Science.gov

Sample records for aerobic process large

  1. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  2. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  3. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  4. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  5. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  6. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  7. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  8. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuba, V.; Pospíšil, M.; Múčka, V.; Jeníček, P.; Dohányos, M.; Zábranská, J.

    2003-01-01

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters.

  9. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  10. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  11. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. Design A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Patients Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 22). Methods Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60–70% heart rate reserve). Results The attendance rate was high (median 89%). None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT) most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group. Conclusion Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371 PMID:27419388

  12. Large forging manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  13. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  14. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  15. Maximal Aerobic and Anaerobic Power Generation in Large Crocodiles versus Mammals: Implications for Dinosaur Gigantothermy

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic. PMID:23861968

  16. Stabilization of waste-activated sludge through the anoxic-aerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, S.; Fujita, M.; Terai, K.

    1982-08-01

    During the aerobic digestion process, the nitrogen which had been embedded in the activated sludge is solubilized to form ammoniacal and nitric nitrogen which are in turn transferred to the liquor and cause the increase of nitrogen loading in the sewage treatment plant. In this study, the anoxic-aerobic sludge digestion system which is a modified form of the conventional aerobic sludge digestion is made up of aerobic and anoxic tanks and are designed to remove both the volatile suspended solids and the total nitrogen (TN) simultaneously. The removal efficiencies of both VSS and TN were investigated by feeding waste-activated sludge continuously and semicontinuously. The maximum percent reduction of both VSS and TN was achieved at a Q /SUB r/ /Q /SUB s/ ratio of 2 in the continuous process. The semicontinuous process was used to improve the nitrogen removal efficiency further. In the semicontinuous process, the VSS reduction efficiency as well as the nitrogen removal efficiency increased remarkably under a constant Q /SUB r/ /Q /SUB s/ ratio of 2. This process also achieved a VSS reduction efficiency higher than the aerobic digestion process (control). It was suggested that the additional anoxic tank enhanced the sludge digestion. Furthermore, the anoxic-aerobic digestion system can be applied to other treatment media like the primary sludge, industrial sludge, animal manure, etc.

  17. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal.

  18. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal. PMID:27155411

  19. Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production.

    PubMed

    Dumas, C; Perez, S; Paul, E; Lefebvre, X

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of hyper-thermophilic (65 degrees Celsius) aerobic process coupled with a mesophilic (35 degrees Celsius) digester was evaluated for the activated sludge degradation and was compared to a conventional mesophilic digester. For two Sludge Retention Time (SRT), 21 and 42 days, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilisation and biodegradation processes, the methanisation yield and the aerobic oxidation were investigated during 180 days. The best results were obtained at SRT of 44 days; the COD removal yield was 30% higher with the Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion/Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (MAD-TAR) co-treatment. An increase of the sludge intrinsic biodegradability is also observed (20-40%), showing that the unbiodegradable COD in mesophilic conditions becomes bioavailable. However, the methanisation yield was quite similar for both processes at a same SRT. Finally, such a process enables to divide by two the volume of digester with an equivalent efficiency.

  20. The Association between Aerobic Fitness and Language Processing in Children: Implications for Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Scudder, Mark R.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Raine, Lauren B.; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children’s aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. PMID:24747513

  1. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  2. Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Genia; Stoeckel, Marina; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2013-09-01

    Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production. Minimally processed foods and products with extended shelf life, such as milk products, are at special risk for contamination and subsequent product damages, but information about origin and food quality related properties of highly heat-resistant spore-formers is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity, heat resistance, and food quality and safety affecting characteristics of aerobic spore-formers in the dairy sector. Thus, a comprehensive panel of strains (n=467), which originated from dairy processing environments, raw materials and processed foods, was compiled. The set included isolates associated with recent food spoilage cases and product damages as well as isolates not linked to product spoilage. Identification of the isolates by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular methods revealed a large biodiversity of spore-formers, especially among the spoilage associated isolates. These could be assigned to 43 species, representing 11 genera, with Bacillus cereus s.l. and Bacillus licheniformis being predominant. A screening for isolates forming thermoresistant spores (TRS, surviving 100°C, 20 min) showed that about one third of the tested spore-formers was heat-resistant, with Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus being the prevalent species. Strains producing highly thermoresistant spores (HTRS, surviving 125°C, 30 min) were found among mesophilic as well as among thermophilic species. B. subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were dominating the group of mesophilic HTRS, while Bacillus smithii and Geobacillus pallidus were dominating the group of thermophilic HTRS. Analysis of spoilage-related enzymes of the TRS isolates showed that mesophilic strains, belonging to the B. subtilis and B. cereus

  3. Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Genia; Stoeckel, Marina; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2013-09-01

    Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production. Minimally processed foods and products with extended shelf life, such as milk products, are at special risk for contamination and subsequent product damages, but information about origin and food quality related properties of highly heat-resistant spore-formers is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity, heat resistance, and food quality and safety affecting characteristics of aerobic spore-formers in the dairy sector. Thus, a comprehensive panel of strains (n=467), which originated from dairy processing environments, raw materials and processed foods, was compiled. The set included isolates associated with recent food spoilage cases and product damages as well as isolates not linked to product spoilage. Identification of the isolates by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular methods revealed a large biodiversity of spore-formers, especially among the spoilage associated isolates. These could be assigned to 43 species, representing 11 genera, with Bacillus cereus s.l. and Bacillus licheniformis being predominant. A screening for isolates forming thermoresistant spores (TRS, surviving 100°C, 20 min) showed that about one third of the tested spore-formers was heat-resistant, with Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus being the prevalent species. Strains producing highly thermoresistant spores (HTRS, surviving 125°C, 30 min) were found among mesophilic as well as among thermophilic species. B. subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were dominating the group of mesophilic HTRS, while Bacillus smithii and Geobacillus pallidus were dominating the group of thermophilic HTRS. Analysis of spoilage-related enzymes of the TRS isolates showed that mesophilic strains, belonging to the B. subtilis and B. cereus

  4. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned.

  5. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  6. Microbiology of the frankfurter process: salmonella and natural aerobic flora.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, S A; Huhtanen, C N; Smith, J L

    1974-04-01

    Salmonella senftenberg 775W added to frankfurter emulsion was killed during normal processing in the smoke house when internal product temperature was 71.1 C (160 F) or above. The thermal destruction point of S. senftenberg 775W in frankfurters (temperature at which no viable cells were detected) was a function of the length of time of the process rather than of the starting number of cells. Heating of frankfurters to 73.9 C (165 F) substantially reduced the total non-salmonella count. For total non-salmonella bacterial flora and salmonella, relatively little thermal destruction occurred below 43.3 C (110 F). The heating step can bring about a 7-log cycle decrease (10(8) to 10(1)/g) of bacteria present in the raw emulsion. The flora of this high-bacteriological-count raw emulsion was predominantly gram-negative rods. Variation in the number of bacteria (both total and salmonella) surviving at various temperatures during processing was attributed to slight variations in the temperature pattern of the smoke house during its operation. An integration process was devised which allowed calculation of exposure to temperatures above 110 F (43.3 C) on the basis of degree-minutes. Plots of degree-minutes versus log of surviving bacteria were linear. The salmonella plot had a greater slope than that of the total non-salmonella flora, indicating that salmonellae are more heat sensitive than the bacterial population as a whole. The predominant bacteria surviving the heating step were micrococci. These micrococci were able to increase in number in or on the frankfurters during storage at 5 C. PMID:4596752

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of N2-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. 15N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N2 fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N2 were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (<1 to ⩾0.1 mm) may only arise in low-oxygenated waters (⩽25 μM). We propose that the net effect of aggregates on nitrogen loss is negligible in NO3−-depleted, fully oxygenated (surface) waters. In NO3−-enriched (>1.5 μM), O2-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes. PMID:25575306

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-06-01

    Colonies of N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. (15)N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N(2) fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N(2) were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (<1 to ⩾0.1 mm) may only arise in low-oxygenated waters (⩽25 μM). We propose that the net effect of aggregates on nitrogen loss is negligible in NO(3)(-)-depleted, fully oxygenated (surface) waters. In NO(3)(-)-enriched (>1.5 μM), O(2)-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes.

  9. Systematic investigation and microbial community profile of indole degradation processes in two aerobic activated sludge systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiao; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xuwang; Liu, Ziyan; Li, Huijie; Zhang, Zhaojing; Wang, Jingwei; Shen, Wenli; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-01-01

    Indole is widely spread in various environmental matrices. Indole degradation by bacteria has been reported previously, whereas its degradation processes driven by aerobic microbial community were as-yet unexplored. Herein, eight sequencing batch bioreactors fed with municipal and coking activated sludges were constructed for aerobic treatment of indole. The whole operation processes contained three stages, i.e. stage I, glucose and indole as carbon sources; stage II, indole as carbon source; and stage III, indole as carbon and nitrogen source. Indole could be completely removed in both systems. Illumina sequencing revealed that alpha diversity was reduced after indole treatment and microbial communities were significantly distinct among the three stages. At genus level, Azorcus and Thauera were dominant species in stage I in both systems, while Alcaligenes, Comamonas and Pseudomonas were the core genera in stage II and III in municipal sludge system, Alcaligenes and Burkholderia in coking sludge system. In addition, four strains belonged to genera Comamonas, Burkholderia and Xenophilus were isolated using indole as sole carbon source. Burkholderia sp. IDO3 could remove 100 mg/L indole completely within 14 h, the highest degradation rate to date. These findings provide novel information and enrich our understanding of indole aerobic degradation processes. PMID:26657581

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of bovine ciliary process: effects of metabolic and transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, S C; Yorio, T

    1987-01-01

    In the present study we have measured the oxygen consumption and lactic acid production, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the bovine ciliary process epithelium (CPE) in the presence and absence of transport modifiers. Basal oxygen consumption was 8-15 microliters O2 consumed/mg protein/hr and decreased by 35% when sodium was removed or ouabain was added to the media. Anaerobic metabolism as measured by lactate production was also attenuated by sodium-free or ouabain treatment. When O2 consumption was severely limited by cyanide, lactic acid production increased significantly ("Pasteur effect"), whereas 2-deoxyglucose reduced lactate formation. Both chloride-free and acetazolamide treated CPE increased their dependency on aerobic glycolysis, and this response was also observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting the presence of an anion transport mechanism. A net lactate production was also found to occur across the aqueous epithelium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results are consistent with the presence of a bicarbonate-sensitive anion transport system located in the ciliary process epithelium.

  11. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  12. Extracellular polymeric substances for Zn (II) binding during its sorption process onto aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Mengting; Wang, Xiaodong; Han, Fei; Li, Lusheng; Guo, Jie; Ai, Lijie; Fang, Lulu; Liu, Ling; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Zn (II) during the sorption process of Zn (II) onto aerobic granular sludge. Batch results showed that the adsorption rate of Zn (II) onto aerobic granular sludge was better fitted with pseudo-second order kinetics model, and the adsorption isotherm data agreed well with Freundlich equation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) for Zn (II) binding during sorption process was investigated by using a combination of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM), synchronous fluorescence spectra, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results implied that the main composes of EPS, including polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN), decreased from 5.92±0.13 and 23.55±0.76 mg/g SS to 4.11±0.09 and 9.55±0.68 mg/g SS after the addition of different doses of Zn (II). 3D-EEM showed that the intensities of PN-like substances and humic-like substances were obviously decreased during the sorption process. According to synchronous fluorescence spectra, the quenching mechanism between PN-like substances and Zn (II) was mainly caused by a static quenching process. Additionally, 2D-COS indicated that PN-like substances were more susceptible to Zn (II) binding than humic-like substances. It was also found that the main functional groups for complexation of Zn (II) and EPS were OH groups, N-H groups and C=O stretching vibration. The findings of this study are significant to reveal the fate of heavy metal during its sorption process onto aerobic granular sludge through EPS binding, and provide useful information on the interaction between EPS and heavy metal.

  13. [Modeling and dynamic simulation of the multimode anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic wastewater treatment process].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Wu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Du, Xing-Zhi; Jiang, Ling-Yan; Xing, Can

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for professional education, process development, design evaluation, operational optimization and automatic control of the wastewater treatment system, and has been extensively applied in numerous full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The ASM2d model was calibrated by the process data, and used to simulate 15 operational test runs of the multimode anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AAO) process. After calibration, the model was capable of simulating the sludge concentrations and effluent data in 15 test runs of the multimode AAO system. The dynamic simulation results showed an overall good agreement between the measured and simulated data, for both effluent data and sludge concentrations, with a good reproduction of dynamic processes in AO test runs. PMID:23798127

  14. Climatic thresholds for pedogenic iron oxides under aerobic conditions: Processes and their significance in paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxides are widely distributed across the surface of the Earth as a result of the aerobic weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals. Pedogenic iron oxides which consist mainly of hematite (Hm), goethite (Gt), maghemite (Mgh), are often concentrated synchronously in aerobic soils under low to moderate rainfall regimes. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) and redness, which respectively reflect the content of Mgh and Hm in soils, are considered reasonable pedogenic and climatic indicators in soil taxonomy and paleorainfall reconstruction. However, under high rainfall regimes, the grain growth of Mgh and transformation to Hm, combined with the prior formation of Gt under conditions of high relative humidity (RH), can result in magnetic reduction and dramatic yellowing of soils and sediments, which explains the existence of rainfall thresholds for Mgh and Hm at a large scale even before the pedogenic environment turns anaerobic. In order to capture the rainfall thresholds for Mgh and Hm occurring under aerobic conditions, we explored a tropical transect across a granitic region where the soil color turned from red to yellow under a wide rainfall range of 900-2200 mm/yr and a corresponding mean annual RH range of 77%-85%. We observed a lower rainfall threshold of ∼1500 mm/yr and a corresponding RH ∼80% for Mgh and Hm along this transect, as well as a higher rainfall threshold of ∼1700 mm/yr and a corresponding RH of ∼81% for Gt and total pedogenic iron oxides (citrate/bicarbonate/dithionite-extractable Fe, Fed). Cross-referencing with comparable studies in temperate and subtropical regions, we noted that the rainfall or RH thresholds for Fed and Hm or Mgh likewise increase with temperature. Moreover, the different thresholds for total and individual iron oxide phase indicates that a negative correlation between chemical weathering intensity and redness or χ in sediment sequences can occur under the prevalent climate regime just between their thresholds. Finally

  15. Characteristics of Biological Nitrogen Removal in a Multiple Anoxic and Aerobic Biological Nutrient Removal Process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Li, Li; Wu, Guangxue

    2015-01-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors, one with the conventional anoxic and aerobic (AO) process and the other with the multiple AO process, were operated to examine characteristics of biological nitrogen removal, especially of the multiple AO process. The long-term operation showed that the total nitrogen removal percentage of the multiple AO reactor was 38.7% higher than that of the AO reactor. In the multiple AO reactor, at the initial SBR cycle stage, due to the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, no nitrite and/or nitrate were accumulated. In the multiple AO reactor, activities of nitrite oxidizing bacteria were inhibited due to the multiple AO operating mode applied, resulting in the partial nitrification. Denitrifiers in the multiple AO reactor mainly utilized internal organic carbon for denitrification, and their activities were lower than those of denitrifiers in the AO reactor utilizing external organic carbon. PMID:26491676

  16. Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing. PMID:20948933

  17. Evaluation of the removal of indicator bacteria from domestic sludge processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD).

    PubMed

    Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J

    2010-09-01

    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing.

  18. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  19. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  20. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E.; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  1. Evolution of heavy metal speciation during the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Li, Yaqiong; Zheng, Liting

    2007-03-01

    The contents of heavy metals and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system were the major limitation to the application of sewage sludge compost in soil. This study was conducted to determine the evolution of heavy metal speciation in the course of an aerobic composting, and investigate the influence of changes of composting process parameters including pH, temperature and organic matter (OM) content on distribution of heavy metal speciation in composted sludge. The sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier et al. was used in sludge compost to determine the heavy metal speciation. Results showed that, during composting, (1) the contents of the residue fraction for Pb, Zn and Cd were decreased but those for Ni and Cr were increased; the Cu residue fraction was almost constant; (2) the contents of the total mobile fractions (including fractions 1-4) for Zn and Pb were significantly increased, but the increase of those for Cu and Ni were not so remarkable; (3) there were significant degrees of correlation between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected parameters (for example, pH, composting temperature, and OM content). Only the content of the total mobile fractions for Cu could be predictable from its total content. For the prediction of the total mobile fractions of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr, the R(2) value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as pH, temperature and OM content.

