; de Paula Lima, Mérica; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; de Andrade, Rosangela Vieira; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia; Lewis, John E; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) results in several metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, clinically characterized by hyperglycaemia due to lower glucose uptake and oxidation. Physical exercise is an effective intervention for glycaemic control. However, the effects of exercising at different intensities have not yet been addressed. The present study analysed the effects of 8 weeks of training performed at different exercise intensities on type 4 glucose transporters (GLUT4) content and glycaemic control of T2D (ob/ob) and non-diabetic mice (ob/OB). The animals were divided into six groups, with four groups being subjected either to low-intensity (ob/obL and ob/OBL: 3% body weight, three times/week/40 min) or high-intensity (ob/obH and ob/OBH: 6% body weight, three times per week per 20 min) swimming training. An incremental swimming test was performed to measure aerobic fitness. After the training intervention period, glycaemia and the content of GLUT4 were quantified. Although both training intensities were beneficial, the high-intensity regimen induced a more significant improvement in GLUT4 levels and glycaemic profile compared with sedentary controls (p < 0.05). Only animals in the high-intensity exercise group improved aerobic fitness. Thus, our study shows that high-intensity training was more effective for increasing GLUT4 content and glycaemia reduction in insulin-resistant mice, perhaps because of a higher metabolic demand imposed by this form of exercise.

  9. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  10. Comparative Effects of Vigorous-Intensity and Low-Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Cycle Training and Detraining on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Young, Kaelin; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Traditional high-intensity aerobic training has been shown to improve muscle protein synthesis and aerobic capacity; however, recent research indicates that low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may have similar effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vigorous-intensity (VI) cycling vs. low-intensity cycling with BFR (LI-BFR) on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity after training and subsequent detraining. Thirty-one physically active subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: VI (n = 10, 60-70% heart rate reserve [HRR]), LI-BFR (n = 11, 30% HRR with BFR at 160-180 mm Hg), and no exercise control (n = 10, no exercise). Subjects in VI and LI-BFR cycled 3 times per week for 6 weeks (total 18 sessions). Body composition, muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity were measured pre, post, and after 3 weeks of detraining. A group × time interaction (p = 0.019) effect for both knee flexion and leg lean mass was found. For both VI and LI-BFR groups, knee flexion strength was significantly increased between pre and post (p = 0.024, p = 0.01) and between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.039, p = 0.003), respectively. For the LI-BFR group, leg lean mass was significantly increased between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.024) and between post and 3 week-post (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences between groups for any variables. The LI-BFR elicits an increase in the knee flexion muscle strength over time similar to the VI. An increase in the leg lean mass over time was seen in the LI-BFR, but not in VI and CON.

  11. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  12. High intensity hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

  13. Effect of Single-Session Aerobic Exercise with Varying Intensities on Lipid Peroxidation and Muscle-Damage Markers in Sedentary Males

    PubMed Central

    Moflehi, Daruosh; Kok, Lian-Yee; T-K, Tengku-Fadilah; Amri, Saidon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different intensity levels of single-session aerobic exercise on serum levels of lipid peroxidation and muscle damage markers in sedentary males. Method: Fifty one sedentary healthy males aged 21.76±1.89 years were randomly divided into four groups, with one control (n=10) and three treatment groups that attended single-session aerobic exercise with low (n=14), moderate (n=14), and high (n=13) intensities. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant effect by the intensity levels of aerobic exercise on MDA (P=0.001) and CK (P=0.003) post-test when the participants in the treatment groups were compared with the control. When the intensity of aerobic exercise was increased, the amount of MDA and CK was also found to be increased. Conclusion: Single-session aerobic exercise can increase the amount of MDA and CK, suggesting that low intensity level of aerobic exercise should be utilized for more adaptation, and to prevent lipid peroxidation and muscle damage in sedentary males. PMID:22980341

  14. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Danielle M; West, Daniel W D; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5-4.5 h) and late (24-28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subject crossover design, eight males (21 ± 1 yr, Vo2peak 46.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two work-matched cycle ergometry exercise trials (LOW: 60 min at 30% Wmax; HIGH: 30 min at 60% Wmax) in the fasted state while undergoing a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 0.5, 4.5, 24, and 28 h postexercise to determine both the "early" and "late" response of MyoPS and MitoPS and the phosphorylation status of selected proteins within both the Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Over 24-28 h postexercise, MitoPS was significantly greater after the HIGH vs. LOW exercise trial (P < 0.05). Rates of MyoPS were increased equivalently over 0.5-4.5 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05) but remained elevated at 24-28 h postexercise only following the HIGH trial. In conclusion, an acute bout of high- but not low-intensity aerobic exercise in the fasted state resulted in a sustained elevation of both MitoPS and MyoPS at 24-28 h postexercise recovery.

  15. Contributions of Astronauts Aerobic Exercise Intensity and Time on Change in VO2peak during Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Buxton, Roxanne; Moore, Alan; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variability among astronauts with respect to changes in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) during International Space Station (ISS) missions, ranging from a 5% increase to 30% decline. Individual differences may be due to in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity on change in VO2peak during ISS missions. METHODS: Astronauts (N=11) performed peak cycle tests approx 60 days before flight (L-60), on flight day (FD) approx 14, and every approx 30 days thereafter. Metabolic gas analysis and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the test using the portable pulmonary function system. HR and duration of each in-flight cycle ergometer and treadmill (TM) session were recorded and averaged in time segments corresponding to each peak test. Mixed effects linear regression with exercise mode (TM or cycle) as a categorical variable was used to assess the contributions of exercise intensity (%time >70% peak HR or %time >90% peak HR) and time (min/wk), adjusted for body weight, on %change in VO2peak during the mission, and incorporating the repeated-measures experimental design. RESULTS: 110 observations were included in the model (4-6 peak cycle tests per astronaut, 2 exercise devices). VO2peak was reduced from preflight throughout the mission (FD14: 13+/-13% and FD 105: 8+/-10%). Exercise intensity (%peak HR: FD14=66+/-14; FD105=75+/-8) and time (min/wk: FD14=82+/-46; FD105=158+/-40) increased during flight. The models showed main effects for exercise time and intensity with no interactions between time, intensity, and device (70% peak HR: time [z-score=2.39; P=0.017], intensity [z-score=3.51; P=0.000]; 90% peak HR: time [zscore= 3.31; P=0.001], intensity [z-score=2.24; P=0.025]). CONCLUSION: Exercise time and intensity independently contribute to %change in VO2peak during ISS missions, indicating that there are minimal values for exercise time and intensity

  16. Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Culver, William; Zhang, Yufeng

    Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (Msum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in Msum, we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated with ST and MT temperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobic metabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

  17. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p < 0.005, cluster size ≥10). Regional CBF was increased 18 ± 17 % and reduced 8 ± 12 % following moderate- and low-intensity cycling, respectively. In contrast, CBF changes were similar between sessions in the right lentiform nucleus and mid-frontal gyrus, as well as the left temporal and parietal gyri. Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  18. Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

    2011-08-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes.

  19. High solar intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are used to measure visible radiant energy and radiation intensities to 20 solar constants. Future investigations are planned for up to 100 solar constants. Radiometer is small, rugged, accurate and inexpensive.

  20. Acute effects of aerobic exercise intensity on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-10-18

    Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg PWV, ankle pulse pressure and BG levels significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the LE trial (P<0·05), but not in the ME trial. Insulin levels and HR significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials (P<0·05). Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, brachial BP and carotid BP did not change from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials. The present findings indicate that aerobic exercise at moderate intensity before glucose ingestion suppresses increases leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

  1. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  2. Sweat lactate response between males with high and low aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Green, J M; Pritchett, R C; Crews, T R; McLester, J R; Tucker, D C

    2004-01-01

    Sweat lactate indirectly reflects eccrine gland metabolism. However the potential influence of aerobic fitness on sweat lactate is not well-understood. Six males with high aerobic fitness [peak oxygen consumption ( VO(2)peak): 61.6 (2.5) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] and seven males with low aerobic fitness [ VO(2)peak: 41.8 (6.4) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] completed a maximal exertion cycling trial followed on a different day by 60 min of cycling (60 rev.min(-1)) in a 30 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature environment. Intensity was individualized at 90% of the ventilatory threshold ( V(E)/ VO(2) increase with no concurrent V(E)/ VCO(2) increase). Sweat samples were collected from the lumbar region every 10 min and analyzed for lactate concentration. Sweat rate (SR) was significantly greater ( p<0.05) for subjects with a high [1445 (254) ml.h(-1)] versus a low [1056 (261) ml.h(-1)] fitness level. Also, estimated total lactate excretion (SRxmean sweat lactate concentration) was marginally greater ( p=0.2) in highly fit males. However, repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences ( p>0.05) between groups for sweat lactate concentration at any time point. Current results show highly fit (vs. low fitness level) males have a greater sweat rate which is consistent with previous literature. However aerobic fitness and subsequent variations in SR do not appear to influence sweat lactate concentrations in males.

  3. High intensity solar cell radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Device can be employed under high intensity illumination conditions such as would occur in a close-solar-approach space mission or in monitoring high intensity lamps. Radiometer consists of silicon solar cells with thin semi-transparent coatings of aluminum deposited on the front surfaces to permit transmission of small percentage of light and reflect the remainder.

  4. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  5. High Intensity Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Xenon arc lamps developed during the Apollo program by Streamlight, Inc. are the basis for commercial flashlights and emergency handlights. These are some of the brightest portable lights made. They throw a light some 50 times brighter than automobile high beams and are primarily used by police and military. The light penetrates fog and smoke and returns less back-scatter light. They are operated on portable power packs as boat and auto batteries. An infrared model produces totally invisible light for covert surveillance.

  6. Aerobic Training Intensity for Improved Endothelial Function in Heart Failure Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is widely utilised to assess endothelial function and aerobic exercise improves FMD in heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the effect of aerobic training intensity on FMD in patients with heart failure. Background. A large number of studies now exist that examine endothelial function in patients with heart failure. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying the effect of the aerobic training intensity on endothelial function. Methods. We conducted database searches (PubMed, Embase, ProQuest, and Cochrane Trials Register to June 30, 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms exercise training, endothelial function, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results. The 13 included studies provided a total of 458 participants, 264 in intervention groups, and 194 in nonexercising control groups. Both vigorous and moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved FMD. Conclusion. Overall both vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise training improved FMD in patients with heart failure. PMID:28348916

  7. Is high-intensity exercise better than moderate-intensity exercise for weight loss?

    PubMed

    De Feo, P

    2013-11-01

    This viewpoint debates the state-of-the-art research focusing on the optimal intensity of the exercise programs for inducing a sustained weight or fat-mass loss in overweight/obese people. In our demanding society, the most attractive messages in the popular press are those promising the best results in a short time. This might explain the emphasis given by media to those scientific articles that report the efficacy on weight loss of exercise programs by their shorter duration and higher intensity. However, in the literature on overweight or obese people, there is little conclusive evidence for more favorable effects with high-intensity training than with continuous moderate-intensity exercise on body weight or fat mass loss. Since both exercise protocols have been demonstrated as useful to reduce body weight, the decision on the intensity of exercise prescription should be individualized and based on outcomes different from fat or weight loss. In this regard, there are pro and contra arguments for the prescription of high-intensity aerobic exercise in obese people. Among the pro arguments, is the demonstration that, in several studies, high-intensity training appears to induce superior improvements in aerobic fitness. Among the contra arguments to prescribe high-intensity exercise is the demonstration that prescribing a higher-intensity exercise decreases adherence and results in the completion of less exercise. Thus, a successful exercise program should be proposed at a moderate intensity and a low perceived effort because obese subjects who have low self-efficacy, poor mood status, and are not familiar with high-intensity workouts could easily drop out.

  8. Effects of aerobic fitness on oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity swimming.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana F; Alves, Francisco B; Bruno, Paula M; Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to characterise both the VO2 kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between VO2 kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), first ventilatory threshold (VT), and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO(2 max)) and (2) two square-wave transitions from rest to heavy-intensity exercise, to determine their VO2 kinetics. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of freestyle swimming using a swimming snorkel. VO2 kinetics was modelled with two exponential functions. The mean values for the incremental test were 56.0 ± 6.0 ml min(-1) kg(-1), 1.45 ± 0.08 m s(-1); and 42.1 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) for VO2 max, vVO(2 max) and VT, respectively. For the square-wave transition, the time constant of the primary phase (sp) averaged 17.3 ± 5.4 s and the relevant slow component (A'sc) averaged 4.8 ± 2.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) [representing 8.9% of the end-exercise VO2 (%A'sc)]. sp was correlated with vVO(2 max) (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), but not with either VO2max (r = 0.05, ns) or VT (r = 0.14, ns). The %A' sc did not correlate with either VO2max (r = -0.14, ns) or vVO(2 max) (r = 0.06, ns), but was inversely related with VT (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). This study was the first to describe the VO2 kinetics in heavy-intensity swimming using specific swimming exercise and appropriate methods. As has been demonstrated in cycling, faster VO2 kinetics allow higher aerobic power outputs to be attained. The slow component seems to be reduced in swimmers with higher ventilatory thresholds.

  9. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630438

  10. Harmonic generation at high intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.

  11. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    PubMed

    Koichiro, Azuma; Hideo, Matsumoto

    2016-08-08

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of high-intensity interval training in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  12. High Intensity Interval Training For Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    2017-04-03

    Regular physical activity or exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT.

  13. Effect of preseason concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity interval training in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity running interval training on professional soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance. Thirty-nine players participated in the study, where both the experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 19) participated in 8 weeks of regular soccer training, with the EG receiving additional muscular strength and high-intensity interval training twice per week throughout. Muscular strength training consisted of 4 sets of 6RM (repetition maximum) of high-pull, jump squat, bench press, back half squat, and chin-up exercises. The high-intensity interval training consisted of 16 intervals each of 15-second sprints at 120% of individual maximal aerobic speed interspersed with 15 seconds of rest. EG significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) 1RM back half squat and bench press but showed no changes in body mass. Within-subject improvement was significantly higher (p < or = 0.01) in the EG compared with the CG for vertical jump height, 10-m and 30-m sprint times, distances covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and maximal aerobic speed test, and maximal aerobic speed. High-intensity interval running can be concurrently performed with high load muscular strength training to enhance soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance.

  14. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  15. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  16. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  17. The Effect of Four Instructional Formats on Aerobic Fitness of Junior-High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ron W.; Karp, Grace Goc

    2006-01-01

    The low level of fitness in junior-high school students is an area of great concern. An important, but misunderstood, part of the physical education curriculum is the development of aerobic fitness. What is the best way to go about developing aerobic fitness? Four groups of primarily Caucasian (79.9%) Grade 8 and 9 students (n = 144), attending a…

  18. A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Amy; Cobbold, Christian

    2014-01-01

    With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term. PMID:26464853

  19. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    PubMed

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2016-07-20

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max), power output at [Formula: see text]O2max (W[Formula: see text]O2max), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (Wmax) and force (Fmax). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HRmax. Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (WLT) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  20. High intensity portable fluorescent light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, F. B.

    1972-01-01

    Eight high intensity portable fluorescent lights were produced. Three prototype lights were also produced, two of which were subsequently updated to the physical and operational configuration of the qualification and flight units. Positioning of lamp apertures and reflectors in these lights is such that the light is concentrated and intensified in a specific pattern rather than widely diffused. Indium amalgam control of mercury vapor pressure in the lamp gives high output at lamp ambient temperatures up to 105 C. A small amount of amalgam applied to each electrode stem helps to obtain fast warm-up. Shrinking a Teflon sleeve on the tube and potting metal caps on each end of the lamp minimizes dispersion of mercury vapor and glass particles in the event of accidental lamp breakage. Operation at 20 kHz allows the lamps to consume more power than at low frequency, thus increasing their light output and raising their efficiency. When used to expose color photographic film, light from the lamps produces results approximately equal to sunlight.

  1. The effects of aerobic exercise intensity and duration on levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmolesky, Matthew T; Webb, David L; Hansen, Rodney A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of aerobic exercise intensity and duration on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) levels in healthy human adult males aged 18-25 years. Forty five participants were randomly assigned to one of six exercise conditions based on varying intensity (80% or 60% of heart rate reserve, or control) and duration (20 or 40 min). Vigorous (80% heart rate reserve, "Vig") and moderate (60% heart rate reserve, "Mod") exercise was carried out on cycle ergometers. Control subjects remained seated and at rest during the exercise period. Pre- and post-exercise blood draws were conducted and sBDNF measured. Physical exercise caused an average ~ 32% increase in sBDNF levels relative to baseline that resulted in concentrations that were 45% higher than control conditions. Comparing the six conditions, sBDNF levels rose consistently among the four exercise conditions (Vig20 = 26.38 ± 34.89%, Vig40 = 28.48 ± 19.11%, Mod20 = 41.23 ± 59.65%, Mod40 = 30.16 ± 72.11%) and decreased consistently among the controls (Con20 = -14.48 ± 16.50, Con40 = -10.51 ± 26.78). Vig conditions had the highest proportion of subjects that experienced a significant (? 10%) increase in sBDNF levels, followed by Mod and control conditions. An analysis of modeled sBDNF integrals (area under the curve) demonstrated substantially greater values for Vig40 and Mod40 conditions compared to Vig20 and Mod20 conditions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that neither duration (20 vs. 40 min) nor intensity (60 vs. 80% HR reserve) significantly affects the benefits of exercise if only the sBDNF increase at a single post-exercise time point is considered. However, when comparing either the probability of achieving a significant BDNF gain or the integral (i.e. the volume of circulating BDNF over time) the Vig40 condition offers maximal benefits. Thus, we conclude that the future study of aerobic exercise effects on BDNF-mediated neuroprotection should take the

  2. High intensity protons in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2012-01-05

    During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

  3. High Aerobic Capacity Mitigates Changes in the Plasma Metabolomic Profile Associated with Aging.

    PubMed

    Falegan, Oluyemi S; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hepple, Russ T; Shearer, Jane

    2017-02-03

    Advancing age is associated with declines in maximal oxygen consumption. Declines in aerobic capacity not only contribute to the aging process but also are an independent risk factor for morbidity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although statistically convincing, the relationships between aerobic capacity, aging, and disease risk remain largely unresolved. To this end, we employed sensitive, system-based metabolomics approach to determine whether enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some of the changes seen in the plasma metabolomic profile associated with aging. Metabolomic profiles of plasma samples obtained from young (13 month) and old (26 month) rats bred for low (LCR) or high (HCR) running capacity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) were examined. Results demonstrated strong profile separation in old and low aerobic capacity rats, whereas young and high aerobic capacity rat models were less predictive. Significantly differential metabolites between the groups include taurine, acetone, valine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide among other metabolites, specifically citrate, succinate, isovalerate, and proline, were differentially increased in older HCR animals compared with their younger counterparts. When interactions between age and aerobic capacity were examined, results demonstrated that enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some but not all age-associated alterations in the metabolomic profile.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Aerobic and Stretching Exercises on the Intensity of Primary Dysmenorrhea in the Students of Universities of Bushehr

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Farideh; Hoseini, Azam; Kamali, Farahnaz; Abdali, Khadijeh; Hadianfard, Mohamadjavad; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of aerobic and stretching exercises on severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 105 female students who were suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. The participants were divided into aerobic exercise, stretching exercise, and control groups. The two intervention groups did the exercises three times a week for eight weeks (two menstrual cycles). The intensity of dysmenorrhea was determined using a modified questionnaire that assessed several symptoms of dysmenorrhea. After all, the data were compared between and within groups through analysis of variance. Results: Before the intervention, the mean intensity of dysmenorrhea was 40.38 ± 5.5, 37.40 ± 3.8, and 38.45±3.3 in aerobic, stretching, and control groups, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. After the intervention, however, a significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the mean intensity of dysmenorrhea in the first and second menstrual cycles. Also, a significant difference was observed between the aerobic group and the control group as well as between the stretching group and the control group. Within group comparisons showed a significant difference in the aerobic and the stretching group before and after the interventions. However, no such difference was observed in control group. Conclusion: Both aerobic and stretching exercises were effective in reducing the severity of dysmenorrhea. Therefore, women could choose one of these two methods with regard to their interest and lifestyle. PMID:25904964

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes and prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karoline de Morais, Pâmella; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Alves de Almeida, Jeeser; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed. PMID:25642036

  6. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies

    PubMed Central

    Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J. Scott; da Costa, Márcio Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve “Mangalarga Marchador” fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70–80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  7. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Luiza Mendes de; Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J Scott; Costa, Márcio Carvalho da; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo; Ferraz, Guilherme de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve "Mangalarga Marchador" fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70-80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  8. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation. PMID:27635241

  9. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics.

  10. High Intensity Radiation Laboratory Reverberation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo depicts the interior of the large Reverberation Chamber located in the High Intensity, Radiation Facility (HIRL). These chambers are used to test susceptibility of aircraft avionics systems responses to high intensity radiated fields. These resources include a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic Cell (GTEM), which provides a uniform field of up to 1000V/m from 10 kHz to 18 Ghz.

  11. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.; Adderley, P.; Brittian, J.; Clark, J.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; McCarter, J.; Stutzman, M. L.; Suleiman, R.; Surles-Law, K.

    2008-02-06

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R and D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R and D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular - Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model--requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlated current asymmetry less than 0.1 ppm. Neighboring halls will continue taking beam during Q-weak, pushing the total average beam current from the gun beyond 300 uA. This workshop contribution describes R and D at Jefferson Lab, dedicated toward extending the operating current of polarized electron sources to meet the requirements of high current experiments at CEBAF and to better appreciate the technological challenges of new accelerators, particularly high average current machines like eRHIC that require at least 25 mA at high polarization.

  12. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  13. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R&D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R&D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  14. High-intensity source of extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, E.; Kumar, S.; Bowyer, S.

    1972-01-01

    High intensity ultraviolet radiation source was developed which is suitable for emission below 500 A. Source, useful for 100 to 1000 A range, is simple and inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and very stable. Because of sufficiently intense output spectrum, source can be used with monochromator at wavelengths as low as 160 A.

  15. Hazards from High Intensity Lamps and Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The principal occupational health problem generally associated with high intensity arc lamps results from exposure of the eye and skin to ultraviolet radiation. Occasionally, the chorioretinal burns are of concern. The eye is generally more susceptible than the skin to injury from high intensity optical radiation sources whether ultraviolet, visible or infrared. Recent developments in technology have shown that some high intensity optical radiation sources which have output parameters greatly different from those encountered in the natural environment present a serious chorioretinal burn hazard.

  16. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Robach, Paul; Schmitt, Laurent; Brugniaux, Julien V; Roels, Belle; Millet, Grégoire; Hellard, Philippe; Nicolet, Gérard; Duvallet, Alain; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Moutereau, Stéphane; Lasne, Françoise; Pialoux, Vincent; Olsen, Niels V; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2006-03-01

    The "living high-training low" model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect may last for up to 2 weeks after LHTL intervention. Eighteen swimmers trained for 13 days at 1,200 m while sleeping/living at 1,200 m in ambient air (control, n=9) or in hypoxic rooms (LHTL, n=9, 5 days at simulated altitude of 2,500 m followed by 8 days at simulated altitude of 3,000 m, 16 h day(-1)). Measures were done before 1-2 days (POST-1) and 2 weeks after intervention (POST-15). Aerobic performance was assessed from two swimming trials, exploring .VO(2max) and endurance performance (2,000-m time trial), respectively. Reticulocyte, serum EPO and soluble transferrin receptor responses were not altered by LHTL, whereas reticulocytes decreased in controls. In POST-1 (vs. before): red blood cell volume increased in LHTL only (+8.5%, P=0.03), .VO(2max) tended to increase more in LHTL (+8.1%, P=0.09) than in controls (+2.5%, P=0.21) without any difference between groups (P=0.42) and 2,000-m performance was unchanged with LHTL. In POST-15, both performance and hematological parameters were similar to initial levels. Our results indicate that LHTL may stimulate red cell production, without any concurrent amelioration of aerobic performance. The absence of any prolonged benefit after LHTL suggests that this LHTL model cannot be recommended for long-term purposes.

  17. Aerobic exercise in humans mobilizes HSCs in an intensity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jeff M; Nederveen, Joshua P; Parise, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are necessary to maintain, repair, and reconstitute the hematopoietic blood cell system. Mobilization of these cells from bone marrow to blood can be greatly increased under certain conditions, one such being exercise. The purpose of this study was to identify the importance of exercise intensity in hematopoietic mobilization, to better understand the mobilization kinetics postexercise, and to determine if exercise is capable of mobilizing several specific populations of hematopoietic cells that have clinical relevance in a transplant setting. Healthy individuals were exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% of their peak work rate (WRpeak) until volitional fatigue and at 30% of their WRpeak work matched to the 70% WRpeak bout. Blood was collected before, immediately post, and 10, 30, and 60 min postexercise. Total blood cells, hematocrit, and mononuclear cells isolated by density gradient centrifugation were counted. Specific populations of hematopoietic stem cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mononuclear cells, CD34(+), CD34(+)/CD38(-), CD34(+)/CD110(+), CD3(-)/CD16(+)/CD56(+), CD11c(+)/CD123(-), and CD11c(-)/CD123(+) cells per millilter of blood increased postexercise. Overall, the 70% WRpeak exercise group showed greater mobilization immediately postexercise, while there was no observable increase in mobilization in the work matched 30% WRpeak exercise group. Mobilization of specific populations of hematopoietic cells mirrored changes in the general mobilization of mononuclear cells, suggesting that exercise serves as a nonspecific mobilization stimulus. Evidently, higher intensity exercise is capable of mobilizing hematopoietic cells to a large extent and immediately postexercise is an ideal time point for their collection.

  18. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  19. High-intensity interval training in patients with coronary heart disease: Prescription models and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paula A B; Boidin, Maxime; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as an alternative and/or complementary exercise modality to continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET) in CHD patients. However, the literature contains descriptions of many HIIT protocols with different stage durations, nature of recovery and intensities. In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of validated HIIT protocols in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and how to prescribe and use them during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. We also compare the superior and/or equivalent short- and long-term effects of HIIT versus CAET on aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, and quality of life; their efficiency, safety, and tolerance; and exercise adherence. Short interval HIIT was found beneficial for CHD patients with lower aerobic fitness and would ideally be used in initiation and improvement stages. Medium and/or long interval HIIT protocols may be beneficial for CHD patients with higher aerobic fitness, and would be ideally used in the improvement and maintenance stages because of their high physiological stimulus. Finally, we propose progressive individualized models of HIIT programs (phase II to III) for patients with CHD and how to ideally use them according to the clinical status of patients and phase of the cardiac rehabilitation program.

  20. Aerobically trained individuals have greater increases in rectal temperature than untrained ones during exercise in the heat at similar relative intensities.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Estevez, Emma; Ortega, Juan F

    2010-07-01

    To determine if the increases in rectal temperature (T(REC)) during exercise in the heat at a given percent of VO2peak depend on a subject's aerobic fitness level. On three occasions, 10 endurance-trained (Tr) and 10 untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak: 60 +/- 6 vs. 44 +/- 3 mL kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-dry environment (36 +/- 1 degrees C; 25 +/- 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). At the same percent of VO2peak, on average, Tr had 28 +/- 5% higher heat production but also higher skin blood flow (29 +/- 3%) and sweat rate (20 +/- 7%; P = 0.07) and lower skin temperature (0.5 degrees C; P < 0.05). Pre-exercise T(REC) was lower in the Tr subjects (37.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 37.6 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05) but similar to the UTr at the end of 40 and 60% VO2peak trials. Thus, exercise T(REC) increased more in the Tr group than in the UTr group (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C at 40% VO2peak and 1.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C at 60% VO2peak; P < 0.05). At 80% VO2peak not only the increase in T(REC) (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C) but also the final T(REC) was larger in Tr than in UTr subjects (39.15 +/- 0.1 vs. 38.85 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05). During exercise in the heat at the same relative intensity, aerobically trained individuals have a larger rise in T(REC) than do the untrained ones which renders them more hyperthermic after high-intensity exercise.

  1. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  2. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  3. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  4. The NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Reuben A.

    1997-01-01

    High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are the result of a multitude of intentional and nonintentional electromagnetic sources that currently exists in the world. Many of today's digital systems are susceptible to electronic upset if subjected to certain electromagnetic environments (EME). Modern aerospace designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on sophisticated digital electronic systems to provide critical flight control in both military, commercial, and general aviation aircraft. In an effort to understand and emulate the undesired environment that high energy RF provides modern electronics, the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) of the Flight Electronics and Technology Division (FETD) conducts research on RF and microwave measurement methods related to the understanding of HIRF. In the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory, the effects of high energy radiating electromagnetic fields on avionics and electronic systems are tested and studied.