  2. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  3. Evaluation of performance in a combined UASB and aerobic contact oxidation process treating acrylic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Anfeng; Dong, Na; He, Manni; Pan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The lab-scale and full-scale performance of a combined mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and aerobic contact oxidation (ACO) process for treating acrylic wastewater was studied. During lab-scale experiment, the overwhelmed volumetric load for UASB was above 6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) ·(m(-3)·d(-1)) since COD removal efficiency dropped dramatically from 73% at 6 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) to 61% at 7 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) and 53% at 8 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)). Further results showed that an up-flow fluid velocity of 0.5 m h(-1) for UASB obtained a highest COD removal efficiency of 75%, and the optimum COD volumetric load for the corresponding ACO was 1.00 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)). Based on the configuration of the lab-scale experiment, a full-scale application with an acrylic wastewater treatment capacity of 8 m3 h(-1) was constructed and operated at a volumetric load of 5.5 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)), an up-flow fluid velocity of 0.5 m h(-1) for UASB and a volumetric load of 0.9 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) for ACO; and the final effluent COD was around 740 mg L(-1). The results suggest that a combined UASB-ACO process is promising for treating acrylic wastewater. PMID:25204720

  4. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  5. Optimization of hydraulic shear parameters and reactor configuration in the aerobic granular sludge process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Jiaheng; Yu, Haitian; Xu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic shear acts as an important selection pressure in aerobic sludge granulation. The effects of the hydraulic shear rate and reactor configuration on structural characteristics of aerobic granule in view of the hydromechanics. The hydraulic shear analysis was proposed to overcome the limitation of using superficial gas velocity (SGV) to express the hydraulic shear stress. Results showed that the stronger hydraulic shear stress with SGV above 2.4 cm s(-1) promoted the microbial aggregation, and favoured the structural stability of the granular sludge. According to the hydraulic shear analysis, the total shear rate reached (0.56-2.31)×10(5) s(-1) in the granular reactor with a larger ratio of height to diameter (H/D), and was higher than that in the reactor with smaller H/D, where the sequencing airlift bioreactor with smaller H/D had a high total shear rate under the same SGV. Results demonstrated that the granular reactor could provide a stronger hydraulic shear stress which promotes the formation and structural stability of aerobic granules.

  6. [Effect of pilot UASB-SFSBR-MAP process for the large scale swine wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Chong-Jun; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a treatment process consisted of UASB, step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) and magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation reactor (MAP) was built to treat the large scale swine wastewater, which aimed at overcoming drawbacks of conventional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process and SBR treatment process, such as the low denitrification efficiency, high operating costs and high nutrient losses and so on. Based on the treatment process, a pilot engineering was constructed. It was concluded from the experiment results that the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N and TP reached 95.1%, 92.7% and 88.8%, the recovery rate of NH4(+) -N and TP by MAP process reached 23.9% and 83.8%, the effluent quality was superior to the discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (GB 18596-2001), mass concentration of COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, TP and SS were not higher than 135, 116, 43, 7.3 and 50 mg x L(-1) respectively. The process developed was reliable, kept self-balance of carbon source and alkalinity, reached high nutrient recovery efficiency. And the operating cost was equal to that of the traditional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. So the treatment process could provide a high value of application and dissemination and be fit for the treatment pf the large scale swine wastewater in China.

  7. Large scale processes in the solar nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, A. P.

    Most proposed chondrule formation mechanisms involve processes occurring inside the solar nebula, so the large scale (roughly 1 to 10 AU) structure of the nebula is of general interest for any chrondrule-forming mechanism. Chondrules and Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) might also have been formed as a direct result of the large scale structure of the nebula, such as passage of material through high temperature regions. While recent nebula models do predict the existence of relatively hot regions, the maximum temperatures in the inner planet region may not be high enough to account for chondrule or CAI thermal processing, unless the disk mass is considerably greater than the minimum mass necessary to restore the planets to solar composition. Furthermore, it does not seem to be possible to achieve both rapid heating and rapid cooling of grain assemblages in such a large scale furnace. However, if the accretion flow onto the nebula surface is clumpy, as suggested by observations of variability in young stars, then clump-disk impacts might be energetic enough to launch shock waves which could propagate through the nebula to the midplane, thermally processing any grain aggregates they encounter, and leaving behind a trail of chondrules.

  8. Seasonal and wastewater stream variation of trace organic compounds in a dairy processing plant aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Michael W; Wild, Karl; Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-09-01

    Bioreactors are often an integral part of dairy factory efforts to reduce the biological oxygen demand of their wastewater. In this study, infeed, mixed liquor and supernatant samples of an aerobic bioreactor used by a dairy factory in South-Eastern Australia were analyzed for nutrients and organic compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and physicochemical analyses. Despite different concentrations of organic inputs into the bioreactor, nutrients and trace organic compounds were reduced significantly (i.e. average concentration of trace organic compounds: infeed=1681 μg/L; mixed liquor=257 μg/L; supernatant=23 μg/L). However, during one sampling period the bioreactor was adversely affected by the organic loading. Trace organic compounds in the samples were predominantly fatty acids associated with animal products. The analyses suggest that it is possible to trace a disruptive input (i.e. infeed with high organic carbon concentrations) into an aerobic bioreactor by measuring concentrations of fatty acids or ammonia. PMID:21704516

  9. Oxidation-reduction processes in ice swimmers after ice-cold water bath and aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2015-06-01

    The effect of an ice-cold water (ICW) bath as a recovery intervention from aerobic exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers was determined. Twenty ice swimmers aged 31.2 ± 6.3 years performed a 30-min cycloergometer exercise test at room temperature (20°C, RT), followed by recovery at RT or in a pool of ice-cold water (ICW bath, 3°C, 5 min). Blood for laboratory assays was collected from the basilic vein two times: before the exercise (baseline) and 40 min after the RT or ICW recovery. The concentrations of plasma and erythrocytic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (plTBARS and erTBARS, respectively), serum concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde, along with the erythrocytic activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the serum level of total antioxidant capacity, were assessed. No statistically significant changes were observed. However, a statistically significant negative linear correlation between the erTBARS concentration and the SOD activity was found 40 min after the combination of exercise/RT recovery (r=-0.571, P<0.01). The baseline CAT and SOD activities were also linearly correlated (r=0.469, P<0.05). Both the 5-min ICW bath and the 30-min aerobic exercise have practically no impact on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers.

  10. Aerobic degradation of BDE-209 by Enterococcus casseliflavus: Isolation, identification and cell changes during degradation process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaoyu; Yin, Hua; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is one of the most commonly used brominated flame retardants that have contaminated the environment worldwide. Microbial bioremediation has been considered as an effective technique to remove these sorts of persistent organic pollutants. Enterococcus casseliflavus, a gram-positive bacterium capable of aerobically transforming BDE-209, was isolated by our team from sediments in Guiyu, an e-waste dismantling area in Guangdong Province, China. To promote microbial bioremediation of BDE-209 and elucidate the mechanism behind its aerobic degradation, the effects of BDE-209 on the cell changes of E. casseliflavus were examined in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that the high cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of E. casseliflavus made the bacteria absorb hydrophobic BDE-209 more easily. E. casseliflavus responded to BDE-209 stress, resulting in an increase in cell membrane permeability and accumulation of BDE-209 inside the cell. The differential expression of intracellular protein was analyzed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 50 differentially expressed protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 25 up, and 25 down regulated after a 4 days exposure. Moreover, the apoptotic-like cell changes were observed during E. casseliflavus mediated degradation of BDE-209 by means of flow cytometry. PMID:26852209

  11. Oxidation-reduction processes in ice swimmers after ice-cold water bath and aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2015-06-01

    The effect of an ice-cold water (ICW) bath as a recovery intervention from aerobic exercise on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers was determined. Twenty ice swimmers aged 31.2 ± 6.3 years performed a 30-min cycloergometer exercise test at room temperature (20°C, RT), followed by recovery at RT or in a pool of ice-cold water (ICW bath, 3°C, 5 min). Blood for laboratory assays was collected from the basilic vein two times: before the exercise (baseline) and 40 min after the RT or ICW recovery. The concentrations of plasma and erythrocytic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (plTBARS and erTBARS, respectively), serum concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde, along with the erythrocytic activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the serum level of total antioxidant capacity, were assessed. No statistically significant changes were observed. However, a statistically significant negative linear correlation between the erTBARS concentration and the SOD activity was found 40 min after the combination of exercise/RT recovery (r=-0.571, P<0.01). The baseline CAT and SOD activities were also linearly correlated (r=0.469, P<0.05). Both the 5-min ICW bath and the 30-min aerobic exercise have practically no impact on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy ice swimmers. PMID:25910677

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Cortés, G; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2012-03-01

    The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 ± 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 °C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox(®) and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity.

  13. Improving phosphorus removal in aerobic granular sludge processes through selective microbial management.

    PubMed

    Henriet, Olivier; Meunier, Christophe; Henry, Paul; Mahillon, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to improve phosphorus removal in aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactors (AGS-SBR) by a differential selection of the granules containing the highest proportion of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). The abundance of PAOs in granules with different density was analyzed by PCR-DGGE, pyrosequencing and qPCR. Dense granules contained a higher proportion of Candidatus Accumulibacter (PAO) with a 16S rRNA gene frequency up to 45%. Starting with an AGS-SBR with low height/diameter ratio performing unstable P removal, two strategies of biomass removal were assessed. First, a high selective pressure (short settling time) was applied and second, an increase of the settling time was combined with a homogeneous purge of the sludge bed. The first strategy resulted in a reduction of P removal efficiency while the second improved and stabilized P removal over 90%. This study offers a new approach of biomass management in AGS-SBR. PMID:27023385

  14. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  15. Combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of synthetic slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    The biological treatment of a synthetic slaughterhouse wastewater (SSWW) is studied using an anaerobic baffled bioreactor (ABR) and an aerobic activated sludge (AS) at a laboratory scale in continuous mode. The total organic carbon (TOC) loading rate, the total nitrogen (TN) loading rate, and the flow rate are 0.03-1.01 g/(L.day), 0.01-0.19 g/(L.day), and 2.93-11.70 mL/min, respectively. The results reveal that combined anaerobic-aerobic processes had higher efficiency to treat SSWW than a single process. Up to 96.36% TOC, 80.53% TN, and 99.38% 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) removal from an influent concentration of 1,009 mgTOC/L, 420 mgTN/L, and 640 mgCBOD5/L at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6.24 days and a flow rate of 3.75 mL/min are achieved. The UV/H2O2 process is studied to treat a secondary effluent of SSWW with TOC loadings of 65-350 mg/L. Up to 75.22% TOC and 84.38% CBOD5 removal are obtained at the HRT of 3 h with H2O2 concentration of 900 mg/L. Optimum molar ratios of 13.87 mgH2O2/mgTOCin and 4.62 mgH2O2/mgTOCin.h are also obtained. Combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes enhanced the biodegradability of the TOC, TN, and CBOD5 present in the SSWW. Up to 99.98% TOC, 82.84% TN, and 99.69% CBOD5 overall removals are obtained for an influent concentration of 1,005 mgTOC/L, 200 mgTN/L, and 640 mgCBOD5/L at the HRT of 4 days and a flow-rate of 5.90 mL/min.

  16. Reduced expression of cytochrome oxidases largely explains cAMP inhibition of aerobic growth in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Meng, Qiu; Fu, Huihui; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial growth under aerobic conditions by elevated levels of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), first revealed more than 50 years ago, was attributed to accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal (MG). Here, we report a Crp-dependent mechanism rather than MG accumulation that accounts for the phenotype in Shewanella oneidensis, an emerging research model for the bacterial physiology. We show that a similar phenotype can be obtained by removing CpdA, a cAMP phosphodiesterase that appears more effective than its Escherichia coli counterpart. Although production of heme c and cytochromes c is correlated well with cAMP levels, neither is sufficient for the retarded growth. Quantities of overall cytochromes c increased substantially in the presence of elevated cAMP, a phenomenon resembling cells respiring on non-oxygen electron acceptors. In contrast, transcription of Crp-dependent genes encoding both cytochromes bd and cbb3 oxidases is substantially repressed under the same condition. Overall, our results suggest that cAMP of elevated levels drives cells into a low-energetic status, under which aerobic respiration is inhibited. PMID:27076065

  17. Reduced expression of cytochrome oxidases largely explains cAMP inhibition of aerobic growth in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianhua; Meng, Qiu; Fu, Huihui; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial growth under aerobic conditions by elevated levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), first revealed more than 50 years ago, was attributed to accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal (MG). Here, we report a Crp-dependent mechanism rather than MG accumulation that accounts for the phenotype in Shewanella oneidensis, an emerging research model for the bacterial physiology. We show that a similar phenotype can be obtained by removing CpdA, a cAMP phosphodiesterase that appears more effective than its Escherichia coli counterpart. Although production of heme c and cytochromes c is correlated well with cAMP levels, neither is sufficient for the retarded growth. Quantities of overall cytochromes c increased substantially in the presence of elevated cAMP, a phenomenon resembling cells respiring on non-oxygen electron acceptors. In contrast, transcription of Crp-dependent genes encoding both cytochromes bd and cbb3 oxidases is substantially repressed under the same condition. Overall, our results suggest that cAMP of elevated levels drives cells into a low-energetic status, under which aerobic respiration is inhibited. PMID:27076065

  18. Isolation and Identification of Aerobic Bacteria Carrying Tetracycline and Sulfonamide Resistance Genes Obtained from a Meat Processing Plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Ye, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Meng, Hecheng

    2016-06-01

    Microbial contamination in food-processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate aerobic bacteria carrying tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes from a meat processing plant as possible sources of meat contamination. One hundred swab samples from surfaces of conveyor belts, meat slicers, meat knives, benches, plastic trays, gloves, and aprons were analyzed. A total of 168 isolates belonging to 10 genera were obtained, including Pseudomonas sp. (n = 35), Acinetobacter sp. (n = 30), Aeromonas sp. (n = 20), Myroides sp. (n = 15), Serratia sp. (n = 15), Staphylococcus sp. (n = 14), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia coli (n = 10), Lactococcus sp. (n = 10), and Klebsiella sp. (n = 8). Of the 168 isolates investigated, 60.7% showed resistance to tetracycline and 57.7% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The tetracycline resistance genes tetL, tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetM, tetS, tetK, and tetX were found in the frequency of 7.7%, 6.0%, 4.8%, 4.8%, 3.6%, 3.6%, 3.6%, 1.2%, and 0.6%, respectively. Sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 were observed in the frequency of 17.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The tetracycline resistance genes tetX was first found in Myroides sp. This investigation demonstrated that food contact surfaces in a meat processing plant may be sources of contamination of aerobic bacteria carrying tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:27100915

  19. Fates of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in aerobic biological treatment processes: the effects of aeration and sludge addition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Wen-Ben; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Jun-Chen; Zhao, Qing-Liang

    2014-05-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an environmental issue of increasing concern. As biological treatment has been considered as one important approach for VOC removal, lab-scale batch experiments were conducted in this study to investigate the fates of four chlorinated hydrocarbons, including chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC), in the biological treatment processes with respect to the effects of aeration and sludge addition. The VOC concentrations in the phases of air, water, and sludge under four simulated treatment stages (the first sedimentation, the forepart and rear part of aerobic biological treatment, and the second sedimentation) were analyzed. The results were used to understand the three-phase partitioning of these compounds and to estimate their potentials for volatilization and biological sorption and degradation in these technologies with the concept of fugacity. It was observed that the VOCs were mainly present in the water phase through the experiments. The effects of aeration or sludge addition on the fates of these VOCs occurred but appeared to be relatively limited. The concentration distributions of the VOCs were well below the reported partitioning coefficients. It was suggested that these compounds were unsaturated in the air and sludge phases, enhancing their potentials for volatilization and biological sorption/degradation through the processes. However, the properties of these chlorinated VOCs such as the volatility, polarity, or even biodegradability caused by their structural characteristics (e.g., the number of chlorine, saturated or unsaturated) may represent more significant factors for their fates in the aerobic biological treatment processes. These findings prove the complication behind the current knowledge of VOC pollutions in WWTPs and are of help to manage the adverse impacts on the environment and public

  20. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  1. Photorefractive processing for large adaptive phased arrays.

    PubMed

    Weverka, R T; Wagner, K; Sarto, A

    1996-03-10

    An adaptive null-steering phased-array optical processor that utilizes a photorefractive crystal to time integrate the adaptive weights and null out correlated jammers is described. This is a beam-steering processor in which the temporal waveform of the desired signal is known but the look direction is not. The processor computes the angle(s) of arrival of the desired signal and steers the array to look in that direction while rotating the nulls of the antenna pattern toward any narrow-band jammers that may be present. We have experimentally demonstrated a simplified version of this adaptive phased-array-radar processor that nulls out the narrow-band jammers by using feedback-correlation detection. In this processor it is assumed that we know a priori only that the signal is broadband and the jammers are narrow band. These are examples of a class of optical processors that use the angular selectivity of volume holograms to form the nulls and look directions in an adaptive phased-array-radar pattern and thereby to harness the computational abilities of three-dimensional parallelism in the volume of photorefractive crystals. The development of this processing in volume holographic system has led to a new algorithm for phased-array-radar processing that uses fewer tapped-delay lines than does the classic time-domain beam former. The optical implementation of the new algorithm has the further advantage of utilization of a single photorefractive crystal to implement as many as a million adaptive weights, allowing the radar system to scale to large size with no increase in processing hardware.

  2. Small (13)C/(12)C fractionation contrasts with large enantiomer fractionation in aerobic biodegradation of phenoxy acids.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shiran; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Weyrauch, Philip; Lopez, Eva C Magana; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Elsner, Martin

    2014-05-20

    Phenoxy acid herbicides are important groundwater contaminants. Stable isotope analysis and enantiomer analysis are well-recognized approaches for assessing in situ biodegradation in the field. In an aerobic degradation survey with six phenoxyacetic acid and three phenoxypropionic acid-degrading bacteria we measured (a) enantiomer-specific carbon isotope fractionation of MCPP ((R,S)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid), DCPP ((R,S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid), and 4-CPP ((R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid); (b) compound-specific isotope fractionation of MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid); and (c) enantiomer fractionation of MCPP, DCPP, and 4-CPP. Insignificant or very slight (ε = -1.3‰ to -2.0‰) carbon isotope fractionation was observed. Equally small values in an RdpA enzyme assay (εea = -1.0 ± 0.1‰) and even smaller fractionation in whole cell experiments of the host organism Sphingobium herbicidovorans MH (εwc = -0.3 ± 0.1‰) suggest that (i) enzyme-associated isotope effects were already small, yet (ii) further masked by active transport through the cell membrane. In contrast, enantiomer fractionation in MCPP, DCPP, and 4-CPP was pronounced, with enantioselectivities (ES) of -0.65 to -0.98 with Sphingomonas sp. PM2, -0.63 to -0.89 with Sphingobium herbicidovorans MH, and 0.74 to 0.97 with Delftia acidovorans MC1. To detect aerobic biodegradation of phenoxypropionic acids in the field, enantiomer fractionation seems, therefore, a stronger indicator than carbon isotope fractionation.

  3. [Effect of different volume loading of aerobic/anaerobic zone on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biofilm and granular sludge coupling process].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang; Liu, Chang; Gao, Hui; Gao, Da-Wen

    2014-05-01

    The effect of different aerobic/anaerobic zone volume loading on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biological film and granular coupling process was investigated using a self-designed Biofilm/Granular sludge coupling reactor. Three operating modes were conducted in the experiment. In operating mode I ,the volume of aerobic zone was 9. 66 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 15. 34 L. In operating mode II , the volume of aerobic zone was 12. 56 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 12. 44 L. In operating mode III , the volume of aerobic zone was 15.42 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 9.58 L. Three operating modes expressed different volume loading of the reactor because of different aerobic/anaerobic zone. The results showed that the performance of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus removal was a bit poor in operating mode I , the effluent nitrate nitrogen was higher in operating mode III compared with other modes, which brought the total nitrogen removal efficiency lower. The operating mode II was optimal for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In operating mode II , the ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency was about 80. 63% , the volume loading rate of nitrogen removal was about 150. 27 g(m3 d)-1, and the COD removal efficiency was higher than 83.24%; the amounts of phosphorus release and uptake under anaerobic conditions were 7. 23 mg L-1 and 11. 93 mg L-1.

  4. Effects of stabilization and sludge properties in a combined process of anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiehong; Kong, Feng; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A novel process of combining mesophilic (<35°C) anaerobic digestion with the thermophilic (55°C) aerobic digestion process (AN-TAD) was designed to stabilize sludge and economize aeration energy. Effects of stabilization and sludge properties for AN-TAD process were evaluated by batch experiments during a 25 d digestion period. The sludges digested by AN-TAD process achieved the requirements for Class-A sludge standard. The sludge at total solid (TS) 5.4% had the highest value of decay coefficient K(d(55)) at 0.1851 d(-1) among the three TS contents according to the first-order kinetics equation. Oxidation reduction potential at below 0 mV remained for sludges at TSs of 6.5%, 5.4%, and 4.6% for at least 15 d because of initial hydrolytic-acidification. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in sludges at TSs of 6.5%, 5.4%, and 4.6% gradually increased up to the highest values in the supernatant during the initial 13 d, causing low utilized value in land application as a fertilizer. Prolonging the retention time for more than 15 d was considered because soluble phosphorus precipitated in the solid phase. High content of soluble organic matters of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide in the supernatant caused deterioration in sludge dewaterability rates. PMID:25950189

  5. Efficient induction of formate hydrogen lyase of aerobically grown Escherichia coli in a three-step biohydrogen production process.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihito; Nishimura, Taku; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2007-03-01

    A three-step biohydrogen production process characterized by efficient anaerobic induction of the formate hydrogen lyase (FHL) of aerobically grown Escherichia coli was established. Using E. coli strain SR13 (fhlA (++), DeltahycA) at a cell density of 8.2 g/l medium in this process, a specific hydrogen productivity (28.0 +/- 5.0 mmol h(-1) g(-1) dry cell) of one order of magnitude lower than we previously reported was realized after 8 h of anaerobic incubation. The reduced productivity was attributed partly to the inhibitory effects of accumulated metabolites on FHL induction. To avoid this inhibition, strain SR14 (SR13 DeltaldhA DeltafrdBC) was constructed and used to the effect that specific hydrogen productivity increased 1.3-fold to 37.4 +/- 6.9 mmol h(-1) g(-1). Furthermore, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 144.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) was realized when a metabolite excretion system that achieved a dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1) was implemented. These results demonstrate that by avoiding anaerobic cultivation altogether, more economical harvesting of hydrogen-producing cells for use in our biohydrogen process was made possible.

  6. Carotenoid charge transfer states and their role in energy transfer processes in LH1-RC complexes from aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs.

    PubMed

    Šlouf, Václav; Fuciman, Marcel; Dulebo, Alexander; Kaftan, David; Koblížek, Michal; Frank, Harry A; Polívka, Tomáš

    2013-09-26

    Light-harvesting complexes ensure necessary flow of excitation energy into photosynthetic reaction centers. In the present work, transient absorption measurements were performed on LH1-RC complexes isolated from two aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs), Roseobacter sp. COL2P containing the carotenoid spheroidenone, and Erythrobacter sp. NAP1 which contains the carotenoids zeaxanthin and bacteriorubixanthinal. We show that the spectroscopic data from the LH1-RC complex of Roseobacter sp. COL2P are very similar to those previously reported for Rhodobacter sphaeroides, including the transient absorption spectrum originating from the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state of spheroidenone. Although the ICT state is also populated in LH1-RC complexes of Erythrobacter sp. NAP1, its appearance is probably related to the polarity of the bacteriorubixanthinal environment rather than to the specific configuration of the carotenoid, which we hypothesize is responsible for populating the ICT state of spheroidenone in LH1-RC of Roseobacter sp. COL2P. The population of the ICT state enables efficient S1/ICT-to-bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) energy transfer which would otherwise be largely inhibited for spheroidenone and bacteriorubixanthinal due to their low energy S1 states. In addition, the triplet states of these carotenoids appear well-tuned for efficient quenching of singlet oxygen or BChl-a triplets, which is of vital importance for oxygen-dependent organisms such as AAPs. PMID:23130956

  7. Effect of sludge age on methanogenic and glycogen accumulating organisms in an aerobic granular sludge process fed with methanol and acetate.

    PubMed

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-09-01

    The influence of sludge age on granular sludge formation and microbial population dynamics in a methanol- and acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge system operated at 35°C was investigated. During anaerobic feeding of the reactor, methanol was initially converted to methane by methylotrophic methanogens. These methanogens were able to withstand the relatively long aeration periods. Lowering the anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) from 17 to 8 days enabled selective removal of the methanogens and prevented unwanted methane formation. In absence of methanogens, methanol was converted aerobically, while granule formation remained stable. At high SRT values (51 days), γ-Proteobacteria were responsible for acetate removal through anaerobic uptake and subsequent aerobic growth on storage polymers formed [so called metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO)]. When lowering the SRT (24 days), Defluviicoccus-related organisms (cluster II) belonging to the α-Proteobacteria outcompeted acetate consuming γ-Proteobacteria at 35°C. DNA from the Defluviicoccus-related organisms in cluster II was not extracted by the standard DNA extraction method but with liquid nitrogen, which showed to be more effective. Remarkably, the two GAO types of organisms grew separately in two clearly different types of granules. This work further highlights the potential of aerobic granular sludge systems to effectively influence the microbial communities through sludge age control in order to optimize the wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26059251

  8. Effects of oxidation reduction potential in the bypass micro-aerobic sludge zone on sludge reduction for a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexun; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongpin; Liu, Dongfang

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on sludge reduction in a bypass micro-aerobic sludge reduction system. The system was composed of a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process with a sludge holding tank in the sludge recycle loop. The ORPs in the micro-aerobic tanks were set at approximately +350, -90, -150, -200 and -250 mV, by varying the length of aeration time for the tanks. The results show that lower ORP result in greater sludge volume reduction, and the sludge production was reduced by 60% at the lowest ORP. In addition, low ORP caused extracellular polymer substances dissociation and slightly reduced sludge activity. Comparing the sludge backflow characteristics of the micro-aerobic tank's ORP controlled at -250 mV with that of +350 mV, the average soluble chemical oxygen (SCOD), TN and TP increased by 7, 0.4 and 2 times, median particle diameter decreased by 8.5 μm and the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased by 0.0043 milligram O2 per gram suspended solids per minute. For the effluent, SCOD and TN and TP fluctuated around 30, 8.7 and 0.66 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the effective assignment of ORP in the micro-aerobic tank can remarkably reduce sludge volume and does not affect final effluent quality.

  9. Effect of sludge age on methanogenic and glycogen accumulating organisms in an aerobic granular sludge process fed with methanol and acetate

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sludge age on granular sludge formation and microbial population dynamics in a methanol- and acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge system operated at 35°C was investigated. During anaerobic feeding of the reactor, methanol was initially converted to methane by methylotrophic methanogens. These methanogens were able to withstand the relatively long aeration periods. Lowering the anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) from 17 to 8 days enabled selective removal of the methanogens and prevented unwanted methane formation. In absence of methanogens, methanol was converted aerobically, while granule formation remained stable. At high SRT values (51 days), γ-Proteobacteria were responsible for acetate removal through anaerobic uptake and subsequent aerobic growth on storage polymers formed [so called metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO)]. When lowering the SRT (24 days), Defluviicoccus-related organisms (cluster II) belonging to the α-Proteobacteria outcompeted acetate consuming γ-Proteobacteria at 35°C. DNA from the Defluviicoccus-related organisms in cluster II was not extracted by the standard DNA extraction method but with liquid nitrogen, which showed to be more effective. Remarkably, the two GAO types of organisms grew separately in two clearly different types of granules. This work further highlights the potential of aerobic granular sludge systems to effectively influence the microbial communities through sludge age control in order to optimize the wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26059251

  10. Alkaline and acid hydrolytic processes in aerobic and anaerobic sludges: effect on total EPS and fractions.

    PubMed

    Cassini, S T; Andrade, M C E; Abreu, T A; Keller, R; Gonçalves, R F

    2006-01-01

    Sludge samples from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and four submerged aerated biofilters (BFs) of a wastewater treatment plant (1,000 inhab.) were processed at bench scale by alkaline and acid hydrolysis with the objective to evaluate the organic matter solubilization, volatile solids (VS) destruction and the effect of hydrolytic processes on the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) fraction of the sludge samples. The results showed that alkaline hydrolysis of sludge samples treatment with 1.0% total solids (TS) using NaOH 20 meq L(-1) was more efficient on organic matter solubilization and VS destruction than acid hydrolysis. The EPS sludge content was also affected by the alkaline treatment of anaerobic sludge samples. The EPS concentrations (mg EPS/gVSS) on the anaerobic sludge after the alkaline treatment were significantly lowered according to sample height in the UASB reactor. Data indicated that the EPS sludge fraction is the main component affected by the alkaline hydrolytic process of anaerobic sludge samples. PMID:16784189

  11. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor κ B signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NFκB) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days × 2500–4500 mg) treatment with the NFκB inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = −0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NFκB signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of

  12. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  13. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  14. Effect of process design and operating parameters on aerobic methane oxidation in municipal WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; Van Eynde, Tamara; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and its emission from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should be prevented. One way to do this is to promote the biological conversion of dissolved methane over stripping in aeration tanks. In this study, the well-established Activated Sludge Model n°1 (ASM1) and Benchmark Simulation Model n°1 (BSM1) were extended to study the influence of process design and operating parameters on biological methane oxidation. The aeration function used in BSM 1 was upgraded to more accurately describe gas-liquid transfer of oxygen and methane in aeration tanks equipped with subsurface aeration. Dissolved methane could be effectively removed in an aeration tank at an aeration rate that is in agreement with optimal effluent quality. Subsurface bubble aeration proved to be better than surface aeration, while a CSTR configuration was superior to plug flow conditions in avoiding methane emissions. The conversion of methane in the activated sludge tank benefits from higher methane concentrations in the WWTP's influent. Finally, if an activated sludge tank is aerated with methane containing off-gas, a limited amount of methane is absorbed and converted in the mixed liquor. This knowledge helps to stimulate the methane oxidizing capacity of activated sludge in order to abate methane emissions from wastewater treatment to the atmosphere. PMID:25225767

  15. Effect of process design and operating parameters on aerobic methane oxidation in municipal WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; Van Eynde, Tamara; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and its emission from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should be prevented. One way to do this is to promote the biological conversion of dissolved methane over stripping in aeration tanks. In this study, the well-established Activated Sludge Model n°1 (ASM1) and Benchmark Simulation Model n°1 (BSM1) were extended to study the influence of process design and operating parameters on biological methane oxidation. The aeration function used in BSM 1 was upgraded to more accurately describe gas-liquid transfer of oxygen and methane in aeration tanks equipped with subsurface aeration. Dissolved methane could be effectively removed in an aeration tank at an aeration rate that is in agreement with optimal effluent quality. Subsurface bubble aeration proved to be better than surface aeration, while a CSTR configuration was superior to plug flow conditions in avoiding methane emissions. The conversion of methane in the activated sludge tank benefits from higher methane concentrations in the WWTP's influent. Finally, if an activated sludge tank is aerated with methane containing off-gas, a limited amount of methane is absorbed and converted in the mixed liquor. This knowledge helps to stimulate the methane oxidizing capacity of activated sludge in order to abate methane emissions from wastewater treatment to the atmosphere.

  16. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOEpatents

    Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

    1996-01-16

    A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

  17. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOEpatents

    Hasoon, Falah S.; Nelson, Art J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 .mu.m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10.sup.-6 torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 .mu.m.

  18. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of a petrochemical wastewater from two aromatic transformation processes by fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B; Ramirez-Camperos, Esperanza; Moeller-Chavez, Gabriela E; García-Sanchez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been employed as the treatment for petrochemical industry wastewaters with high organic matter and aromatic compounds, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The system was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2.7 and 2.2 h in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor, respectively. The degree of fluidization in the beds was 30%. This system showed a high performance on the removal of organic matter and aromatic compounds. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the anaerobic reactor was close to 85% and removals of the COD up to 94% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. High removals of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene were achieved in this study. PMID:23109595

  19. The effectiveness of flocculants on inorganic and metallic species removal during aerobic digestion of wastewater from poultry processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Large amount of water is used for processing of our food supplies, especially in meat processing plants. The resulting amount of wastewater cannot be discarded freely back into natural settings due to regulatory mandates, whether the sinks would be rivers, ponds, or other natural systems. These wa...

  20. The effectiveness of flocculants on inorganic and metallic species removal during aerobic digestion of wastewater from poultry processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amount of water is used for processing of our food supplies, especially in meat processing plants. The resulting amount of wastewater cannot be discarded freely back into natural settings due to regulatory mandates, whether the sinks would be rivers, ponds, or other natural systems. These wast...

  1. Separation of swine wastewater into different concentration fractions and its contribution to combined anaerobic-aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Deng, Liangwei; Zheng, Dan; Wang, Lan; Liu, Yi

    2016-03-01

    There are two problems associated with treatment of swine wastewater, low efficiency of anaerobic digestion during winter and poor performance for aerobic treatment of digested effluent. A strategy employing unbalanced distributions of the pollutant mass and wastewater volumes in anaerobic and aerobic units was proposed. To accomplish this, swine wastewater was separated into high content liquid (HCL) and low content liquid (LCL). Three separation ratios of HCL to LCL (v/v), 1:9 (S1), 2:8 (S2), and 3:7 (S3), were evaluated. Anaerobically digestion of the HCL accounted for only 10%, 20% and 30% of the total volume of raw wastewater, but produced 63.38%, 73.79% and 76.61% of the total methane output for S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The mixed liquid of digested effluents of HCL and LCL were treated aerobically using sequencing batch reactors. S2 generated the best performance, with removal efficiencies of 96.98% for COD, 98.95% for NH3-N, 91.69% for TN and 74.71% for TP. The results obtained for S1 were not as good as those for S2, but were better than those for S3. Based on methane output from the anaerobic unit and pollutants removal in the aerobic unit, S2 was the most suitable system for the treatment of swine wastewater. Additionally, the anaerobic digestion efficiency of S2 was 282% higher than that of previous techniques employing balanced distribution. Taken together, these findings indicate that unbalanced distribution could improve the efficiency of the anaerobic unit remarkably, while ensuring good performance of the aerobic unit.

  2. Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, R.J.; Hebner, G.A.; Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.

    1999-07-28

    There has been considerable interest in developing dry processes which can effectively replace wet processing in the manufacture of large area photovoltaic devices. Environmental and health issues are a driver for this activity because wet processes generally increase worker exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals and generate large volumes of liquid hazardous waste. Our work has been directed toward improving the performance of screen-printed solar cells while using plasma processing to reduce hazardous chemical usage.

  3. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

    2011-11-15

    The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  4. Hydrogen sulphide removal in the anaerobic digestion of sludge by micro-aerobic processes: pilot plant experience.

    PubMed

    Fdz-Polanco, M; Díaz, I; Pérez, S I; Lopes, A C; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    H(2)S removal from biogas produced in anaerobic digestion of sludge through the introduction of oxygen under micro-aerobic conditions is studied. Research was carried out in two pilot plant reactors (working volume, 200 L each) treating sludge from WWTP with HRT of 20 days. Mixing was provided via sludge or biogas recirculation. Introduction of very low oxygen flow (0.013-0.024 L/L(reactor) d) successfully removed H(2)S content in biogas with an efficiency above 99%. Reactor performance during micro-aerobic operation in terms of biogas production, methane yield and COD removal were not affected by the amount of oxygen supplied, remaining stable and similar to the anaerobic behaviour. Sludge recirculation ( approximately 50 L/h) and biogas recirculation ( approximately 3.5 L/min) as mixing methods were found not significant in H(2)S removal from biogas while biogas recirculation reduced by 10 times dissolved sulphide concentration compared to sludge recirculation.