  5. A comparison of the health benefits of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) and moderate-intensity walking in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, José S; Songsorn, Preeyaphorn; Haggett, Malindi; Edmonds, Daniel; Robinson, Anthony M; Thompson, Dylan; Vollaard, Niels B J

    2017-02-01

    Reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) is a genuinely time-efficient intervention that can improve aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity in sedentary individuals. The present study compared the effects of REHIT and moderate-intensity walking on health markers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a counter-balanced crossover study. Sixteen men with T2D (mean ± SD age: 55 ± 5 years, body mass index: 30.6 ± 2.8 kg·m(-2), maximal aerobic capacity: 27 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed 8 weeks of REHIT (three 10-min low-intensity cycling sessions/week with two "all-out" 10-20-s sprints) and 8 weeks of moderate-intensity walking (five 30-min sessions/week at an intensity corresponding to 40%-55% of heart-rate reserve), with a 2-month wash-out period between interventions. Before and after each intervention, participants underwent an incremental fitness test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, and continuous glucose monitoring. REHIT was associated with a significantly larger increase in maximal aerobic capacity compared with walking (7% vs. 1%; time × intervention interaction effect: p < 0.05). Both REHIT and walking decreased resting mean arterial pressure (-4%; main effect of time: p < 0.05) and plasma fructosamine (-5%; main effect of time: p < 0.05). Neither intervention significantly improved OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, glycaemic control measured using continuous glucose monitors, blood lipid profile, or body composition. We conclude that REHIT is superior to a 5-fold larger volume of moderate-intensity walking in improving aerobic fitness, but similar to walking REHIT is not an effective intervention for improving insulin sensitivity or glycaemic control in T2D patients in the short term.

  6. The development of a high intensity dance performance fitness test.

    PubMed

    Redding, Emma; Weller, Peter; Ehrenberg, Shantel; Irvine, Sarah; Quin, Edel; Rafferty, Sonia; Wyon, Matthew; Cox, Carol

    2009-01-01

    While there is currently a validated dance-specific exercise method of measuring aerobic fitness, no such test has been developed to measure high intensity capabilities in dance. The purpose of this study was to initiate an intermittent high intensity dance-specific fitness test. The test was designed to be able to observe changes in heart rate (HR), thereby allowing for a measurement of physical fitness at high intensities. Sixteen professional dancers (4 males and 12 females) volunteered to take part in this study. The fitness test protocol consists of movements that are representative of contemporary dance, and contains exercise and rest periods that mimic the intermittent nature of dance. The participants performed four trials. The physiological variables measured were HR (b.min(-1)) for each one minute bout of the four minute test for all trials, oxygen uptake (VO(2)) throughout the test, and end blood lactate (BLa mmol.L) for each trial. In addition, five of the participants undertook a maximal oxygen uptake treadmill test, and the scores obtained were compared with those from the dance test. Results show HR consistency across each one minute bout of the test and across each of the four trials of testing for all participants, indicating that the test is reliable. There was good reliability between bouts of each trial (typical error as % of CV = 1.5), intraclass "r" = 0.8, and good reliability between the four trials (typical error as % of CV = 2.1), intraclass "r" = 0.82. There were no significant differences between the maximal VO(2) and BLa scores established in the treadmill and dance tests, demonstrating validity. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the high intensity dance-specific test is a reliable and valid means of assessing and monitoring the cardiovascular fitness of dancers. The test allows dancers to be assessed within an environment that they are accustomed to (the studio), using a mode of exercise that is relevant (dance), and it is

  7. Highly diastereoselective and regioselective copper-catalyzed nitrosoformate dearomatization reaction under aerobic-oxidation conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weibo; Huang, Long; Yu, Yang; Pflästerer, Daniel; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2014-04-01

    An unprecedented copper-catalyzed acylnitroso dearomatization reaction, which expands the traditional acylnitroso ene reaction and acylnitroso Diels-Alder reaction to a new type of transformation, has been developed under aerobic oxidation. Intermolecular and intra-/intermolecular reaction modes demonstrate an entirely different N- or O-acylnitroso selectivity. Hence, we can utilize this reaction as a highly diastereoselective access to a series of new pyrroloindoline derivatives, which are important structural motifs for natural-product synthesis.

  8. Radiation reaction in high-intensity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-10-01

    Since the development of a radiating electron model by Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model of the so-called "radiation reaction". Recently, this effect has become important in ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a way of stabilizing the radiation reaction by quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum fluctuation [K Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014); K. Seto, Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2015, 023A01 (2015)]. On the other hand, the modification of the radiated field by highly intense incoming laser fields should be taken into account when the laser intensity is higher than 10^{22} W/cm2, which could be achieved by next-generation ultra-short-pulse 10 PW lasers, like the ones under construction for the ELI-NP facility. In this paper, I propose a running charge-mass method for the description of the QED-based synchrotron radiation by high-intensity external fields with stabilization by the QED vacuum fluctuation as an extension from the model by Dirac.

  9. High intensity laser interactions with atomic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmire, T

    2000-08-07

    The development of ultrashort pulse table top lasers with peak pulse powers in excess of 1 TW has permitted an access to studies of matter subject to unprecedented light intensities. Such interactions have accessed exotic regimes of multiphoton atomic and high energy-density plasma physics. Very recently, the nature of the interactions between these very high intensity laser pulses and atomic clusters of a few hundred to a few thousand atoms has come under study. Such studies have found some rather unexpected results, including the striking finding that these interactions appear to be more energetic than interactions with either single atoms or solid density plasmas. Recent experiments have shown that the explosion of such clusters upon intense irradiation can expel ions from the cluster with energies from a few keV to nearly 1 MeV. This phenomenon has recently been exploited to produce DD fusion neutrons in a gas of exploding deuterium clusters. Under this project, we have undertaken a general study of the intense femtosecond laser cluster interaction. Our goal is to understand the macroscopic and microscopic coupling between the laser and the clusters with the aim of optimizing high flux fusion neutron production from the exploding deuterium clusters or the x-ray yield in the hot plasmas that are produced in this interaction. In particular, we are studying the physics governing the cluster explosions. The interplay between a traditional Coulomb explosion description of the cluster disassembly and a plasma-like hydrodynamic explosion is not entirely understood, particularly for small to medium sized clusters (<1000 atoms) and clusters composed of low-Z atoms. We are focusing on experimental studies of the ion and electron energies resulting from such explosions through various experimental techniques. We are also examining how an intense laser pulse propagates through a dense medium containing these clusters.

  10. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S.; dos Reis, Ivan G. M.; Beck, Wladimir R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  11. Effects of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on Salmonella and aerobic plate count

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments were used to determine the effects of high-energy irradiation on the number of aerobic microorganisms and Salmonella on broiler breasts and thighs. Irradiation ranging from 100 to 700 kilorads (krads) was provided by a commercial-scale, electron-beam accelerator. Irradiation of broiler breast and thigh pieces with electron beams at levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 krads showed that levels as low as 100 krads would eliminate Salmonella. When 33 thighs were tested after irradiation at 200 krads, only one thigh tested presumptive positive. The total number of aerobic organisms was reduced by 2 to 3 log10 cycles at irradiation levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 krads. Increasing the dose above 100 krads gave little if any additional benefit.

  12. Characterization of aerobic granular sludge treating high strength agro-based wastewater at different volumetric loadings.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Curtis, Thomas P; Yahya, Adibah; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between microbial community and mechanism of aerobic granulation could enable wider applications of granules for high-strength wastewater treatment. The majority of granulation studies principally determine the engineering aspects of granules formation with little emphasis on the microbial diversity. In this study, three identical reactors namely R1, R2 and R3 were operated using POME at volumetric loadings of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. Aeration was provided at a volumetric flow rate of 2.5 cms(-1). Aerobic granules were successfully developed in R2 and R3 while bioflocs dominated R1 until the end of experiments. Fractal dimension (D(f)) averaged at 1.90 suggesting good compactness of granules. The PCR-DGGE results indicated microbial evolutionary shift throughout granulation despite different operating OLRs based on decreased Raup and Crick similarity indices upon mature granule formation. The characteristics of aerobic granules treating high strength agro-based wastewater are determined at different volumetric loadings.

  13. Biodegradation and kinetics of aerobic granules under high organic loading rates in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Wenju; Liang, David Tee; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2008-05-01

    Biodegradation, kinetics, and microbial diversity of aerobic granules were investigated under a high range of organic loading rate 6.0 to 12.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1) in a sequencing batch reactor. The selection and enriching of different bacterial species under different organic loading rates had an important effect on the characteristics and performance of the mature aerobic granules and caused the difference on granular biodegradation and kinetic behaviors. Good granular characteristics and performance were presented at steady state under various organic loading rates. Larger and denser aerobic granules were developed and stabilized at relatively higher organic loading rates with decreased bioactivity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and specific growth rate (muoverall) or solid retention time. The decrease of bioactivity was helpful to maintain granule stability under high organic loading rates and improve reactor operation. The corresponding biokinetic coefficients of endogenous decay rate (kd), observed yield (Yobs), and theoretical yield (Y) were measured and calculated in this study. As the increase of organic loading rate, a decreased net sludge production (Yobs) is associated with an increased solid retention time, while kd and Y changed insignificantly and can be regarded as constants under different organic loading rates.

  14. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (Vo2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Results Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated Vo2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, Vo2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting Vo2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809 ± 3 m/s) and L (804 ± 9 m/s) higher than C (764 ± 27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Conclusions Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness

  15. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψleaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψleaf. Ψleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep

  16. High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Postprandial Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2015-07-01

    This review examined if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) reduces postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Fifteen studies were identified, in which the effect of interval exercise conducted at an intensity of >65% of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated on postprandial TAG levels. Analysis was divided between studies that included supramaximal exercise and those that included submaximal interval exercise. Ten studies examined the effect of a single session of low-volume HIIE including supramaximal sprints on postprandial TAG. Seven of these studies noted reductions in the postprandial total TAG area under the curve the morning after exercise of between ~10 and 21% compared with rest, but three investigations found no significant difference in TAG levels. Variations in the HIIE protocol used, inter-individual variation or insufficient time post-exercise for an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity are proposed reasons for the divergent results among studies. Five studies examined the effect of high-volume submaximal interval exercise on postprandial TAG. Four of these studies were characterised by high exercise energy expenditure and effectively attenuated total postprandial TAG levels by ~15-30%, but one study with a lower energy expenditure found no effect on TAG. The evidence suggests that supramaximal HIIE can induce large reductions in postprandial TAG levels but findings are inconsistent. Submaximal interval exercise offers no TAG metabolic or time advantage over continuous aerobic exercise but could be appealing in nature to some individuals. Future research should examine if submaximal interval exercise can reduce TAG levels in line with more realistic and achievable exercise durations of 30 min per day.

  17. Positron microanalysis with high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Donohue, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more common applications for a high intensity slow positron facility will be microanalysis of solid materials. In the first section of this paper some examples are given of procedures that can be developed. Since most of the attendees of this workshop are experts in positron spectroscopy, comprehensive descriptions will be omitted. With the exception of positron emission microscopy, most of the procedures will be based on those already in common use with broad beams. The utility of the methods have all been demonstrated, but material scientists use very few of them because positron microbeams are not generally available. A high intensity positron facility will make microbeams easier to obtain and partially alleviate this situation. All microanalysis techniques listed below will have a common requirement, which is the ability to locate the microscopic detail or area of interest and to focus the positron beam exclusively on it. The last section of this paper is a suggestion of how a high intensity positron facility might be designed so as to have this capability built in. The method will involve locating the specimen by scanning it with the microbeam of positrons and inducing a secondary electron image that will immediately reveal whether or not the positron beam is striking the proper portion of the specimen. This scanning positron microscope' will be a somewhat prosaic analog of the conventional SEM. It will, however, be an indispensable utility that will enhance the practicality of positron microanalysis techniques. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-05-02

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  19. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2016-09-23

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P < 0.05) and REC (type I: 10.0 ± 2.7%, type IIA: 14.8 ± 4.3% type IIX: 20.8 ± 6.0%, P < 0.05). In contrast, RFD decreased and fascicle angle increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. Capillary density and estimated aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. These results suggest that high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes.

  1. Plating Processes Utilizing High Intensity Acoustic Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor); Denofrio, Charles (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and a method for selective plating processes are disclosed which use directed beams of high intensity acoustic waves to create non-linear effects that alter and improve the plating process. The directed beams are focused on the surface of an object, which in one embodiment is immersed in a plating solution, and in another embodiment is suspended above a plating solution. The plating processes provide precise control of the thickness of the layers of the plating, while at the same time, in at least some incidents, eliminates the need for masking.

  2. High intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1973-12-11

    This invention relates to a high intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source comprising a neutron-producing source which emits pulses of fast neutrons, a moderator block adjacent to the last neutron source, a reflector block which encases the fast neutron source and the moderator block and has a thermal neutron exit port extending therethrough from the moderator block, and a neutron energy- dependent decoupling reflector liner covering the interior surfaces of the thermal neutron exit port and surrounding all surfaces of the moderator block except the surface viewed by the thermal neutron exit port. (Official Gazette)

  3. The Effects of Low to Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Following Clinical Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Method. Lebed-Davis developed a program using ROM exercises to help reduce lymphedema in breast cancer survivors (Sandel, 2005) with a focus on healing...helped facilitate lymphatic drainage and aided with lymphedema . The following 25-30 minutes incorporated low to moderate aerobic dance exercise (30-50...breast cancer survivors (reduce lymphedema and increase range of motion). This may have also have promoted self-efficacy in addition to improved

  4. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  5. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  6. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  7. High-intensity exercise training induces morphological and biochemical changes in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Toti, L; Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Soldani, P; Gobbi, P; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2013-12-01

    IN THE PRESENT STUDY WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON FIBRE COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM OF TWO SPECIFIC MUSCLES OF MICE: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism.

  8. Postprandial lipoprotein profile in two modes of high-intensity intermittent exercise

    PubMed Central

    Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; de Moura Mello Antunes, Barbara; Lira, Fabio Santos; Takito, Monica Yuri; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to compare blood lipid postprandial profile response in two modes of high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve individuals (6 men and 6 women) were submitted to a maximal incremental test (to determine maximal aerobic power [MAP] and V. O2peak [peak oxygen uptake]), high-intensity intermittent all-out exercise (60×8-sec bouts interspersed by 12-sec passive recovery) and fixed high-intensity intermittent exercise (100% maximal aerobic speed, consisted of 1-min repetitions at MAP [70 rpm] separated by 1-min of passive recovery). Blood samples were collected pre, immediately, 45 and 90-min postexercise. Serum was analyzed for total cholesterol and its ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (TAG). For TAG there was a main effect of moment with higher values immediately postexercise compared to 45-min postexercise. For VLDL there was a main effect to moment with higher values immediately post exercise than pre and 45-min postexercise; higher values 90-min postexercise than 45-min postexercise. There was no effect for HDL-c, LDL-c, and cholesterol. For area under the curve there was no difference for any variable. Our results indicated that both kinds of acute exercise session lead to no improvement in the acute response of serum lipid profile of healthy young. PMID:27807528

  9. Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: a joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mezzani, Alessandro; Hamm, Larry F; Jones, Andrew M; McBride, Patrick E; Moholdt, Trine; Stone, James A; Urhausen, Axel; Williams, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise intensity prescription is a key issue in cardiac rehabilitation, being directly linked to both the amount of improvement in exercise capacity and the risk of adverse events during exercise. This joint position statement aims to provide professionals with up-to-date information regarding the identification of different exercise intensity domains, the methods of direct and indirect determination of exercise intensity for both continuous and interval aerobic training, the effects of the use of different exercise protocols on exercise intensity prescription and the indications for recommended exercise training prescription in specific cardiac patients' groups. The importance of functional evaluation through exercise testing prior to starting an aerobic training program is strongly emphasized, and ramp incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, when available, is proposed as the gold standard for a physiologically comprehensive exercise intensity assessment and prescription. This may allow a shift from a 'range-based' to a 'threshold-based' aerobic exercise intensity prescription, which, combined with thorough clinical evaluation and exercise-related risk assessment, could maximize the benefits obtainable by the use of aerobic exercise training in cardiac rehabilitation.

  10. Sleep quality improved following a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in older women: Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects. Methods Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m2, mean ± SD), sedentary (<20 min of exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO2peak, sequence randomized) between 9:00 and 11:00 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session. Results The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter (p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less (p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower (p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition. Conclusion Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women. PMID:25685605

  11. High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman

    2014-05-15

    This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

  12. Use of aerobic granules for treating synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Wan, Chunli; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mature aerobic granules were utilized to treat synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters with chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratios of 3.9-6.9. The contributions of various mechanisms to the removal of ammonium were determined. Ammonium levels of 600-2000 mg-N l-1 had little adverse effect on the COD removal rate (91.6%-95.3%) with an influent COD of 4490-9860 mg l-1. The TN removal rate was slightly reduced from 71.3% to 59.6% as the influent ammonium concentration was increased from 600 to 2000 mg-N l-1. Experimental results indicated that aerobic granules removed 94.5% of COD and 59.6% of TN in the treatment of synthetic high-strength wastewater (9860 mg-COD l-1 and 2000 mg NH+4-Nl-1) during a 12 h cycle. Granular adsorption, air stripping and conversion by nitrification/denitrification were responsible for removing 9%, 15% and 76%, respectively, of the total removed NHf -N. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was a useful process indicator of the biological reactions in the treatment of high-level ammonium wastewaters.

  13. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  14. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  15. High intensity training and energy production during 90-second box jump in junior alpine skiers.

    PubMed

    Gross, Micah; Hemund, Kevin; Vogt, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Alpine ski races can last up to 2.5 minutes and have very high metabolic demands. One limiting factor for performance is insufficient aerobic energy supply. We studied the effects of an 8-day interval training block on aerobic capacity (VO2max) and performance and physiology during the 90-second box jump test (BJ90), a maximal performance test employed to simulate the metabolic demands of alpine ski racing, in elite junior skiers. After 10 high-intensity interval training sessions, performed as cycling, running, or an obstacle course, VO2max increased in all subjects by 2.5 ± 1.9 ml · minute(-1) · kg(-1) (4.3 ± 3.2%), as did maximal blood lactate concentration in a graded cycling test (before: 11.7 ± 1.3 mmol · L(-1), after: 14.8 ± 1.8 mmol · L(-1), both parameters p ≤ 0.05). Performance (total jumps) and aerobic energy contribution (63.3 ± 2.8%) during the BJ90 did not increase as hypothesized; however, subjects altered their pacing strategy, which may have counteracted such an effect. Additionally, the present data support the practicality of the performance test used for mimicking the demands of alpine skiing.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Ambulatory Chronic Stroke: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Kari; Carl, Daniel; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Rockwell, Bradley; Keeton, Gabriela; Westover, Jennifer; Williams, Alesha; McCarthy, Michael; Kissela, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Background Poststroke guidelines recommend moderate-intensity, continuous aerobic training (MCT) to improve aerobic capacity and mobility after stroke. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to be more effective than MCT among healthy adults and people with heart disease. However, HIT and MCT have not been compared previously among people with stroke. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and justification for a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing HIT and MCT in people with chronic stroke. Design A preliminary RCT was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a cardiovascular stress laboratory and a rehabilitation research laboratory. Patients Ambulatory people at least 6 months poststroke participated. Intervention Both groups trained 25 minutes, 3 times per week, for 4 weeks. The HIT strategy involved 30-second bursts at maximum-tolerated treadmill speed alternated with 30- to 60-second rest periods. The MCT strategy involved continuous treadmill walking at 45% to 50% of heart rate reserve. Measurements Measurements included recruitment and attendance statistics, qualitative HIT acceptability, adverse events, and the following blinded outcome variables: peak oxygen uptake, ventilatory threshold, metabolic cost of gait, fractional utilization, fastest treadmill speed, 10-Meter Walk Test, and Six-Minute Walk Test. Results During the 8-month recruitment period, 26 participants consented to participate. Eighteen participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the HIT group (n=13) or the MCT group (n=5). Eleven out of the 13 HIT group participants attended all sessions. Participants reported that HIT was acceptable and no serious adverse events occurred. Standardized effect size estimates between groups were moderate to very large for most outcome measures. Only 30% of treadmill speed gains in the HIT group translated into overground gait speed improvement. Limitations The study was not

  17. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  18. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-01

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  19. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  20. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  1. Short-term Regular Aerobic Exercise Reduces Oxidative Stress Produced by Acute High Intraluminal Pressure in the Adipose Microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-02-24

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction, and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure.

  2. Portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source provides increased experimental accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, W. C.; Stewart, D. C.; Wahlgren, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Small portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source combines twelve curium-americium beryllium sources. This high intensity of neutrons, with a flux which slowly decreases at a known rate, provides for increased experimental accuracy.

  3. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Cortés, G; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2012-03-01

    The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 ± 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 °C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox(®) and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity.

  4. Is High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    PubMed

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated as a result of concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: (1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands, (2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests, and (3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its' popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT's injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as "extreme conditioning programs" by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs' popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: (1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities and (2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities.

  5. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  6. BEAM LOSS MECHANISMS IN HIGH INTENSITY LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In the present operation of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, 60-Hz, 825-us H beam pulses are accelerated to 910 MeV, and then compressed to less than a microsecond in the storage ring, to deliver 1 MW of beam power to the spallation target. The beam loss in the superconducting portion of the linac is higher than expected, and it has shown a surprising counter-intuitive correlation with quadrupole magnetic fields, with a loss minimum occurring when the quadrupoles are set to approximately half their design values. This behavior can now be explained by a recent set of experiments that show the beam loss is primarily due to intra-beam stripping. Beam halo is another important beam loss contributor, and collimation in the 2.5 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport has proven to be an effective mitigation strategy. In this presentation, we will summarize these and other beam loss mechanisms that are important for high intensity linacs.

  7. High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L

    2010-04-26

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance.

  8. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  9. Hippocampal structure, metabolism, and inflammatory response after a 6-week intense aerobic exercise in healthy young adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Brünner, Franziska; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Gussew, Alexander; Puta, Christian; Smesny, Stefan; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Interventional studies suggest that changes in physical fitness affect brain function and structure. We studied the influence of high intensity physical exercise on hippocampal volume and metabolism in 17 young healthy male adults during a 6-week exercise program compared with matched controls. We further aimed to relate these changes to hypothesized changes in exercised-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We show profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects and a positive correlation between the degree of fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels. We unexpectedly observed an average volume decrease of about 2%, which was restricted to right hippocampal subfields CA2/3, subiculum, and dentate gyrus and which correlated with fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels negatively. This result indicates that mainly those subjects who did not benefit from the exercise program show decreased hippocampal volume, reduced BDNF levels, and increased TNF-α concentrations. While spectroscopy results do not indicate any neuronal loss (unchanged N-acetylaspartate levels) decreased glutamate-glutamine levels were observed in the right anterior hippocampus in the exercise group only. Responder characteristics need to be studied in more detail. Our results point to an important role of the inflammatory response after exercise on changes in hippocampal structure.

  10. A template-free solvent-mediated synthesis of high surface area boron nitride nanosheets for aerobic oxidative desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chao, Yanhong; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhu, Huiyuan; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Huaming; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-04

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNs) with rather high specific surface area (SSA) are important two-dimensional layer-structured materials. Here, a solvent-mediated synthesis of h-BNNs revealed a template-free lattice plane control strategy that induced high SSA nanoporous structured h-BNNs with outstanding aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance.

  11. Biological treatment of high-pH and high-concentration black liquor of cotton pulp by an immediate aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Lihong, Miao; Furong, Li; Jinli, Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an immediate aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic (O/A/O) biological process was established for the treatment of black liquor of cotton pulp and was tested by both laboratory-scale batch experiment and pilot-scale continuous experiment. The effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) were studied, as were the alkaliphilic bacteria number, the culturing temperature and the concentration of black liquor on COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The total COD (COD(tot)) removal rate of the novel O/A/O process, for a black liquor with influent COD(tot) over 8,000 mg/L and pH above 12.8, was 68.7+/-4% which is similar with that of the traditional acidic-anaerobic-aerobic process (64.9+/-3%). The first aerobic stage based on alkaliphilic bacteria was the crucial part of the process, which was responsible for decreasing the influent pH from above 12 to an acceptable level for the following treatment unit. The average generation time of the alkaliphilic bacteria in the black liquor was about 36 minutes at 40 degrees C in a batch aerobic activated sludge system. The efficiency of the first aerobic stage was affected greatly by the temperature. The COD(tot) removal at 55 degrees C was much lower in comparison with the COD(tot) removal at 45 degrees C or 50 degrees C. Both the laboratory-scale batch experiments and the pilot-scale continuous experiment showed that the COD(tot) removal rate could reach about 65% for original black liquor with a pH of about 13.0 and a COD of 18,000-22,000 mg/L by the immediate O/A/O process. The first aerobic stage gave an average COD(tot) removal of 45.5% at 35 degrees C (HRT = 72 h) at a volume loading rate of 3.4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1).

  12. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  13. Comparison of high and low intensity training in well controlled rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    van den Ende, C H; Hazes, J M; le Cessie, S; Mulder, W J; Belfor, D G; Breedveld, F C; Dijkmans, B A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefit of intensive dynamic exercises in comparison to range of motion (ROM) and isometric exercises in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: 100 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients on stable medication were randomly assigned to (1) intensive dynamic group exercises which included full weight bearing exercises and conditioning exercises on a stationary bicycle while the heart rate was maintained at 70-85% of the age predicted maximum heart rate, (2) range of motion (ROM) exercises and isometric exercises in a group, (3) individual isometric and ROM exercises, and (4) home instructions for isometric and ROM exercises. Variables of physical condition, muscle strength, joint mobility, daily functioning (HAQ), and disease activity were assessed before and after the 12 week exercise course, and 12 weeks thereafter. An intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Increases in aerobic capacity (n = 77), muscle strength, and joint mobility in the high intensity exercise programme were respectively 17%, 17% and 16% and differed significantly from the changes in aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and joint mobility in the other exercise groups. No deterioration of disease activity was observed. Twelve weeks after discontinuation of the exercise course the gain in physical capacity had disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive dynamic training is more effective in increasing aerobic capacity, joint mobility, and muscle strength than ROM exercises and isometric training in rheumatoid arthritis patients with well controlled disease. PMID:8976635

  14. Stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly permeable municipal drinking water aquifer.

    PubMed

    Critchley, K; Rudolph, D L; Devlin, J F; Schillig, P C

    2014-12-15

    A preliminary trial of a cross-injection system (CIS) was designed to stimulate in situ denitrification in an aquifer servicing an urban community in southern Ontario. It was hypothesized that this remedial strategy could be used to reduce groundwater nitrate in the aquifer such that it could remain in use as a municipal supply until the beneficial effects of local reduced nutrient loadings lead to long-term water quality improvement at the wellfield. The CIS application involved injecting a carbon source (acetate) into the subsurface using an injection-extraction well pair positioned perpendicular to the regional flow direction, up-gradient of the water supply wells, with the objective of stimulating native denitrifying bacteria. The pilot remedial strategy was targeted in a high nitrate flux zone within an aerobic and heterogeneous section of the glacial sand and gravel aquifer. Acetate injections were performed at intervals ranging from daily to bi-daily. The carbon additions led to general declines in dissolved oxygen concentrations; decreases in nitrate concentration were localized in aquifer layers where velocities were estimated to be less than 0.5m/day. NO3-(15)N and NO3-(18)O isotope data indicated the nitrate losses were due to denitrification. Relatively little nitrate was removed from groundwater in the more permeable strata, where velocities were estimated to be on the order of 18 m/day or greater. Overall, about 11 percent of the nitrate mass passing through the treatment zone was removed. This work demonstrates that stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly conductive aquifer is challenging but achievable. Further work is needed to increase rates of denitrification in the most permeable units of the aquifer.

  15. Repeated high-speed activities during youth soccer games in relation to changes in maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, B M; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in highly-trained young soccer players whether substantial changes in either maximal sprinting speed (MSS) or maximal aerobic speed (as inferred from peak incremental test speed, V(Vam-Eval)) can affect repeated high-intensity running during games. Data from 33 players (14.5±1.3 years), who presented substantial changes in either MSS or V(Vam-Eval) throughout 2 consecutive testing periods (~3 months) were included in the final analysis. For each player, time-motion analyses were performed using a global positioning system (1-Hz) during 2-10 international club games played within 1-2 months from/to each testing period of interest (n for game analyzed=109, player-games=393, games per player per period=4±2). Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of individual MSS. Repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) were defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s of recovery. Improvements in both MSS and V(Vam-Eval) were likely associated with a decreased RSS occurrence, but in some positions only (e. g., - 24% vs. - 3% for improvements in MSS in strikers vs. midfielders, respectively). The changes in the number of sprints per RSS were less clear but also position-dependent, e. g., +7 to +12% for full-backs and wingers, - 5 to - 7% for centre-backs and midfielders. In developing soccer players, changes in repeated-sprint activity during games do not necessarily match those in physical fitness. Game tactical and strategic requirements are likely to modulate on-field players' activity patterns independently (at least partially) of players' physical capacities.