  5. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  6. Effects of dissolved oxygen on performance and microbial community structure in a micro-aerobic hydrolysis sludge in situ reduction process.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tianhao; Zhou, Zhen; Shen, Xuelian; Qiao, Weimin; Jiang, Lu-Man; Pan, Wei; Zhou, Jijun

    2016-03-01

    A sludge process reduction activated sludge (SPRAS), with a sludge process reduction module composed of a micro-aerobic tank and a settler positioned before conventional activated sludge process, showed good performance of pollutant removal and sludge reduction. Two SPRAS systems were operated to investigate effects of micro-aeration on sludge reduction performance and microbial community structure. When dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the micro-aerobic tank decreased from 2.5 (SPH) to 0.5 (SPL) mg/L, the sludge reduction efficiency increased from 42.9% to 68.3%. Compared to SPH, activated sludge in SPL showed higher contents of extracellular polymeric substances and dissolved organic matter. Destabilization of floc structure in the settler, and cell lysis in the sludge process reduction module were two major reasons for sludge reduction. Illumina-MiSeq sequencing showed that microbial diversity decreased under high DO concentration. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi were the most abundant phyla in the SPRAS. Specific comparisons down to the class and genus level showed that fermentative, predatory and slow-growing bacteria in SPL community were more abundant than in SPH. The results revealed that micro-aeration in the SPRAS improved hydrolysis efficiency and enriched fermentative and predatory bacteria responsible for sludge reduction. PMID:26766160

  7. Enhanced removal of contaminant using the biological film, anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic and electro-coagulation process applied to high-load sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Chen, Shaohua; Bao, Keqian; Gao, Jingqing; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore a new treatment process applying to decentralized domestic sewage treatment, and enhance removal of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), a novel system integrating anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic (reversed A2O) and electro-coagulation (EC) process was studied, and complex biological media (CMB) was used as suspended carrier for biofilm development. In this work, TN, TP and COD removal performance were investigated with consideration of three major factors, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR) and sludge recycle ratio (SRR). Results showed that (1) The optimum HRT was between 8 and 12 h. The removal efficiencies of TN, TP and COD were about 68%, 95% and 95%, respectively. (2) With the increase of OLR, the removal efficiency of TN increased slowly. But it increased first and then declined for COD and TP removal. Their maximum were attained when OLR was 1.8 g(COD)/(L d), and they were 96% and 93%, respectively. (3) The optimum SRR was 75%. The COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies were about 95%, 72% and 98%, respectively. In this system, the maximum TN and COD removal were achieved in anoxic tank, but it was achieved in aerobic tank for TP removal. The EC bed enhanced the effluent quality, especially the efficiency in advanced P removal. From these results, it was concluded that the new process could be a reliable option for providing excellent effluent quality. PMID:24645465

  8. Enhanced removal of contaminant using the biological film, anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic and electro-coagulation process applied to high-load sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Chen, Shaohua; Bao, Keqian; Gao, Jingqing; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore a new treatment process applying to decentralized domestic sewage treatment, and enhance removal of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), a novel system integrating anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic (reversed A2O) and electro-coagulation (EC) process was studied, and complex biological media (CMB) was used as suspended carrier for biofilm development. In this work, TN, TP and COD removal performance were investigated with consideration of three major factors, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR) and sludge recycle ratio (SRR). Results showed that (1) The optimum HRT was between 8 and 12 h. The removal efficiencies of TN, TP and COD were about 68%, 95% and 95%, respectively. (2) With the increase of OLR, the removal efficiency of TN increased slowly. But it increased first and then declined for COD and TP removal. Their maximum were attained when OLR was 1.8 g(COD)/(L d), and they were 96% and 93%, respectively. (3) The optimum SRR was 75%. The COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies were about 95%, 72% and 98%, respectively. In this system, the maximum TN and COD removal were achieved in anoxic tank, but it was achieved in aerobic tank for TP removal. The EC bed enhanced the effluent quality, especially the efficiency in advanced P removal. From these results, it was concluded that the new process could be a reliable option for providing excellent effluent quality.

  9. Process for fabrication of large titanium diboride ceramic bodies

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Bomar, E. S.; Becher, Paul F.

    1989-01-01

    A process for manufacturing large, fully dense, high purity TiB.sub.2 articles by pressing powders with a sintering aid at relatively low temperatures to reduce grain growth. The process requires stringent temperature and pressure applications in the hot-pressing step to ensure maximum removal of sintering aid and to avoid damage to the fabricated article or the die.

  10. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide pertinent and readily usable information on the extraterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of components and elements of these planned large space systems from preprocessed lunar materials which are made available at a processing and manufacturing site in space. Required facilities, equipment, machinery, energy and manpower are defined.

  11. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC) Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao; He, Wenjie; Wei, Li; Li, Chunying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC) wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A) and aerobic biofilm (Sample O), 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB) Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN) on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process. PMID:26461260

  12. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC) Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao; He, Wenjie; Wei, Li; Li, Chunying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC) wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A) and aerobic biofilm (Sample O), 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB) Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN) on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process.

  13. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC) Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chao; He, Wenjie; Wei, Li; Li, Chunying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC) wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A) and aerobic biofilm (Sample O), 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB) Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN) on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process. PMID:26461260

  14. Characterization of organic particulates present in milk factory process waters used for reuse along with aerobically digested effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Wild, Karl; Heaven, Michael W; McGee, Rachel; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater from a dairy processor is being reused and recycled both within the plant and for irrigation. Flash pyrolysis GC-MS was used to examine nitrogen and phenol containing compounds (M.W.=35 to 450 g/mol) in the particulate fraction of the milk condensate, combined clean wastewater and aerobic bioreactor effluent. For comparison, the particulates were also prepared for standard GC-MS analyses using conventional solvent extraction methods. Compounds detected by pyrolysis GC-MS were found mostly in the bioreactor with the amino acid arginine (220 mg/kg) and the amino acid derivative 1-methyl-5-oxo-L-proline methyl ester (130 mg/kg) found at the highest concentrations. In comparison, sterols detected in the effluent were found at higher concentrations when using solvent extraction indicating some degradation with pyrolysis GC-MS. However, with few exceptions, particulates were generally found not to act as passive collectors capable of concentrating less water soluble chemicals.

  15. Effects of organic loading rates on reactor performance and microbial community changes during thermophilic aerobic digestion process of high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Won; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2 kg COD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3 kg COD/m(3)d) and the highest thermo-stable protease activity (0.95 unit/mL) were detected at OLR=18.6 kg COD/m(3)d. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed significant microbial community shifts in response to changes in OLR. In particular, DGGE and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that the presence of Bacillus sp. (phylum of Firmicutes) was strongly correlated with efficient removal of organic particulates from high-strength food wastewater.

  16. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  17. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  18. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  19. Characterization of organic particulates present in milk factory process waters used for reuse along with aerobically digested effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Wild, Karl; Heaven, Michael W; McGee, Rachel; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater from a dairy processor is being reused and recycled both within the plant and for irrigation. Flash pyrolysis GC-MS was used to examine nitrogen and phenol containing compounds (M.W.=35 to 450 g/mol) in the particulate fraction of the milk condensate, combined clean wastewater and aerobic bioreactor effluent. For comparison, the particulates were also prepared for standard GC-MS analyses using conventional solvent extraction methods. Compounds detected by pyrolysis GC-MS were found mostly in the bioreactor with the amino acid arginine (220 mg/kg) and the amino acid derivative 1-methyl-5-oxo-L-proline methyl ester (130 mg/kg) found at the highest concentrations. In comparison, sterols detected in the effluent were found at higher concentrations when using solvent extraction indicating some degradation with pyrolysis GC-MS. However, with few exceptions, particulates were generally found not to act as passive collectors capable of concentrating less water soluble chemicals. PMID:20826082

  20. [Process Optimization of Aerobic Granular Sludge Continuous-Flow System for the Treatment of Low COD/N Ratio Sewage].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Zhu, Liao-dong; Xie, Si-jian; Wu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The mature aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was inoculated in a continuous-flow joint constructor reactor to treat low chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio sewage. The effects of aeration intensity and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the denitrification and phosphorus removal efficiencies and the granular sludge stabilization were investigated. When the aeration intensity was 300 mL x min(-1) (superficial air upflow velocity of 1.2 cm x s(-1)) and the HRT was 7.5 h, the average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP were 76.34%, 51.23% and 53.70%, respectively. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was only about 2 000 mg x L(-1), the sludge volume index ( SVI) was below 50 mL x g(-1), and the AGS exhibited complete forms and good settling performances. Additionally, the low COD/N ratios sewage could promote the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS, and the PN proteins in EPS played a pivotal role in the maintenance of AGS stabilization. PMID:26841612

  1. Large Composite Structures Processing Technologies for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Vickers, J. H.; McMahon, W. M.; Hulcher, A. B.; Johnston, N. J.; Cano, R. J.; Belvin, H. L.; McIver, K.; Franklin, W.; Sidwell, D.

    2001-01-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to establishing the technology foundation to enable the progression to large scale composite structures fabrication. We are not capable today of fabricating many of the composite structures envisioned for the second generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Conventional 'aerospace' manufacturing and processing methodologies (fiber placement, autoclave, tooling) will require substantial investment and lead time to scale-up. Out-of-autoclave process techniques will require aggressive efforts to mature the selected technologies and to scale up. Focused composite processing technology development and demonstration programs utilizing the building block approach are required to enable envisioned second generation RLV large composite structures applications. Government/industry partnerships have demonstrated success in this area and represent best combination of skills and capabilities to achieve this goal.

  2. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  3. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production.

  4. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-14

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.

  5. Data Pre-Processing Method to Remove Interference of Gas Bubbles and Cell Clusters During Anaerobic and Aerobic Yeast Fermentations in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Princz, S.; Wenzel, U.; Miller, R.; Hessling, M.

    2014-11-01

    One aerobic and four anaerobic batch fermentations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in a stirred bioreactor and monitored inline by NIR spectroscopy and a transflectance dip probe. From the acquired NIR spectra, chemometric partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for predicting biomass, glucose and ethanol were constructed. The spectra were directly measured in the fermentation broth and successfully inspected for adulteration using our novel data pre-processing method. These adulterations manifested as strong fluctuations in the shape and offset of the absorption spectra. They resulted from cells, cell clusters, or gas bubbles intercepting the optical path of the dip probe. In the proposed data pre-processing method, adulterated signals are removed by passing the time-scanned non-averaged spectra through two filter algorithms with a 5% quantile cutoff. The filtered spectra containing meaningful data are then averaged. A second step checks whether the whole time scan is analyzable. If true, the average is calculated and used to prepare the PLSR models. This new method distinctly improved the prediction results. To dissociate possible correlations between analyte concentrations, such as glucose and ethanol, the feeding analytes were alternately supplied at different concentrations (spiking) at the end of the four anaerobic fermentations. This procedure yielded low-error (anaerobic) PLSR models for predicting analyte concentrations of 0.31 g/l for biomass, 3.41 g/l for glucose, and 2.17 g/l for ethanol. The maximum concentrations were 14 g/l biomass, 167 g/l glucose, and 80 g/l ethanol. Data from the aerobic fermentation, carried out under high agitation and high aeration, were incorporated to realize combined PLSR models, which have not been previously reported to our knowledge.

  6. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-01

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, XRD patterns, TEM and HRTEM images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, UV-vis spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and EDS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02949c

  7. geoknife: Reproducible web-processing of large gridded datasets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Jordan S.; Walker, Jordan I.; Appling, Alison P.; Blodgett, David L.; Read, Emily Kara; Winslow, Luke A.

    2016-01-01

    Geoprocessing of large gridded data according to overlap with irregular landscape features is common to many large-scale ecological analyses. The geoknife R package was created to facilitate reproducible analyses of gridded datasets found on the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal web application or elsewhere, using a web-enabled workflow that eliminates the need to download and store large datasets that are reliably hosted on the Internet. The package provides access to several data subset and summarization algorithms that are available on remote web processing servers. Outputs from geoknife include spatial and temporal data subsets, spatially-averaged time series values filtered by user-specified areas of interest, and categorical coverage fractions for various land-use types.

  8. Effect of process temperature, pH and suspended solids content upon pasteurization of a model agricultural waste during thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J O; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    1999-09-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion(TAD), or liquid composting, is a versatile new process for the treatment and stabilization of high strength wastes of liquid or, perhaps more importantly, slurry consistency. The pattern of inactivation of various pathogenic and indicator organisms was studied using batch digestions under conditions that may be expected to be found in full-scale TAD processes. Rapid inactivation of test populations occurred within the first 10 min from the start of digestion. The inactivation rate was slightly lower when digestions were conducted below 60 degrees C. In some instances, a 'tail' was apparent, possibly indicating the survival of relatively resistant sub-populations particularly in the case of Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis, or of clumping or attachment of cells to particulate materials. The effect of pH on the inactivation of the test populations depended on the temperature of digestion, but varied with the test population. At 55 degrees C Escherichia coli was more sensitive to temperature effects at pH 7 than at pH 8, but was more sensitive at pH 8, 60 degrees C. The reverse was the case at 60 degrees C for Ent. faecalis. An increase in the solid content of the digesting waste caused a progressive increase in the protection of test organisms from thermal inactivation. Challenging a TAD process with test strains allows (via estimation of D-values) a quantification of the cidal effects of such processes, with a view to manipulating process variables to enhance such effects.

  9. Distributed Processing of Projections of Large Datasets: A Preliminary Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    Modern information needs have resulted in very large amounts of data being used in geographic information systems. Problems arise when trying to project these data in a reasonable amount of time and accuracy, however. Current single-threaded methods can suffer from two problems: fast projection with poor accuracy, or accurate projection with long processing time. A possible solution may be to combine accurate interpolation methods and distributed processing algorithms to quickly and accurately convert digital geospatial data between coordinate systems. Modern technology has made it possible to construct systems, such as Beowulf clusters, for a low cost and provide access to supercomputer-class technology. Combining these techniques may result in the ability to use large amounts of geographic data in time-critical situations.

  10. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  11. Large deviation function of the partially asymmetric exclusion process.

    PubMed

    Lee, D S; Kim, D

    1999-06-01

    The large deviation function obtained recently by Derrida and Lebowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 209 (1998)] for the totally asymmetric exclusion process is generalized to the partially asymmetric case in the scaling limit. The asymmetry parameter rescales the scaling variable in a simple way. The finite-size corrections to the universal scaling function and the universal cumulant ratio are also obtained to the leading order. PMID:11969632

  12. Large sample hydrology in NZ: Spatial organisation in process diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, H. K.; Woods, R. A.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    A key question in hydrology is how to predict the dominant runoff generation processes in any given catchment. This knowledge is vital for a range of applications in forecasting hydrological response and related processes such as nutrient and sediment transport. A step towards this goal is to map dominant processes in locations where data is available. In this presentation, we use data from 900 flow gauging stations and 680 rain gauges in New Zealand, to assess hydrological processes. These catchments range in character from rolling pasture, to alluvial plains, to temperate rainforest, to volcanic areas. By taking advantage of so many flow regimes, we harness the benefits of large-sample and comparative hydrology to study patterns and spatial organisation in runoff processes, and their relationship to physical catchment characteristics. The approach we use to assess hydrological processes is based on the concept of diagnostic signatures. Diagnostic signatures in hydrology are targeted analyses of measured data which allow us to investigate specific aspects of catchment response. We apply signatures which target the water balance, the flood response and the recession behaviour. We explore the organisation, similarity and diversity in hydrological processes across the New Zealand landscape, and how these patterns change with scale. We discuss our findings in the context of the strong hydro-climatic gradients in New Zealand, and consider the implications for hydrological model building on a national scale.

  13. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  14. High rate CNP removal from a milk processing wastewater in a single ultrasound augmented up-flow anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, S; Zinatizadeh, A A L; Asadi, A

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (CNP) in a single bioreactor is of high significance in terms of reactor volume and energy consumption. Therefore, in this study, an innovative up-flow anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic bioreactor (UAAASB) augmented by ultrasound was developed as a high rate single bioreactor for the simultaneous removal of nutrients from a milk processing wastewater. The ultrasonic irradiation used in this work was in the range of high frequency (1.7 MHz). The central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to design the experimental conditions, model obtained data, and optimize the process. The effects of three independent variables, i.e. hydraulic retention time (HRT), aeration mode and mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration on 10 process responses were investigated. The results prove that the ultrasonic irradiation has a positive effect on the sludge settling velocity and effluent turbidity. The optimum conditions were determined as 12-15 h, 4000-5000 mg/l and 1.5-2 for HRT, MLSS concentration and aeration mode, respectively, based on removal efficiency of sCOD ⩾ 90%, TN and TP ⩾ 50%. PMID:25457518

  15. High rate CNP removal from a milk processing wastewater in a single ultrasound augmented up-flow anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, S; Zinatizadeh, A A L; Asadi, A

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (CNP) in a single bioreactor is of high significance in terms of reactor volume and energy consumption. Therefore, in this study, an innovative up-flow anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic bioreactor (UAAASB) augmented by ultrasound was developed as a high rate single bioreactor for the simultaneous removal of nutrients from a milk processing wastewater. The ultrasonic irradiation used in this work was in the range of high frequency (1.7 MHz). The central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to design the experimental conditions, model obtained data, and optimize the process. The effects of three independent variables, i.e. hydraulic retention time (HRT), aeration mode and mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration on 10 process responses were investigated. The results prove that the ultrasonic irradiation has a positive effect on the sludge settling velocity and effluent turbidity. The optimum conditions were determined as 12-15 h, 4000-5000 mg/l and 1.5-2 for HRT, MLSS concentration and aeration mode, respectively, based on removal efficiency of sCOD ⩾ 90%, TN and TP ⩾ 50%.

  16. Contributions of Abiotic and Biotic Processes to the Aerobic Removal of Phenolic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in a Simulated Estuarine Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua; Cheng, Qiao; Tam, Nora F Y; Lin, Li; Su, Weiqi; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-04-19

    The contributions of abiotic and biotic processes in an estuarine aquatic environment to the removal of four phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were evaluated through simulated batch reactors containing water-only or water-sediment collected from an estuary in South China. More than 90% of the free forms of all four spiked EDCs were removed from these reactors at the end of 28 days under aerobic conditions, with the half-life of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) longer than those of propylparaben (PP), nonylphenol (NP) and 17β-estradiol (E2). The interaction with dissolved oxygen contributed to NP removal and was enhanced by aeration. The PP and E2 removal was positively influenced by adsorption on suspended particles initially, whereas abiotic transformation by estuarine-dissolved matter contributed to their complete removal. Biotic processes, including degradation by active aquatic microorganisms, had significant effects on the removal of EE2. Sedimentary inorganic and organic matter posed a positive effect only when EE2 biodegradation was inhibited. Estrone (E1), the oxidizing product of E2, was detected, proving that E2 was removed by the naturally occurring oxidizers in the estuarine water matrixes. These results revealed that the estuarine aquatic environment was effective in removing free EDCs, and the contributions of abiotic and biotic processes to their removal were compound specific.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of Cryogenic Injection Processes at Supercritical Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights results from the first of a series of hierarchical simulations aimed at assessing the modeling requirements for application of the large eddy simulation technique to cryogenic injection and combustion processes in liquid rocket engines. The focus is on liquid-oxygen-hydrogen coaxial injectors at a condition where the liquid-oxygen is injected at a subcritical temperature into a supercritical environment. For this situation a diffusion dominated mode of combustion occurs in the presence of exceedingly large thermophysical property gradients. Though continuous, these gradients approach the behavior of a contact discontinuity. Significant real gas effects and transport anomalies coexist locally in colder regions of the flow, with ideal gas and transport characteristics occurring within the flame zone. The current focal point is on the interfacial region between the liquid-oxygen core and the coaxial hydrogen jet where the flame anchors itself.

  18. Fast methods for training Gaussian processes on large datasets.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Chua, A J K; Berry, C P L; Gair, J R

    2016-05-01

    Gaussian process regression (GPR) is a non-parametric Bayesian technique for interpolating or fitting data. The main barrier to further uptake of this powerful tool rests in the computational costs associated with the matrices which arise when dealing with large datasets. Here, we derive some simple results which we have found useful for speeding up the learning stage in the GPR algorithm, and especially for performing Bayesian model comparison between different covariance functions. We apply our techniques to both synthetic and real data and quantify the speed-up relative to using nested sampling to numerically evaluate model evidences. PMID:27293793

  19. Fast methods for training Gaussian processes on large datasets

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Gair, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Gaussian process regression (GPR) is a non-parametric Bayesian technique for interpolating or fitting data. The main barrier to further uptake of this powerful tool rests in the computational costs associated with the matrices which arise when dealing with large datasets. Here, we derive some simple results which we have found useful for speeding up the learning stage in the GPR algorithm, and especially for performing Bayesian model comparison between different covariance functions. We apply our techniques to both synthetic and real data and quantify the speed-up relative to using nested sampling to numerically evaluate model evidences. PMID:27293793

  20. Fast methods for training Gaussian processes on large datasets.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Chua, A J K; Berry, C P L; Gair, J R

    2016-05-01

    Gaussian process regression (GPR) is a non-parametric Bayesian technique for interpolating or fitting data. The main barrier to further uptake of this powerful tool rests in the computational costs associated with the matrices which arise when dealing with large datasets. Here, we derive some simple results which we have found useful for speeding up the learning stage in the GPR algorithm, and especially for performing Bayesian model comparison between different covariance functions. We apply our techniques to both synthetic and real data and quantify the speed-up relative to using nested sampling to numerically evaluate model evidences.

  1. Possible implications of large scale radiation processing of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    Large scale irradiation has been discussed in terms of the participation of processing cost in the final value of the improved product. Another factor has been taken into account and that is the saturation of the market with the new product. In the case of succesful projects the participation of irradiation cost is low, and the demand for the better product is covered. A limited availability of sources makes the modest saturation of the market difficult with all food subjected to correct radiation treatment. The implementation of the preservation of food needs a decided selection of these kinds of food which comply to all conditions i.e. of acceptance by regulatory bodies, real improvement of quality and economy. The last condition prefers the possibility of use of electron beams of low energy. The best fullfilment of conditions for succesful processing is observed in the group of dry food, in expensive spices in particular.

  2. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  3. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  4. Ultrasonic processing of dairy systems in large scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Zisu, Bogdan; Bhaskaracharya, Raman; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2010-08-01

    High intensity low frequency ultrasound was used to process dairy ingredients to improve functional properties. Based on a number of lab-scale experiments, several experimental parameters were optimised for processing large volumes of whey and casein-based dairy systems in pilot scale ultrasonic reactors. A continuous sonication process at 20 kHz capable of delivering up to 4 kW of power with a flow-through reactor design was used to treat dairy ingredients at flow rates ranging from 200 to 6000 mL/min. Dairy ingredients treated by ultrasound included reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein and milk protein retentates and calcium caseinate. The sonication of solutions with a contact time of less than 1 min and up to 2.4 min led to a significant reduction in the viscosity of materials containing 18% to 54% (w/w) solids. The viscosity of aqueous dairy ingredients treated with ultrasound was reduced by between 6% and 50% depending greatly on the composition, processing history, acoustic power and contact time. A notable improvement in the gel strength of sonicated and heat coagulated dairy systems was also observed. When sonication was combined with a pre-heat treatment of 80 degrees C for 1 min or 85 degrees C for 30s, the heat stability of the dairy ingredients containing whey proteins was significantly improved. The effect of sonication was attributed mainly to physical forces generated through acoustic cavitation as supported by particle size reduction in response to sonication. As a result, the gelling properties and heat stability aspects of sonicated dairy ingredients were maintained after spray drying and reconstitution. Overall, the sonication procedure for processing dairy systems may be used to improve process efficiency, improve throughput and develop value added ingredients with the potential to deliver economical benefits to the dairy industry.

  5. Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Edmund; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Krzywonos, Małgorzata; Lutosławski, Krzysztof; Miśkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2011-07-01

    The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27-63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a mixed culture of bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Betaine was assimilated at 27-54°C and the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27-45°C and the pH of 6.5. The processes where betaine was assimilated produced a high BOD(5) removal, which exceeded 99.40% over the temperature range of 27-45°C at the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27°C and the pH of 6.5. Maximal COD removal (88.73%) was attained at 36°C and the pH of 6.5. The results indicate that the process can be applied on an industrial scale as the first step in the treatment of beet molasses vinasse. PMID:21367516

  6. Processing Ocean Images to Detect Large Drift Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veenstra, Tim

    2009-01-01

    A computer program processes the digitized outputs of a set of downward-looking video cameras aboard an aircraft flying over the ocean. The purpose served by this software is to facilitate the detection of large drift nets that have been lost, abandoned, or jettisoned. The development of this software and of the associated imaging hardware is part of a larger effort to develop means of detecting and removing large drift nets before they cause further environmental damage to the ocean and to shores on which they sometimes impinge. The software is capable of near-realtime processing of as many as three video feeds at a rate of 30 frames per second. After a user sets the parameters of an adjustable algorithm, the software analyzes each video stream, detects any anomaly, issues a command to point a high-resolution camera toward the location of the anomaly, and, once the camera has been so aimed, issues a command to trigger the camera shutter. The resulting high-resolution image is digitized, and the resulting data are automatically uploaded to the operator s computer for analysis.

  7. Large-scale sequencing and analytical processing of ESTs.

    PubMed

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Mardis, Elaine R

    2009-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have proven to be one of the most rapid and cost-effective routes to gene discovery for eukaryotic genomes. Furthermore, their multipurpose uses, such as in probe design for microarrays, determining alternative splicing, verifying open reading frames, and confirming exon/intron and gene boundaries, to name a few, further justify their inclusion in many genomic characterization projects. Hence, there has been a constant increase in the number of ESTs deposited into the dbEST division of GenBank. This trend also correlates to ever-improving molecular techniques for obtaining biological material, performing RNA extraction, and constructing cDNA libraries, and predominantly to ever-evolving sequencing chemistry and instrumentation, as well as to decreased sequencing costs. This chapter describes large-scale sequencing of ESTs on two distinct platforms: the ABI 3730xl and the 454 Life Sciences GS20 sequencers, and the corresponding processes of sequence extraction, processing, and submissions to public databases. While the conventional 3730xl sequencing process is described, starting with the plating of an already-existing cDNA library, the section on 454 GS20 pyrosequencing also includes a method for generating full-length cDNA sequences. With appropriate bioinformatics tools, each of these platforms either used independently or coupled together provide a powerful combination for comprehensive exploration of an organism's transcriptome.

  8. A novel anoxic-aerobic biofilter process using new composite packing material for the treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, L T; Han, Y

    2016-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of contaminants removal in a continuously two-stage biological process composed of an anoxic biofilter (AF) and an biological aerated filter (BAF). This novel process was developed by introducing new composite packing material (MZF) into bioreactors to treat rural domestic wastewater. A comparative study conducted by the same process with ceramsite as packing material under the same conditions showed that a MZF system with a Fe proportion in the packing material performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (average 91.5%), ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal (average 98.3%), total nitrogen (TN) removal (average 64.8%) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (average 90%). After treatment of the MZF system, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP in effluent were 20.3 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 11.5 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The simultaneously high efficiencies of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal were achieved by the coupling effects of biological and chemical processes in the MZF system. The results of this study showed that the application of MZF might be a favorable choice as packing material in biofilters for treatment of rural domestic wastewater. PMID:27191571

  9. Properties of large-scale melt-processed YBCO samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, S.; Elschner, S.; Bestgen, H.

    Magnetic bearings and superconducting permanent magnets are some of the first possible applications of bulk high Tc superconductors. Large samples were prepared by a new melt process starting from reacted YBCO 123 and 211 powders. The addition of PtO 2 to the mixture led to reduced 211 inclusion size and better homogeneity. Simultaneously the density of microcracks dividing the a- b basal plane was reduced. For testing the overall magnetic properties of these samples magnetization and levitation force measurements were performed. In comparison to samples without PtO 2 addition a strong increase in the magnetization M and the repulsion force from a magnet were observed. The maximum in the field dependence of M increased to more than 1000 G. According to the time dependence of the trapped field after a field cooling experiment an acceptable flux creep at 77 K for a long-term application was achieved.

  10. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Gorbatkin, Steven M.; Berry, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.

  11. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1991-07-16

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.

  12. Large-cell Monte Carlo renormalization of irreversible growth processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, H.; Family, F.

    1985-01-01

    Monte Carlo sampling is applied to a recently formulated direct-cell renormalization method for irreversible, disorderly growth processes. Large-cell Monte Carlo renormalization is carried out for various nonequilibrium problems based on the formulation dealing with relative probabilities. Specifically, the method is demonstrated by application to the 'true' self-avoiding walk and the Eden model of growing animals for d = 2, 3, and 4 and to the invasion percolation problem for d = 2 and 3. The results are asymptotically in agreement with expectations; however, unexpected complications arise, suggesting the possibility of crossovers, and in any case, demonstrating the danger of using small cells alone, because of the very slow convergence as the cell size b is extrapolated to infinity. The difficulty of applying the present method to the diffusion-limited-aggregation model, is commented on.

  13. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  14. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants. PMID:27128192

  15. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants.

  16. Simultaneous C and N removal from saline salmon effluents in filter reactors comprising anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic processes: effect of recycle ratio.

    PubMed

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Aspé, Estrella R; Huiliñir, César E; Roeckel, Marlene D

    2014-01-01

    Salmon processing generates saline effluents with high protein load. To treat these effluents, three compact tubular filter reactors were installed and an integrated anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic process was developed with recycling flow from the reactor's exit to the inlet stream in order to save organic matter (OM) for denitrification. The reactors were aerated in the upper section with recycle ratios (RR) of 0, 2, and 10, respectively, at 30°C. A tubular reactor behave as a plug flow reactor when RR = 0, and as a mixed flow reactor when recycle increases, thus, different RR values were used to evaluate how it affects the product distribution and the global performance. Diluted salmon process effluent was prepared as substrate. Using loads of 1.0 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and 0.15 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) m(-3)d(-1) at HRT of 2 d, 100% removal efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate were achieved in the anoxic-denitrifying section without effect of the dissolved oxygen in the recycled flow on denitrification. Removals >98% for total organic carbon (TOC) was achieved in the three reactors. The RR had no effect on the TOC removal; nevertheless a higher efficiency in total nitrogen removal in the reactor with the highest recycle ratio was observed: 94.3% for RR = 10 and 46.6% for RR = 2. Results showed that the proposed layout with an alternative distribution in a compact reactor can efficiently treat high organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations from a saline fish effluent with OM savings in denitrification.

  17. Large earthquake rupture process variations on the Middle America megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    The megathrust fault between the underthrusting Cocos plate and overriding Caribbean plate recently experienced three large ruptures: the August 27, 2012 (Mw 7.3) El Salvador; September 5, 2012 (Mw 7.6) Costa Rica; and November 7, 2012 (Mw 7.4) Guatemala earthquakes. All three events involve shallow-dipping thrust faulting on the plate boundary, but they had variable rupture processes. The El Salvador earthquake ruptured from about 4 to 20 km depth, with a relatively large centroid time of ˜19 s, low seismic moment-scaled energy release, and a depleted teleseismic short-period source spectrum similar to that of the September 2, 1992 (Mw 7.6) Nicaragua tsunami earthquake that ruptured the adjacent shallow portion of the plate boundary. The Costa Rica and Guatemala earthquakes had large slip in the depth range 15 to 30 km, and more typical teleseismic source spectra. Regional seismic recordings have higher short-period energy levels for the Costa Rica event relative to the El Salvador event, consistent with the teleseismic observations. A broadband regional waveform template correlation analysis is applied to categorize the focal mechanisms for larger aftershocks of the three events. Modeling of regional wave spectral ratios for clustered events with similar mechanisms indicates that interplate thrust events have corner frequencies, normalized by a reference model, that increase down-dip from anomalously low values near the Middle America trench. Relatively high corner frequencies are found for thrust events near Costa Rica; thus, variations along strike of the trench may also be important. Geodetic observations indicate trench-parallel motion of a forearc sliver extending from Costa Rica to Guatemala, and low seismic coupling on the megathrust has been inferred from a lack of boundary-perpendicular strain accumulation. The slip distributions and seismic radiation from the large regional thrust events indicate relatively strong seismic coupling near Nicoya, Costa

  18. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    PubMed

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery.

  19. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    PubMed

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery. PMID:25682477

  20. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  1. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  2. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  3. Silicon biogeochemical processes in a large river (Cauvery, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswari Rajasekaran, Mangalaa; Arnaud, Dapoigny; Jean, Riotte; Sarma Vedula, V. S. S.; Nittala, S. Sarma; Sankaran, Subramanian; Gundiga Puttojirao, Gurumurthy; Keshava, Balakrishna; Cardinal, Damien

    2016-04-01

    Cauvery may result from the successive dams along the main course which are expected to favor the retention of isotopically light Si isotopes in sediments via diatom uptake in reservoirs and/or, Si uptake by vegetation. Both processes likely result in heavier δ30Si-DSi downstream. In the estuary, the average δ30Si-DSi is 2.20±0.17 ‰ (n=11). There is a significant positive relationship between ASi contents and fucoxanthin (diatom marker pigment) (r=0.61, p<0.05, n=11) suggesting a significant control of diatoms on ASi. However a dominant mixing effect is observed in dissolved silicon with a strong positive relationship between 1/DSi and δ30Si-DSi (r=0.71, p<0.01, n=11). A comparative study with a west-flowing river, the Netravathi (southwest India) will be performed and presented during the session. We will also compare the Si isotopic signatures in Cauvery along the transect with focus on seasonal variability and on upstream vs. downstream large dams to strengthen interpretations.

  4. Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, P.; Wagner, T. M.; Bates, R.