  16. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  17. Proton shock acceleration using a high contrast high intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; Kim, Jongjin; Aurand, Bastian; Curry, Chandra; Goede, Sebastian; Propp, Adrienne; Goyon, Clement; Pak, Art; Kerr, Shaun; Ramakrishna, Bhuvanesh; Ruby, John; William, Jackson; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration is a field of intense research due to the interesting characteristics of this novel particle source including high brightness, high maximum energy, high laminarity, and short duration. Although the ion beam characteristics are promising for many future applications, such as in the medical field or hybrid accelerators, the ion beam generated using TNSA, the acceleration mechanism commonly achieved, still need to be significantly improved. Several new alternative mechanisms have been proposed such as collisionless shock acceleration (CSA) in order to produce a mono-energetic ion beam favorable for those applications. We report the first results of an experiment performed with the TITAN laser system (JLF, LLNL) dedicated to the study of CSA using a high intensity (5x1019W/cm2) high contrast ps laser pulse focused on 55 μm thick CH and CD targets. We show that the proton spectrum generated during the interaction exhibits high-energy mono-energetic features along the laser axis, characteristic of a shock mechanism.

  18. H2 production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris as a way to cope with high light intensities.

    PubMed

    Muzziotti, Dayana; Adessi, Alessandra; Faraloni, Cecilia; Torzillo, Giuseppe; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    The ability of coping with the damaging effects of high light intensity represents an essential issue when purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) are grown under direct sunlight for photobiological hydrogen production. This study was aimed at investigating whether H2 photo-evolution could represent, for Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL, a safety valve to dissipate an excess of reducing power generated under high light intensities. The physiological status of this strain was assessed under anaerobic (AnG) and aerobic (AG) growing conditions and under H2-producing (HP) conditions at low and high light intensities. The results obtained clearly showed that Fv/Fm ratio was significantly affected by the light intensity under which R. palustris 42OL cells were grown, under either AnG or AG conditions, while, under HP, it constantly remained at its highest value. The increase in light intensity significantly increased the H2 production rate, which showed a positive correlation with the maximum electron transfer rate (rETRmax). These findings are important for optimization of hydrogen production by PNSB under solar light.

  19. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented.

  20. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    PubMed

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p<0.05), but not after the low-intensity protocol (p>0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching.

  1. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (p<0.001). Compared to low intensity exercise, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (p<0.001) and Tnfrsf1b (p=0.047). In this study, high intensity interval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Methylocystis sp. strain SC2, an aerobic methanotroph with high-affinity methane oxidation potential.

    PubMed

    Dam, Bomba; Dam, Somasri; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Liesack, Werner

    2012-11-01

    Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 is an aerobic type II methanotroph isolated from a highly polluted aquifer in Germany. A specific trait of the SC2 strain is the expression of two isozymes of particulate methane monooxygenase with different methane oxidation kinetics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this methanotroph that contains not only a circular chromosome but also two large plasmids.

  3. Impact of High-intensity Intermittent and Moderate-intensity Continuous Exercise on Autonomic Modulation in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Santos, C; Giacon, T R; Campos, E Z; Gerosa-Neto, J; Rodrigues, B; Vanderlei, L C M; Lira, F S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) recovery after two iso-volume (5 km) exercises performed at different intensities. 14 subjects volunteered (25.17±5.08 years; 74.7±6.28 kg; 175±0.05 cm; 59.56±5.15 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), the subjects completed 2 random experimental trials: high-intensity exercise (HIE - 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak), and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MIE - 70% sVO2Peak). HRV and RR intervals were monitored before, during and after the exercise sessions together with, the HRV analysis in the frequency domains (high-frequency - HF: 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and low-frequency - LF: 0.04 to 0.15 Hz components) and the ratio between them (LF/HF). Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIE and MIE were performed using a mixed model. Both exercise sessions modified LFlog, HFlog, and LF/HF (F=16.54, F=19.32 and F=5.17, p<0.05, respectively). A group effect was also found for LFlog (F=23.91, p<0.05), and HFlog (F=57.55, p< 0.05). LF/HF returned to resting value 15 min after MIE exercise and 20 min after HIE exercise. This means that the heavy domain (aerobic and anaerobic threshold) induces dissimilar autonomic modification in physically active subjects. Both HIE and MIE modify HRV, and generally HIE delays parasympathetic autonomic modulation recovery after iso-volume exercise.

  4. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-08-01

    A single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise has been shown to produce the same or greater metabolic benefits as continuous endurance exercise with considerably less energy expenditure, but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG) kinetics 14 and 48 h after exercise cessation to determine the acute and time-dependent effects of this type of exercise on VLDL-TG metabolism. Eight healthy sedentary men (age, 23.6 ± 6.1 years; body mass index, 23.1 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2), peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), 36.3 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in three stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion studies: (i) 14 h and (ii) 48 h after a single bout of high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (60% and 90% of V̇O2peak in 4 min intervals for a total of 32 min; gross energy expenditure ∼500 kcal) and (iii) after an equivalent period of rest, in random order. Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was 20% lower at 14 h (P = 0.046) but not at 48 h (P = 1.000) after exercise compared with the resting trial. VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate increased by 21% at 14 h (P < 0.001) but not at 48 h (P = 0.299) after exercise compared with rest, whereas hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate was not different from rest at any time point after exercise. We conclude that high-intensity interval exercise reduces fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations in non-obese men the next day by augmenting VLDL-TG clearance, just like a single bout of continuous endurance exercise. This effect is short-lived and abolished by 48 h after exercise.

  5. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) <120/80 mmHg)] men and women (age 23±1 years) who underwent 30 min of intensity-matched cycling and swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (P<0.05). Trained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (P<0.05). The absence of PEH after swimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (P<0.05)] and a slower return of vagal tone, consistent with a significant increase in HR between modalities at all time points (P<0.05). These results suggest that training may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming.

  6. High abundances of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lami, Raphaël; Cottrell, Matthew T; Ras, Joséphine; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Claustre, Hervé; Kirchman, David L; Lebaron, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the abundance, distribution, and ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, particularly in oligotrophic environments, which represent 60% of the ocean. We investigated the abundance of AAP bacteria across the South Pacific Ocean, including the center of the gyre, the most oligotrophic water body of the world ocean. AAP bacteria, Prochlorococcus, and total prokaryotic abundances, as well as bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and divinyl-chlorophyll a concentrations, were measured at several depths in the photic zone along a gradient of oligotrophic conditions. The abundances of AAP bacteria and Prochlorococcus were high, together accounting for up to 58% of the total prokaryotic community. The abundance of AAP bacteria alone was up to 1.94 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) and as high as 24% of the overall community. These measurements were consistent with the high BChl a concentrations (up to 3.32 x 10(-3) microg liter(-1)) found at all stations. However, the BChl a content per AAP bacterial cell was low, suggesting that AAP bacteria are mostly heterotrophic organisms. Interestingly, the biovolume and therefore biomass of AAP bacteria was on average twofold higher than that of other prokaryotic cells. This study demonstrates that AAP bacteria can be abundant in various oligotrophic conditions, including the most oligotrophic regime of the world ocean, and can account for a large part of the bacterioplanktonic carbon stock.

  7. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  8. Locomotor Muscle Fatigue Does Not Alter Oxygen Uptake Kinetics during High-Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hopker, James G.; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M.

    2016-01-01

    The V˙O2 slow component (V˙O2sc) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min−1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and V˙O2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03), the V˙O2sc was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min−1) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min−1) condition (P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01) suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the V˙O2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the V˙O2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. PMID:27790156

  9. Evaluating the main and side effects of high salinity on aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Pronk, M; Bassin, J P; de Kreuk, M K; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2014-02-01

    Salinity can adversely affect the performance of most biological processes involved in wastewater treatment. The effect of salt on the main conversion processes in an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process accomplishing simultaneous organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphate removal was evaluated in this work. Hereto, an AGS sequencing batch reactor was subjected to different salt concentrations (0.2 to 20 g Cl(-) l(-1)). Granular structure was stable throughout the whole experimental period, although granule size decreased and a significant effluent turbidity was observed at the highest salinity tested. A weaker gel structure at higher salt concentrations was hypothesised to be the cause of such turbidity. Ammonium oxidation was not affected at any of the salt concentrations applied. However, nitrite oxidation was severely affected, especially at 20 g Cl(-) l(-1), in which a complete inhibition was observed. Consequently, high nitrite accumulation occurred. Phosphate removal was also found to be inhibited at the highest salt concentration tested. Complementary experiments have shown that a cascade inhibition effect took place: first, the deterioration of nitrite oxidation resulted in high nitrite concentrations and this in turn resulted in a detrimental effect to polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. By preventing the occurrence of the nitrification process and therefore avoiding the nitrite accumulation, the effect of salt concentrations on the bio-P removal process was shown to be negligible up to 13 g Cl(-) l(-1). Salt concentrations equal to 20 g Cl(-) l(-1) or higher in absence of nitrite also significantly reduced phosphate removal efficiency in the system.

  10. The Effect of Tellurite on Highly Resistant Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs and Their Strategies for Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Maltman, Chris; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Six fresh water aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (Erythromicrobium ezovicum, strain E1; Erythromicrobium hydrolyticum, E4(1); Erythromicrobium ramosum, E5; Erythromonas ursincola, KR99; Sandaracinobacter sibiricus, RB 16-17; and Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus, RB3) possessing high level resistance to TeO32− and the ability to reduce it to elemental Te were studied to understand their interaction with this highly toxic oxyanion. Tested organic carbon sources, pH, and level of aeration all had an impact on reduction. Physiological and metabolic responses of cells to tellurite varied among strains. In its presence, versus absence, cellular biomass either increased (KR99, 66.6% and E5, 21.2%) or decreased (RB3, 66.1%, E1, 57.8%, RB 16-17, 41.5%, and E4(1), 21.3%). The increase suggests a possible benefit from tellurite. Cellular ATP production was similarly affected, resulting in an increase (KR99, 15.2% and E5, 38.9%) or decrease (E4(1), 31.9%; RB 16-17, 48.8%; RB3, 55.9%; E1, 35.9%). Two distinct strategies to tellurite reduction were identified. The first, found in E4(1), requires de novo protein preparations as well as an undisturbed whole cell. The second strategy, in which reduction depended on a membrane associated constitutive reductase, was used by the remaining strains. PMID:27682119

  11. Light shield and cooling apparatus. [high intensity ultraviolet lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, T. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A light shield and cooling apparatus was developed for a high intensity ultraviolet lamp including water and high pressure air for cooling and additional apparatus for shielding the light and suppressing the high pressure air noise.

  12. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick S; Groves, Jessica L; Pettett, Brett J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Dishman, Rod K; Holmes, Philip V

    2010-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for (1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and (2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and (3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running.

  13. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick S.; Groves, Jessica L.; Pettett, Brett J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for three weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel-running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running. PMID:20850488

  14. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on the fermentation and aerobic stability of high moisture corn in laboratory silos.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C C; Kung, L

    2002-06-01

    The production of antifungal compounds during fermentation could be a useful mechanism to improve the aerobic stability of fermented feeds when they are exposed to air. High moisture corn (26% moisture) was ground and inoculated with various amounts of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788, a heterolactic acid bacteria, and ensiled in laboratory silos. Inoculation with L. buchneri 40788 from 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of corn had minor effects on the end products of fermentation during the early stage of ensiling (< or = 14 d). However, after 49, 92, and 166 d of ensiling, increasing the application rate of L. buchneri 40788 applied to corn increased the concentration of acetic acid when compared to untreated corn. Addition of L. buchneri 40788 had few other effects on the end products of fermentation. Dry matter recovery and aerobic stability were measured after 92 and 166 d of ensiling. At these times, dry matter recovery was not different among treatments, and numbers of yeasts and molds tended to decrease as the application rate of L. buchneri 40788 increased. Aerobic stability (number of h prior to a 2 degrees C rise in temperature after exposure to air) was markedly improved by the addition > or = 5 x 10(5) cfu/g of L. buchneri 40788. Combining L. buchneri 40788 with L. plantarum did not impart better aerobic stability than when L. buchneri 40788 was applied alone to corn. Addition of L. buchneri 40788 did not affect the rate of fermentation in high moisture corn, but after prolonged storage higher application rates increased production of acetic acid and markedly improved aerobic stability.

  15. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueqing; Lefebvre, Olivier; Ng, Kok Kwang; Ng, How Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high total dissolved solids (TDSs) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content was treated through a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. For the anaerobic process, an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was applied, and a COD removal efficiency of 41.3±2.2% was achieved with an organic loading rate of 8.11±0.31gCOD/L/d and a hydraulic retention time of 48h. To evaluate the salinity effect on the anaerobic process, salts in the wastewater were removed by ion exchange resin, and adverse effect of salinity was observed with a TDS concentration above 14.92g/L. To improve the anaerobic effluent quality, the UASB effluent was further treated by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Both the UASB+MBR and UASB+SBR systems achieved excellent organic removal efficiency, with respective COD removal of 94.7% and 91.8%. The UASB+MBR system showed better performance in both organic removal and nitrification.

  16. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  17. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  18. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer.

  19. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  20. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  1. A compact high intensity cooler (CHIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, T. J.; Niggemann, R. E.; Parekh, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    A unique heat exchanger has been developed with potential applications for cooling high power density electronics and perhaps high energy laser mirrors. The device was designed to absorb heat fluxes of approximately 50 w/sq cm (158,000 Btu/hr sq ft), with a low thermal resistance, a high surface temperature uniformity, and very low hydraulic pumping power. A stack of thin copper orifice plates and spacers was bonded together and arranged to provide liquid jet impingement heat transfer on successive plates. This configuration resulted in effective heat transfer coefficients, based on the prime surface, of about 85,000 w/sq m deg C (15,000 Btu/hr sq ft deg F) and 1.8 watts (0.002 hp) hydraulic power with liquid Freon 11 as coolant.

  2. High intensity copper atom beam - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Santavicca, D.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a nozzle which gas-dynamically accelerates neutral copper atoms at controlled energy levels and flux rates suitable for the investigation of inelastic copper atom collision processes is reported. Preliminary test data demonstrate that vapor-deposited rhenium nozzles do not degrade in the presence of copper vapor at high temperatures. Operation with high purity helium gas at nozzle stagnation temperatures in the range 2650-2700 K and total stagnation pressures from 1/4 to 2 atm with continuous copper atom flux rates of approximately 10 to the 18th power per second has been maintained, for a total time of 8-1/2 h to date.

  3. Effect of plasma donation and blood donation on aerobic and anaerobic responses in exhaustive, severe-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Hill, David W; Vingren, Jakob L; Burdette, Samantha D

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate and delayed effects of plasma donation and blood donation on responses in exhaustive, severe-intensity exercise. Nineteen young men and women performed exhaustive cycle ergometer tests at ∼3.3 W·kg(-1) before and then 2 h, 2 days, and 7 days after withdrawal of either 8-10 mL·kg(-1) (∼700 mL) of plasma (n = 10) or 1 unit (450 mL) of whole blood (n = 9). Time to exhaustion was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after the removal of plasma (-11% after 2 h) and after the removal of blood (-19% after 2 h and -7% after 2 days). Maximal oxygen uptake (.VO(2max)) was not affected by plasma donation, but .VO(2max) was reduced following blood withdrawal (-15% after 2 h, -10% after 2 days, and -7% after 7 days) presumably because of effects on blood volume, total haemoglobin content, and haemoglobin concentration. The kinetics of the oxygen uptake (.VO2) response was not affected by either intervention. Two measures of anaerobic capacity, postexercise blood lactate concentration, and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit were reduced (-14%, -15%, respectively) 2 h after plasma donation, but neither was affected by blood donation. Removal of plasma and removal of blood have different effects on blood constituency, on the .VO2 response, and on performance. Plasma donation appears to affect exercise performance because of reduced anaerobic capacity, whereas blood donation affects performance because of lowered .VO(2max).

  4. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  5. Extremely short duration high-intensity training substantially improves endurance performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, John; Adamson, Simon; Babraj, John

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity training (HIT) involving 30-s sprints is an effective training regimen to improve aerobic performance. We tested whether 6-s HITs can improve aerobic performance in triathletes. Six subelite triathletes (age, 40 ± 9 years; weight, 86 ± 11 kg; body mass index, 26 ± 3 kg·m⁻²) took part in cycle HIT and 6 endurance-trained subelite athletes (age, 36 ± 9 years; weight, 82 ± 11 kg; BMI, 26 ± 3 kg·m⁻²) maintained their normal training routine. Before and after 2 weeks of HIT, involving 10 × 6-s sprints or normal activity, participants performed a self-paced 10-km time trial and a time to exhaustion test on a cycle ergometer. Finger prick blood samples were taken throughout the time to exhaustion test to determine blood lactate concentration. Two weeks of HIT resulted in a 10% decrease in self-paced 10-km time trial (p = 0.03) but no significant change in time to exhaustion. The time taken to reach onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA, defined as the point where blood lactate reaches 4 mmol·L⁻¹) was significantly increased following 2 weeks of HIT (p = 0.003). The change in time trial performance was correlated to the change in time taken to reach OBLA (R² = 0.63; p = 0.001). We concluded that a very short duration HIT is a very effective training regimen to improve aerobic performance in subelite triathletes and this is associated with a delay in blood lactate build-up.

  6. Neuromuscular And Cardiovascular Adaptations In Response To High Intensity Interval Power Training.

    PubMed

    Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Ruiz, Rubén; Vera, Antonio; Colomer-Poveda, David; Grau, Amelia Guadalupe; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-01-11

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a high-intensity power training (HIPT) program, and to compare the effects of HIPT to traditional power training (TPT) on the aerobic and power performance. For this purpose, 29 healthy men (23.1±2.7 years) were recruited and randomly distributed into three different groups. One group performed traditional power training (TPT n=10), the second group performed power training organized as a circuit (HIPT; n=10) and the third group served as control (CG; n=9). Training consisted of weight lifting thrice per week for six weeks. TPT subjects performed three to five sets of each exercises with inter-set rest of 90 s, and HIPT subjects executed the training in a short circuit (15 s of rest between exercises). In order to known the effects in aerobic performance, maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was measured. In order to identify the effects on power performance subjects performed a Wingate test, a countermovement jump (CMJ) test and a power-load curve in bench press. The main results showed that after both power training protocols subjects increased significantly (p<0.05) the power production during the Wingate Test, the height and power reached during the CMJ test and the peak power produced during the power-load curve. However, only the HIPT group improved significantly MAS (p<0.05). There were no changes in any variables in CG. Hence, our results suggest that HIPT may be as effective as TPT for improving power performance in young adults. Additionally, only HIPT elicited improvements in MAS.

  7. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-09-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra.

  8. Two weeks of moderate intensity continuous training, but not high intensity interval training increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Motiani, Kumail Kumar; Savolainen, Anna M; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Gronroos, Tove J; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-02-09

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy middle-aged sedentary men were randomized for two weeks of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal Glut2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity (p=0.001) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (p=0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon [HIIT=0%; MICT=37%] (p=0.02 for time*training) and tended to increase in the jejunum [HIIT=-4%; MICT=13%] (p=0.08 for time*training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups [HIIT=-6%; MICT=-48%] (p=0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group [HIIT=0%; MICT=-38%] (p=0.08 for time*training). In rats, both training groups had higher Glut2 and CD36 expression compared to control animals. This study shows that already two weeks of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism.

  9. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  10. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  11. Fatigue and recovery after high-intensity exercise part I: neuromuscular fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lattier, G; Millet, G Y; Martin, A; Martin, V

    2004-08-01

    The contribution of central and peripheral factors to muscle fatigue were quantified following a high-intensity uphill running exercise. Eight male volunteers performed an intermittent exercise at 120 % of maximal aerobic speed on a treadmill with an 18 % grade. Electrically evoked and voluntary contractions of the knee extensors and EMG of the two vastii were analyzed before and immediately after the high-intensity exercise. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction decreased slightly (-7+/-8 %; p < 0.05) after exercise but no changes were found in the level of maximal activation or in the torque produced by a 80 Hz maximal stimulation applied to the femoral nerve. Following exercise, the single twitch was characterized by lower peak torque, maximal rate of force development, and relaxation (-28+/-11%, -25+/-12%, -31+/-15% respectively, p < 0.001), and higher surface of the M-wave for both vastii. The ratio between the torques evoked by 20 Hz and 80 Hz stimulation declined significantly (-22+/-10%, p < 0.01) after exercise. These findings indicate that muscle fatigue after high-intensity running exercise is due to significant alteration in excitation-contraction coupling and that this type of exercise does not induce significant central fatigue or changes at the crossbridge level.

  12. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males.

    PubMed

    Heydari, M; Freund, J; Boutcher, S H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P < 0.001) by 15% for the exercising group. Exercisers compared to controls experienced significant weight loss of 1.5 kg (P < 0.005) and a significant reduction in total fat mass of 2 kg (P < 0.001). Abdominal and trunk adiposity was also significantly reduced in the exercising group by 0.1 kg (P < 0.05) and 1.5 kg (P < 0.001). Also the exercise group had a significant (P < 0.01) 17% reduction in visceral fat after 12 weeks of HIIE, whereas waist circumference was significantly decreased by week six (P < 0.001). Fat free mass was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the exercising group by 0.4 kg for the leg and 0.7 kg for the trunk. No significant change (P > 0.05) occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  13. Computer modeling of high intensity solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. L.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to provide general analytic support to Sandia National Laboratories' effort to develop high efficiency, high concentration solar cells. This report covers work performed between November 5, 1984, and December 31, 1985, and includes reprints of three papers presented at the 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists' Conference. In the first paper, the factors that presently prevent achieving the predicted theoretical efficiencies (in excess of 30% at concentration) are examined. It is demonstrated, by two-dimensional computer simulations, that these efficiencies might be obtained by improved light trapping techniques and by fabrication of low resistance heteroface contacts. The second paper examines the Rose-Weaver lifetime and surface recombination velocity measurement technique. It is shown that the very small uncertainties in the measured quantities lead to large uncertainties in the computed lifetime and surface recombination velocity. This leads to radically different interpretations of how the recombination is distributed throughout the device, and therefore limits the usefulness of the measurement technique. Design options and constraints of GaAs concentrator cells are examined in the third paper. The effectiveness of various design options is assessed. It is shown that although such design options are of little use in increasing the efficiency of heteroface cells, they can improve the efficiency of shallow junction cells so that it is comparable to that of heteroface cells, In addition, documentation describing the use of both the one- and two-dimensional silicon codes, SCAP1D and SCAP2D, as well as the one-dimensional AlGaAs solar cell simulation code is included.

  14. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  15. Effects of high-intensity intermittent running exercise in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick W C; Wong, Del P; Ngo, Jake K; Liang, Y; Kim, C G; Kim, H S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 6-week intermittent exercise training, at different intensities, on body composition, functional walking and aerobic endurance in overweight children. Forty-eight overweight children (age: 10.4 ± 0.9 years) were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. Lower and higher intensity intermittent exercise groups (LIIE and HIIE) performed intermittent running three times a week. LIIE performed more intervals at a lower intensity [16 intervals at 100% of individual maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 8 minutes in total], and HIIE performed fewer intervals at a higher intensity (12 intervals at 120% of MAS, 6 minutes in total). Each interval consisted of a 15-second run at the required speed, followed by a 15-second passive recovery. After 6 weeks, HIIE had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage reduction in sum of skinfolds (i.e. calf and triceps), and significantly (p < 0.05) fewer steps during the functional obstacle performance, as compared with LIIE and control group. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) was found in intermittent aerobic endurance for HIIE as compared to the control group. Higher intensity intermittent training is an effective and time-efficient intervention for improving body composition, functional walking and aerobic endurance in overweight children.

  16. Light-intensity modulator withstands high heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, H. G.; Strass, H. K.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanism modulates and controls the intensity of luminous radiation in light beams associated with high-intensity heat flux. This modulator incorporates two fluid-cooled, externally grooved, contracting metal cylinders which when rotated about their longitudinal axes present a circular aperture of varying size depending on the degree of rotation.

  17. Intensive Scheduling: A Hybrid Model for the Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGorry, Eugene; McGorry, Susan Y.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Intensive Scheduling as an approach to learning. Describes how educators in the Pocono Mountain School District in Pennsylvania searched for a more effective way to schedule classes. Describes how the junior high administration and teachers piloted a hybrid modified intensive schedule. Presents student opinions about the hybrid model,…

  18. The impact of dance-aerobics training on the morpho-motor status in female high-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Viskić-Stalec, Natasa; Stalec, Janez; Katić, Ratko; Podvorac, Durda; Katović, Darko

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of special programmed physical education including dance, aerobics and rhythmic gymnastics on the development of motor and functional abilities and morphological characteristics of female fourth-grade high-schoolers in Zagreb. A total sample of 220 high-schoolers aged 16-18 years were divided into two groups: experimental group of 115 students attending the program composed of dance structures and aerobics, and control group of 105 students attending classic program of physical education. A set of 3 morphological variables, 6 motor variables and one functional variable were applied in both groups on three occasions during an academic year (initial, transient and final measurements). Two-factor analysis of variance (MANOVA repeated measure design) showed the experimental program to significantly influence the development of coordination/agility and specific rhythm coordination, functional aerobic ability, repetitive and explosive strength and flexibility, along with significant reduction of overweight and adipose tissue. Study results clearly indicate that the existing programs of physical education should be revised and replaced by more appropriate ones.

  19. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process at high carbon to nitrogen ratios under micro-aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Zhang, Ruo-Chen; Xu, Xi-Jun; Fang, Ning; Wang, Ai-Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-11

    The success of denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes, which simultaneously degrade sulfide, nitrate and organic carbon in the same reactor, counts on synergetic growths of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers. Feeding wastewaters at high C/N ratio would stimulate overgrowth of heterotrophic bacteria in the DSR reactor so deteriorating the growth of autotrophic denitrifiers. The DSR tests at C/N=1.26:1, 2:1 or 3:1 and S/N =5:6 or 5:8 under anaerobic (control) or micro-aerobic conditions were conducted. Anaerobic DSR process has <50% sulfide removal with no elemental sulfur transformation. Under micro-aerobic condition to remove <5% sulfide by chemical oxidation pathway, 100% sulfide removal is achieved by the DSR consortia. Continuous-flow tests under micro-aerobic condition have 70% sulfide removal and 55% elemental sulfur recovery. Trace oxygen enhances activity of sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria to accommodate properly the wastewater with high C/N ratios.

  20. Characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound transducers using acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Prasanna; Myers, Matthew R; Robinson, Ronald A; Maruvada, Subha H; Sliwa, Jack; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2008-03-01

    A new approach for characterizing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers is presented. The technique is based upon the acoustic streaming field generated by absorption of the HIFU beam in a liquid medium. The streaming field is quantified using digital particle image velocimetry, and a numerical algorithm is employed to compute the acoustic intensity field giving rise to the observed streaming field. The method as presented here is applicable to moderate intensity regimes, above the intensities which may be damaging to conventional hydrophones, but below the levels where nonlinear propagation effects are appreciable. Intensity fields and acoustic powers predicted using the streaming method were found to agree within 10% with measurements obtained using hydrophones and radiation force balances. Besides acoustic intensity fields, the streaming technique may be used to determine other important HIFU parameters, such as beam tilt angle or absorption of the propagation medium.

  1. Effect of 1-h moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on intramyocellular lipids in obese men before and after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Ipavec-Levasseur, Stephanie; Croci, Ilaria; Choquette, Stéphane; Byrne, Nuala M; Cowin, Gary; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2015-12-01

    Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted in response to an acute bout of exercise in lean endurance-trained individuals; however, it is unclear whether changes in IMCL content are also seen in response to acute and chronic exercise in obese individuals. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 18 obese men and 5 normal-weight controls to assess IMCL content before and after an hour of cycling at the intensity corresponding with each participant's maximal whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatmax was determined via indirect calorimetry during a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The same outcome measures were reassessed in the obese group after a 16-week lifestyle intervention comprising dietary calorie restriction and exercise training. At baseline, IMCL content decreased in response to 1 h of cycling at Fatmax in controls (2.8 ± 0.4 to 2.0 ± 0.3 A.U., -39%, p = 0.02), but not in obese (5.4 ± 2.1 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 A.U., p = 0.42). The lifestyle intervention lead to weight loss (-10.0 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.001), improvements in maximal aerobic power (+5.2 ± 3.4 mL/(kg·min)), maximal fat oxidation rate (+0.19 ± 0.22 g/min), and a 29% decrease in homeostasis model assessment score (all p < 0.05). However, when the 1 h of cycling at Fatmax was repeated after the lifestyle intervention, there remained no observable change in IMCL (4.6 ± 1.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9 A.U., p = 0.92). In summary, there was no IMCL depletion in response to 1 h of cycling at moderate intensity either before or after the lifestyle intervention in obese men. An effective lifestyle intervention including moderate-intensity exercise training did not impact rate of utilisation of IMCL during acute exercise in obese men.

  2. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    PubMed

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  3. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10(11) cm(-3) and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 pi mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  4. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  5. Physiological responses at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Padulo, Johnny; Silva, Adelino Ramos Sanchez da; Müller, Paulo de Tarso Guerrero; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the physiological responses during exercise-to-exhaustion at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise. Eleven recreationally trained males performed a graded exercise test, a lactate minimum test and two constant-load tests at lactate-minimum-intensity until exhaustion, which were applied with or without prior hyperlactatemia induction (i.e., 30-s Wingate test). The physiological responses were significantly different (P < 0.05) between constant-load tests for pulmonary ventilation ([Formula: see text]), blood-lactate-concentration ([La(-)]), pH, bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3]) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide during the initial minutes. The comparisons within constant-load tests showed steady state behaviour for oxygen uptake and the respiratory exchange ratio, but heart rate and rating of perceived exertion increased significantly during both exercise conditions, while the [Formula: see text] increased only during constant-load effort. During effort performed after high-intensity exercise: [Formula: see text], [La(-)], pH and [HCO3] differed at the start of exercise compared to another condition but were similar at the end (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the constant-load exercises performed at lactate-minimum-intensity with or without prior high-intensity exercise did not lead to the steady state of all analysed parameters; however, variables such as [La(-)], pH and [HCO3] - altered at the beginning of effort performed after high-intensity exercise - were reestablished after approximately 30 min of exercise.

  6. Space Station Live: High-Intensity Exercise in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with SPRINT Principal Investigator Lori Ploutz-Snyder to learn more about this high-intensity exercise research taking place aboard the International Sp...

  7. Changes in structure, activity and metabolism of aerobic granules as a microbial response to high phenol loading.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H-L; Tay, J-H; Tay, S T-L

    2004-02-01

    Four column-type sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactors were fed with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source and operated at loading rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1). The results indicated that phenol loading exerted a profound influence on the structure, activity and metabolism of the aerobic granules. Compact granules with good settling ability were maintained at loadings up to 2.0 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1), and structurally weakened granules with enhanced production of extracellular polymers and proteins and significantly lower hydrophobicities were observed at the highest loading of 2.5 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1). Specific oxygen uptake rate, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) activities peaked at a loading of 2.0 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1), and declined thereafter. Granules degraded phenol completely in all four reactors, mainly through the meta cleavage pathway as C23O activities were significantly higher than C12O activities. At the highest loading applied, the anabolism and catabolism of microorganisms were regulated such that phenol degradation proceeded exclusively via the meta pathway, apparently to produce more energy for overstimulation of protein production against phenol toxicity. This work contributes to a better understanding of the ability of aerobic granules to handle high-strength industrial wastewaters containing chemicals that are normally inhibitory to microbial growth.

  8. Cardiac vagal outflow after aerobic training by analysis of high-frequency oscillation of the R-R interval.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Hautala, Arto J; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of aerobic training on the dynamics between the R-R interval length and the high-frequency (HF) oscillation of the R-R interval. Seventeen healthy males (26+/-2 years) participated in an 8-week aerobic training intervention. The mean HF spectral power (0.15-0.4 Hz) of the R-R interval and the mean R-R interval length were analyzed from 24-h recordings. HF power was also analyzed in 5-min sequences and plotted as a function of the corresponding mean R-R interval length. The relationship between the R-R interval length and the HF power was analyzed by a quadratic regression model. The relationship was defined as saturated if the distinct deflection point of the model occurred before the maximum R-R interval. Otherwise, the relationship was defined as linear. Additionally, the mean HF power was calculated from the linear portion of the R-R interval versus the HF power regression curve (HF index). Before the training intervention, seven subjects had a saturated HF power. After the intervention, five new cases of saturated HF power were observed. The mean HF power of the 24-h recording did not change in the group with a saturated HF power before training (7.4+/-0.8 vs. 7.6+/-0.8 ms(2)), but the HF index increased (6.7+/-0.7 vs. 7.1+/-0.7 ms(2), P<0.05). We conclude that enhanced vagal activity due to aerobic training increases the prevalence of the saturation of the HF oscillation of the R-R interval variability in healthy subjects. HF power calculated from unsaturated area detects more accurately subtle changes in the vagally mediated beat-to-beat variability of the R-R interval after aerobic training than the mean 24-h HF power.

  9. Estimation of the squared modulus of the mutual intensity from high-light-level intensity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Timothy J.

    1995-06-01

    The problem of estimating the squared modulus of the mutual intensity (or the complex coherence factor) from high-light-level intensity measurements is addressed for the situation in which the fluctuations of the complex-valued amplitude are governed by circular-Gaussian statistics and the light level is high enough that all nonclassical fluctuations of the measurements can be ignored. A lower bound on the variance of any unbiased estimator is presented, and this bound is compared with the variance of Ebstein's polynomial estimators [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1450 (1991)] along with the variance of the maximum-likelihood estimator.

  10. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  11. Inflammatory cytokine kinetics to single bouts of acute moderate and intense aerobic exercise in women with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Perandini, L A; Sales-de-Oliveira, D; Mello, Sbv; Camara, N O; Benatti, F B; Lima, F R; Borba, E; Bonfa, E; Roschel, H; Sá-Pinto, A L; Gualano, B

    2015-01-01

    the end of exercise and at the 30th minute of recovery (P<0.05). The SLE(ACTIVE) group also showed higher levels of TNF-α at all time points when compared with the HC group (P<0.05), (except after 90 min, 120 min and 24 hours of recovery) (P>0.05). Importantly, the levels of all cytokine and soluble TNF receptors returned to baseline 24 hours after the end of acute exercise, irrespective of its intensity, in all three groups (P>0.05). This study demonstrated that both the single bouts of acute moderate and intense exercise induced mild and transient changes in cytokine levels in both SLE(INACTIVE) and SLE(ACTIVE) women, providing novel evidence that acute aerobic exercise does not trigger inflammation in patients with this disease.

  12. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P < 0.001), with HIT reaching higher BDNF levels than CON (P = 0.035) (experiment 2). These results suggest that shorter bouts of high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  13. Much potential but many unanswered questions for high-intensity intermittent exercise training for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pinkstaff, Sherry O

    2015-01-01

    There is a robust trove of scientific studies that support the positive physical and mental health benefits associated with aerobic exercise for healthy individuals. These recommendations suggest that more vigorous exercise can be performed on fewer days for the same benefit. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has begun to show promise. HIIE seems safe and improves physiology, quality of life, and functional capacity. This review defines HIIE, discusses its physiologic benefit for patients with heart failure, outlines the studies that have been conducted to date, and places it in the context of the current clinical environment of exercise training for these patients.

  14. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  15. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  16. High resolution and comprehensive techniques to analyze aerobic methane oxidation in mesocosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, E. W.; Kessler, J. D.; Redmond, M. C.; Shiller, A. M.; Arrington, E. C.; Valentine, D. L.; Colombo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies of microbially mediated aerobic methane oxidation in oceanic environments have examined the many different factors that control the rates of oxidation. However, there is debate on how quickly methane is oxidized once a microbial population is established and what factor(s) are limiting in these types of environments. These factors include the availability of CH4, O2, trace metals, nutrients, and the density of cell population. Limits to these factors can also control the temporal aspects of a methane oxidation event. In order to look at this process in its entirety and with higher temporal resolution, a mesocosm incubation system was developed with a Dissolved Gas Analyzer System (DGAS) coupled with a set of analytical tools to monitor aerobic methane oxidation in real time. With the addition of newer laser spectroscopy techniques (cavity ringdown spectroscopy), stable isotope fractionation caused by microbial processes can also be examined on a real time and automated basis. Cell counting, trace metal, nutrient, and DNA community analyses have also been carried out in conjunction with these mesocosm samples to provide a clear understanding of the biology in methane oxidation dynamics. This poster will detail the techniques involved to provide insights into the chemical and isotopic kinetics controlling aerobic methane oxidation. Proof of concept applications will be presented from seep sites in the Hudson Canyon and the Sleeping Dragon seep field, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC 118). This system was used to conduct mesocosm experiments to examine methane consumption, O2 consumption, nutrient consumption, and biomass production.

  17. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and high-carbohydrate meal on plasma acylated ghrelin and levels of hunger.

    PubMed

    Becker, Geórgia Franco; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Cunha, Giovani Dos Santos; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Laitano, Orlando; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2012-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of an aerobic exercise bout associated with a high-carbohydrate (CHO) meal on plasma levels of acylated ghrelin and hunger sensation. Eight healthy males performed an exercise (ET) and a control (CT) trial. In ET, participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (∼70% of maximal oxygen uptake) after consuming a high-CHO meal. In the CT, participants remained at rest throughout the whole period after consuming the high-CHO meal. Hunger sensation was assessed and blood samples were taken to determine the levels of acylated ghrelin, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). There was suppression of hunger after consuming the meal in ET and CT (p = 0.028 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hunger increased in CT in the period correspondent to the exercise session (p = 0.017) and remained suppressed in the ET. The area under the curve for acylated ghrelin showed that its levels were lower in the ET compared with CT in the period of the exercise plus the immediate period (1 h) postexercise (60.7 vs. 96.75 pg·mL(-1)·2 h(-1), respectively; p = 0.04). Inverse correlations between acylated ghrelin levels and insulin, TC, and TG levels at different time points were observed. In conclusion, these findings suggest that 1 bout of aerobic exercise maintains the meal-induced suppression of hunger. The mechanism underlying this effect may involve the exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin. These results implicate that the combination of a high-CHO meal and aerobic exercise may effectively improve appetite control and body weight management.

  18. The relationship between cardiac autonomic function and maximal oxygen uptake response to high-intensity intermittent-exercise training.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, Stephen H; Park, Young; Dunn, Sarah Louise; Boutcher, Yati N

    2013-01-01

    Major individual differences in the maximal oxygen uptake response to aerobic training have been documented. Vagal influence on the heart has been shown to contribute to changes in aerobic fitness. Whether vagal influence on the heart also predicts maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training, however, is undetermined. Thus, the relationship between baseline vagal activity and the maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training was examined. Exercisers (n = 16) exercised three times a week for 12 weeks, whereas controls did no exercise (n = 16). Interval-sprinting consisted of 20 min of intermittent sprinting on a cycle ergometer (8 s sprint, 12 s recovery). Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed using open-circuit spirometry. Vagal influence was assessed through frequency analysis of heart rate variability. Participants were aged 22 ± 4.5 years and had a body mass of 72.7 ± 18.9 kg, a body mass index of 26.9 ± 3.9 kg · m(-2), and a maximal oxygen uptake of 28 ± 7.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1). Overall increase in maximal oxygen uptake after the training programme, despite being anaerobic in nature, was 19 ± 1.2%. Change in maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with initial baseline heart rate variability high-frequency power in normalised units (r = 0.58; P < 0.05). Thus, cardiac vagal modulation of heart rate was associated with the aerobic training response after 12 weeks of high-intensity intermittent-exercise. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between the aerobic training response and resting heart rate variability need to be established before practical implications can be identified.

  19. Female rats selectively bred for high intrinsic aerobic fitness are protected from ovariectomy-associated metabolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Jaume; Park, Young-Min; Welly, Rebecca J.; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Crissey, Jacqueline M.; Zidon, Terese; Morris, E. Matthew; Meers, Grace M. E.; Thyfault, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovariectomized rodents model human menopause in that they rapidly gain weight, reduce spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and develop metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance. How contrasting aerobic fitness levels impacts ovariectomy (OVX)-associated metabolic dysfunction is not known. Female rats selectively bred for high and low intrinsic aerobic fitness [high-capacity runners (HCR) and low-capacity runners (LCR), respectively] were maintained under sedentary conditions for 39 wk. Midway through the observation period, OVX or sham (SHM) operations were performed providing HCR-SHM, HCR-OVX, LCR-SHM, and LCR-OVX groups. Glucose tolerance, energy expenditure, and SPA were measured before and 4 wk after surgery, while body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue distribution, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle phenotype, hepatic lipid content, insulin resistance via homeostatic assessment model of insulin resistance and AdipoIR, and blood lipids were assessed at death. Remarkably, HCR were protected from OVX-associated increases in adiposity and insulin resistance, observed only in LCR. HCR rats were ∼30% smaller, had ∼70% greater spontaneous physical activity (SPA), consumed ∼10% more relative energy, had greater skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-alpha, and ∼40% more BAT. OVX did not increase energy intake and reduced SPA to the same extent in both HCR and LCR. LCR were particularly affected by an OVX-associated reduction in resting energy expenditure and experienced a reduction in relative BAT; resting energy expenditure correlated positively with BAT across all animals (r = 0.6; P < 0.001). In conclusion, despite reduced SPA following OVX, high intrinsic aerobic fitness protects against OVX-associated increases in adiposity and insulin resistance. The mechanism may involve preservation of resting energy expenditure. PMID:25608751

  20. Expression of angiogenic regulators and skeletal muscle capillarity in selectively bred high aerobic capacity mice.

    PubMed

    Audet, Gerald N; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore; Olfert, I Mark

    2011-11-01

    Selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in untrained mice has resulted in a 'mini muscle' (MM) phenotype, which has increased skeletal muscle capillarity compared with muscles from non-selected control lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) are essential mediators of skeletal muscle angiogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that untrained MM mice with elevated muscle capillarity would have higher basal VEGF expression and lower basal TSP-1 expression, and potentially an exaggerated VEGF response to acute exercise. We examined skeletal muscle morphology and skeletal muscle protein expression of VEGF and TSP-1 in male mice from two (untrained) mouse lines selectively bred for high exercise capacity (MM and Non-MM), as well as one non-selected control mouse line (normal aerobic capacity). In the MM mice, gastrocnemius (GA) and plantaris (PLT) muscle capillarity (i.e. capillary-to-fibre ratio and capillary density) were greater compared with control mice (P < 0.05). In Non-MM mice, only muscle capillarity in PLT was greater than in control mice (P < 0.001). The soleus (SOL) showed no statistical differences in muscle capillarity among groups. In the GA, MM mice had 58% greater basal VEGF (P < 0.05), with no statistical difference in basal TSP-1 when compared with control mice. In the PLT, MM mice had a 79% increase in basal VEGF (P < 0.05) and a 39% lower basal TSP-1 (P < 0.05) compared with the control animals. Non-MM mice showed no difference in basal VEGF in either the GA or the PLT compared with control mice. In contrast, basal TSP-1 was elevated in the PLT, but not in the GA, of Non-MM mice compared with control mice. Neither VEGF nor TSP-1 was significantly different in SOL muscle among the three mouse lines. In response to acute exercise, MM mice displayed a 41 and 28% increase (P < 0.05) in VEGF in the GA and PLT, respectively, whereas neither control nor Non-MM mice showed a significant VEGF response to acute

  1. Unusual aerobic performance at high temperatures in juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Baird, Sarah E.; Nguyen, Trinh X.; Cabrera-Stagno, Valentina; Farrell, Anthony P.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the current warming trends affect fish populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. To help define suitable thermal habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon, the thermal performance of juvenile Chinook salmon acclimated to either 15 or 19°C was tested across a range of environmentally relevant acute temperature changes (from 12 to 26°C). Swim tunnel respirometers were used to measure routine oxygen uptake as a measure of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and oxygen uptake when swimming maximally as a measure of maximal metabolic rate (MMR) at each test temperature. We estimated absolute aerobic scope (AAS = MMR − RMR), the capacity to supply oxygen beyond routine needs, as well as factorial aerobic scope (FAS = MMR/RMR). All fish swam at a test temperature of 23°C regardless of acclimation temperature, but some mortality occurred at 25°C during MMR measurements. Overall, RMR and MMR increased with acute warming, but aerobic capacity was unaffected by test temperatures up to 23°C in both acclimation groups. The mean AAS for fish acclimated and tested at 15°C (7.06 ± 1.76 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) was similar to that measured for fish acclimated and tested at 19°C (8.80 ± 1.42 mg O2 kg−1 h−1). Over the entire acute test temperature range, while MMR and AAS were similar for the two acclimation groups, RMR was significantly lower and FAS consequently higher at the lower test temperatures for the fish acclimated at 19°C. Thus, this stock of juvenile Chinook salmon shows an impressive aerobic capacity when acutely warmed to temperatures close to their upper thermal tolerance limit, regardless of the acclimation temperature. These results are compared with those for other salmonids, and the implications of our findings for informing management actions are discussed. PMID:28078086

  2. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Patrick S.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Dalbo, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD. PMID:26090382

  3. Acoustic intensity near a high-powered military jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Stout, Trevor A; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    The spatial variation in vector acoustic intensity has been calculated between 100 and 3000 Hz near a high-performance military aircraft. With one engine of a tethered F-22A Raptor operating at military power, a tetrahedral intensity probe was moved to 27 locations in the geometric near and mid-fields to obtain the frequency-dependent intensity vector field. The angles of the maximum intensity region rotate from aft to sideline with increasing frequency, becoming less directional above 800 Hz. Between 100 and 400 Hz, which are principal radiation frequencies, the ray-traced dominant source region rapidly contracts and moves upstream, approaching nearly constant behavior by 1000 Hz.

  4. Beam diagnostics at high-intensity storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. )

    1994-10-10

    Beam diagnostics at high-intensity facilities feature their own special set of problems and characteristics, issues peculiar to high-intensity storage rings include beam loss, beam halos, extraction efficiency, beam in the gap, clearing electrodes, and beam-profile measurement. The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is a nice example of a high-intensity storage ring. I will discuss in some detail three diagnostic systems currently in use at the PSR: the beam-loss-monitor system, the electron-clearing system, and the beam-in-the-gap monitor. Much of our discussion is inspired by the problems we have encountered and the useful things we have learned while commissioning and developing the PSR. Another inspiration is our work on the next-generation neutron-spallation source, also known as the National Center for Neutron Research (NCNR).

  5. Beam diagnostics at high-intensity storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.

    1993-11-01

    Beam diagnostics at high-intensity facilities feature their own special set of problems and characteristics. Issues peculiar to high-intensity storage rings include beam loss, beam halos, extraction efficiency, beam in the gap, clearing electrodes, and beam-profile measurement. The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is a nice example of a high-intensity storage ring. The author discusses in some detail three diagnostic systems currently in use at the PSR: the beam-loss-monitor system, the electron-clearing system, and the beam-in-the-gap monitor. Much of the discussion is inspired by the problems that were encountered and the useful things learned while commissioning and developing the PSR. Another inspiration is the work on the next-generation neutron-spallation source, also known as the National Center for Neutron Research (NCNR).

  6. Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Adam; Cormode, Daniel; Reynolds, Collin; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; LeRoy, Brian J.; Sandhu, Arvinder S.

    2011-08-01

    We study the response of graphene to high-intensity, 50-femtosecond laser pulse excitation. We establish that graphene has a high ({approx}3 x 10{sup 12} Wcm{sup -2}) single-shot damage threshold. Above this threshold, a single laser pulse cleanly ablates graphene, leaving microscopically defined edges. Below this threshold, we observe laser-induced defect formation leading to degradation of the lattice over multiple exposures. We identify the lattice modification processes through in-situ Raman microscopy. The effective lifetime of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene under femtosecond near-infrared irradiation and its dependence on laser intensity is determined. These results also define the limits of non-linear applications of graphene in femtosecond high-intensity regime.

  7. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, V; Gregson, W; Atkinson, G; Tordoff, P; Drust, B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide a detailed analysis of the high intensity running activity completed by elite soccer players during match-play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of high intensity running activity to overall team success. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on 563 outfield players (median of 8 games per player; range=1-57) competing in the English Premier League from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 using a computerised tracking system (Prozone, Leeds, England). High intensity activities selected for analysis included total high intensity running distance (THIR), total sprint distance (TSD) and the number and type of sprints undertaken. Total high intensity running distance in possession and without possession of the ball was also analysed. The THIR was dependant upon playing position with wide midfield (1,049+/-106 m) and central defenders (681+/-128 m) completing the highest and lowest distance respectively (p<0.001). High intensity activity was also related to team success with teams finishing in the bottom five (919+/-128 m) and middle ten (917+/-143 m) league positions completing significantly more THIR compared with teams in the top five (885+/-113 m) (p=0.003). The THIR and TSD also significantly declined during the 2nd half with the greatest decrements observed in wide midfield and attacking players (p<0.05). Both positional differences in high intensity activity and the observed change in activity throughout the game were also influenced by team success (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that high intensity activity in elite soccer match-play is influenced by both playing position and previous activity in the game. These activity patterns are also dependant upon success of the team. This may indicate that overall technical and tactical effectiveness of the team rather than high levels of physical performance per se are more important in determining success

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W′) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W′, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W′ (−14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (−8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (−10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (−6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (−6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

  9. Axion-like-particle search with high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döbrich, Babette; Gies, Holger

    2010-10-01

    We study ALP -photon-conversion within strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields as provided by contemporary high-intensity laser systems. We observe that probe photons traversing the focal spot of a superposition of Gaussian beams of a single high-intensity laser at fundamental and frequency-doubled mode can experience a frequency shift due to their intermittent propagation as axion-like-particles. This process is strongly peaked for resonant masses on the order of the involved laser frequencies. Purely laser-based experiments in optical setups are sensitive to ALPs in the eV mass range and can thus complement ALP searches at dipole magnets.

  10. On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

  11. On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

  12. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  13. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  14. Computational Simulations of High Intensity X-Ray Matter Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    London, R A; Rionta, R; Tatchyn, R; Roessler, S

    2001-08-02

    Free electron lasers have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity short pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1-10 keV energy range. For example, the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford is being designed to produce an output intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in a 230 fs pulse. These sources will open the door to many novel research studies. However, the intense x-ray pulses may damage the optical components necessary for studying and controlling the output. At the full output intensity, the dose to optical components at normal incidence ranges from 1-10 eV/atom for low-Z materials (Z < 14) at photon energies of 1 keV. It is important to have an understanding of the effects of such high doses in order to specify the composition, placement, and orientation of optical components, such as mirrors and monochromators. Doses of 10 eV/atom are certainly unacceptable since they will lead to ablation of the surface of the optical components. However, it is not precisely known what the damage thresholds are for the materials being considered for optical components for x-ray free electron lasers. In this paper, we present analytic estimates and computational simulations of the effects of high-intensity x-ray pulses on materials. We outline guidelines for the maximum dose to various materials and discuss implications for the design of optical components.

  15. Clinical applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    She, W H; Cheung, T T; Jenkins, C R; Irwin, M G

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound has been developed for therapeutic use in addition to its diagnostic ability. The use of focused ultrasound energy can offer a non-invasive method for tissue ablation, and can therefore be used to treat various solid tumours. High-intensity focused ultrasound is being increasingly used in the treatment of both primary and metastatic tumours as these can be precisely located for ablation. It has been shown to be particularly useful in the treatment of uterine fibroids, and various solid tumours including those of the pancreas and liver. High-intensity focused ultrasound is a valid treatment option for liver tumours in patients with significant medical co-morbidity who are at high risk for surgery or who have relatively poor liver function that may preclude hepatectomy. It has also been used as a form of bridging therapy while patients awaiting cadaveric donor liver transplantation. In this article, we outline the principles of high-intensity focused ultrasound and its clinical applications, including the management protocol development in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hong Kong by performing a search on MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, and PubMed. The search of these databases ranged from the date of their establishment until December 2015. The search terms used were: high-intensity focused ultrasound, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, liver tumour, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreas, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, fibroids, bone tumour, atrial fibrillation, glaucoma, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and neuropathic pain.

  16. Short-pulse, high-intensity lasers at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Roberts, J.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Fulton, R.D.; Kyrala, G.A.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    Advances in ultrafast lasers and optical amplifiers have spurred the development of terawatt-class laser systems capable of delivering focal spot intensities approaching 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. At these extremely high intensities, the optical field strength is more than twenty times larger than the Bohr electric field, permitting investigations of the optical properties of matter in a previously unexplored regime. The authors describe two laser systems for high intensity laser interaction experiments: The first is a terawatt system based on amplification of femtosecond pulses in XeCl which yields 250 mJ in 275 fs and routinely produces intensifies on target in excess of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The second system is based on chirped pulse amplification of 100-fs pulses in Ti:sapphire.

  17. Plasma-based polarization modulator for high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Manipulation of laser pulses at high intensities is an important yet challenging issue. New types of plasma-based optical devices are promising alternatives to achieve this goal. Here we propose to modulate the polarization state of intense lasers based on oblique reflection from solid-plasma surfaces. A new analytical description is presented considering the plasma as an uniaxial medium that causes birefringence effect. Particle-in-cell simulation results numerically demonstrate that such a scheme can provide a tunable polarization control of the laser pulses even in the relativistic regime. The results are thus relevant for the design of compact, easy to use, and versatile polarization modulators for high-intensity laser pulses.

  18. Thomson scattering in high-intensity chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Holkundkar, Amol R.; Harvey, Chris Marklund, Mattias

    2015-10-15

    We consider the Thomson scattering of an electron in an ultra-intense laser pulse. It is well known that at high laser intensities, the frequency and brilliance of the emitted radiation will be greatly reduced due to the electron losing energy before it reaches the peak field. In this work, we investigate the use of a small frequency chirp in the laser pulse in order to mitigate this effect of radiation reaction. It is found that the introduction of a negative chirp means the electron enters a high frequency region of the field while it still has a large proportion of its original energy. This results in a significant enhancement of the frequency and intensity of the emitted radiation as compared to the case without chirping.

  19. Mn-Catalyzed Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidative Hydroxyazidation of Olefins: A Direct Approach to β-Azido Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Li, Xinyao; Song, Song; Zhu, Yuchao; Liang, Yu-Feng; Jiao, Ning

    2015-05-13

    An efficient Mn-catalyzed aerobic oxidative hydroxyazidation of olefins for synthesis of β-azido alcohols has been developed. The aerobic oxidative generation of azido radical employing air as the terminal oxidant is disclosed as the key process for this transformation. The reaction is appreciated by its broad substrate scope, inexpensive Mn-catalyst, high efficiency, easy operation under air, and mild conditions at room temperature. This chemistry provides a novel approach to high value-added β-azido alcohols, which are useful precursors of aziridines, β-amino alcohols, and other important N- and O-containing heterocyclic compounds. This chemistry also provides an unexpected approach to azido substituted cyclic peroxy alcohol esters. A DFT calculation indicates that Mn catalyst plays key dual roles as an efficient catalyst for the generation of azido radical and a stabilizer for peroxyl radical intermediate. Further calculation reasonably explains the proposed mechanism for the control of C-C bond cleavage or for the formation of β-azido alcohols.

  20. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  1. High-intensity interval training to improve fitness in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lauglo, Reidun; Vik, Torstein; Lamvik, Torarin; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finbråten, Ane-Kristine; Moholdt, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on aerobic exercise capacity, quality of life, and body composition in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods This was a baseline control trial. Children with CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I–IV, and age 10–17 years were included. The primary outcome, peak, and submaximum oxygen uptake (VO2peak, VO2submax) were measured at enrolment to the study (T0), after a pretraining period (T1), and after HIT (T2). Secondary outcomes were quality of life assessed with the KINDL questionnaire, and body composition measured using whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The exercise was performed on treadmills and consisted of 24 sessions, each with a total of 16 min of exercise at >85% of maximal heart rate. Results 20 children were included and 6 children dropped out. VO2peak increased by 10%, from a median of 37.3 (31.0–40.1) to 41.0 (36.6–48.5) mL/kg/min from T1 to T2 (p<0.01). VO2submax did not change; thereby, the percentage oxygen utilisation was reduced. Body composition was unchanged. Parent-reported quality of life improved, whereas quality of life reported by the children did not improve. Conclusions Aerobic exercise capacity improved and per cent utilisation of VO2max declined after HIT in children with CP. Therefore, HIT can be a time efficient way to improve maximal capacity, and increase energy reserve in this patient group. Trial registration number NCT00965133. PMID:27900177

  2. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  3. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p < 0.05 for post hoc pre- vs. post-training increases for each group) in maximal aerobic power (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic threshold (13% vs. 12%), respiratory compensation threshold (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic power (15% vs. 12%), and anaerobic capacity (18% vs. 14%). The MM-HIIT group had significant (p < 0.01 for all) increases in squat (39%), press (27%), and deadlift (18%) strength, broad jump distance (6%), and squat endurance (280%), whereas the Row-HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p < 0.01) were greater in the MM-HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  4. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  5. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  6. High-intensity and resistance training and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Although in the past resistance and high-intensity exercise training among young children was the subject of numerous controversies, it is now well-documented that this training mode is a safe and effective means of developing maximal strength, maximal power output and athletic performance in youth, provided that exercises are performed with appropriate supervision and precautions. Muscular strength and power output values measured from vertical jump and Wingate anaerobic tests are higher in elite than in non-elite young athletes and normal children, and the specific training effects on maximal power output normalised for body size are clearly more distinct before puberty. At present, there is no scientific evidence to support the view that high-intensity and/or resistance training might hinder growth and maturation in young children. Pre-pubertal growth is not adversely affected by sport at a competitive level and anthropometric factors are of importance for choice of sport in children. However, coaches, teachers and parents should be aware that unsupervised high-intensity and resistance training programmes involving maximal loads or too frequently repeated resistance exercises increase the risk of injury. Resistance training alone is an effective additional means of developing athletic performance throughout planned youth sports training programmes. Strategies for enhancing the effectiveness and safety of youth resistance and high-intensity exercise training are discussed in this chapter.