    2012-12-01

    Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg Peter Wadhams (1), Till J W Wagner(1) and Richard Bates(2) (1) Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK (2) Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland KY16 9AL We present observational results from an experiment carried out during July-August 2012 on a giant grounded tabular iceberg off Baffin Island. The iceberg studied was part of the Petermann Ice Island B1 (PIIB1) which calved off the Petermann Glacier in NW Greenland in 2010. Since 2011 it has been aground in 100 m of water on the Baffin Island shelf at 69 deg 06'N, 66 deg 06'W. As part of the project a set of high resolution GPS sensors and tiltmeters was placed on the ice island to record rigid body motion as well as flexural responses to wind, waves, current and tidal forces, while a Waverider buoy monitored incident waves and swell. On July 31, 2012 a major breakup event was recorded, with a piece of 25,000 sq m surface area calving off the iceberg. At the time of breakup, GPS sensors were collecting data both on the main berg as well as on the newly calved piece, while two of us (PW and TJWW) were standing on the broken-out portion which rose by 0.6 m to achieve a new isostatic equilibrium. Crucially, there was no significant swell at the time of breakup, which suggests a melt-driven decay process rather than wave-driven flexural break-up. The GPS sensors recorded two disturbances during the hour preceding the breakup, indicative of crack growth and propagation. Qualitative observation during the two weeks in which our research ship was moored to, or was close to, the ice island edge indicates that an important mechanism for summer ablation is successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wave cut, which creates a submerged ram fringing the berg. A model of buoyancy stresses induced by

  5. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  6. Benchmarking processes for managing large international space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.; Duke, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between management style and program costs is analyzed to determine the feasibility of financing large international space missions. The incorporation of management systems is considered to be essential to realizing low cost spacecraft and planetary surface systems. Several companies ranging from large Lockheed 'Skunk Works' to small companies including Space Industries, Inc., Rocket Research Corp., and Orbital Sciences Corp. were studied. It is concluded that to lower the prices, the ways in which spacecraft and hardware are developed must be changed. Benchmarking of successful low cost space programs has revealed a number of prescriptive rules for low cost managements, including major changes in the relationships between the public and private sectors.

  7. Really big data: Processing and analysis of large datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern animal breeding datasets are large and getting larger, due in part to the recent availability of DNA data for many animals. Computational methods for efficiently storing and analyzing those data are under development. The amount of storage space required for such datasets is increasing rapidl...

  8. Depth gradients in food web processes linking large lake habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large lakes around the world, shifts in ecological communities are often associated with water depth. This suggests that there may be concomitant changes in patterns of resource allocation. Using Lake Superior as an example, we explored this idea through stable isotope analyse...

  9. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of treating cold-worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain gth during thermal treatment at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy comprising heating the cold-worked alloy between about 1300.degree.-1350.degree. F. for 1 to 3 hours prior to treatment above its recrystallization temperature.

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  12. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  13. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  14. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA.s Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aide in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI. As part of the SLI, The Boeing Company was awarded a basic period contract to research and propose options for both a metallic and a composite cryotank. Boeing then entered into a task agreement with the Marshall Space Flight Center to provide manufacturing

  15. Large scale molecular dynamics modeling of materials fabrication processes

    SciTech Connect

    Belak, J.; Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Stowers, I.F.

    1994-02-01

    An atomistic molecular dynamics model of materials fabrication processes is presented. Several material removal processes are shown to be within the domain of this simulation method. Results are presented for orthogonal cutting of copper and silicon and for crack propagation in silica glass. Both copper and silicon show ductile behavior, but the atomistic mechanisms that allow this behavior are significantly different in the two cases. The copper chip remains crystalline while the silicon chip transforms into an amorphous state. The critical stress for crack propagation in silica glass was found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment and a novel stick-slip phenomenon was observed.

  16. Advanced Instruction: Facilitation of Individual Learning Processes in Large Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche

    2009-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…

  17. Natural Language Processing: Toward Large-Scale, Robust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.

    1996-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is concerned with getting computers to do useful things with natural language. Major applications include machine translation, text generation, information retrieval, and natural language interfaces. Reviews important developments since 1987 that have led to advances in NLP; current NLP applications; and problems…

  18. A Large-Scale Assessment to Support the Process Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Charlotte W.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that writing assessment should reflect current composition pedagogy, and offers a design to assess process writing. Discusses the development of the scoring criteria and the selection of range finders, as well as the standardization of training and scoring procedures. (PRA)

  19. Large-scale network-level processes during entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Lithari, Chrysa; Sánchez-García, Carolina; Ruhnau, Philipp; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Visual rhythmic stimulation evokes a robust power increase exactly at the stimulation frequency, the so-called steady-state response (SSR). Localization of visual SSRs normally shows a very focal modulation of power in visual cortex and led to the treatment and interpretation of SSRs as a local phenomenon. Given the brain network dynamics, we hypothesized that SSRs have additional large-scale effects on the brain functional network that can be revealed by means of graph theory. We used rhythmic visual stimulation at a range of frequencies (4–30 Hz), recorded MEG and investigated source level connectivity across the whole brain. Using graph theoretical measures we observed a frequency-unspecific reduction of global density in the alpha band “disconnecting” visual cortex from the rest of the network. Also, a frequency-specific increase of connectivity between occipital cortex and precuneus was found at the stimulation frequency that exhibited the highest resonance (30 Hz). In conclusion, we showed that SSRs dynamically re-organized the brain functional network. These large-scale effects should be taken into account not only when attempting to explain the nature of SSRs, but also when used in various experimental designs. PMID:26835557

  20. Large-scale network-level processes during entrainment.

    PubMed

    Lithari, Chrysa; Sánchez-García, Carolina; Ruhnau, Philipp; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-03-15

    Visual rhythmic stimulation evokes a robust power increase exactly at the stimulation frequency, the so-called steady-state response (SSR). Localization of visual SSRs normally shows a very focal modulation of power in visual cortex and led to the treatment and interpretation of SSRs as a local phenomenon. Given the brain network dynamics, we hypothesized that SSRs have additional large-scale effects on the brain functional network that can be revealed by means of graph theory. We used rhythmic visual stimulation at a range of frequencies (4-30 Hz), recorded MEG and investigated source level connectivity across the whole brain. Using graph theoretical measures we observed a frequency-unspecific reduction of global density in the alpha band "disconnecting" visual cortex from the rest of the network. Also, a frequency-specific increase of connectivity between occipital cortex and precuneus was found at the stimulation frequency that exhibited the highest resonance (30 Hz). In conclusion, we showed that SSRs dynamically re-organized the brain functional network. These large-scale effects should be taken into account not only when attempting to explain the nature of SSRs, but also when used in various experimental designs. PMID:26835557

  1. Path Query Processing in Large-Scale XML Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Su-Cheng; Radha Krishna Rao, G. S. V.

    With the ever-increasing popularity of XML (e-Xtensible Markup Language) as data representation and exchange on the Internet, querying XML data has become an important issue to be address. In Native XML Database (NXD), XML documents are usually modeled as trees and XML queries are typically specified in path expression. In path expression, the primitive structural relationships are Parent-Child (P-C) and Ancestor-Descendant (A-D). Thus, finding all occurrences of these relationships is crucial for XML query processing. Current methods for query processing on NXD usually employ either sequential traversing of tree-structured model or a decomposition-matching-merging processes. We adopt the later approach and propose a novel hybrid query optimization technique, INLAB comprising both indexing and labeling technologies. Furthermore, we also propose several algorithms to create INLAB encoding and analyze the path query. We implemented our technique and present performance results over several benchmarking datasets, which prove the viability of our approach.

  2. Processing large remote sensing image data sets on Beowulf clusters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Schmidt, Gail

    2003-01-01

    High-performance computing is often concerned with the speed at which floating- point calculations can be performed. The architectures of many parallel computers and/or their network topologies are based on these investigations. Often, benchmarks resulting from these investigations are compiled with little regard to how a large dataset would move about in these systems. This part of the Beowulf study addresses that concern by looking at specific applications software and system-level modifications. Applications include an implementation of a smoothing filter for time-series data, a parallel implementation of the decision tree algorithm used in the Landcover Characterization project, a parallel Kriging algorithm used to fit point data collected in the field on invasive species to a regular grid, and modifications to the Beowulf project's resampling algorithm to handle larger, higher resolution datasets at a national scale. Systems-level investigations include a feasibility study on Flat Neighborhood Networks and modifications of that concept with Parallel File Systems.

  3. Nanomaterials processing toward large-scale flexible/stretchable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshitake

    In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in large-scale mechanically flexible electronics, where electrical components are fabricated on non-crystalline substrates such as plastics and glass. These devices are currently serving as the basis for various applications such as flat-panel displays, smart cards, and wearable electronics. In this thesis, a promising approach using chemically synthesized nanomaterials is explored to overcome various obstacles current technology faces in this field. Here, we use chemically synthesized semiconducting nanowires (NWs) including group IV (Si, Ge), III-V (InAs) and II-IV (CdS, CdSe) NWs, and semiconductor-enriched SWNTs (99 % purity), and developed reliable, controllable, and more importantly uniform assembly methods on 4-inch wafer-scale flexible substrates in the form of either parallel NW arrays or SWNT random networks, which act as the active components in thin film transistors (TFTs). Thusly obtained TFTs composed of nanomaterials show respectable electrical and optical properties such as 1) cut-off frequency, ft ~ 1 GHz and maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax ~ 1.8 GHz from InAs parallel NW array TFTs with channel length of ~ 1.5 μm, 2) photodetectors covering visible wavelengths (500-700 nm) using compositionally graded CdSxSe1-x (0 < x < 1) parallel NW arrays, and 3) carrier mobility of ~ 20 cm2/Vs, which is an order of magnitude larger than conventional TFT materials such as a-Si and organic semiconductors, without sacrificing current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff ~ 104) from SWNT network TFTs. The capability to uniformly assemble nanomaterials over large-scale flexible substrates enables us to use them for more sophisticated applications. Artificial electronic skin (e-skin) is demonstrated by laminating pressure sensitive rubber on top of nanomaterial-based active matrix backplanes. Furthermore, an x-ray imaging device is also achieved by combining organic photodiodes with this backplane technology.

  4. Parallel Processing of Large Scale Microphone Arrays for Sound Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Ea-Ee.

    1995-01-01

    Performance of microphone sound pick up is degraded by deleterious properties of the acoustic environment, such as multipath distortion (reverberation) and ambient noise. The degradation becomes more prominent in a teleconferencing environment in which the microphone is positioned far away from the speaker. Besides, the ideal teleconference should feel as easy and natural as face-to-face communication with another person. This suggests hands-free sound capture with no tether or encumbrance by hand-held or body-worn sound equipment. Microphone arrays for this application represent an appropriate approach. This research develops new microphone array and signal processing techniques for high quality hands-free sound capture in noisy, reverberant enclosures. The new techniques combine matched-filtering of individual sensors and parallel processing to provide acute spatial volume selectivity which is capable of mitigating the deleterious effects of noise interference and multipath distortion. The new method outperforms traditional delay-and-sum beamformers which provide only directional spatial selectivity. The research additionally explores truncated matched-filtering and random distribution of transducers to reduce complexity and improve sound capture quality. All designs are first established by computer simulation of array performance in reverberant enclosures. The simulation is achieved by a room model which can efficiently calculate the acoustic multipath in a rectangular enclosure up to a prescribed order of images. It also calculates the incident angle of the arriving signal. Experimental arrays were constructed and their performance was measured in real rooms. Real room data were collected in a hard-walled laboratory and a controllable variable acoustics enclosure of similar size, approximately 6 x 6 x 3 m. An extensive speech database was also collected in these two enclosures for future research on microphone arrays. The simulation results are shown to be

  5. Pharmaceutical grade large-scale plasmid DNA manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For pharmaceutical applications of plasmid DNA, either direct or indirect, certain quality standards are required. Whereas for direct gene transfer into human "Good Manufacturing Practice" (GMP) grade is mandatory, for GMP production of, e.g., viral vectors (AAV, etc.) the plasmid DNA used needs not necessarily be produced under GMP. Besides such regulatory aspects up-scaling of the plasmid DNA production process from research laboratory scale (up to a few milligrams) to industrial scales (milligram to gram scales) is an issue that is addressed here.

  6. Evolution of a processing system in a large biomedical library.

    PubMed

    Darling, L; Fayollat, J

    1976-01-01

    The processing system used in the UCLA Biomedical Library is modest in size and still under development. Its origins date back to a batch mode serials control system begun in the mid-1960s. This was converted to an on-line system which currently has modules for check-in, updating and retrieval, claims, bindery preparation, and invoice information. Titles can be retrieved at the terminal by search of any word in the title, by subject heading, language, country of publication, and type of publication. The system is adaptable to network use and at present is shared with one other library. To the serials system has been added a computer-assisted cataloging and card production system. The latter utilizes serials nucleus software as well as design for data input and data storage. In-house listings and coding procedures overlap in a general way. Work is under way on further integration of the two processing subsystems and a feasibility study has been completed for addition of a subsystem for acquisitions which will combine and adapt features of the other two; for example, information retrieval characteristics from both, catalog coding and programs for acceptance of data, serials programs for claims, and other output programs. Cost benefits of the subsystems are described and discussed. PMID:1247705

  7. Processing method and process modeling of large aperture transparent magnesium aluminate spinel domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; McWilliams, Brandon; Kilczewski, Steven; Gilde, Gary; Lidie, Ashley; Sands, James

    2009-05-01

    Polycrystalline spinel serves as an alternative to materials such as sapphire and magnesium fluoride that are currently being used in electromagnetic window applications such as missile domes, where high strength, high hardness and high transmittance in the visible and infrared spectra are required. The cubic crystal lattice of spinel imparts an isotropy to the bulk optical property, which eliminates optical distortion due to birefringence that occurs in sapphire and other non-cubic materials. The current study is to find a reliable manufacturing process to produce large magnesium aluminate spinel domes from powder consolidation efficiently. A binder-less dry ball milling process was used to deflocculate the spinel powder to increase its fluidity in an effort to ease the shape-forming. Dry ball milling time trials were conducted at several intervals to determine the appropriate level of time required to break up both the hard and soft agglomerates associated with the virgin spinel powder. The common problems encountered in dry powder shape-forming are crack growth and delamination of the green body during cold isostatic pressing (CIPing). The cracking and the delamination are due to the buildup of stress gradients on the green body that are created by the frictional force between the powder and the die wall or mold wall. To understand the stresses during the CIPing process, a finite element analysis of stresses on the green body was conducted. The simulation was used to evaluate the effect of die tooling and process characteristics on the development of stress gradients in the green body dome. Additionally, the effect of friction between the die wall and powder was examined by the simulation. It was found that by mitigating the frictional forces, cracking and delamination on the green body could be eliminated. A stepped-pressure CIPing technique was developed to reduce stress gradient build-up during CIPing. Also, oleic acid lubricant was applied to the die wall to

  8. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs.

  9. Large-scale ordering of nanoparticles using viscoelastic shear processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qibin; Finlayson, Chris E.; Snoswell, David R. E.; Haines, Andrew; Schäfer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Goetz P.; Petukhov, Andrei V.; Herrmann, Lars; Burdet, Pierre; Midgley, Paul A.; Butler, Simon; Mackley, Malcolm; Guo, Qixin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of elaborate varieties of nanoparticles, their assembly into regular superstructures and photonic materials remains challenging. Here we show how flexible films of stacked polymer nanoparticles can be directly assembled in a roll-to-roll process using a bending-induced oscillatory shear technique. For sub-micron spherical nanoparticles, this gives elastomeric photonic crystals termed polymer opals showing extremely strong tunable structural colour. With oscillatory strain amplitudes of 300%, crystallization initiates at the wall and develops quickly across the bulk within only five oscillations. The resulting structure of random hexagonal close-packed layers is improved by shearing bidirectionally, alternating between two in-plane directions. Our theoretical framework indicates how the reduction in shear viscosity with increasing order of each layer accounts for these results, even when diffusion is totally absent. This general principle of shear ordering in viscoelastic media opens the way to manufacturable photonic materials, and forms a generic tool for ordering nanoparticles. PMID:27255808

  10. Large-scale ordering of nanoparticles using viscoelastic shear processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qibin; Finlayson, Chris E; Snoswell, David R E; Haines, Andrew; Schäfer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Goetz P; Petukhov, Andrei V; Herrmann, Lars; Burdet, Pierre; Midgley, Paul A; Butler, Simon; Mackley, Malcolm; Guo, Qixin; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of elaborate varieties of nanoparticles, their assembly into regular superstructures and photonic materials remains challenging. Here we show how flexible films of stacked polymer nanoparticles can be directly assembled in a roll-to-roll process using a bending-induced oscillatory shear technique. For sub-micron spherical nanoparticles, this gives elastomeric photonic crystals termed polymer opals showing extremely strong tunable structural colour. With oscillatory strain amplitudes of 300%, crystallization initiates at the wall and develops quickly across the bulk within only five oscillations. The resulting structure of random hexagonal close-packed layers is improved by shearing bidirectionally, alternating between two in-plane directions. Our theoretical framework indicates how the reduction in shear viscosity with increasing order of each layer accounts for these results, even when diffusion is totally absent. This general principle of shear ordering in viscoelastic media opens the way to manufacturable photonic materials, and forms a generic tool for ordering nanoparticles. PMID:27255808

  11. Large-scale superconducting separator for Kaolin processing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.J, Jr. ); Selvaggi, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Currently, high gradient magnetic separators (HGMSs) are used almost exclusively by the clay processing industry, particularly in producing an extremely white kaolin for the paper, coatings and rubber industries where a bright additive is desirable. As mined, the clay is a light cream color-not white. Many of these impurities can be removed chemically using a reducing agent such as sodium hydrosulfite in low pH, sulfuric acid, and alum. High purity, however, can be obtained by removing trace amounts of paramagnetic particles (100% finer than 2 {mu}m). This is accomplished by separating these particles from 28 wt% kaolin in a water slurry retaining them on magnetic wool, which is then periodically regenerated.