  7. Risking Intensity: Reading and Writing Poetry with High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Judith Rowe

    Aimed at junior and senior high school teachers and artists in residence, this book urges teachers and students to read and write poetry "as though their lives depended upon it," and to breathe life into classroom writing traditions that are not hands-on or intense. Each chapter is set in the classroom. Poems by students and teacher illustrate…

  8. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  9. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  10. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl / NOx Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, James B.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-07-15

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and aerobic oxidation catalysis. In the present study, we investigate the electrochemical reduction of O2 with soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl), nor NOx species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective mediators of electrochemical O2 reduction. The combination of nitroxyl/NOx species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction at electrochemical potentials of 0.19–0.33 V (vs. Fc/Fc+) in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The high potentials observed with this ORR system benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NOx species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NOx species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  11. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl/NOx Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and many aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we show that the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be achieved at high potentials by using soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO), nor NOx species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective ORR mediators. The combination of nitroxyl/NOx species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction with overpotentials as low as 300 mV in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The overpotentials accessible with this ORR system are significantly lower than widely studied molecular metal-macrocycle ORR catalysts and benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NOx species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NOx species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls. PMID:27162977

  12. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    SciTech Connect

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-04-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various /sup 192/Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from /sup 192/Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable.

  13. Ultra High Performance, Highly Reliable, Numeric Intensive Processors and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    to design high-performance DSP/IP systems using either off-the-shelf components or application specific integrated circuitry [ ASIC ]. -9 - HSDAL . ARO...are the chirp-z transform ( CZT ) [13] and (Rader’s) Prime Factor Transform (PFT) [11]. The RNS/ CZT is being studied by a group a MITRE [14] and is given...PFT RNS/CRNS/QRNS implementation has dynamic range requirements on the order of NQ2 (vs NQ4 for the CZT and much higher for the FFT). Therefore, the

  14. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  15. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    N.J. Fisch; V.M. Malkin

    2003-06-10

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10{sup 25} W/cm{sup 2} can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers.

  16. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part II. The application of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) to produce high biomass of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792.

    PubMed

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-07-03

    This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system using the application of an experimental design via central composite design (CCD). The acidic whey obtained from lactic acid fermentation by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum sp. TISTR 2265 was fed into the bioreactor of the aerobic SBR in an appropriate ratio between acidic whey and cheese whey to produce an acidic environment below 4.5 and then was used to support the growth of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 by inhibiting bacterial contamination. At the optimal condition for a high yield of biomass production, the system was run with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, a solid retention time (SRT) of 8.22 days, and an acidic whey concentration of 80% feeding. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 25,230 mg/L to 6,928 mg/L, which represented a COD removal of 72.15%. The yield of biomass production and lactose utilization by Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 were 13.14 g/L and 33.36%, respectively, with a long run of up to 180 cycles and the pH values of effluent were rose up to 8.32 without any pH adjustment.

  17. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  18. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-09-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented.

  19. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  20. Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at high x-ray intensity.

    PubMed

    Son, Sang-Kil; Chapman, Henry N; Santra, Robin

    2011-11-18

    The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method is used to determine phase information in x-ray crystallography by employing anomalous scattering from heavy atoms. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) show promise for revealing the structure of single molecules or nanocrystals, but the phase problem remains largely unsolved. Because of the ultrabrightness of x-ray FEL, samples experience severe electronic radiation damage, especially to heavy atoms, which hinders direct implementation of MAD with x-ray FELs. Here, we propose a generalized version of MAD phasing at high x-ray intensity. We demonstrate the existence of a Karle-Hendrickson-type equation in the high-intensity regime and calculate relevant coefficients with detailed electronic damage dynamics of heavy atoms. The present method offers a potential for ab initio structural determination in femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography.

  1. Evaluation of the most intense high-intensity running period in English FA premier league soccer matches.

    PubMed

    Di Mascio, Michele; Bradley, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the most intense period of high-intensity running during elite soccer matches. Elite players (n = 100) were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. High-intensity running (speed >19.8 km·h) in 5-min periods were quantified during matches. High-intensity running was performed for approximately 3% of total time, but this doubled (F[1,99] = 9.179, p < 0.001, d > 1.2) during the most intense period (8.4 ± 2.7 vs. 16.4 ± 4.6 seconds). Recovery time between high-intensity efforts was approximately 30 seconds during the most intense period (33.3 ± 19.7 seconds). The work:rest ratio between high-intensity bouts increased (F[1,99] = 2.018, p < 0.001, d > 0.6) from 1:12 for the match average to 1:2 during the most intense period. The distance of each discrete high-intensity running bout increased (F[1,99] = 1.958, p < 0.001, d > 0.6) approximately 13% during the most intense period compared with that of the match average (6.7 ± 1.8 vs. 5.8 ± 0.6 m). Central defenders were running at high-intensity for less (F[4,95] = 4.907, p < 0.05, d > 0.6) time than full-backs, wide midfielders, and attackers (12.9 ± 2.4 vs. 17.9 ± 3.4, 18.3 ± 5.5, and 16.9 ± 3.8 seconds). Central defenders had a greater recovery time (F[4,95] = 3.083, p < 0.05, d > 0.6) between high-intensity efforts than wide midfielders. No differences were evident between playing positions for maximum running speed and average distances of high-intensity running. These results show that high-intensity running, work:rest ratios, and average high-intensity distances change markedly during the most intense period of matches and are highly dependent on positional role. Therefore, conditioning drills and performance tests should closely mimic distances, work:rest ratios, and recovery times of those found during the most intense period of matches.

  2. High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Anthoney A.; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering agents widely employed for atherosclerosis prevention. HMG-CoA reductase blockade reduces skeletal muscle coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and may produce mild to severe skeletal muscle myopathy. This study investigated whether high-dose statin treatment would result in measurably decreased exercise capacity in older men and women. Maximal oxygen consumption, aerobic endurance, oxygen uptake kinetics, maximal strength, muscular power, and muscular endurance were measured before and after 12 weeks of statin treatment (simvastatin, 80 mg/day) in nine men and one woman, ages 55–76 years, with LDL-cholesterol levels >3.3 mmol/l (mean = 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/l). Myalgia symptoms were assessed every 4 weeks. As expected, statin treatment resulted in significant decreases in LDL- and total-cholesterol levels (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels. No significant changes were observed in aerobic capacity, endurance, oxygen kinetics or any measures of muscle function. No subject reported symptoms of myalgia, cramps, or weakness during the study. In the absence of myalgia or myopathic symptoms, high-dose simvastatin treatment did not impair exercise capacity in hyperlipidemic older individuals. We conclude that decreases in intramuscular CoQ10, in most patients on high dose statin treatment may not be clinically relevant, due to inter-individual variability in the degree of CoQ10 depletion, sensitivity of muscle to decreases in CoQ10, or both. PMID:19424852

  3. Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

  4. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-08-10

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tung-Way; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Cherng, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jan-Ku

    1994-08-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating.

  6. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  7. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy with High Energy Photon and Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, U.

    2004-07-01

    This short contribution will briefly describe the basic concepts of intensity modulated radiation therapy with high energy photons (IMRT) and charged particle beams (IMPT). Dose delivery and optimization strategies like the `Inverse Planning' approach will be explained for both radiation modalities and their potential advantages are demonstrated for characteristic clinical examples. Finally, future development like image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and adaptive radiation therapy, based on functional imaging methods, will be introduced.

  8. PULSED POWER APPLICATIONS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; SANDBERG, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  9. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  10. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments.

  11. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL–matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  12. Transport of intense beams of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Spadtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2005-10-01

    The new generation of ion sources delivers beams with intensities of several mA. This requires a careful design of the analysing system and the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) from the source to the subsequent systems. At INFN-LNS, high intensity proton sources (TRIPS [L. Celona, G. Ciavola, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1423 (2004)], PM-TRIPS [G. Ciavola, L. Celona, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1453 (2004)]) as well as ECR ion sources for the production of highly charged high-intensity heavy ion beams are developed (SERSE [S. Gammino, G. Ciavola, L. Celona et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(11) 4090 (2001), and references therein], GyroSERSE [S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1637 (2004)], MS-ECRIS [G. Ciavola et al ., (2005), 11th Int. Conf. on Ion Sources, Caen, (in press)]). In this paper, we present ion-optical design studies of various LEBT systems for ion-sources devoted to the production of intense beams. Calculations were performed using the computer codes GIOS [H. Wollnik, J. Brezina and M. Berz, NIM A 258 (1987)], GICO [M. Berz, H.C. Hoffmann, and H. Wollnik, NIM A 258 (1987)], and TRANSPORT [K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker and D.C. Carey, SLAC-R-95-462, Fermilab-Pub-95/069, UC-414 (1995)]. Simulations take into account the expected phase space growth of the beam emittance due to space-charge effects and image aberrations introduced by the magnetic elements.

  13. Muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise in children.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien; Duché, Pascale; Williams, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to resist fatigue better than adults during one or several repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. This finding has been reported by measuring mechanical force or power output profiles during sustained isometric maximal contractions or repeated bouts of high-intensity dynamic exercises. The ability of children to better maintain performance during repeated high-intensity exercise bouts could be related to their lower level of fatigue during exercise and/or faster recovery following exercise. This may be explained by muscle characteristics of children, which are quantitatively and qualitatively different to those of adults. Children have less muscle mass than adults and hence, generate lower absolute power during high-intensity exercise. Some researchers also showed that children were equipped better for oxidative than glycolytic pathways during exercise, which would lead to a lower accumulation of muscle by-products. Furthermore, some reports indicated that the lower ability of children to activate their type II muscle fibres would also explain their greater resistance to fatigue during sustained maximal contractions. The lower accumulation of muscle by-products observed in children may be suggestive of a reduced metabolic signal, which induces lower ratings of perceived exertion. Factors such as faster phosphocreatine resynthesis, greater oxidative capacity, better acid-base regulation, faster readjustment of initial cardiorespiratory parameters and higher removal of metabolic by-products in children could also explain their faster recovery following high-intensity exercise.From a clinical point of view, muscle fatigue profiles are different between healthy children and children with muscle and metabolic diseases. Studies of dystrophic muscles in children indicated contradictory findings of changes in contractile properties and the muscle fatigability. Some have found that the muscle of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) fatigued less

  14. Endothelial function does not improve with high-intensity continuous exercise training in SHR: implications of eNOS uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Battault, Sylvain; Singh, François; Gayrard, Sandrine; Zoll, Joffrey; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Grégory

    2016-02-01

    Exercise training is a well-recognized way to improve vascular endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. However, in hypertensive subjects, unlike low- and moderate-intensity exercise training, the beneficial effects of continuous high-intensity exercise on endothelial function are not clear, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-intensity exercise on vascular function, especially on the NO pathway, in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). These effects were studied on WKY, sedentary SHR and SHR that exercised at moderate (SHR-MOD) and high intensity (SHR-HI) on a treadmill (1 h per day; 5 days per week for 6 weeks at 55% and 80% of their maximal aerobic velocity, respectively). Endothelial function and specific NO contributions to acetylcholine-mediated relaxation were evaluated by measuring the aortic ring isometric forces. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation (ser1177) were evaluated by western blotting. The total aortic and eNOS-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance in aortic tissue. Although the aortas of SHR-HI had increased eNOS levels without alteration of eNOS phosphorylation, high-intensity exercise had no beneficial effect on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, unlike moderate exercise. This result was associated with increased eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. Notably, the use of the recoupling agent BH4 or a thiol-reducing agent blunted eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. In conclusion, the lack of a positive effect of high-intensity exercise on endothelial function in SHR was mainly explained by redox-dependent eNOS uncoupling, resulting in a switch from NO to O2(-) generation.

  15. Survey of proposed high intensity accelerators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.

    1994-09-01

    Many interesting applications are being considered for high intensity accelerators. Implications of the technology developments that are enhancing these opportunities, or making them possible, will be covered in context of the applications. Applications include those for research (in areas such as material science, biological sciences, nuclear and high energy physics), accelerator-driven transmutation technologies, defense, and medicine. Specific examples will be used to demonstrate the impact that technology development can have and how transfer of this technology to industry can have an impact in the consumer and commercial arenas. Technology Development in rf power, controls, beam optics, rf structures, magnets, injectors, and beam halos will be considered.

  16. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    PubMed

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program.

  17. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  18. Resonant Auger Effect at High X-Ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, N; Santra, R

    2008-03-27

    The resonant Auger effect of atomic neon exposed to high-intensity x-ray radiation in resonance with the 1s {yields} 3p transition is discussed. High intensity here means that the x-ray peak intensity is sufficient ({approx} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) to induce Rabi oscillations between the neon ground state and the 1s{sup -1}3p ({sup 1}P) state within the relaxation lifetime of the inner-shell vacancy. For the numerical analysis presented, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. Both coherent and chaotic x-ray pulses are treated. The latter are used to simulate radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission. Observing x-ray-driven atomic population dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic pulse ensembles. A more practical option for experiments using x-ray free-electron lasers is to measure the line profiles in the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron. This provides information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

  19. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  20. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE PAGES

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of themore » beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.« less

  1. High diving metabolism results in a short aerobic dive limit for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    The diving capacity of marine mammals is typically defined by the aerobic dive limit (ADL) which, in lieu of direct measurements, can be calculated (cADL) from total body oxygen stores (TBO) and diving metabolic rate (DMR). To estimate cADL, we measured blood oxygen stores, and combined this with diving oxygen consumption rates (VO2) recorded from 4 trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean to depths of 10 or 40 m. We also examined the effect of diving exercise on O2 stores by comparing blood O2 stores of our diving animals to non-diving individuals at an aquarium. Mass-specific blood volume of the non-diving individuals was higher in the winter than in summer, but there was no overall difference in blood O2 stores between the diving and non-diving groups. Estimated TBO (35.9 ml O2 kg(-1)) was slightly lower than previously reported for Steller sea lions and other Otariids. Calculated ADL was 3.0 min (based on an average DMR of 2.24 L O2 min(-1)) and was significantly shorter than the average 4.4 min dives our study animals performed when making single long dives-but was similar to the times recorded during diving bouts (a series of 4 dives followed by a recovery period on the surface), as well as the dive times of wild animals. Our study is the first to estimate cADL based on direct measures of VO2 and blood oxygen stores for an Otariid and indicates they have a much shorter ADL than previously thought.

  2. Sex-Related Differences in Self-Paced All Out High-Intensity Intermittent Cycling: Mechanical and Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Julio, Ursula F.; França, Vanessa; Lira, Fabio S.; Hofmann, Peter; Takito, Monica Y.; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related responses to a self-paced all out high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE). 9 women and 10 men were submitted to a maximal incremental test (to determine maximum aerobic power - MAP and VO2peak), and an HIIE cycling (60x8s:12s, effort:pause). During the protocol the mean value of V̇O2 and heart rate for the entire exercise (VO2total and HRtotal) as well as the values only in the effort or pause (V̇O2effort, VO2pause and HReffort and HRpause) relative to VO2peak were measured. Anaerobic power reserve (APR), blood lactate [La] and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were also measured. These variables were compared between men and women using the unpaired t test. Men used greater APR (109 ± 12%MAP vs 92 ± 6%MAP) with similar V̇O2total (74 ± 7 vs 78 ± 8% VO2peak), however, when effort and pause were analysed separately, V̇O2effort (80 ± 9 vs 80 ± 5%VO2peak) was similar between sexes, while V̇O2pause was lower in men (69 ± 6% vs 77 ± 11% VO2peak, respectively). Women presented lower power decrement (30 ± 11 vs 11 ± 3%), RER (1.04 ± 0.03 vs 1.00 ± 0.02) and [La]peak (8.6 ± 0.9 vs 5.9 ± 2.3 mmol.L-1). Thus, we can conclude that men self-paced HIIE at higher APR but with the same cardiovascular/aerobic solicitation as women. Key points Men self-paced high-intensity intermittent exercise at higher intensities than women. Men utilized greater anaerobic power reserve than women. Men and women had same cardiovascular solicitation. PMID:27274678

  3. High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Ho, Y K; Feng, L; Kong, Q; Wang, P X; Yuan, Z S; Scheid, W

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, an approximate pulsed-laser-beam solution of Maxwell's equation in vacuum is derived. Then with the numerical simulation method, electron acceleration induced by high-intensity [Q(0)=eE(0)/(m(e)omega c)=3] lasers is discussed in connection with the recent experiment of Malka et al. It is found that the maximum energy gain and the relationship between the final energy and the scattering angle can be well reproduced, but the polarization effect of electron-laser interactions is not very prominent. These results show that the ponderomotive potential model is still applicable, which means that the stimulated Compton scattering is the main fundamental mechanism responsible for the electron acceleration at this laser intensity.

  4. Free-field propagation of high intensity noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Joseph P.; Mcdaniel, Oliver H.

    1990-01-01

    Observed spectral data from supersonic jet aircraft are known to contain much more high frequency energy than can be explained by linear acoustic propagation theory. It is believed that the high frequency energy is an effect of nonlinear distortion due to the extremely high acoustic levels generated by the jet engines. The objective, to measure acoustic waveform distortion for spherically diverging high intensity noise, was reached by using an electropneumatic acoustic source capable of generating sound pressure levels in the range of 140 to 160 decibels (re 20 micro Pa). The noise spectrum was shaped to represent the spectra generated by jet engines. Two microphones were used to capture the acoustic pressure waveform at different points along the propagation path in order to provide a direct measure of the waveform distortion as well as spectral distortion. A secondary objective was to determine that the observed distortion is an acoustic effect. To do this an existing computer prediction code that deals with nonlinear acoustic propagation was used on data representative of the measured data. The results clearly demonstrate that high intensity jet noise does shift the energy in the spectrum to the higher frequencies along the propagation path. In addition, the data from the computer model are in good agreement with the measurements, thus demonstrating that the waveform distortion can be accounted for with nonlinear acoustic theory.

  5. Changes in cortical activity measured with EEG during a high-intensity cycling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Filomeno; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Protzner, Andrea B.; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a high-intensity cycling exercise on changes in spectral and temporal aspects of electroencephalography (EEG) measured from 10 experienced cyclists. Cyclists performed a maximum aerobic power test on the first testing day followed by a time-to-exhaustion trial at 85% of their maximum power output on 2 subsequent days that were separated by ∼48 h. EEG was recorded using a 64-channel system at 500 Hz. Independent component (IC) analysis parsed the EEG scalp data into maximal ICs. An equivalent current dipole model was calculated for each IC, and results were clustered across subjects. A time-frequency analysis of the identified electrocortical clusters was performed to investigate the magnitude and timing of event-related spectral perturbations. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in electrocortical activity were found in frontal, supplementary motor and parietal areas of the cortex. Overall, there was a significant increase in EEG power as fatigue developed throughout the exercise. The strongest increase was found in the frontal area of the cortex. The timing of event-related desynchronization within the supplementary motor area corresponds with the onset of force production and the transition from flexion to extension in the pedaling cycle. The results indicate an involvement of the cerebral cortex during the pedaling task that most likely involves executive control function, as well as motor planning and execution. PMID:26538604

  6. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  7. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. −2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists

  8. Metatranscriptomic analysis of a high-sulfide aquatic spring reveals insights into sulfur cycling and unexpected aerobic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Spain, Anne M; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Najar, Fares Z; Krumholz, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Zodletone spring is a sulfide-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma characterized by shallow, microoxic, light-exposed spring water overlaying anoxic sediments. Previously, culture-independent 16S rRNA gene based diversity surveys have revealed that Zodletone spring source sediments harbor a highly diverse microbial community, with multiple lineages putatively involved in various sulfur-cycling processes. Here, we conducted a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial populations in Zodletone spring source sediments to characterize the relative prevalence and importance of putative phototrophic, chemolithotrophic, and heterotrophic microorganisms in the sulfur cycle, the identity of lineages actively involved in various sulfur cycling processes, and the interaction between sulfur cycling and other geochemical processes at the spring source. Sediment samples at the spring's source were taken at three different times within a 24-h period for geochemical analyses and RNA sequencing. In depth mining of datasets for sulfur cycling transcripts revealed major sulfur cycling pathways and taxa involved, including an unexpected potential role of Actinobacteria in sulfide oxidation and thiosulfate transformation. Surprisingly, transcripts coding for the cyanobacterial Photosystem II D1 protein, methane monooxygenase, and terminal cytochrome oxidases were encountered, indicating that genes for oxygen production and aerobic modes of metabolism are actively being transcribed, despite below-detectable levels (<1 µM) of oxygen in source sediment. Results highlight transcripts involved in sulfur, methane, and oxygen cycles, propose that oxygenic photosynthesis could support aerobic methane and sulfide oxidation in anoxic sediments exposed to sunlight, and provide a viewpoint of microbial metabolic lifestyles under conditions similar to those seen during late Archaean and Proterozoic eons.

  9. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  10. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  11. High-intensity tone generation by aeroacoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the production of high-intensity tones by axisymmetric ring cavities. Maximum sound production occurs during an acoustic resonance at Strouhal numbers, which depend only on the local flow velocity independent of cavity location. Values of sound pressure of about 115 dB at 1-m distance can be generated by axisymmetric ring cavities on projectiles moving at a relatively low flight speed equal to 70 m/s. Frequencies in the audible range up to several kilohertz can be generated aeroacoustically. A simple analytical model has been developed to explain the experimental observations.

  12. High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.; Fluss, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described.

  13. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.

    2001-08-01

    A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571-1582 (1999) and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  14. ELECTRON COUD DYNAMICS IN HIGH-INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, L.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cloud due to beam-induced multipacting is one of the main concerns for the high intensity. Electrons generated and accumulated inside the beam pipe form an ''electron cloud'' that interacts with the circulating charged particle beam. With sizeable amount of electrons, this interaction can cause beam instability, beam loss and emittance growth. At the same time, the vacuum pressure will rise due to electron desorption. This talk intends to provide an overview of the mechanism and dynamics of the typical electron multipacting in various magnetic fields and mitigation measures with different beams.

  15. Transcranial Clot Lysis Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Thilo; Zadicario, Eyal; Fisher, David J.; Bradley, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Stroke is the third common cause of death worldwide. The majority of strokes are caused by sudden vessel occlusion, due to a blood clot. Vessel recanalization is the primary goal of all acute stroke treatment strategies. Initial data using ultrasound in combination with a therapeutic agent for clot lysis in stroke are promising. However, sound absorption and defocusing of the ultrasound beam occur during transskull insonation, limiting the efficiency of this approach to high extent. Using a transskull High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) head system we were able to lyse blood clots within seconds and in absence of further lytic agents. We could show that any correction for the distortion might be negligible to focus the ultrasound beam after transskull insonation. The use of transskull HIFU for immediate clot lysis in the human brain without the need of further drugs and disregarding individual skull bone characteristics could become a successful strategy in early stroke treatment. Using magnetic resonance tomography for neuronavigation MRI Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has the potential to open new avenues for therapeutic applications in the brain including Stroke, Intracranial Hemorrhages, Braintumors, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Thalamic Pain, BBB opening, and local drug delivery. First results in transcranial clot lysis will be presented in this paper.

  16. High Intensity X-Ray Coupling to Meteorite Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, J. L.; Furnish, M. D.; Hammerling, P.

    2001-06-01

    The responses of iron-nickel and stony meteorite samples to high-intensity X-ray pulses (70 - 215 GW/cm^2) pulses generated by exploding wire array hohlraums from the Sandia Z machine are reported. Induced shock waves created particle velocities of 25 - 75 m/s after rarefaction overtake, as measured by VISAR. From these values both momentum and energy coupling coefficients were obtained. These results are compared to recent high-powered-pulsed ( 1 GW/cm2 for 20 ns) 1054 nm laser induced shock pressures and momentum transfer, and energy coupling to iron-rich and stony meteorite targets (J. L. Remo et al, Laser and Particle Beams, 17, 25-44, 1999). These comparisons provide data on the scaling of shock induced effects on inhomogeneous materials in general and meteoritic materials in particular. The combination of both of these experiments extends the regime of high intensity pulsed energy deposition on non-homogeneous materials from the GW/cm^2 to 100's of GW/cm^2, providing valuable empirical insights into the shock critical equations of state and coupling responses. Application to astrophysical and geophysical modeling will be discussed.

  17. Nanoplasma Formation by High Intensity Hard X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, T.; Jurek, Z.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nagaya, K.; Wada, S.; Johnsson, P.; Siano, M.; Mondal, S.; Ito, Y.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, T.; Matsunami, K.; Hayashita, H.; Kajikawa, J.; Liu, X.-J.; Robert, E.; Miron, C.; Feifel, R.; Marangos, J. P.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Son, S.-K.; Ziaja, B.; Yao, M.; Santra, R.; Ueda, K.

    2015-01-01

    Using electron spectroscopy, we have investigated nanoplasma formation from noble gas clusters exposed to high-intensity hard-x-ray pulses at ~5 keV. Our experiment was carried out at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA) facility in Japan. Dedicated theoretical simulations were performed with the molecular dynamics tool XMDYN. We found that in this unprecedented wavelength regime nanoplasma formation is a highly indirect process. In the argon clusters investigated, nanoplasma is mainly formed through secondary electron cascading initiated by slow Auger electrons. Energy is distributed within the sample entirely through Auger processes and secondary electron cascading following photoabsorption, as in the hard x-ray regime there is no direct energy transfer from the field to the plasma. This plasma formation mechanism is specific to the hard-x-ray regime and may, thus, also be important for XFEL-based molecular imaging studies. In xenon clusters, photo- and Auger electrons contribute more significantly to the nanoplasma formation. Good agreement between experiment and simulations validates our modelling approach. This has wide-ranging implications for our ability to quantitatively predict the behavior of complex molecular systems irradiated by high-intensity hard x-rays. PMID:26077863

  18. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapy System and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fucheng; He, Ye; Li, Rui

    2007-05-01

    At the end of last century, a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) tumor therapy system was successfully developed and manufactured in China, which has been already applied to clinical therapy. This article aims to discuss the HIFU therapy system and its application. Detailed research includes the following: power amplifiers for high-power ultrasound, ultrasound transducers with large apertures, accurate 3-D mechanical drives, a software control system (both high-voltage control and low-voltage control), and the B-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment used for treatment monitoring. Research on the dosage of ultrasound required for tumour therapy in multiple human cases has made it possible to relate a dosage formula, presented in this paper, to other significant parameters such as the volume of thermal tumor solidification, the acoustic intensity (I), and the ultrasound emission time (tn). Moreover, the HIFU therapy system can be applied to the clinical treatment of both benign and malignant tumors in the pelvic and abdominal cavity, such as uterine fibroids, liver cancer and pancreatic carcinoma.

  19. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Thum, Jacob S; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.

  2. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  3. Free-field propagation of high intensity noise. [supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, O. H.; Roth, S. D.; Welz, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Research on high intensity (finite amplitude) acoustic waves shows that nonlinear distortion effects generally result in a shift of energy to higher frequencies. The higher intensities associated with supersonic jets would therefore indicate that high frequency enhancement of the spectrum should occur, resulting in the differences observed between subsonic and supersonic jets. A 10,000 acoustic watt source installed in an anechoic chamber generates sound levels such that acoustic shocks are readily observable. Dual frequency excitation of the source produces a strong parametric effect with a difference frequency comparable in level to the primary frequency. The test set up and recording equipment being used to determine the finite amplitude noise representative of an actual supersonic jet are described as well as the development of a computer program based on Burger's equation. The spectra of 1/2 octave band, 1 kHz sine wave, and dual frequency input and output are presented in graphs along with waveforms at Z = .025, 0.1, and 1.0.

  4. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  5. Challenges of PIC Simulations at High Laser Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedtke, Scott V.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Toncian, Toma; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel

    2015-11-01

    New lasers with very high intensity pulses (I >1022 W/cm2) are being commissioned to explore new regimes of laser-matter interactions. These lasers require accurate particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which may require new computational approaches to efficiently produce physically accurate results. We examine the constraints on PIC simulations at high field intensity imposed by both the particle pusher and field solver. As proposed by Arefiev, et al. (Physics of Plasmas 22, 013103 (2015)), we implement adaptive sub-cycling in the Boris pusher of the EPOCH code and demonstrate its effectiveness in efficiently reducing errors from the pusher. It is well know that the use of a finite-difference scheme also modifies the electromagnetic wave dispersion relation. We examine the effect of the resulting discrepancy in the phase velocity on electron acceleration, and demonstrate that relatively small errors in the phase velocity lead to substantial changes in the electron energy gain from the laser pulse. We discuss the corresponding conditions for the field solver. These results are relevant to direct laser acceleration and underdense ionization experiments. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's PULSE program (12-63-PULSE-FP014) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045).

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W.; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Methods: Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Results: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were −2.8 mm (−5.2 to −0.4 mm; P=0.02) in HIIT and −1.2 mm (−3.6 to 1.2 mm; P=0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake (P=0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P=0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. Conclusions: HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in

  7. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered. PMID:25053938

  8. Digital control of high-intensity acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test system is reported that consists of a reverberation room measuring 18 feet wide by 21 feet long by 26 feet high, with an internal volume of 10,900 cubic feet. The room is rectangular in shape. Acoustic energy is supplied through two 50-Hz cutoff exponential horns about 12 feet long. Each of the two horns has two transducers rated at 4000 acoustic watts each. A gaseous nitrogen supply is used to supply the energy. The equalized electrical signal is corrected by a circuit designed to compensate for the transducer nonlinearity, then fed into one channel of a phase linear power amplifier, then into the transducer. The amplifiers have been modified to increase their reliability. The acoustic energy in the room is monitored by six B and K 1/2-inch condenser microphones. The electrical signal from each microphone is fed into a six channel real time averager to give a spatial average of the signals.

  9. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  10. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  11. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  12. Design Aspects of Focal Beams From High-Intensity Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2011-01-01

    As the applications of ultrasonic thermal therapies expand, the design of the high-intensity array must address both the energy delivery of the main beam and the character and relevance of off-target beam energy. We simulate the acoustic field performance of a selected set of circular arrays organized by array format, including flat versus curved arrays, periodic versus random arrays, and center void diameter variations. Performance metrics are based on the −3-dB focal main lobe (FML) positioning range, axial grating lobe (AGL) temperatures, and side lobe levels. Using finite-element analysis, we evaluate the relative heating of the FML and the AGLs. All arrays have a maximum diameter of 100λ, with element count ranging from 64 to 1024 and continuous wave frequency of 1.5 MHz. First, we show that a 50% spherical annulus produces focus beam side lobes which decay as a function of lateral distance at nearly 87% of the exponential rate of a full aperture. Second, for the arrays studied, the efficiency of power delivery over the −3-dB focus positioning range for spherical arrays is at least 2-fold greater than for flat arrays; the 256-element case shows a 5-fold advantage for the spherical array. Third, AGL heating can be significant as the focal target is moved to its distal half-intensity depth from the natural focus. Increasing the element count of a randomized array to 256 elements decreases the AGL-to-FML heating ratio to 0.12 at the distal half-intensity depth. Further increases in element count yield modest improvements. A 49% improvement in the AGL-to-peak heating ratio is predicted by using the Sumanaweera spiral element pattern with randomization. PMID:21859578

  13. Conventional and thermophilic aerobic treatability of high strength oily pet food wastewater using membrane-coupled bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kurian, R; Acharya, C; Nakhla, G; Bassi, A

    2005-11-01

    Although thermophilic treatment systems have recently gained considerable interest, limited information exists on the comparative performances of membrane-coupled bioreactors (MBR) at thermophilic and conventional conditions. In this study aerobic MBRs operating at room temperature (20 degrees C) and at lower thermophilic range (45 degrees C) were investigated for the treatment of dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreated pet food wastewater. The particular wastewater is characterized by oil and grease (O & G) concentrations as high as 6 g/L, COD of 51 g/L, BOD of 16 g/L and volatile fatty acid (VFA) of 8.3 g/L. The performances of the two systems in terms of COD, BOD and O & G removal at varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) are compared. COD removal efficiencies in the thermophilic MBR varied from 75% to 98% and remained constant at 94% in the conventional MBR. The O & G removal efficiencies were 66-86% and 98% in the thermophilic and conventional MBR, respectively. Interestingly, high concentrations of VFA were recorded, equivalent to 50-73% of total COD, in the thermophilic MBR effluent. The observed yield in the thermophilic MBR was 40% of that observed in the conventional MBR.

  14. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of high-strength ammonium in anaerobically digested sludge by Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 which is capable of heterogeneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification, was used to remove high-strength ammonium (approximately 1 g NH4(+)-N/l) from digested sludge, the product of an anaerobic digestion reactor, in which methane was produced from excess municipal sewage sludge. Repeated batch operations were conducted at 20°C and 30°C for 550 h, using a jar fermentor. The removal ratios of high-strength ammonium reached 90-100% within 24 h, and the average ammonium removal rate was 2.9 kg-N/m(3)/day, more than 200 times higher than that in conventional nitrification-denitrification processes. During these operations, the cell density was maintained at 10(8)-10(9) cells of A. faecalis strain No. 4/ml. At 3% NaCl in the digested sludge, strain No. 4 exhibited an ammonium removal rate of 3 kg-N/m(3)/day.

  15. NASA's New High Intensity Solar Environment Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Across the world, new spaceflight missions are being designed and executed that will place spacecraft and instruments into challenging environments throughout the solar system. To aid in the successful completion of these new missions, NASA has developed a new flexible space environment test platform. The High Intensity Solar Environment Test (HISET) capability located at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center provides scientists and engineers with the means to test spacecraft materials and systems in a wide range of solar wind and solar photon environments. Featuring a solar simulator capable of delivering approximately 1 MW/m2 of broad spectrum radiation at maximum power, HISET provides a means to test systems or components that could explore the solar corona. The solar simulator consists of three high-power Xenon arc lamps that can be operated independently over a range of power to meet test requirements; i.e., the lamp power can be greatly reduced to simulate the solar intensity at several AU. Integral to the HISET capability are charged particle sources that can provide a solar wind (electron and proton) environment. Used individually or in combination, the charged particle sources can provide fluxes ranging from a few nA/cm2 to 100s of nA/cm2 over an energy range of 50 eV to 100 keV for electrons and 100 eV to 30 keV for protons. Anchored by a high vacuum facility equipped with a liquid nitrogen cold shroud for radiative cooling scenarios, HISET is able to accommodate samples as large as 1 meter in diameter. In this poster, details of the HISET capability will be presented, including the wide ]ranging configurability of the system.

  16. High power targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-04-26

    Issues are discussed in producing intense Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) approach, based on the use of thick targets employed at existing facilities. Some new physics studies may possibly be addressed by improving the performance of these existing targets through improvements in release and effusion properties to optimize the RIB yields. It is, however, acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIB can be met only by employing production beams of energetic light ions or protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Development of targets that use such intense production beams needs to address the requirement to control operational temperatures derived from internal production beam interactions with the target materials. In addition, issues arise for target materials in terms of their thermal characteristics, such as thermal conductivity and thermo-mechanical properties. A target concept is described for an in-beam test of a prototype target for actual thermal behavior under RIB production conditions. For such a test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the prototypical production beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  17. HIGH INTENSITY EFFECTS IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A; Shishlo, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  18. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    1997-11-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs.

  19. High precision measurement of intensity peak shifts in tunable cascaded microring intensity sensors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Prashanth R; Selvaraja, Shankar K; Varma, Manoj M

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate a method to precisely track intensity peak shifts in tunable cascaded double-microring based refractive index sensors. Without modifications, width of the intensity peak of a tunable cascaded microring device limits the precision of peak-shift measurements and thereby the limit of detection of the sensor. We overcome this limitation by using dual harmonic lock-in detection for precisely determining the position of the intensity maximum. Using this modification, we have demonstrated a reduction in the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the intensity peak by a factor of over 1300. We show that such a reduction in FWHM of the peak curve can significantly improve the detection limit of a tunable cascaded microring-based sensor.

  20. Digital control of high-intensity acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    To eliminate previous system instabilities and control high-intensity acoustic tests, a digital control vibration test system is modified by a software change. Three systems for the control of acoustic testing are compared: a hybrid digital/analog system, a digital vibration system, and the same digital vibration system modified by a software change to allow acoustic testing. It is shown that the hybrid system and the modified vibration system exhibit almost equal performance, although the hybrid system performs testing twice as fast. The development of a specialized acoustic test control system is justified since it costs far less than the general-purpose vibration control system. However, the latter is much easier to set up for a test, which is important in preventing overtesting of valuable spacecraft components.

  1. High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound: metrological requirements versus clinical usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, J.-F.

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) is an appealing non-invasive, non-ionizing therapeutic modality with a wide range of tissue interactions ranging from transient permeabilization of cell membranes to thermal ablation. The ability to guide and monitor the treatment with an associated ultrasonic or magnetic resonance imaging device has resulted in a dramatic rise in the clinical use of therapeutic ultrasound in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the range of clinical applications and the number of patients treated has grown at a much higher pace than the definition of standards. In this paper the metrological requirements of the therapeutic beams are reviewed and are compared with the current clinical use of image-guided HITU mostly based on a practical approach. Liver therapy, a particularly challenging clinical application, is discussed to highlight the differences between some complex clinical situations and the experimental conditions of the metrological characterization of ultrasonic transducers.

  2. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  3. Superheavy Elements Production in High Intensive Neutron Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Lyashuk, V. I.; Panov, I. V.

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of superheavy elements production in high intensive neutron fluxes is being studied. A model of the transuranium isotopes production under conditions of pulse nucleosynthesis in a neutron flux with densities of up to ~1025 neutron/cm2 is considered. The pulse process allows us to divide it in time into two stages: the process of multiple neutron captures (with t < 10-6 s) and the subsequent β-decay of neutron-rich nuclei. The modeling of the transuranium yields takes into account the adiabatic character of the process, the probability of delayed fission, and the emission of delayed neutrons. A target with a binary composition of 238U and 239Pu, 248Cm, and 251Cf isotopes is used to predict the yields of heavy and superheavy isotopes.

  4. Comparison of Two High Intensity Acoustic Test Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, A.; Tadao Sakita, M.; Kim, Youngkey K.

    2004-08-01

    In two different countries, at the same period of time, the institutes in charge of the development of space activities have decided to extend their satellite integration and test center, and to implement a reverberant acoustic chamber. In Brazil the INPE laboratory (LIT : Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) and in South Korea the KARI laboratory (SITC : Satellite Integration and Test Center) started their projects in July 2000 for the RATF (Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility) and in May 2001 for the HIAC (High Intensity Acoustic Chamber) respectively, writing the technical specifications. The kick-off meetings took place in December 2000 and in February 2002 and the opening ceremonies in December 19, 2002 in Brazil and in August 22, 2003 in Korea. This paper compares the two projects in terms of design choices, manufacturing processes, equipment installed and technical final characteristics.

  5. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. L.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Harris, J. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Cremer, J. T.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1010 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators' applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  6. The Denitrification Characteristics and Microbial Community in the Cathode of an MFC with Aerobic Denitrification at High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianqiang; Wu, Jinna; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Sha; Hu, Bo; Ding, Xiaoqian

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted much attention due to their ability to generate electricity while treating wastewater. The performance of a double-chamber MFC with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in the cathode for treating synthetic high concentration ammonia wastewater was investigated at different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and high temperatures. The results showed that electrode denitrification and traditional heterotrophic denitrification co-existed in the cathode chamber. Electrode denitrification by aerobic denitrification bacterium (ADB) is beneficial for achieving a higher voltage of the MFC at high DO concentrations (3.0–4.2 mg/L), while traditional heterotrophic denitrification is conducive to higher total nitrogen (TN) removal at low DO (0.5–1.0 mg/L) concentrations. Under high DO conditions, the nitrous oxide production and TN removal efficiency were higher with a 50 Ω external resistance than with a 100 Ω resistance, which demonstrated that electrode denitrification by ADB occurred in the cathode of the MFC. Sufficient electrons were inferred to be provided by the electrode to allow ADB survival at low carbon:nitrogen ratios (≤0.3). Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) results showed that increasing the DO resulted in a change of the predominant species from thermophilic autotrophic nitrifiers and facultative heterotrophic denitrifiers at low DO concentrations to thermophilic ADB at high DO concentrations. The predominant phylum changed from Firmicutes to Proteobacteria, and the predominant class changed from Bacilli to Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:28154554

  7. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  8. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men.

  9. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  10. Operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Diem, S. J.; Martin, E. H.; Pesavento, P. V.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M. A.; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz rf power at levels up to 100 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (~ 150 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). Ion cyclotron heating (~ 30 kW) will be via a magnetic beach approach. Plasma diagnostics include Thomson Scattering and a retarding field energy analyzer near the target, while a microwave interferometer and double-Langmuir probes are used to determine plasma parameters elsewhere in the system. Filterscopes are being used to measure D-alpha emission and He line ratios at multiple locations, and IR cameras image the target plates to determine heat deposition. High plasma densities in the helicon region have been produced in He (>3x1019/m3) and D (>1.5x1019/m3) , and operation with on-axis magnetic field strength >1 T has been demonstrated. Details of the experimental results and future plans for studying plasma surface/RF antenna interactions will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  11. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  12. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  13. Silicon solar cells as a high-solar-intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Robson, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional, 1- by 2-cm, N/P, gridded silicon solar cell when used as a radiometer have been determined for solar intensity levels to 2800 mW/sq cm (20 solar constants). The short-circuit current was proportional to the radiant intensity for levels only to 700 mW/sq cm (5 solar constants). For intensity levels greater than 700 mW/sq cm, it was necessary to operate the cell in a photoconductive mode in order to obtain a linear relation between the measured current and the radiant intensity. When the solar cell was biased with a reverse voltage of -1 V, the measured current and radiant intensity were linearly related over the complete intensity range from 100 to 2800 mW/sq cm.

  14. High muscle mitochondrial volume and aerobic capacity in a small marsupial (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) reveals flexible links between energy-use levels in mammals.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Lee, Enhua; Buttemer, William A

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the muscle structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacity of an insectivorous, small (~15 g) marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Family: Dasyuridae), to obtain further insight into energy use patterns in marsupials relative to those in placentals, their sister clade within the Theria (advanced mammals). Disparate hopping marsupials (Suborder Macropodiformes), a kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), show aerobic capabilities as high as those of 'athletic' placentals. Equivalent muscle mitochondrial volumes and cardiovascular features support these capabilities. We examined S. crassicaudata to determine whether highly developed aerobic capabilities occur elsewhere in marsupials, rather than being restricted to the more recently evolved Macropodiformes. This was the case. Treadmill-trained S. crassicaudata attained a maximal aerobic metabolic rate ( or MMR) of 272 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1) (N=8), similar to that reported for a small (~20 g), 'athletic' placental, Apodemus sylvaticus, 264 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1). Hopping marsupials have comparable aerobic levels when body mass variation is considered. Sminthopsis crassicaudata has a basal metabolic rate (BMR) about 75% of placental values but it has a notably large factorial aerobic scope (fAS) of 13; elevated fAS also features in hopping marsupials. The of S. crassicaudata was supported by an elevated total muscle mitochondrial volume, which was largely achieved through high muscle mitochondrial volume densities, Vv(mt,f), the mean value being 14.0±1.33%. These data were considered in relation to energy use levels in mammals, particularly field metabolic rate (FMR). BMR is consistently lower in marsupials, but this is balanced by a high fAS, such that marsupial MMR matches that of placentals. However, FMR shows different mass relationships in the two clades, with the FMR of small (<125 g) marsupials, such as S. crassicaudata, being higher than that in

  15. Greater impact of acute high-intensity interval exercise on post-exercise executive function compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MCE) can improve executive function (EF) acutely, potentially through the activation of both physiological and psychological factors. Recently, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been reported to be more beneficial for physical adaptation than MCE. Factors for EF improvement can potentially be more enhanced by HIIE than by MCE; but the effects of HIIE on EF remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine to what extent HIIE impacts post-exercise EF immediately after exercise and during post-exercise recovery, compared with traditional MCE. Twelve healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise based on either HIIE or MCE protocols in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% of peak VO2 with 3-min active recovery at 60% of peak VO2. A volume-matched MCE protocol was applied at 60% of peak VO2. To evaluate EF, a color-words Stroop task was performed pre- and post-exercise. Improvement in EF immediately after exercise was the same for the HIIE and MCE protocols. However, the improvement of EF by HIIE was sustained during 30 min of post-exercise recovery, during which MCE returned to the pre-exercise level. The EF response in the post-exercise recovery was associated with changes in physiological and psychological responses. The present findings showed that HIIE and MCE were capable of improving EF. Moreover, HIIE could prolong improvement in EF during post-exercise recovery. For the first time, we suggest that HIIE may be more effective strategy than MCE for improving EF.

  16. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F; Dudnikova, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Spallation neutron source user facilities require reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron can provide the needed beam currents, but may be limited by the ion sources that have currents and reliability that do not meet future requirements and emittances that are too large for efficient acceleration. In this project we are developing an H- source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, small emittance, good lifetime, high reliability, and power efficiency. We describe planned modifications to the present external antenna source at SNS that involve: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnet with a weaker electromagnet, in order to increase the plasma density near the outlet aperture. The SNS test stand will then be used to verify simulations of this approach that indicate significant improvements in H- output current and efficiency, where lower RF power will allow higher duty factor, longer source lifetime, and/or better reliability.

  17. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program.

  18. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent. Further, SBP during recovery was, on average, not lower than at rest before exercise, and chronic endurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (P<0.05) with higher intensity. Finally, endurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-03-30

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols by using less-hindered nitroxyl-radical/copper catalysis: optimum catalyst combinations and their substrate scope.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yusuke; Kogure, Naoki; Nishiyama, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Shota; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    The oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. In our recent report, 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO)/copper catalysis promoted the highly chemoselective aerobic oxidation of unprotected amino alcohols into amino carbonyl compounds. Herein, we investigated the extension of the promising AZADO/copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols to other types of alcohol. During close optimization of the reaction conditions by using various alcohols, we found that the optimum combination of nitroxyl radical, copper salt, and solution concentration was dependent on the type of substrate. Various alcohols, including highly hindered and heteroatom-rich ones, were efficiently oxidized into their corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with lower amounts of the catalysts.

  1. Rhythm of carbon and nitrogen fixation in unicellular cyanobacteria under turbulent and highly aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Viswanathan, Ganesh A; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are being increasingly explored for nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production. Commercial success however will depend on the ability to grow these cultures at high cell densities. Photo-limitation at high cell densities leads to hindered photoautotrophic growth while turbulent conditions, which simulate flashing light effect, can lead to oxygen toxicity to the nitrogenase enzyme. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142, a known hydrogen producer, is reported to grow and fix nitrogen under moderately oxic conditions in shake flasks. In this study, we explore the growth and nitrogen fixing potential of this organism under turbulent conditions with volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KL a) values that are up to 20-times greater than in shake flasks. In a stirred vessel, the organism grows well in turbulent regime possibly due to a simulated flashing light effect with optimal growth at Reynolds number of approximately 35,000. A respiratory burst lasting for about 4 h creates anoxic conditions intracellularly with near saturating levels of dissolved oxygen in the extracellular medium. This is concomitant with complete exhaustion of intracellular glycogen storage and upregulation of nifH and nifX, the genes encoding proteins of the nitrogenase complex. Further, the rhythmic oscillations in exhaust gas CO2 and O2 profiles synchronize faithfully with those in biochemical parameters and gene expression thereby serving as an effective online monitoring tool. These results will have important implications in potential commercial success of nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production by cyanobacteria.

  2. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  3. Beam experiments towards high-intensity beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag C.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Mernick, K.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2012-05-20

    Proton bunch intensities in RHIC are planned to be increased from 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch to increase the luminosity, together with head-on beam-beam compensation using electron lenses. To study the feasibility of the intensity increase, beam experiments are being performed. Recent experimental results are presented.

  4. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  5. Changes evaluated in soccer-specific power endurance either with or without a 10-week, in-season, intermittent, high-intensity training protocol.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason; Gaskill, Steven; Ruby, Brent

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in soccer-specific power endurance of 34 female high school soccer players throughout a season either with or without an intermittent, high-intensity exercise protocol. Thirty-four female high school soccer players were tested prior to the 2000 fall season and again 10 weeks later. The tests included an abridged 45-minute shuttle test (LIST), hydrostatic weighing, vertical jump, 20-m running-start sprint, and 30-second Wingate test. The experimental group (EG; n = 17, age 16.5 +/- 0.9 years) completed a 10-week in-season plyometric, resistive training, and high-intensity anaerobic program. The control group (n = 17, age 16.3 +/- 1.4 years) completed only traditional aerobic soccer conditioning. Statistical significance was set at alpha < 0.05. The experimental group showed significant improvements in the LIST (EG = delta 394 seconds +/- 124 seconds), 20-m sprint (EG = Delta-0.10 seconds +/- 0.10 seconds), increase in fat-free mass (EG = delta 1.14 kg +/- 1.22 kg), and decreases in fat mass (EG = Delta-1.40 kg +/- 1.47 kg) comparing pre- to postseason. This study indicates that a strength and plyometric program improved power endurance and speed over aerobic training only. Soccer-specific power endurance training may improve match performance and decrease fatigue in young female soccer players.

  6. High catalytic activity of palladium(II)-exchanged mesoporous sodalite and NaA zeolite for bulky aryl coupling reactions: reusability under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkee; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Na, Kyungsu; Yu, Byung-Woo; Ryoo, Ryong

    2009-01-01

    Exchange for the better: Mesoporous sodalite and NaA zeolite exchanged with Pd(2+) exhibit remarkably high activity and reusability in C-C coupling reactions under aerobic atmosphere. It is proposed that the catalytic reactions are mediated by a molecular Pd(0) species generated in situ within the pores (see picture), which is oxidized back to Pd(2+) by O(2), preventing the formation of catalytically inactive Pd(0) agglomerates.

  7. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Boa, Beatriz C S; Souza, Maria das Graças C; Leite, Richard D; da Silva, Simone V; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30) starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change), return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30), high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET) (HFEX, n = 30) and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30). Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM) (HF)4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX)4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC)*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX)*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8) M (HF)87.9±2.7%; (HFSC)*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX)*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX)*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6) M (HF)95.3±3.1%; (HFSC)*126±6.2%; (HFEX)*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX)*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4) M (HF)109.5±4.8%; (HFSC)*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX)*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX)*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF)40.5±4.2; (HFSC)*19.0±1.6; (HFEX)*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX)* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2), decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial

  8. A study on macronutrient self-selection after acute aerobic exercise in college females

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Min-Jeong; Cho, Ik-Rae; Won, Yu-Mi; Han, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Kon-Nym; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hee; Chin, Ji-Hyoung; Roh, Jae-Hun; Min, Seung-Hi; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Hyo-Joo; Jang, Kwon; Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kang, Suh-Jung; Shin, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hu-Nyun; Hong, Jae-Seung; Choi, Eun-Hi; An, Nam-Il; Kim, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Mi-Suk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine whether acute aerobic exercise (climbing) is associated with changes in the dietary intake pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Food intake and physical activity data for 15 female college students were sampled for 3 days and categorized according to routine activity or high-intensity activity such as hiking. Nutrient intake based on the data was analyzed using a nutrition program. [Results] Carbohydrate and protein intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before acute aerobic exercise, but lipid intake showed no significant difference. Calorie intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before exercise; however, calorie consumption was significantly increased after exercise. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise causes a decrease in total calories by inducing reduction in carbohydrate and protein intake. Therefore, aerobic exercise is very important for weight (body fat) control since it causes positive changes in the food intake pattern in female students. PMID:27799693

  9. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  10. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  11. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    PubMed Central

    Telis, Leon; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU) in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months' follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon. PMID:28243479

  12. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-12-09

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{_}summary.html.

  13. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-15

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse 'slice' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{sub s}ummary.html.

  14. High intensity focused ultrasound in clinical tumor ablation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), which was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach, have increased its popularity. In clinics, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid malignant tumors in a well-defined volume, including the pancreas, liver, prostate, breast, uterine fibroids, and soft-tissue sarcomas. In comparison to conventional tumor/cancer treatment modalities, such as open surgery, radio- and chemo-therapy, HIFU has the advantages of non-invasion, non-ionization, and fewer complications after treatment. Over 100 000 cases have been treated throughout the world with great success. The fundamental principles of HIFU ablation are coagulative thermal necrosis due to the absorption of ultrasound energy during transmission in tissue and the induced cavitation damage. This paper reviews the clinical outcomes of HIFU ablation for applicable cancers, and then summarizes the recommendations for a satisfactory HIFU treatment according to clinical experience. In addition, the current challenges in HIFU for engineers and physicians are also included. More recent horizons have broadened the application of HIFU in tumor treatment, such as HIFU-mediated drug delivery, vessel occlusion, and soft tissue erosion (“histotripsy”). In summary, HIFU is likely to play a significant role in the future oncology practice. PMID:21603311

  15. Spectroscopic imaging of metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvallet, Geoffrey A.

    The body of this work consists of three main research projects. An optical- and near-ultraviolet-wavelength absorption study sought to determine absolute densities of ground and excited level Sc atoms, ground level Sc + ions, and ground level Na atoms in a commercial 250 W metal halide high intensity discharge lamp during operation. These measurements also allowed the determination of the arc temperature and absolute electron density as functions of radius. Through infrared emission spectroscopy, relative densities of sodium and scandium were determined as functions of radius. Using the absolute densities gained from the optical experiment, these relative densities were calibrated. In addition, direct observation of the infrared emission allowed us to characterize the infrared power losses of the lamp. When considered as a fraction of the overall power consumption, the near-infrared spectral power losses were not substantial enough to warrant thorough investigation of their reduction in these lamps. The third project was an attempt to develop a portable x-ray diagnostic experiment. Two-dimensional spatial maps of the lamps were analyzed to determine absolute elemental mercury densities and the arc temperature as a function of radius. Two methods were used to improve the calibration of the density measurements and to correct for the spread in x-ray energy: known solutions of mercury in nitric acid, and an arc lamp which was uniformly heated to evaporate the mercury content. Although many complexities arose in this experiment, its goal was successfully completed.

  16. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    PubMed

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  17. Acute high-intensity exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in young, healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Chen, Yen T; Salinas, Mandy M; Kim, Jihoon; Jung, Yeonhak; Calvert, Hannah G

    2016-09-06

    Acute exercise can positively impact cognition. The present study examined the effect of acute high-intensity aerobic exercise on prefrontal-dependent cognitive performance and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Fifty-eight young adults were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) an acute bout of high-intensity exercise (n=29) or (b) a non-exercise control (n=29). Participants in the exercise group improved performance on inhibitory control in Stroop interference and on cognitive flexibility in Trail Making Test (TMT) Part-B compared with participants in the control group and increased BDNF immediately after exercise. There was a significant relationship between BDNF and TMT Part-B on the pre-post change following exercise. These findings provide support for the association between improved prefrontal-dependent cognitive performance and increased BDNF in response to acute exercise. We conclude that the changes in BDNF concentration may be partially responsible for prefrontal-dependent cognitive functioning following an acute bout of exercise.

  18. Effects of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound on the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykhodtseva, Natalia; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2007-05-01

    Bio-effects in the brain resulting from short focused ultrasound (FUS) pulses (1-10 ms, PRF=0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Hz, frequency=1.63 MHz) at high acoustic power (up to 700W) were examined. Fifty-seven locations were targeted through a craniotomy in the brains of 11 rabbits. Temperature rise was measured with MRI-based thermometry. The animals were sacrificed 4 h or 48 h after sonications for histological evaluations. A range of effects was observed: (1) Vascular changes (vasoconstriction/occlusion). (2) Homogenization of tissue. (3) Concentric circular lesions; (4) Hemorrhagic lesions similar to what was described earlier as inertial cavitation effects. Overall, the type of damage correlated with the acoustical power, with substantial overlapping among categories. Vascular changes were found at ˜140-180W, the thresholds for homogenized tissue and hemorrhagic lesions were approximately 200W and 350W, respectively. Some of these effects might be exploited for new therapies. Vascular occlusion might also be exploited for therapy; the lesions with homogenized tissue may suggest a new mechanism for non-thermal tissue ablation; small ones for ophthalmology and for functional neurosurgery (if produced in nerve tracts). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but with the acoustic intensities used, non-linear absorption, strong radiation forces and microbubble activity were likely to have been present. MRI-based temperature changes suggest that thermal effects were probably not responsible for these lesions, as the average focal temperature (approximately 47°C) was slightly below the threshold for thermal damage. The overlap between types of tissue effects for a given acoustic intensity indicates that a method to guide such cavitation-based therapies is needed. MRI was promising in some ways — we can detect where the effects were happening and whether or not cavitation occurred. While the artifacts in temperature mappings will make temperature measurements problematic

  19. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  20. High intensity ultrasound transducer used in gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Kyle P.; Keilman, George W.; Noble, Misty L.; Brayman, Andrew A.; Miao, Carol H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a novel therapeutic high intensity non-focused ultrasound (HIU) transducer designed with uniform pressure distribution to aid in accelerated gene transfer in large animal liver tissues in vivo. The underlying HIU transducer was used to initiate homogeneous cavitation throughout the tissue while delivering up to 2.7 MPa at 1.1 MHz across its radiating surface. The HIU transducer was built into a 6 cm diameter x 1.3 cm tall housing ergonomically designed to avoid collateral damage to the surrounding anatomy during dynamic motion. The ultrasound (US) radiation was applied in a 'paintbrush-like' manner to the surface of the liver. The layers and geometry of the transducer were carefully selected to maximize the active diameter (5.74 cm), maximize the electrical to acoustic conversion efficiency (85%) to achieve 2.7 MPa of peak negative pressure, maximize the frequency operating band at the fundamental resonance to within a power transfer delta of 1 dB, and reduce the pressure delta to within 2 dB across the radiating surface. For maximum peak voltage into the transducer, a high performance piezoceramic was chosen and a DC bias circuit was built integral to the system. An apodized two element annular pattern was made from a single piezoceramic element, resulting in significant pressure uniformity enhancement. In addition to using apodization for pressure uniformity, a proprietary multi-layered structure was used to improve efficiency while sustaining an operating band from 900 kHz to 1.3 MHz. The resultant operating band allowed for dithering techniques using frequency modulation. The underlying HIU transducer for use in large animals enhances gene expression up to 6300-fold.