  12. Large-scale ordering of nanoparticles using viscoelastic shear processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qibin; Finlayson, Chris E; Snoswell, David R E; Haines, Andrew; Schäfer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Goetz P; Petukhov, Andrei V; Herrmann, Lars; Burdet, Pierre; Midgley, Paul A; Butler, Simon; Mackley, Malcolm; Guo, Qixin; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-06-03

    Despite the availability of elaborate varieties of nanoparticles, their assembly into regular superstructures and photonic materials remains challenging. Here we show how flexible films of stacked polymer nanoparticles can be directly assembled in a roll-to-roll process using a bending-induced oscillatory shear technique. For sub-micron spherical nanoparticles, this gives elastomeric photonic crystals termed polymer opals showing extremely strong tunable structural colour. With oscillatory strain amplitudes of 300%, crystallization initiates at the wall and develops quickly across the bulk within only five oscillations. The resulting structure of random hexagonal close-packed layers is improved by shearing bidirectionally, alternating between two in-plane directions. Our theoretical framework indicates how the reduction in shear viscosity with increasing order of each layer accounts for these results, even when diffusion is totally absent. This general principle of shear ordering in viscoelastic media opens the way to manufacturable photonic materials, and forms a generic tool for ordering nanoparticles.

  13. Large-scale ordering of nanoparticles using viscoelastic shear processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qibin; Finlayson, Chris E.; Snoswell, David R. E.; Haines, Andrew; Schäfer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Goetz P.; Petukhov, Andrei V.; Herrmann, Lars; Burdet, Pierre; Midgley, Paul A.; Butler, Simon; Mackley, Malcolm; Guo, Qixin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the availability of elaborate varieties of nanoparticles, their assembly into regular superstructures and photonic materials remains challenging. Here we show how flexible films of stacked polymer nanoparticles can be directly assembled in a roll-to-roll process using a bending-induced oscillatory shear technique. For sub-micron spherical nanoparticles, this gives elastomeric photonic crystals termed polymer opals showing extremely strong tunable structural colour. With oscillatory strain amplitudes of 300%, crystallization initiates at the wall and develops quickly across the bulk within only five oscillations. The resulting structure of random hexagonal close-packed layers is improved by shearing bidirectionally, alternating between two in-plane directions. Our theoretical framework indicates how the reduction in shear viscosity with increasing order of each layer accounts for these results, even when diffusion is totally absent. This general principle of shear ordering in viscoelastic media opens the way to manufacturable photonic materials, and forms a generic tool for ordering nanoparticles.

  14. LSSA large area silicon sheet task continuous Czochralski process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    A Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a premelter to provide molten silicon flow into the primary crucible. The basic furnace is operational and several trial crystals were grown in the batch mode. Numerous premelter configurations were tested both in laboratory-scale equipment as well as in the actual furnace. The best arrangement tested to date is a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing small fused silicon test tube liner in which the incoming silicon is melted and flows into the primary crucible. Economic modeling of the continuous Czochralski process indicates that for 10 cm diameter crystal, 100 kg furnace runs of four or five crystals each are near-optimal. Costs tend to asymptote at the 100 kg level so little additional cost improvement occurs at larger runs. For these conditions, crystal cost in equivalent wafer area of around $20/sq m exclusive of polysilicon and slicing was obtained.

  15. Assessing Enhanced Anaerobic and Intrinsic Aerobic Biodegradation of Trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, K. S.; Ely, R. L.; Martin, J. P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Kauffman, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    Biodegradation of chloroethenes can proceed either anaerobically or aerobically; however, the techniques for monitoring the two pathways are quite different. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN, a combination of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) is being employed for restoration of a large plume of contaminated groundwater. During stimulation of anaerobic biodegradation of TCE through lactate addition, several assessment tools have proven effective for various objectives. Monitoring TCE and its lesser chlorinated degradation products provides a straightforward assessment tool for the occurrence of degradation. It does not, however, provide information regarding the potential for reductive dechlorination, nor progress from less suitable to more suitable conditions. A technique for obtaining this information is monitoring redox-sensitive geochemical parameters such as dissolved iron, sulfate, methane, and oxidation-reduction potential. This approach was demonstrated by the strong correlation of steps in the reductive dechlorination pathway to redox conditions at the TAN site. Yet another tool is required to determine adequacy of conditions for efficient dechlorination. Dechlorination efficiency appears to be dependent upon the predominant electron donor utilization (or fermentation) process occurring at any given time, an observation consistent with thermodynamic considerations. Thus, monitoring of added electron donor and intermediate product concentrations can help determine an efficient operations strategy. One final tool demonstrated at the TAN site was monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios. As TCE was dechlorinated, a clear fractionation occurred from cis-dichloroethene to vinyl chloride, and from vinyl chloride to ethene. This fractionation provides a clear signature of reductive dechlorination. Assessment of aerobic biodegradation of chloroethenes at TAN is more challenging because

  16. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  17. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  18. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hao, W.; Wang, H. L.; Ning, T. T.; Yang, F. Y.; Xu, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR. PMID:25925059

  19. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  1. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  2. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  4. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  5. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  6. A model for the distributed storage and processing of large arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrota, P.; Pratt, T. W.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual model for parallel computations on large arrays is developed. The model provides a set of language concepts appropriate for processing arrays which are generally too large to fit in the primary memories of a multiprocessor system. The semantic model is used to represent arrays on a concurrent architecture in such a way that the performance realities inherent in the distributed storage and processing can be adequately represented. An implementation of the large array concept as an Ada package is also described.

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation of crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea; Zhang, Husen

    2016-03-15

    Cyclohexane and some of its derivatives have been a major concern because of their significant adverse human health effects and widespread occurrence in the environment. The 2014 West Virginia chemical spill has raised public attention to (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), one cyclohexane derivative, which is widely used in coal processing but largely ignored. In particular, the environmental fate of its primary components, cis- and trans-4-MCHM, remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the degradation kinetics and mineralization of cis- and trans-4-MCHM by sediment microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found the removal of cis- and trans-4-MCHM was mainly attributed to biodegradation with little contribution from sorption. A nearly complete aerobic degradation of 4-MCHM occurred within 14 days, whereas the anaerobic degradation was reluctant with residual percentages of 62.6% of cis-4-MCHM and 85.0% of trans-4-MCHM after 16-day incubation. The cis-4-MCHM was degraded faster than the trans under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an isomer-specific degradation could occur during the 4-MCHM degradation. Nitrate addition enhanced 4-MCHM mineralization by about 50% under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both cis- and trans-4-MCHM fit well with the first-order kinetic model with respective degradation rates of 0.46-0.52 and 0.19-0.31 day(-)(1) under aerobic condition. Respective degradation rates of 0.041-0.095 and 0.013-0.052 day(-)(1) occurred under anaerobic condition. One bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading 4-MCHM isomers was isolated from river sediments and identified as Bacillus pumilus at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 97% identity. Our findings will provide critical information for improving the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM and other cyclohexane derivatives with similar structure as well as enhancing the development of feasible treatment

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation of crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea; Zhang, Husen

    2016-03-15

    Cyclohexane and some of its derivatives have been a major concern because of their significant adverse human health effects and widespread occurrence in the environment. The 2014 West Virginia chemical spill has raised public attention to (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), one cyclohexane derivative, which is widely used in coal processing but largely ignored. In particular, the environmental fate of its primary components, cis- and trans-4-MCHM, remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the degradation kinetics and mineralization of cis- and trans-4-MCHM by sediment microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found the removal of cis- and trans-4-MCHM was mainly attributed to biodegradation with little contribution from sorption. A nearly complete aerobic degradation of 4-MCHM occurred within 14 days, whereas the anaerobic degradation was reluctant with residual percentages of 62.6% of cis-4-MCHM and 85.0% of trans-4-MCHM after 16-day incubation. The cis-4-MCHM was degraded faster than the trans under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an isomer-specific degradation could occur during the 4-MCHM degradation. Nitrate addition enhanced 4-MCHM mineralization by about 50% under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both cis- and trans-4-MCHM fit well with the first-order kinetic model with respective degradation rates of 0.46-0.52 and 0.19-0.31 day(-)(1) under aerobic condition. Respective degradation rates of 0.041-0.095 and 0.013-0.052 day(-)(1) occurred under anaerobic condition. One bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading 4-MCHM isomers was isolated from river sediments and identified as Bacillus pumilus at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 97% identity. Our findings will provide critical information for improving the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM and other cyclohexane derivatives with similar structure as well as enhancing the development of feasible treatment

  9. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  10. Development and Applications of a Modular Parallel Process for Large Scale Fluid/Structures Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Byun, Chansup; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular process that can efficiently solve large scale multidisciplinary problems using massively parallel super computers is presented. The process integrates disciplines with diverse physical characteristics by retaining the efficiency of individual disciplines. Computational domain independence of individual disciplines is maintained using a meta programming approach. The process integrates disciplines without affecting the combined performance. Results are demonstrated for large scale aerospace problems on several supercomputers. The super scalability and portability of the approach is demonstrated on several parallel computers.

  11. Development and Applications of a Modular Parallel Process for Large Scale Fluid/Structures Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A modular process that can efficiently solve large scale multidisciplinary problems using massively parallel supercomputers is presented. The process integrates disciplines with diverse physical characteristics by retaining the efficiency of individual disciplines. Computational domain independence of individual disciplines is maintained using a meta programming approach. The process integrates disciplines without affecting the combined performance. Results are demonstrated for large scale aerospace problems on several supercomputers. The super scalability and portability of the approach is demonstrated on several parallel computers.

  12. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  13. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  14. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  15. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    PubMed Central

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  16. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types.

  17. Ecotoxicity effects triggered in aquatic organisms by invasive Acer negundo and native Alnus glutinosa leaf leachates obtained in the process of aerobic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manusadžianas, Levonas; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Krevš, Alina; Kučinskienė, Alė; Mačkinaitė, Rimutė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Sendžikaitė, Jūratė; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2014-10-15

    The replacement of autochthonous tree species by invasive ones in coastal zones of freshwater bodies induces additional alteration of hydrochemical and microbiological characteristics due to decomposition of fallen leaves of non-indigenous species, which can lead to ecotoxic response of the littoral biota. Leaves of invasive to Lithuania boxelder maple (Acer negundo) and autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa) lost more than half of biomass and released stable amount of DOC (60-70 mg/L) throughout 90-day mesocosm experiment under aerobic conditions. This, along with the relatively small BOD7 values detected after some variation within the first month confirms effective biodegradation by fungi and bacteria. The ambient water was more enriched with different forms of N and P by decomposing boxelder maple than by alder leaves. During the first month, both leachates were more toxic to charophyte (Nitellopsis obtusa) at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while later to two crustacean species. Biomarker response, H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from N. obtusa, was stronger for A. negundo. Generally, boxelder maple leaf leachates were more toxic to tested hydrobionts and this coincides with previous study on leaves of the same pair of tree species conducted under microaerobic conditions (Krevš et al., 2013). PMID:25058932

  18. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process.

    PubMed

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  19. Ecotoxicity effects triggered in aquatic organisms by invasive Acer negundo and native Alnus glutinosa leaf leachates obtained in the process of aerobic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manusadžianas, Levonas; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Krevš, Alina; Kučinskienė, Alė; Mačkinaitė, Rimutė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Sendžikaitė, Jūratė; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2014-10-15

    The replacement of autochthonous tree species by invasive ones in coastal zones of freshwater bodies induces additional alteration of hydrochemical and microbiological characteristics due to decomposition of fallen leaves of non-indigenous species, which can lead to ecotoxic response of the littoral biota. Leaves of invasive to Lithuania boxelder maple (Acer negundo) and autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa) lost more than half of biomass and released stable amount of DOC (60-70 mg/L) throughout 90-day mesocosm experiment under aerobic conditions. This, along with the relatively small BOD7 values detected after some variation within the first month confirms effective biodegradation by fungi and bacteria. The ambient water was more enriched with different forms of N and P by decomposing boxelder maple than by alder leaves. During the first month, both leachates were more toxic to charophyte (Nitellopsis obtusa) at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while later to two crustacean species. Biomarker response, H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from N. obtusa, was stronger for A. negundo. Generally, boxelder maple leaf leachates were more toxic to tested hydrobionts and this coincides with previous study on leaves of the same pair of tree species conducted under microaerobic conditions (Krevš et al., 2013).

  20. Aerobic Granules: Microbial Landscape and Architecture, Stages, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In “old” granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters “rooting” from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  1. Removal of Pesticides and Inorganic Contaminants in Anaerobic and Aerobic Biological Contactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation contains data on the removal of pesticides (acetochlor, clethodim, dicrotophos), ammonia, nitrate, bromate and perchlorate through aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes.

  2. The Lomagundi Event Marks Post-Pasteur Point Evolution of Aerobic Respiration: A Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raub, T. D.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Nash, C. Z.; Raub, T. M.; Kopp, R. E.; Hilburn, I. A.

    2009-05-01

    All published early Earth carbon cycle models assume that aerobic respiration is as ancient as oxygenic photosynthesis. However, aerobic respiration shuts down at oxygen concentrations below the Pasteur Point, (.01 of the present atmospheric level, PAL). As geochemical processes are unable to produce even local oxygen concentrations above .001 PAL, it follows that aerobic respiration could only have evolved after oxygenic photosynthesis, implying a time gap. The evolution of oxygen reductase-utilizing metabolisms presumably would have occupied this interval. During this time the PS-II-generated free oxygen would have been largely unavailable for remineralization of dissolved organic carbon and so would have profoundly shifted the burial ratio of organic/inorganic carbon. We argue that the sequential geological record of the Makganyene (Snowball?) glaciation (2.3-2.22), the exessively aerobic Hekpoort and coeval paleosols, the Lomagundi-Jatuli carbon isotopic excursion (ending 2.056 Ga), and the deposition of concentrated, sedimentary organic carbon (shungite) mark this period of a profoundly unbalanced global carbon cycle. The Kopp et al. (2005) model for oxyatmoversion agrees with phylogenetic evidence for the radiation of cyanobacteria followed closely by the radiation of gram-negative lineages containing magnetotactic bacteria, which depend upon vertical oxygen gradients. These organisms include delta-Proteobacteria from which the mitochondrial ancestor originated. The Precambrian carbon cycle was rebalanced after a series of biological innovations allowed utilization of the high redox potential of free oxygen. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria required the evolution of a unique family of Fe-Cu oxidases, one of many factors contributing to the >210 Myr delay between the Makganyene deglaciation and the end of the Lomagundi-Jatuli event. We speculate that metalliferious fluids associated with the eruption of the Bushveld complex facilitated evolution of these

  3. Large-scale regional comparisons of ecosystem processes: Methods and approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Louis; Niquil, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale regional marine ecosystems can be compared for various processes that include their structure and biodiversity, functioning, services, and effects on biogeochemical processes. The comparisons can proceed from data up, or from conceptual models down, or from a combination of models and data. This study proposes a typology of methods and approaches that are currently used, or could possibly be used for making large-scale ecosystem comparisons. The various methods and approaches are illustrated with examples drawn from the literature.

  4. An Effective Methodology for Processing and Analyzing Large, Complex Spacecraft Data Streams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teymourlouei, Haydar

    2013-01-01

    The emerging large datasets have made efficient data processing a much more difficult task for the traditional methodologies. Invariably, datasets continue to increase rapidly in size with time. The purpose of this research is to give an overview of some of the tools and techniques that can be utilized to manage and analyze large datasets. We…

  5. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  6. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  8. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  9. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  10. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  11. Simple process for building large homogeneous adaptable retarders made from polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Delplancke, F; Sendrowicz, H; Bernaerd, R; Ebbeni, J

    1995-06-01

    A process for building large, homogeneous, adaptable retarders easily and at low cost is proposed and analyzed. This method is based on the properties of high polymers to present variable birefringence as a function of applied stresses and on the possibility of freezing these stresses inside the material by a thermal process. Various geometries for the applied forces make obtaining a large range of birefringence profiles possible. In the process that we describe composed bending leads to a linear birefringence profile. The superimposition of two pieces with identical profiles with opposite directions gives homogeneous constant retardation. This retardation can be adjusted by a relative displacement between the pieces. A precision of better than 1% over large areas (more than 3 cm in diameter) for a quarter-wave value has been obtained. The correct choice of material makes many applications possible with a large range of wavelengths.