  1. Combustion properties of micronized coal for high intensity combustion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.; Knight, B.; Vranos, A.; Hollick, H.; Wicks, K.

    1989-04-19

    Results are presented of an investigation of combustion related properties of micronized coal feeds (all particles less than 40 microns), mixing characteristics of centrifugally driven burner devices, and aerodynamic characteristics of micronized coal particles related to centrifugal mixing for high intensity combustion applications. Combustion related properties investigated are the evolution of fuel bound nitrogen and coal associated mineral matter during the initial stages of combustion. Parent and beneficiated micronized coal samples, as well as narrow size cut samples from a wide range of coal ranks, were investigated using a multireactor approach. The multireactor approach allowed the experimental separation of different aspects of the fuel nitrogen evolution process, enabling a comprehensive understanding of FBN to be formulated and empirical rate constants to be developed. A specially designed on-line gas analysis system allowed nitrogen balance to be achieved. A combined nitrogen and ash tracer technique allowed the quantitative determination of tar yields during rapid devolatilization. Empirical kinetic rates are developed for the evolution of FBN with tar at low temperatures and the appearance of HCN from tar and char species at high temperatures. A specially designed phase separation system, coupled to separate aerosol and char segregation trains, allowed the possible formation of ash aerosol by rapid devolatilization to be monitored. Compensated thermocouple, hot wire anemometry, and digital imaging techniques are employed to characterize the mixing properties of a centrifugally driven combustor. Analytical and experimental investigations of the fidelity of micronized coal particles to gas stream trajectories in the strong centrifugal fields are performed. Both spherical and nonspherical particle morphologies are considered analytically. 14 refs., 141 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, spore-forming bacterium isolated from Canadian high Arctic permafrost.

    PubMed

    Steven, Blaire; Chen, Min Qun; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G; Niederberger, Thomas D

    2008-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium (strain Eur1 9.5(T)) was isolated from a 9-m-deep permafrost sample from the Canadian high Arctic. Strain Eur1 9.5(T) could not be cultivated in liquid medium and grew over the temperature range 5-37 degrees C; no growth was observed at 42 degrees C and only slow growth was observed at 5 degrees C following 1 month of incubation. Eur1 9.5(T) grew over the pH range 5.5-8.9 and tolerated NaCl concentrations of 0-0.5 % (w/v). Eur1 9.5(T) grew heterotrophically on complex carbon substrates and chemolithoautotrophically on inorganic sulfur compounds, as demonstrated by growth on sodium thiosulfate and sulfite as sole electron donors. Eur1 9.5(T) contained iso-C(15 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acid and menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of type A1gamma. The DNA G+C content was 53.1 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Eur1 9.5(T) was only distantly related (

  3. Changes in mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor after wheel running in rats selectively bred for high- and low-aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Groves-Chapman, Jessica L.; Murray, Patrick S.; Stevens, Kristin L.; Monroe, Derek; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Holmes, Philip V.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated levels of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) within the hippocampal formation in rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (i.e., untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR), 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR), and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without free access to running wheels for three weeks. The specific aim of the study was to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between cumulative running distance and levels of BDNF mRNA. No additional treatments or behavioral manipulations were used. HCR, LCR, and SD rats were grouped by strain and randomly assigned to sedentary or activity (voluntary access to activity wheel) conditions. Animals were killed after 21 days of exposure to the assigned conditions. Daily running distances (mean ± standard deviation meters/d) during week three were: HCR (4726 ± 3220), SD (2293 ± 3461), LCR (672 ± 323). Regardless of strain, levels of BDNF mRNA in CA1 were elevated in wheel runners compared to sedentary rats and this difference persisted after adjustment for age (p=0.040). BDNF mRNA was not affected by intrinsic aerobic capacity and was not related to total running distance. The results support that BDNF mRNA expression is increased by unlimited access to activity wheel running for 3 weeks but is not dependent upon accumulated running distance. PMID:22024546

  4. Changes in mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor after wheel running in rats selectively bred for high- and low-aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Groves-Chapman, Jessica L; Murray, Patrick S; Stevens, Kristin L; Monroe, Derek C; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Holmes, Philip V; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-11-24

    We evaluated levels of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) within the hippocampal formation in rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (i.e., untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR), 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR), and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. The specific aim of the study was to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between cumulative running distance and levels of BDNF mRNA. No additional treatments or behavioral manipulations were used. HCR, LCR, and SD rats were grouped by strain and randomly assigned to sedentary or activity (voluntary access to activity wheel) conditions. Animals were killed after 21 days of exposure to the assigned conditions. Daily running distances (mean ± standard deviation meters/day) during week three were: HCR (4726 ± 3220), SD (2293 ± 3461), LCR (672 ± 323). Regardless of strain, levels of BDNF mRNA in CA1 were elevated in wheel runners compared to sedentary rats and this difference persisted after adjustment for age (p=0.040). BDNF mRNA was not affected by intrinsic aerobic capacity and was not related to total running distance. The results support that BDNF mRNA expression is increased by unlimited access to activity wheel running for 3 weeks but is not dependent upon accumulated running distance.

  5. High Intensity Interval Training in a Real World Setting: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study in Overweight Inactive Adults, Measuring Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lunt, Helen; Draper, Nick; Marshall, Helen C.; Logan, Florence J.; Hamlin, Michael J.; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Cotter, James D.; Kimber, Nicholas E.; Blackwell, Gavin; Frampton, Christopher M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. Methods Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention) were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg), before and after the 12 week interventions. Results On ITT (intention to treat) analyses, baseline (N = 49) and exit (N = 39) O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, −0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and −1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03). The actual (observed, rather than prescribed) time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis) was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001). On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. Conclusions In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of overweight

  6. Rain simulation studies for high-intensity acoustic nose cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    Unarmed plastic projectiles can be equipped with small axisymmetric cavities for the generation of intense tones that are useful in training maneuvers. Attention is presently given to the simulation of rainfall in an airstream and the effect of rain droplet impingement on the nose of projectiles, and especially to any penetration or accumulation of water at the base of the cavity that might increase the fundamental cavity frequency and/or reduce the intensity of sound production during rain conditions.

  7. Glass Strengthening via High-Intensity Plasma-Arc Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Harper, David C; Duty, Chad E; Patel, P

    2010-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity plasma-arc lamp was used to irradiate the surface of soda-lime silicate glass tiles to determine if an increase in strength could be achieved. The lamp had a power density of 3500 W/cm2, a processing area of 1 cm x 10 cm, irradiated near-infrared heating at a wavelength between 0.2 1.4 m, and was controlled to unidirectionally sweep across 50-mm-square tiles at a constant speed of 8 mm/s. Ring-on-ring (RoR) equibiaxial flexure and 4 pt uni-directional flexure testings of entire tiles were used to measure and compare failure stress distributions of treated and untreated glass. Even with non-optimized processing conditions, RoR failure stress increased by approximately 25% and the 4 pt bend failure stress increased by approximately 65%. Strengthening was due to a fire-polishing-like mechanism. The arc-lamp heat-treatment caused the location of the strength-limiting flaws in the 4-pt-bend tiles to change; namely, failure initiation occurred on the gage section surface for the treated glass whereas it occurred at a gage section edge for the untreated. Arc-lamp heat-treatment is attractive not only because it provides strengthening, but because it can (non-contact) process large amounts of glass quickly and inexpensively, and is a process that either a glass manufacturer or end-user can readily employ.

  8. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  9. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  10. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  11. Effect of Maximal Aerobic Power on Match Performance in Elite Soccer Referees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagna, Carlo; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether soccer referees' maximal aerobic power could influence match performance (exercise intensity) during highly competitive games. Analysis of data from observations and monitoring of elite-level referees demonstrated the positive influence of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in determining both the total amount of distance covered…

  12. High-Intensity Training and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Top-Level Soccer Players: Effect of Training Intensity.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dunlop, Gordon; Groussard, Carole; Kebsi, Wiem; Dellal, Alexandre; Morgans, Ryland; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-09-01

    Owen, AL, Wong, DP, Dunlop, G, Groussard, C, Kebsi, W, Dellal, A, Morgans, R, and Zouhal, H. High-intensity training and salivary immunoglobulin A responses in professional top-level soccer players: Effect of training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2460-2469, 2016-This study aimed (a) to test the hypothesis that salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) would vary with training intensity sessions (low-intensity [LI] vs. high-intensity sessions [HI]) during a traditional training program divided into 4 training periods and (b) to identify key variables (e.g., GPS data, rating of perceived exertion [RPE], and training duration), which could affect s-IgA. Saliva samples of 10 elite professional soccer players were collected (a) before the investigation started to establish the baseline level and (b) before and after each 4 training sessions (LI vs. HI). Training intensity was monitored as internal (through heart rate responses and RPE) and external (through GPS) loads. High-intensity sessions were associated with higher external load (GPS) and with higher RPE. Baseline and pretraining s-IgA did not differ between the 4 training sessions both for HI and LI. Post-training s-IgA were not different (in absolute value and in percentage of change) between HI and LI sessions at the first 3 periods. However, at the fourth period, s-IgA concentration for HI session was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than the LI session. The percentage change between s-IgA post-training and s-IgA baseline concentrations differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between HI and LI training sessions. Significant correlations between s-IgA and training intensity were also noted. High-intensity soccer training sessions might cause a significant decrease in s-IgA values during the postexercise window as compared with LI sessions. This study encourages coaches to monitor s-IgA in routine, particularly during HI training periods, to take precautions to avoid upper respiratory tract infection in highly trained

  13. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  14. Co-ingestion of Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and High-Intensity Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Alireza; Earnest, Conrad P; Lowery, Ryan P; Wilson, Jacob M; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-10-01

    Many sports involve repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. High-intensity exercise is compromised, however, by the early onset of exercise-induced fatigue. Metabolic by-products, ion dysbalance and amount of phosphocreatine are considered the main peripheral causes of fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Intake of nutritional ergogenic aids is commonplace to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise by offsetting the potential mechanisms of fatigue. Creatine, probably one of the best known nutritional aids to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise, has convincingly substantiated its ergogenic potential. Although multi-ingredient supplements are now common, the justification for effectiveness is mostly based on observations with single intake of those ingredients. In this narrative review, the main focus is on the evidence of the effect of co-ingestion of ergogenic aids on performance of high intensity exercise for which the single intake has shown beneficial effects on high-intensity performance.

  15. A 3-week multimodal intervention involving high-intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty-eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group performing exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (LMIE; n = 14) or a group performing high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 14) as part of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation program. No adverse events related to the exercise were reported. Work economy improved following both HIIT and LMIE, with improved peak oxygen uptake following LMIE. HIIT reduced mean total body fat mass with no change in body mass, muscle or fat-free mass (best P < 0.06). LMIE increased muscle and total fat-free body mass. Total energy expenditure (P = 0.45) did not change between the groups, whereas both improved quality of life to a similar high extent and lessened cancer-related fatigue. This randomized controlled study demonstrates that HIIT can be performed by female cancer survivors without adverse health effects. Here, HIIT and LMIE both improved work economy, quality of life and cancer-related fatigue, body composition or energy expenditure. Since the outcomes were similar, but HIIT takes less time, this may be a time-efficient strategy for improving certain aspects of the health of female cancer survivors.

  16. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that is designed, intended, or promoted for illumination purposes...

  17. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that is designed, intended, or promoted for illumination purposes...

  18. High power target approaches for intense radioactive ion beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L. ||; Hodges, T.A.; Hsu, H.; Fikani, M.M.

    1997-02-01

    Development of conceptual approaches for targets to produce intense radioactive ion beams is needed in anticipation of activity for a next-generation, intense ISOL-type radioactive beams facility, strongly recommended in the NSAC 1995 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science. The production of isotopes in vapor form for subsequent mass separation and acceleration will depend on the ability to control target temperature profiles within the target resulting from interactions of the intense production beams with the target material. A number of earlier studies have identified promising approaches which need, however, to be carefully analyzed for specific target systems. A survey will be made of these earlier concepts employing various cooling techniques, including imposition of thermal barriers between the target materials and cooling systems. Some results of preliminary analyses are summarized. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D.R.; Pollock, E.; Kennedy, S.G.; Lubans, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group. PMID:26844177

  20. A Preliminary Exercise Study of Japanese Version of High-intensity Interval Aerobic Training (J-HIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Seino, Satoshi; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In a microgravity environment, the volume load on the left ventricle is reduced and the cardiac function deteriorates.Consequently, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) decreases during spaceflight. Reduced cardiac function can lead to serious health problems such as cardiac atrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and orthostatic hypotension. An exercise using a bicycle ergometer during spaceflight may help to increase the volume load on the left ventricle. On the other hand, many astronauts also experience weight loss during spaceflight because energy imbalances can occur. Some researchers indicate that excessive exercise may promote the energy deficit and have a negative impact on long-term spaceflight. Therefore, we have been devising an original bicyle erogometer protocol better suited to astronauts experiencing long-term spaceflight.One of our candidate protocols is the 3 × 3 protocol named J-HIAT, i.e., three times 3-min intervals with a 2-min active recovery period between intervals. In response to our preliminary experiments, we concluded that J-HIAT would be a potential protocol to control the increase of energy consumption and to have a significant impact on VO2max and the cardiac function. To further verify this method, we are working on full-scale experiments. In future, we will show the results of these experiments.

  1. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pumpa, Kate L.; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S.; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings. PMID:27781180

  2. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  3. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  4. Overview of novel photovoltaic conversion techniques at high intensity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes several photovoltaic devices currently under development that can operate under light intensities considerably higher than can silicon solar cells. The technologies discussed include GaAs heteroface solar cells, multi-color systems, thermophotovoltaics, and laser energy conversion. Array costs for the GaAs and multi-color elements are estimated.

  5. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of high intensity argon cluster beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korobeishchikov, N. G.; Kalyada, V. V.; Shmakov, A. A.; Zarvin, A. E.; Skovorodko, P. A.

    2014-12-09

    Experimental and numerical investigations of expansion of argon with homogeneous condensation in supersonic conical nozzle and in free jet behind it were carried out. Optimal parameters (stagnation pressure, nozzle-skimmer distance) for the formation of cluster beam with maximum intensity were determined. Two available models for nonequilibrium nucleation were tested. The numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data.

  7. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and

  8. Effect of the low- versus high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and GLP-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; So, Yong Seok

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-intensity exercise training compare with high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The low-intensity exercise training group performed aerobic exercise training at an intensity of ≤ 45% of the heart rate reserve. The high-intensity interval exercise training group performed interval exercise training at an intensity of ≥ 80% of the heart rate reserve. The exercise-related energy consumption was determined for both groups on a per-week basis (1,200 kcal/week). [Results] Both groups showed improvement in the glucose-regulated protein 78 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, but the size of the between-group effect was not statistically significant. The high-intensity interval exercise training group showed a significant reduction in percentage body fat. The C-peptide level increased after the 12-weeks programs and was significantly different, between the groups. Fasting glucose, insulin resistance in the fasting state according to homeostasis model assessment, and leptin decreased after the 12-weeks exercise program and were significantly different between the groups, and glucagon-like peptide-1 increased after the 12-week exercise programs and was significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion high-intensity interval exercise training, as defined in this study, may lead to improvements in body composition, glycemic control, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments.

  10. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  11. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women.

  12. The TEA CO2-Lasers with High Output Emission Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.; Puchikin, А. V.; Jun, Yao

    2014-03-01

    TEA CO2-lasers generating short pulse radiation and operating in a pulse-periodic mode with the repetition rate up to 10 Hz have been developed. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen up to 8% in the mixture of molecular gases СО2:H2 = 500:50 at a total pressure of P = 0.6 bar enhances the peak emission power maintaining the temporary pulse shape. An output beam intensity of 12.3 MW/cm2 was obtained for the 30 ns pulse at a laser efficiency of 2.8%. In a compact TEA СО2-laser with an active medium volume of 6 cm3, a beam with an output intensity of 24 MW/cm2 at pulse duration of 70 ns was obtained.

  13. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  14. Effects of High Intensity Interval versus Moderate Continuous Training on Markers of Ventilatory and Cardiac Efficiency in Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Gustavo G.; Oliveira, Ricardo B.; Farinatti, Paulo T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. We tested the hypothesis that high intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate intensity continuous training (MIT) to improve newly emerged markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, as the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and oxygen pulse (O2P). Methods. Seventy-one patients with optimized treatment were randomly assigned into HIIT (n = 23, age = 56 ± 12 years), MIT (n = 24, age = 62 ± 12 years), or nonexercise control group (CG) (n = 24, age = 64 ± 12 years). MIT performed 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at 70–75% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and HIIT performed 30 min sessions split in 2 min alternate bouts at 60%/90% HRmax (3 times/week for 16 weeks). Results. No differences among groups (before versus after) were found for VE/VCO2 slope or OUES (P > 0.05). After training the O2P slope increased in HIIT (22%, P < 0.05) but not in MIT (2%, P > 0.05), while decreased in CG (−20%, P < 0.05) becoming lower versus HIIT (P = 0.03). Conclusion. HIIT was more effective than MIT for improving O2P slope in CHD patients, while VE/VCO2 slope and OUES were similarly improved by aerobic training regimens versus controls. PMID:25741531

  15. Two weeks of high-intensity interval training improves novel but not traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bond, Bert; Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Harris, Sam; Gates, Phillip E; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-09-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, but no study has identified the influence of HIIT on endothelial and autonomic function in this group. Thirteen 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents (6 girls) completed six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Each training session consisted of eight to ten 1-min repetitions of cycling at 90% peak power interspersed with 75 s of unloaded cycling. Traditional (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and blood pressure) and novel [flow-mediated dilation (FMD), heart rate variability (HRV)] CVD risk factors were assessed in a fasted and postprandial state before (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1D), and 3 days after (POST-3D) training. Aerobic fitness was determined PRE and POST-3D. Two weeks of HIIT had no effect on aerobic fitness or traditional CVD risk factors determined in the fasted or postprandial state (P > 0.15). Compared with PRE, fasted FMD was improved POST-1D [P = 0.003, effect size (ES) = 0.70] but not POST-3D (P = 0.32, ES = 0.22). Fasted FMD was greater POST-1D compared with POST-3D (P = 0.04, ES = 0.48). Compared with PRE, postprandial FMD was greater POST-1D (P < 0.001, ES = 1.01) and POST-3D (P = 0.01, ES = 0.60). Fasted HRV was greater POST-1D (P = 0.001, ES = 0.71) and POST-3D (P = 0.02, ES = 0.44). The test meal lowered HRV in all laboratory visits (P < 0.001, ES = 0.59), but there were no differences in postprandial HRV between visits (P > 0.32 for all). Two weeks of HIIT enhanced endothelial function and HRV without improvements in traditional CVD risk factors. However, most of this favorable adaptation was lost POST-3D, suggesting that regularly performing high-intensity exercise is needed to maintain these benefits.

  16. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  17. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M; Kemi, Ole J

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (P<0.050). For maximal HIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  18. Commissioning the new high power rf system for the AGS with high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Deng, D.P; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Otis, A.; Sanders, R.T.; Zaltsman, A.

    1994-08-01

    A new high power rf system has been installed in the AGS in order to raise the beam loading limit to beyond 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. The old system was limited to 2.2 {times} 10{sup l3} ppp by: available real power, multi-loop instability, and transient beam loading during batch filling from the Booster. The key components of the new system are: new power amplifiers in the tunnel using the Thomson-CSF TH573 300kW tetrode, rf feedback around the power stage, and reduction of the 10 cavities` R/Q by 1.8 by additional gap capacitors. Commissioning of the new rf system with high intensity beam is described. The intensity goal for the 1994 running period is 4 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. To date, 3.7 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp has been achieved.

  19. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and aerobic biological treatment in a municipal WWTP of a high-strength o-cresol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Guisasola, Albert; Baeza, Juan A; Fabregat, Azael; Stüber, Frank; Fortuny, Agustí; Font, Josep; Carrera, Julián

    2007-02-01

    This study examines the feasibility of coupling a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO), with activated carbon (AC) as catalyst, and an aerobic biological treatment to treat a high-strength o-cresol wastewater. Two goals are pursued: (a) To determine the effect of the main AC/CWAO intermediates on the activated sludge of a municipal WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and (b) To demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the AC/CWAO effluent as a part of the influent of a municipal WWTP. In a previous study, a high-strength o-cresol wastewater was treated by AC/CWAO aiming to establish the distribution of intermediates and the biodegradability enhancement. In this work, the biodegradability, toxicity and inhibition of the most relevant intermediates detected in the AC/CWAO effluent were determined by respirometry. Also, the results of a pilot scale municipal WWTP study for an integrated AC/CWAO-aerobic biological treatment of this effluent are presented. The biodegradation parameters (i.e. maximum oxygen uptake rate and oxygen consumption) of main AC/CWAO intermediates allowed the classification of the intermediates into readily biodegradable, inert or toxic/inhibitory compounds. This detailed study, allowed to understand the biodegradability enhancement exhibited by an AC/CWAO effluent and to achieve a successful strategy for coupling the AC/CWAO step with an aerobic biological treatment for a high-strength o-cresol wastewater. Using 30%, as COD, of AC/CWAO effluent in the inlet to the pilot scale WWTP, the integrated AC/CWAO-biological treatment achieved a 98% of total COD removal and, particularly, a 91% of AC/CWAO effluent COD removal without any undesirable effect on the biomass.

  20. Algebra Aerobics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Julie; Jaqua, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    A kinesthetic approach to developing ideas of function transformations can get students physically and intellectually involved. This article presents low- or no-cost activities which use kinesthetics to support high school students' mathematical understanding of transformations of function graphs. The important point of these activities is to help…

  1. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field.

  2. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise training in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Siddhartha S; Mookadam, Farouk; Lee, Chong D; Tucker, Wesley J; Haykowsky, Mark J; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-09-15

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Exercise training is an established adjuvant therapy in heart failure; however, the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in HFpEF are unknown. We compared the effects of HIIT vs. moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT) on peak oxygen uptake (V̇o₂peak), left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and endothelial function in patients with HFpEF. Nineteen patients with HFpEF (age 70 ± 8.3 yr) were randomized to either HIIT (4 × 4 min at 85-90% peak heart rate, with 3 min active recovery) or MI-ACT (30 min at 70% peak heart rate). Fifteen patients completed exercise training (HIIT: n = 9; MI-ACT: n = 6). Patients trained 3 days/wk for 4 wk. Before and after training patients underwent a treadmill test for V̇o₂peak determination, 2D-echocardiography for assessment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) for assessment of endothelial function. HIIT improved V̇o₂peak (pre = 19.2 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); post = 21.0 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P = 0.04) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grade (pre = 2.1 ± 0.3; post = 1.3 ± 0.7; P = 0.02), but FMD was unchanged (pre = 6.9 ± 3.7%; post = 7.0 ± 4.2%). No changes were observed following MI-ACT. A trend for reduced left atrial volume index was observed following HIIT compared with MI-ACT (-3.3 ± 6.6 vs. +5.8 ± 10.7 ml/m(2); P = 0.06). In HFpEF patients 4 wk of HIIT significantly improved V̇o₂peak and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. HIIT may provide a more robust stimulus than MI-ACT for early exercise training adaptations in HFpEF.

  3. Intensity Mapping of Molecular Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey; Keating, Garrett; Marrone, Dan; DeBoer, David; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Ming-Tang; Jiang, Homin; Koch, Patrick; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, K. Y.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Darling, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The origin and evolution of structure in the Universe is one of the major challenges of observational astronomy. How and when did the first stars and galaxies form? How does baryonic structure trace the underlying dark matter? A multi-wavelength, multi-tool approach is necessary to provide the complete story or the evolution of structure in the Universe. Intensity mapping, which relies on the ability to detect many objects at once through their integrated emission rather than direct detection of individual objects, is a critical part of this mosaic. Intensity mapping provides a window on lower luminosity objects that cannot be detected individually but that collectively drive important processes. In particular, our understanding of the molecular gas component of massive galaxies is being revolutionized by ALMA and EVLA but the population of smaller, star-forming galaxies, which provide the bulk of star formation cannot be individually probed by these instruments.In this talk, I will summarize two intensity mapping experiments to detect molecular gas through the carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition. We are currently completing sensitive observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovic Array (SZA) telescope at a wavelength of 1 cm that are sensitive to emission at redshifts 2.3 to 3.3. The SZA experiments sets strong limits on models for the CO emission and demonstrates the ability to reject foregrounds and telescope systematics in very deep integrations. I also describe the development of an intensity mapping capability for the Y.T. Lee Array, a 13-element interferometer located on Mauna Loa. In its first phase, this project focuses on detection of CO at redshifts 2.3 - 3.3 with detection via power spectrum and cross-correlation with other surveys. The project includes a major technical upgrade, a new digital correlator and IF electronics component to be deployed in 2015/2016. The Y.T. Lee Array observations will be more sensitive and extend to larger angular scales

  4. Third harmonic generation with ultra-high intensity laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    1992-04-01

    When an intense, plane-polarized, laser pulse interacts with a plasma, the relativistic nonlinearities induce a third harmonic polarization. A phase-locked growth of a third harmonic wave can take place, but the differences between the nonlinear dispersion of the pump and driven waves leads to a rapid unlocking, resulting in a saturation. What becomes third harmonic amplitude oscillations are identified here, and the nonlinear phase velocity and the renormalized electron mass due to plasmon screening are calculated. A simple phase-matching scheme, based on a resonant density modulation, is then proposed and analyzed.

  5. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B. ); Ruggiero, A.G. ); Tecchio, L. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin )

    1992-01-01

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10[sup 12] ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10[sup 8] [divided by] 10[sup 9] ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  6. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Tecchio, L. |

    1992-12-31

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10{sup 12} ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10{sup 8} {divided_by} 10{sup 9} ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  7. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    PubMed

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion.

  8. High temperature, high intensity solar array. [for Venus Radar Mapper mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. S.; Brooks, G. R.; Pinkerton, R.

    1985-01-01

    The solar array for the Venus Radar Mapper mission will operate in the high temperature, high intensity conditions of a low Venus orbit environment. To fulfill the performance requirements in this environment at minimum cost and mass while maximizing power density and packing factor on the panel surface, several features were introduced into the design. These features included the use of optical surface reflectors (OSR's) to reduce the operating temperature; new adhesives for conductive bonding of OSR's to avoid electrostatic discharges; custom-designed large area cells and novel shunt diode circuit and panel power harness configurations.

  9. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    SciTech Connect

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  10. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang-Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential ‘bleaching’ of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed. PMID:26594370

  11. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE PAGES

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; ...

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore » is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  12. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  13. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; Møller, Tom; Herrstedt, Jørn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; Rørth, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    was 0.16 l/min (95% CI 0.1 to 0.2, P<0.0001) and for muscular strength (leg press) was 29.7 kg (23.4 to 34.9, P<0.0001). No significant effect was seen on global health status/quality of life. Conclusion A supervised multimodal exercise intervention including high and low intensity components was feasible and could safely be used in patients with various cancers who were receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. The intervention reduced fatigue and improved vitality, aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and physical and functional activity, and emotional wellbeing, but not quality of life. Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN05322922. PMID:19826172

  14. Neurovascular saturation thresholds under high intensity auditory stimulation during wake.

    PubMed

    Schei, J L; Van Nortwick, A S; Meighan, P C; Rector, D M

    2012-12-27

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain-imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular-coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical-imaging techniques to increase intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  15. Laboratory simulation of the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in oil-contaminated high-moor peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Erkenova, M. I.; Sokolova, T. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Lysak, L. V.; Lobanenkov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    A model experiment has been performed on the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in samples of oil-contaminated peat sampled from a pine-subshrub-sphagnum bog near the Sutormin oilfield pipeline in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district. During the incubation of oil-contaminated peat with lime and mineral fertilizers under complete flooding, favorable conditions are created for the aerobic oxidation of oil products at the beginning of the experiment and, as the redox potential decreases, for the anaerobic degradation of oil products conjugated with the reduction of N5+ and S+6 and methanogenesis. From the experimental data on the dynamics of the pH; Eh; and the NO{3/-}, NO{2/-}, and SO{4/2-} concentrations in the liquid phase of the samples, it has been found that denitrifiers significantly contributed to the biodegradation of oil products under the experimental conditions. After the end of the experiment, the content of oil products in the contaminated samples decreased by 21-26%.

  16. Myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Neilan, Tomas G; Ton-Nu, Thanh-Thao; Jassal, Davinder S; Popovic, Zoran B; Douglas, Pamela S; Halpern, Elkan F; Marshall, Jane E; Thomas, James D; Picard, Michael H; Yoerger, Danita M; Wood, Malissa J

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to clarify the myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise among trained athletes. We screened 17 participants in the 2004 World Indoor Rowing Championships before and after a 2000-m sprint. Echocardiography included standard measurements and tissue Doppler-derived strain (epsilon), strain rate, and 2-dimensionally derived speckle-tracking imaging for left ventricular (LV) torsion. LV volumes and ejection fraction were unchanged after exercise. There was a reduction in early and an increase in late diastolic filling velocities and a decrease in the flow propagation velocity. Annular systolic velocities, slope of the systolic acceleration, septal and lateral epsilon, and speckle tracking-derived torsion were increased. The increased LV torsion was a result of increased basal and apical rotation. Right ventricular apical epsilon decreased. In conclusion, maximal intensity short-duration exercise was associated with attenuation of LV diastolic function, augmentation of LV systolic function, and a reduction in apical right ventricular contractility.

  17. Comparative assessment of bacterial inoculation and propionic acid treatment of aerobic stability and microbial populations of ensiled high-moisture ear corn.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Phillip, L E; Fellner, V; Idziak, E S

    1996-02-01

    High-moisture ear corn (HMEC) was untreated, treated with propionic acid (PA), or inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and allowed to ensile in laboratory silos for 0, 7, 21, 42, 138, or 202 d. The silages were evaluated for fermentation quality, microbial populations, and aerobic stability. In all treatments, silage pH declined rapidly within 7 d, but the rate of decline seemed greatest with the inoculum. The lactic acid content of inoculated HMEC was higher (P < .05) than that of control of PA-treated HMEC. Regardless of treatment, the population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased (P < .1) up to 7 to 21 d of fermentation then declined; LAB counts decreased (P < .05) up to 42 d in control and PA-treated silage but continued to decline until 138 d for inoculated silage. Yeast and mold counts tended to decrease up to 42 d of ensiling then decreased (P < .05) as fermentation progressed. Between 138 and 202 d of ensiling, the control silage showed a marked increase (P < .10) in pH and yeast and mold populations, providing evidence of secondary fermentation; PA treatment and bacterial inoculation prevented secondary fermentation. Inoculation tended to reduce estimates of sample temperature for silage stored for 138 d and exposed to air, but not for the corresponding silage stored for 202 d. Treatment with PA prevented the loss (P > .05) of acetic acid and the rise (P > .05) in pH during air exposure of the 138-d silage; both control and PA-treated silage showed an increase (P < .05) in yeast and mold populations, but the increments were 38% and 23%, respectively. Compared with PA, the relative efficacy of inoculation in improving aerobic spoilage of HMEC depended on the period of silo storage and the criterion used to assess aerobic stability.

  18. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  19. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of high-intensity, high-efficiency sirens

    SciTech Connect

    Pla, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    High-intensity, high-efficiency sound sources are needed for acoustic agglomeration of particle-laden aerosols in power plant flues and for combustion enhancement. The theory of the linear model is reviewed and shown to be in strong disagreement with experimental results. The experimental evaluation of sirens is then discussed. It is shown that high sound-pressure levels strongly effect the evaluation of the performance of high-intensity sound sources. The mechanical design of an experimental and a full-size siren is presented. Tunable inlet chambers are included to minimize the acoustic power radiated backward in the siren. The experimental results show that tunable inlets are most effective at low-pressure ratios and low frequencies. The main acoustic losses are due to the sound radiated backward into the siren chamber, the acoustic boundary-layer, the clearance between rotor and stator, and the finite-amplitude character of the acoustic wave. A theoretical study of the sound-generation mechanisms in sirens is then presented. The various sound attenuation mechanisms are reviewed and a low frequency numerical solution for the frequency response is given.

  1. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  2. A plasma generator utilizing the high intensity ASTROMAG magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, James D.; Post, R. S.; Lane, B. G.; Tarrh, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The magnet configuration for the proposed particle astrophysics magnet facility (ASTROMAG) on the space station includes a cusp magnetic field with an intensity of a few tesla. With these large magnets (or others) located in the outer ionosphere, many quite interesting and unique plasma physics experiments become possible. First there are studies utilizing the magnet alone to examine the supersonic, sub-Alfvenic interaction with the ambient medium; the scale length for the magnet perturbation is approx. 20 m. The magnetic field geometry when combined with the Earth's and their relative motion will give rise to a host of plasma phenomena: ring nulls, x-points, ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid shocks, electron heating (possible shuttle glow without a surface) launching of Alfvenwaves, etc. Second, active experiments are possible for a controlled study of fundamental plasma phenomena. A controlled variable species plasma can be made by using an RF ion source; use of two soft iron rings placed about the line cusp would give an adequate resonance zone (ECH or ICH) and a confining volume suitable for gas efficiency. The emanating plasma can be used to study free expansion of plasma along and across field lines (polar wind), plasma flows around the space platform, turbulent mixing in the wake region, long wavelength spectrum of convecting modes, plasma-dust interactions, etc.

  3. High intensity conditioning to improve flotation of gold fine particles

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, L.; Perez, C.; Rubio, J.

    1995-12-31

    This work describes the effect of the degree of energy transferred to the pulp, during the conditioning stage, on gold flotation fines recovery, grade and kinetics, with three types of frother (Dowfroth 250, pine oil and MIBC) and amyl xanthate as collector. Best results show an increase in 24% recovery and 50% in concentrate grade, depending on the intensity of conditioning and type of frother (better with Dowfroth 250). For low or intermediate energies (0.5--1.5 kWh/m3 pulp), the fine particles adhere to larger ones, increasing the recovery due to a mixture of carrier (pyrite, in this case) and autogeneous carrier flotation and at higher shear (2--3 kWh/m3 pulp), gold fine particles aggregate themselves. These phenomena are demonstrated by measurements of flotation rate, true flotation (flotation by actual particle-bubble adhesion), and by the amount of entrained particles. Alternatives for this type of pulp conditioning and mechanisms involved are discussed.

  4. Acute Physiological Responses to Short- and Long-Stage High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia M; Mueller, Alexander; Harpf, Hanns; Harpf, Leonhard; Traninger, Heimo; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pichlhoefer, Patriz; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Despite described benefits of aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), the acute responses during different HIIE modes and associated health risks have only been sparsely discovered in heart disease patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute responses for physiological parameters, cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers, and catecholamines yielded by two different aerobic HIIE protocols compared to continuous exercise (CE) in phase III cardiac rehabilitation. Eight cardiac patients (7 with coronary heart disease, 1 with myocarditis; 7 males, 1 female; age: 63.0 ± 9.4 years; height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m; weight: 83.6 ± 8.7 kg), all but one treated with ß-blocking agents, performed a maximal symptom-limited incremental exercise test (IET) and three different exercise tests matched for mean load (Pmean) and total duration: 1) short HIIE with a peak workload duration (tpeak) of 20 s and a peak workload (Ppeak) equal to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET; 2) long HIIE with a tpeak of 4 min, Ppeak was corresponding to the power output at 85 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax) from IET; 3) CE with a target workload equal to Pmean of both HIIE modes. Acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory responses were significantly higher during long HIIE compared to short HIIE and CE (p < 0.05) except HRpeak which tended to be higher in long HIIE than in short HIIE (p = 0.08). Between short HIIE and CE, no significant difference was found for any parameter. Acute responses of cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers and catecholamines didn't show any significant difference between tests (p > 0.05). All health-related variables remained in a normal range in any test except NT-proBNP, which was already elevated at baseline. Despite a high Ppeak particularly in short HIIE, both HIIE modes were as safe and as well tolerated as moderate CE in cardiac patients by using our methodological approach. Key pointsHigh-intensity interval exercise (HIIE

  5. Acute Physiological Responses to Short- and Long-Stage High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia M.; Mueller, Alexander; Harpf, Hanns; Harpf, Leonhard; Traninger, Heimo; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pichlhoefer, Patriz; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite described benefits of aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), the acute responses during different HIIE modes and associated health risks have only been sparsely discovered in heart disease patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute responses for physiological parameters, cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers, and catecholamines yielded by two different aerobic HIIE protocols compared to continuous exercise (CE) in phase III cardiac rehabilitation. Eight cardiac patients (7 with coronary heart disease, 1 with myocarditis; 7 males, 1 female; age: 63.0 ± 9.4 years; height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m; weight: 83.6 ± 8.7 kg), all but one treated with ß-blocking agents, performed a maximal symptom-limited incremental exercise test (IET) and three different exercise tests matched for mean load (Pmean) and total duration: 1) short HIIE with a peak workload duration (tpeak) of 20 s and a peak workload (Ppeak) equal to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET; 2) long HIIE with a tpeak of 4 min, Ppeak was corresponding to the power output at 85 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax) from IET; 3) CE with a target workload equal to Pmean of both HIIE modes. Acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory responses were significantly higher during long HIIE compared to short HIIE and CE (p < 0.05) except HRpeak which tended to be higher in long HIIE than in short HIIE (p = 0.08). Between short HIIE and CE, no significant difference was found for any parameter. Acute responses of cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers and catecholamines didn’t show any significant difference between tests (p > 0.05). All health-related variables remained in a normal range in any test except NT-proBNP, which was already elevated at baseline. Despite a high Ppeak particularly in short HIIE, both HIIE modes were as safe and as well tolerated as moderate CE in cardiac patients by using our methodological approach. Key points High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE

  6. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (p<0.001) and a significant increase in SV (p<0.001) at rest and during Stroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01), whereas BRS was increased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01). Forearm blood flow was significantly increased during the first two minutes of Stroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training.

  7. High-intensity intermittent training in hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled field study in youth football players.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Faiss, Raphael; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 5 weeks (∼60 minutes per training, 2 d·wk) of run-based high-intensity repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and explosive strength/agility/sprint training in either normobaric hypoxia repeated sprints in hypoxia (RSH; inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 14.3%) or repeated sprints in normoxia (RSN; FIO2 = 21.0%) on physical performance in 16 highly trained, under-18 male footballers. For both RSH (n = 8) and RSN (n = 8) groups, lower-limb explosive power, sprinting (10-40 m) times, maximal aerobic speed, repeated-sprint (10 × 30 m, 30-s rest) and repeated-agility (RA) (6 × 20 m, 30-s rest) abilities were evaluated in normoxia before and after supervised training. Lower-limb explosive power (+6.5 ± 1.9% vs. +5.0 ± 7.6% for RSH and RSN, respectively; both p < 0.001) and performance during maximal sprinting increased (from -6.6 ± 2.2% vs. -4.3 ± 2.6% at 10 m to -1.7 ± 1.7% vs. -1.3 ± 2.3% at 40 m for RSH and RSN, respectively; p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.01) to a similar extent in RSH and RSN. Both groups improved best (-3.0 ± 1.7% vs. -2.3 ± 1.8%; both p ≤ 0.05) and mean (-3.2 ± 1.7%, p < 0.01 vs. -1.9 ± 2.6%, p ≤ 0.05 for RSH and RSN, respectively) repeated-sprint times, whereas sprint decrement did not change. Significant interactions effects (p ≤ 0.05) between condition and time were found for RA ability-related parameters with very likely greater gains (p ≤ 0.05) for RSH than RSN (initial sprint: 4.4 ± 1.9% vs. 2.0 ± 1.7% and cumulated times: 4.3 ± 0.6% vs. 2.4 ± 1.7%). Maximal aerobic speed remained unchanged throughout the protocol. In youth highly trained football players, the addition of 10 repeated-sprint training sessions performed in hypoxia vs. normoxia to their regular football practice over a 5-week in-season period was more efficient at enhancing RA ability (including direction changes), whereas it had no additional effect on improvements in lower-limb explosive power, maximal sprinting, and RSA

  8. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  9. Hemodynamic responses are reduced with aerobic compared with resistance blood flow restriction exercise.

    PubMed

    May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-02-01

    The hemodynamics of light-load exercise with an applied blood-flow restriction (BFR) have not been extensively compared between light-intensity, BFR, and high-intensity forms of both resistance and aerobic exercise in the same participant population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a randomized crossover design to examine the hemodynamic responses to resistance and aerobic BFR exercise in comparison with a common high-intensity and light-intensity non-BFR exercise. On separate occasions participants completed a leg-press (resistance) or treadmill (aerobic) trial. Each trial comprised a light-intensity bout (LI) followed by a light-intensity bout with BFR (80% resting systolic blood pressure (LI+BFR)), then a high-intensity bout (HI). To characterize the hemodynamic response, measures of cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure were taken at baseline and exercise for each bout. Exercising hemodynamics for leg-press LI+BFR most often resembled those for HI and were greater than LI (e.g. for systolic blood pressure LI+BFR = 152 ± 3 mmHg; HI = 153 ± 3; LI = 143 ± 3 P < 0.05). However, exercising hemodynamics for treadmill LI+BFR most often resembled those for LI and were lower than HI (e.g. for systolic pressure LI+BFR = 124 ± 2 mmHg; LI = 123 ± 2; HI = 140 ± 3 P < 0.05). In conclusion, the hemodynamic response for light aerobic (walking) BFR exercise suggests this mode of BFR exercise may be preferential for chronic use to develop muscle size and strength, and other health benefits in certain clinical populations that are contraindicated to heavy-load resistance exercise.

  10. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Simpson, Ben M.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Schmidt, Walter F.; Gore, Christopher J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key points When playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a ‘tolerable’ relative exercise intensity. While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008). In the context of

  11. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in... reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse...

  16. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  17. JOLT: A Highly Directive, Very Intensive, Impulse-Like Radiator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    to suppress corona. In addition, multiple sheets of Mylar are installed to prevent surface flashover along the Sylgard 184 between the connections...Hz, a criterion to insure the inhibition of surface flashover in a high pressure atmosphere has been developed. The switch is composed of copper... surface flashover along the high pressure gas/insulating solid interface has been successfully demonstrated under pulse repetition rates of 600 Hz

  18. Probing the positron moderation process using high-intensity, highly polarized slow-positron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van House, J.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    A highly polarized (P = 0.48 + or - 0.02) intense (500,000/sec) beam of 'slow' (Delta E = about 2 eV) positrons (e+) is generated, and it is shown that it is possible to achieve polarization as high as P = 0.69 + or - 0.04 with reduced intensity. The measured polarization of the slow e+ emitted by five different positron moderators showed no dependence on the moderator atomic number (Z). It is concluded that only source positrons with final kinetic energy below 17 keV contribute to the slow-e+ beam, in disagreement with recent yield functions derived from low-energy measurements. Measurements of polarization and yield with absorbers of different Z between the source and moderator show the effects of the energy and angular distributions of the source positrons on P. The depolarization of fast e+ transmitted through high-Z absorbers has been measured. Applications of polarized slow-e+ beams are discussed.

  19. High-time resolution and size-segregated elemental composition in high-intensity pyrotechnic exposures.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Chiari, Massimo; Calzolai, Giulia

    2012-11-30

    Typical of festivals in Eastern Spain, mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events where thousands of firecrackers are burnt in an intense, rapid episode that generates short-lived heavy aerosol clouds. High temporal resolution and size distribution characterisation of aerosol components were performed to evaluate the effects of the brief (<30 min) and acute exposure on the spectators present. Very high concentrations of firework specific elements, especially in the fine fraction, were reached during mascletàs, with values of about 500 μg/m(3) for K and 300 μg/m(3) for Cl. Sr, Al, Mg, Ba, Cu, Co, Zn, and Pb concentration increase factors of more than 100 (1000 for Sr and Ba) were observed in the fine fraction with respect to background levels. Crustal origin elements, like Ca, Fe, Si, Ti, also showed an important concentration rise (~10 times above background levels) but this is due to dust resuspension by pyrotechnic explosions. The crustal components are mainly in the coarse mode (>90% elemental mass), between 2 and 3 μm. Most firework related metals are concentrated in the submicrometric region (>80%) with a trimodal size distribution. This may be interesting to epidemiologists given the toxic effects that such fine, metal-rich particles can have on human health.

  20. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  1. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  2. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  3. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

  4. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Taylor, Alexandra S.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment. Purpose To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT. Methods Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15–60 seconds, >90% HRmax) interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1). MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30–45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1). VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention. Results Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT) and 128±44 min (MICT) (p<0.05), with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05). HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05). HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05). No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables. Conclusions HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity. PMID:26402859

  5. High versus Moderate Intensity Running Exercise to Impact Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled RUSH-Study

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Scharf, Michael; Lell, Michael; Petrasek, Carina; von Stengel, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise positively impacts cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases; however, the most effective exercise training strategies have yet to be identified. To determine the effect of high intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness we conducted a 16-week crossover RCT with partial blinding. Eighty-one healthy untrained middle-aged males were randomly assigned to two study arms: (1) a HI(I)T-group and (2) a sedentary control/MICE-group that started their MICE protocol after their control status. HI(I)T focused on interval training (90 sec to 12 min >85–97.5% HRmax) intermitted by active recovery (1–3 min at 65–70% HRmax), while MICE consisted of continuous running at 65–75% HRmax. Both exercise groups progressively performed 2–4 running sessions/week of 35 to 90 min/session; however, protocols were adjusted to attain similar total work (i.e., isocaloric conditions). With respect to cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness both exercise groups demonstrated similar significant positive effects on MetS-Z-Score (HI(I)T: −2.06 ± 1.31, P = .001 versus MICE: −1.60 ± 1.77, P = .001) and (relative) VO2max (HI(I)T: 15.6 ± 9.3%, P = .001 versus MICE: 10.6 ± 9.6%, P = .001) compared with the sedentary control group. In conclusion, both exercise programs were comparably effective for improving cardiometabolic indices and cardiorespiratory fitness in untrained middle-aged males. PMID:24738073

  6. Device for providing high-intensity ion or electron beam

    DOEpatents

    McClanahan, Edwin D.; Moss, Ronald W.

    1977-01-01

    A thin film of a low-thermionic-work-function material is maintained on the cathode of a device for producing a high-current, low-pressure gas discharge by means of sputter deposition from an auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode includes a surface with a low-work-function material, such as thorium, uranium, plutonium or one of the rare earth elements, facing the cathode but at a disposition and electrical potential so as to extract ions from the gas discharge and sputter the low-work-function material onto the cathode. By continuously replenishing the cathode film, high thermionic emissions and ion plasmas can be realized and maintained over extended operating periods.

  7. High-intensive femtosecond singular pulses in Kerr dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Oleg; Smirnova, Tatyana; Fedotova, Olga; Rusetsky, Grigory; Romanov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a high-power femtosecond singular pulse in Kerr media are analyzed numerically upon optically induced ionization. We examine the plasma inertia impact to stable propagation of optical vortices. Multifoci behavior of vortices in medium are revealed. Next we numerically demonstrate that inertial character of plasma formation provides a quasi-soliton regime of vortex propagation resistant to symmetry-breaking perturbation.

  8. Cathode Plasma Formation in High Intensity Electron Beam Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Oliver, Bryan; Bennett, Nichelle; Droemer, Darryl; Bernshtam, V.; Doron, R.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2013-10-01

    This talk will detail the experimental results and conclusions obtained for cathode plasma formation on the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (4-7.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories. The SMP diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce high power (TW), focused electron beams (<3 mm diameter) which are used for flash x-ray radiography applications. Optical diagnostics include high speed (<10 ns) framing cameras, optical streak cameras, and spectroscopy. The cathode plasma in this high electric (MV/cm) and magnetic (>10 Tesla) field environment forms well-defined striations. These striations have been examined for a number of different cathode sizes, vacuum gap spacings, and diode voltages. Optical streak images have been taken to determine the time evolution of the plasma, and optical spectroscopy has been employed to determine its constituents as well as their densities and temperatures inferred from detailed time-dependent, collisional-radiative (CR) and radiation transport modelings. Comments will be made as to the overall effect of the cathode plasma in regards to the diode impedance and electron beam focusing. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-07-25

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of 'Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions'(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  10. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  11. Medical Isotope Production using High Intensity Accelerator Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki

    We proposed aprototype facility for the generation of radioisotopes with accelerator neutrons by deuterons. The neutrons are producedbynatC(d,n) with 40MeV 2 mA deuteron beams, and about 8.1 TBq/week of 99Mois produced by irradiating an enriched 100Mo sample with the neutrons.High-quality 99mTc can be separatedfrom an irradiated 100MoO3 sample by thermo-chromatographic separation.In this contribution we present the system to produce medical radioisotopes, such as 99Mo, 90Y, and 67Cu, and experimental studies on 99Mo and 67Cu produced by using accelerator neutrons.

  12. Intense high-quality medical proton beams via laser fields.

    PubMed

    Galow, Benjamin J; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H

    2010-12-06

    Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laser-plasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing single and crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first scheme allowing for this important application based on an all-optical set-up.

  13. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2016-08-12

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p < .001). This study found negative back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  14. High Energy X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T; Clark, E; Eagleton, R; Edwards, R

    2003-09-02

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy at 22 keV is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  15. Constant Light Output Ballasting For High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkin, Adrian

    1988-02-01

    Since the commercial introduction some twenty years ago of HMI* (Hydragyrum-mercury, Medium, Iodide) type lamps, as a source intended primarily for floodlighting applications, their attraction as a cinematographic light source has been apparent due to their largely desirable characteristics. Use in this field has been restricted due to the absolute requirement for an alternating current supply - with a sine wave supply frame rates are limited to a sub-multiple of the supply frequency with the supply frequency phase locked to the camera frame rate. This has effectively barred metal halide HID lighting from use in high speed photography. The general characteristics of metal halide HID lamps are presented alongside a sample of other light sources. An electronic ballast which has been proven to 12000 Watts in the motion picture industry is then described which overcomes the limitations of the conventional magnetic ballast - the square wave output of the electronic ballast theoretically allows the use of any camera frame rate/shutter angle combination. Finally the suitability of luminaires for high speed photography is discussed.

  16. A Highly Active System for the Metal-Free Aerobic Photocyanation of Tertiary Amines with Visible Light: Application to the Synthesis of Tetraponerines and Crispine A.

    PubMed

    Orejarena Pacheco, Julio Cesar; Lipp, Alexander; Nauth, Alexander M; Acke, Fabian; Dietz, Jule-Philipp; Opatz, Till

    2016-04-04

    A highly efficient metal-free catalytic system for the aerobic photocyanation of tertiary amines with visible light is reported. The use of air as terminal oxidant offers an improved safety profile compared with pure oxygen, the used compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light sources are highly economical, and no halogenated solvents are required. This system not only proves to be effective for a wide variety of trialkylamines, pharmaceuticals, and alkaloids but remarkably also allows the lowest catalyst loading (0.00001 mol% or 0.1 ppm) ever reported for an organic dye. Bruylants reactions and C-alkylation/decyanations were performed on the obtained α-aminonitriles to demonstrate the postfunctionalization of complex molecules. The catalytic system is furthermore applied in the short and effective syntheses of the alkaloids (±)-crispine A and the tetraponerines T7 and T8.

  17. Effects of organic loading rates on reactor performance and microbial community changes during thermophilic aerobic digestion process of high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Won; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2 kg COD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3 kg COD/m(3)d) and the highest thermo-stable protease activity (0.95 unit/mL) were detected at OLR=18.6 kg COD/m(3)d. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed significant microbial community shifts in response to changes in OLR. In particular, DGGE and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that the presence of Bacillus sp. (phylum of Firmicutes) was strongly correlated with efficient removal of organic particulates from high-strength food wastewater.

  18. Tools and techniques for estimating high intensity RF effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, Richard L.; Pennock, Steve T.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Ray, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    Tools and techniques for estimating and measuring coupling and component disturbance for avionics and electronic controls are described. A finite-difference-time-domain (FD-TD) modeling code, TSAR, used to predict coupling is described. This code can quickly generate a mesh model to represent the test object. Some recent applications as well as the advantages and limitations of using such a code are described. Facilities and techniques for making low-power coupling measurements and for making direct injection test measurements of device disturbance are also described. Some scaling laws for coupling and device effects are presented. A method for extrapolating these low-power test results to high-power full-system effects are presented.

  19. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  20. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

  1. Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2008-01-23

    The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

  2. Improvement of high-voltage staircase drive circuit waveform for high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Jimbo, Hayato; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, noninvasive or low-invasive modality, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), has been put into practice as an alternative to open surgery. HIFU induces thermal ablation of the target tissue to be treated. To improve the efficiency of HIFU, we have proposed a “triggered-HIFU” technique, which uses the combination of a short-duration, high-voltage transmission and a long-duration, medium-voltage transmission. In this method, the transmission device must endure high peak voltage for the former and the high time-average power for the latter. The triggered-HIFU sequence requires electronic scanning of the HIFU focus to maximize its thermal efficiency. Therefore, the transmission device must drive an array transducer with the number of elements on the order of a hundred or more, which requires that each part of the device that drives each element must be compact. The purpose of this work is to propose and construct such a transmission device by improving the staircase drive circuit, which we previously proposed. The main point of improvement is that both N and P MOSFETs are provided for each staircase voltage level instead of only one of them. Compared with the previous ultrasonic transmission circuit, high-voltage spikes were significantly reduced, the power consumption was decreased by 26.7%, and the transmission circuit temperature rise was decreased by 14.5 °C in the triggered-HIFU heating mode.

  3. Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    the cloud size. I. INTRODUCTION High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), along with the associated cavitation , is used in a variety of fields. The...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012- May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused...in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line

  4. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  17. A 3 Ghz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, R.; Braun, H.; Dehler, M.

    1995-12-31

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) for new accelerator structures of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is to be equipped with a new RF gun containing a laser driven photocathode. The new 3 GHz gun with photocathode shall produce a bunch train of 48 electron bunches of 25 nC charge each with a bunch length of 8 - 15 ps fwhm. The new RF gun consists of 2{1/2} cells and accelerates the beam to an energy of 7 MeV with a peak field gradient Ez = 100 MV/m. The strong space charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches must be contained by radial and longitudinal RF focusing in the RF gun. Radial RF focusing is applied by a conical backplane around the photocathode in the first cell where the electrons have a low energy. Longitudinal RF focusing is obtained by varying the length of each of the three cells of the gun. The total electric charge of the bunch train exceeds 1{mu}C and causes strong beam loading to the RF structures so that the stored energy is reduced to half of the unloaded RF energy. The RF gun under construction is being optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating RF structure of 4 cells and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 2{1/2} cell gun. The scheme with two accelerating RF sections will provide a linear energy increase along the bunch suitable for further compression of the bunch length in a magnetic chicane.

  18. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  19. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  20. Economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic MBR-based (AnMBR-based) technology as compared to aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies.

  1. Can high-intensity exercise be more pleasant?: attentional dissociation using music and video.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leighton; Karageorghis, Costas I; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

    2014-10-01

    Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p < .001), state attention (p < .05), and exercise enjoyment (p < .001). The music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.

  2. High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Di Mascio, Michele; Peart, Dan; Olsen, Peter; Sheldon, Bill

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. Elite domestic (n = 100) and international (n = 10) soccer players were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. No differences were found for high-intensity running distance (2,520 +/- 678 vs. 2,745 +/- 332 m), mean recovery time (67 +/- 15 vs. 71 +/- 26 seconds), or maximal running speed (7.76 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.66 +/- 0.34 mxs-1). The distance covered in high-intensity running irrespective of playing level was 18% lower (p < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15-minute period of the game (391 +/- 117 vs. 478 +/- 141 m). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-minute period was similar between international (222 +/- 33 vs. 109 +/- 37 m or 51% decline) and elite domestic (243 +/- 81 vs. 114 +/- 51 m or 53% decline) players. Wide midfielders, central midfielders, fullbacks, and attackers covered a greater (p < 0.01) distance in high-intensity running than central defenders (3,243 +/- 625, 2,949 +/- 435, 2,806 +/- 408, 2,618 +/- 745 vs. 2,034 +/- 284 m). Results demonstrate that high-intensity running is reduced during various periods of elite soccer matches, and high-intensity activity profiles and fatigue patterns are similar between international and elite domestic players but vary markedly between playing positions. These data provide valuable information to the fitness coach regarding the high-intensity active profile of elite soccer players that could be used to develop soccer-specific training drills.

  3. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  4. Effects of High Protein and Balanced Diets on Lipid Profiles and Inflammation Biomarkers in Obese and Overweight Women at Aerobic Clubs: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Pegah; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: We studied the effects of high protein (HP) and balanced diets (BDs) on lipid profiles, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese and overweight women. Methods: In a parallel designed randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 healthy women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, aged 20–46 years, enrolled in an 8-week investigation at aerobic clubs. They were categorized into two groups (HP and BDs), randomly. Fasting lipid profile and hs-CRP levels were evaluated at the beginning and end of the trial. We assessed dietary intake by 3-day records and also used SPSS (version 18; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for data analyzing. Results: Fifty-six participants completed the intervention. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.023 in HP group) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.002 in HP group) increased significantly in both groups. Circulating triglycerides levels increased in both intervention grows, but the change in the H