  12. Breakage and growth towards a stable aerobic granule size during the treatment of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verawaty, Marieska; Tait, Stephan; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L

    2013-09-15

    To better understand granule growth and breakage processes in aerobic granular sludge systems, the particle size of aerobic granules was tracked over 50 days of wastewater treatment within four sequencing batch reactors fed with abattoir wastewater. These experiments tested a novel hypothesis stating that granules equilibrate to a certain stable granule size (the critical size) which is determined by the influence of process conditions on the relative rates of granule growth and granule breakage or attrition. For granules that are larger than the critical size, granule breakage and attrition outweighs granule growth, and causes an overall reduction in granule size. For granules at the critical size, the overall growth and size reduction processes are balanced, and granule size is stable. For granules that are smaller than the critical size, granule growth outweighs granule breakage and attrition, and causes an overall increase in granule size. The experimental reactors were seeded with mature granules that were either small, medium, or large sized, these having respective median granule sizes of 425 μm, 900 μm and 1125 μm. An additional reactor was seeded with a mixture of the sized granules to represent the original source of the granular sludge. The experimental results were analysed together with results of a previous granule formation study that used mixed seeding of granules and floccular sludge. The analysis supported the critical size hypothesis and showed that granules in the reactors did equilibrate towards a common critical size of around 600-800 μm. Accordingly, it is expected that aerobic granular reactors at steady-state operation are likely to have granule size distributions around a characteristic critical size. Additionally, the results support that maintaining a quantity of granules above a particular size is important for granule formation during start-up and for process stability of aerobic granule systems. Hence, biomass washout needs to be

  13. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  14. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  15. Small and large number processing in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Ansari, Daniel; Xu, Fei; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that typically developing 6-month-old infants are able to discriminate between small and large numerosities. However, discrimination between small numerosities in young infants is only possible when variables continuous with number (e.g. area or circumference) are confounded. In contrast, large number discrimination is successful even when variables continuous with number are systematically controlled for. These findings suggest the existence of different systems underlying small and large number processing in infancy. How do these develop in atypical syndromes? Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurocognitive developmental disorder in which numerical cognition has been found to be impaired in older children and adults. Do impairments of number processing have their origins in infancy? Here this question is investigated by testing the small and large number discrimination abilities of infants and toddlers with WS. While infants with WS were able to discriminate between 2 and 3 elements when total area was confounded with numerosity, the same infants did not discriminate between 8 and 16 elements, when number was not confounded with continuous variables. These findings suggest that a system for tracking the features of small numbers of object (object-file representation) may be functional in WS, while large number discrimination is impaired from an early age onwards. Finally, we argue that individual differences in large number processing in infancy are more likely than small number processing to be predictive of later development of numerical cognition.

  16. Medical Students Perceive Better Group Learning Processes when Large Classes Are Made to Seem Small

    PubMed Central

    Hommes, Juliette; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; de Grave, Willem; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Bos, Gerard M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Medical schools struggle with large classes, which might interfere with the effectiveness of learning within small groups due to students being unfamiliar to fellow students. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of making a large class seem small on the students' collaborative learning processes. Design A randomised controlled intervention study was undertaken to make a large class seem small, without the need to reduce the number of students enrolling in the medical programme. The class was divided into subsets: two small subsets (n = 50) as the intervention groups; a control group (n = 102) was mixed with the remaining students (the non-randomised group n∼100) to create one large subset. Setting The undergraduate curriculum of the Maastricht Medical School, applying the Problem-Based Learning principles. In this learning context, students learn mainly in tutorial groups, composed randomly from a large class every 6–10 weeks. Intervention The formal group learning activities were organised within the subsets. Students from the intervention groups met frequently within the formal groups, in contrast to the students from the large subset who hardly enrolled with the same students in formal activities. Main Outcome Measures Three outcome measures assessed students' group learning processes over time: learning within formally organised small groups, learning with other students in the informal context and perceptions of the intervention. Results Formal group learning processes were perceived more positive in the intervention groups from the second study year on, with a mean increase of β = 0.48. Informal group learning activities occurred almost exclusively within the subsets as defined by the intervention from the first week involved in the medical curriculum (E-I indexes>−0.69). Interviews tapped mainly positive effects and negligible negative side effects of the intervention. Conclusion Better group learning processes can be

  17. ANGEL program: Solution of large systems of linear differential equations describing nonstationary processes using CUDA technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moryakov, A. V. Pylyov, S. S.

    2012-12-15

    This paper presents the formulation of the problem and the methodical approach for solving large systems of linear differential equations describing nonstationary processes with the use of CUDA technology; this approach is implemented in the ANGEL program. Results for a test problem on transport of radioactive products over loops of a nuclear power plant are given. The possibilities for the use of the ANGEL program for solving various problems that simulate arbitrary nonstationary processes are discussed.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TOC removal from slaughterhouse wastewater using combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the operating costs of treating slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) using combined biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This study compares the performance and the treatment capability of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an aerated completely mixed activated sludge reactor (AS), and a UV/H2O2 process, as well as their combination for the removal of the total organic carbon (TOC). Overall efficiencies are found to be up to 75.22, 89.47, 94.53, 96.10, 96.36, and 99.98% for the UV/H2O2, ABR, AS, combined AS-ABR, combined ABR-AS, and combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes, respectively. Due to the consumption of electrical energy and reagents, operating costs are calculated at optimal conditions of each process. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is performed at optimal conditions for the SWW treatment by optimizing the total electricity cost, H2O2 consumption, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes have an optimal TOC removal of 92.46% at an HRT of 41 h, a cost of $1.25/kg of TOC removed, and $11.60/m(3) of treated SWW. This process reaches a maximum TOC removal of 99% in 76.5 h with an estimated cost of $2.19/kg TOC removal and $21.65/m(3) treated SWW, equivalent to $6.79/m(3) day.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TOC removal from slaughterhouse wastewater using combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the operating costs of treating slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) using combined biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This study compares the performance and the treatment capability of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an aerated completely mixed activated sludge reactor (AS), and a UV/H2O2 process, as well as their combination for the removal of the total organic carbon (TOC). Overall efficiencies are found to be up to 75.22, 89.47, 94.53, 96.10, 96.36, and 99.98% for the UV/H2O2, ABR, AS, combined AS-ABR, combined ABR-AS, and combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes, respectively. Due to the consumption of electrical energy and reagents, operating costs are calculated at optimal conditions of each process. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is performed at optimal conditions for the SWW treatment by optimizing the total electricity cost, H2O2 consumption, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes have an optimal TOC removal of 92.46% at an HRT of 41 h, a cost of $1.25/kg of TOC removed, and $11.60/m(3) of treated SWW. This process reaches a maximum TOC removal of 99% in 76.5 h with an estimated cost of $2.19/kg TOC removal and $21.65/m(3) treated SWW, equivalent to $6.79/m(3) day. PMID:24486468

  20. Large scale neural circuit mapping data analysis accelerated with the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yulin; Veidenbaum, Alexander V.; Nicolau, Alex; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern neuroscience research demands computing power. Neural circuit mapping studies such as those using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) produce large amounts of data and require intensive computation for post-hoc processing and analysis. New Method Here we report on the design and implementation of a cost-effective desktop computer system for accelerated experimental data processing with recent GPU computing technology. A new version of Matlab software with GPU enabled functions is used to develop programs that run on Nvidia GPUs to harness their parallel computing power. Results We evaluated both the central processing unit (CPU) and GPU-enabled computational performance of our system in benchmark testing and practical applications. The experimental results show that the GPU-CPU co-processing of simulated data and actual LSPS experimental data clearly outperformed the multi-core CPU with up to a 22x speedup, depending on computational tasks. Further, we present a comparison of numerical accuracy between GPU and CPU computation to verify the precision of GPU computation. In addition, we show how GPUs can be effectively adapted to improve the performance of commercial image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop. Comparison with Existing Method(s) To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GPU application in neural circuit mapping and electrophysiology-based data processing. Conclusions Together, GPU enabled computation enhances our ability to process large-scale data sets derived from neural circuit mapping studies, allowing for increased processing speeds while retaining data precision. PMID:25277633

  1. Science: The Salters' Approach--A Case Study of the Process of Large Scale Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bob; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the process of large scale curriculum development. Locates the projects and their development within the range of approaches advocated in science education and considers the practical decisions taken during the development in relation to theories of curriculum development and change. (ZWH)

  2. TRANSIENT ACCIDENT ANALYSIS OF THE GLOVEBOX SYSTEM IN A LARGE PROCESS ROOM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-01-11

    Local transient hydrogen concentrations were evaluated inside a large process room when the hydrogen gas was released by three postulated accident scenarios associated with the process tank leakage and fire leading to a loss of gas confinement. The three cases considered in this work were fire in a room, loss of confinement from a process tank, and loss of confinement coupled with fire event. Based on these accident scenarios in a large and unventilated process room, the modeling calculations of the hydrogen migration were performed to estimate local transient concentrations of hydrogen due to the sudden leakage and release from a glovebox system associated with the process tank. The modeling domain represented the major features of the process room including the principal release or leakage source of gas storage system. The model was benchmarked against the literature results for key phenomena such as natural convection, turbulent behavior, gas mixing due to jet entrainment, and radiation cooling because these phenomena are closely related to the gas driving mechanisms within a large air space of the process room. The modeling results showed that at the corner of the process room, the gas concentrations migrated by the Case 2 and Case 3 scenarios reached the set-point value of high activity alarm in about 13 seconds, while the Case 1 scenario takes about 90 seconds to reach the concentration. The modeling results were used to estimate transient radioactive gas migrations in an enclosed process room installed with high activity alarm monitor when the postulated leakage scenarios are initiated without room ventilation.

  3. A Large Bioactive BMP Ligand with Distinct Signaling Properties Is Produced by Alternative Proconvertase Processing

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takuya; Marqués, Guillermo; Wharton, Kristi A.

    2013-01-01

    Dimers of conventional transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands are composed of two 100– to 140–amino acid peptides that are produced through the proteolytic processing of a proprotein precursor by proconvertases, such as furin. We report the identification of an evolutionarily conserved furin processing site in the amino terminus (NS) of the Glass bottom boat (Gbb; the Drosophila ortholog of vertebrate BMP5, 6, and 7) proprotein that generates a 328–amino acid, active BMP ligand distinct from the conventional 130–amino acid ligand. Gbb38, the large ligand form of Gbb, exhibited greater signaling activity and a longer range than the shorter form Gbb15. The abundance of Gbb15 and Gbb38 varied among different tissues, raising the possibility that differential processing could account for tissue-specific behaviors of BMPs. In human populations, mutations that abolished the NS cleavage site in BMP4, BMP15, or anti-Müllerian hormone were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (BMP4), premature ovarian failure (BMP15), and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (anti-Müllerian hormone), suggesting the importance of NS processing during development. The identification of this large BMP ligand form and the functional differences between large and small ligands exemplifies the potential for differential proprotein processing to substantially affect BMP and TGF-β signaling output in different tissue and cellular contexts. PMID:22472650

  4. Structure/property development in aPET during large strain, solid phase polymer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter; Mohamed, Raja Roslan Raja

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous Polyethylene terephthalate (aPET) is increasingly of interest for the polymer packaging industry due to its blend of excellent mechanical properties and most importantly its ease of recyclability. Among the major commercial polymers it is almost unique in the degree of improvement in mechanical properties that can be obtained through process-induced strain. For many years these unique properties have been very successfully exploited in the injection stretch blow molding process, where it is deliberately stretched to very large strains using extremely high pressures. However, the material is now also being used in much lower pressure processes such as thermoforming where its properties are often not fully exploited. In this work the change in structure and properties of aPET with strain is systematically investigated using a high speed biaxial stretching machine. The aim was to demonstrate how the properties of the material could be controlled by large strain, high temperature biaxial stretching processes such as thermoforming and blow molding. The results show that property changes in the material are driven by orientation and the onset of rapid strain hardening at large strains. This in turn is shown to vary strongly with process-induced parameters such as the strain rate and the mode and magnitude of biaxial deformation.

  5. Complete nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater via partial nitrification by appropriately alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions in a continuous plug-flow step feed process.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Qiu, Shuang; Zhu, Ao; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-05-15

    This study assessed the technical feasibility of removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater by partial nitrification (nitritation) in a continuous plug-flow step feed process. Nitrite in the effluent accumulated to over 81.5  ± 9.2% but disappeared with the transition of process operation from anoxic/oxic mode to the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic mode. Batch tests showed obvious ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) stimulation (advanced ammonia oxidation rate) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria inhibition (reduced nitrite oxidation rate) under transient anoxic conditions. Two main factors contributed to nitritation in this continuous plug-flow process: One was the alternating anoxic and oxic operational condition; the step feed strategy guaranteed timely denitrification in anoxic zones, allowing a reduction in energy supply (nitrite) to NOB. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that NOB population gradually decreased to 1.0  ± 0.1% of the total bacterial population (dominant Nitrospira spp., 1.55 × 10(9) copies/L) while AOB increased approximately two-fold (7.4  ± 0.9%, 1.25 × 10(10) copies/L) during the above anoxic to anaerobic transition. Most importantly, without addition of external carbon sources, the above wastewater treatment process reached 86.0  ± 4.2% of total nitrogen (TN) removal with only 7.23 ± 2.31 mg/L of TN in the effluent, which met the discharge requirements. PMID:24602864

  6. Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

    2011-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log₁₀ TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the schemes with the lowest (5.6±4.7 log₁₀ cfu/ml) and highest (6.7±5.8 log₁₀ cfu/ml) recorded from Marirangwe and Nharira respectively. The mean log₁₀ of TBC of processed milk (6.6±6.0 log₁₀ cfu/ml) were marginally higher than those of raw milk (6.4±5.6 log₁₀ cfu/ml) but not significant (P>0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities

  7. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  8. Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using food waste (UFW) and effluents from acidogenic biohydrogen production process (FFW) were studied employing aerobic mixed culture as biocatalyst. Anoxic microenvironment documented higher PHA production, while aerobic microenvironment showed higher substrate degradation. FFW showed higher PHA accumulation (39.6%) than UFW (35.6%) due to ready availability of precursors (fatty acids). Higher fraction of poly-3-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) was observed compared to poly-3-hydroxy valerate (PHV) in the accumulated PHA in the form of co-polymer [P3(HB-co-HV)]. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Integration with fermentative biohydrogen production yielded additional substrate degradation under both aerobic (78%) and anoxic (72%) microenvironments apart from PHA production. Microbial community analysis documented the presence of aerobic and facultative organisms capable of producing PHA. Integration strategy showed feasibility of producing hydrogen along with PHA by consuming fatty acids generated during acidogenic process in association with increased treatment efficiency.

  9. Occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant employing anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic and UV processes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Sui, Qian; Lu, Shu-Guang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Qiu, Zhao-Fu; Miao, Zhou-Wei; Yu, Gang

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including caffeine (CF), N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), carbamazepine, metoprolol, trimethoprim (TMP), and sulpiride in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Shanghai, China were studied in January 2013; besides, grab samples of the influent were also taken every 6 h, to investigate the daily fluctuation of the wastewater influent. The results showed the concentrations of the investigated PPCPs ranged from 17 to 11,400 ng/L in the WWTP. A low variability of the PPCP concentrations in the wastewater influent throughout the day was observed, with the relative standard deviations less than 25 % for most samples. However, for TMP and CF, the slight daily fluctuation still reflected their consumption patterns. All the target compounds except CF and DEET, exhibited poor removal efficiencies (<40 %) by biological treatment process, probably due to the low temperature in the bioreactor, which was unfavorable for activated sludge. While for the two biodegradable PPCPs, CF, and DEET, the anaerobic and oxic tank made contributions to their removal while the anoxic tank had a negative effect to their elimination. The tertiary UV treatment removed the investigated PPCPs by 5-38 %, representing a crucial polishing step to compensate for the poor removal by the biologic treatment process in winter.

  10. Multi-stage evolution process of large scale landslides at the Patanpunas stream, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Lang; Lee, Kuo-Chen; Lo, Chia-Ming; Weng, Meng-Chia; Lee, Shun-Min

    2016-04-01

    This study used multi-temporal terrain and remote sensing images to investigate the geomorphological evolution of the Putanpunas stream caused by large-scale landslides over the last decade. We conducted an analysis of the landslides evolution process within the study area, which included a multi-temporal terrain analysis, remote sensing interpretation, surface displacement analysis, and mechanism investigation. By integrating the results from these analyses, we provided explanations for the topographic and geomorphologic action processes of the deep-seated landslides as well as the development of the potential collapsing mechanisms within the study area. Then, discrete element method was used to simulate the process of landslide movement and deposition. The results show that the evolution process of large-scale landslides in the Putanpunas stream can be divided into four stages, namely downcutting of the stream gully and decompression of the river gully in the early stage, creep and deformation of the rock slope, sliding surface development of the deformed bands in the rock strata, and movement of the sliding mass. The results of terrain analysis and interpretation show topographical changes in the alluvial fan downstream and the deposits in the midstream and downstream segments of the Putanpunas Stream between 2005 and 2009. In 2009, torrential rainfall induced large-scale landslides that greatly altered the terrain of the Putanpunas Stream and the alluvial fan. There still exists 7.2 × 107 m3 of unstable colluvium accumulated at the slope surface and stream gully within the upstream and midstream areas. In 2012, further large-scale landslides turned the colluvial layer into debris flows that cut across the Ryukyu Terraces downstream to the downstream segment of the Laonong Stream to the southwest. This greatly changed later debris flows and alluvial fan deposits. Key Words: large-scale landslides, multi-temporal terrain, remote sensing, discrete element method

  11. Aerobic biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment of a phenolic wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Lin; Weber, A.S. )

    1992-05-01

    Organic removal rates achieved in the aerobic BAC process were comparable to rates typically reported for traditional aerobic fixed-film systems. When operated at organic loading rates lower than 0.03 g COD/g GAC-d and air as the oxygen source, greater than 90% COD removal and 99% phenol removal was achieved. At higher organic loading rates, oxygen limitations resulted in less than optimal performance. Observed oxygen limitations were mitigated by the use of pure oxygen. Long-term stability of operation of the BAC process was excellent with one aerobic BAC column operated under the same conditions in excess of 260 days. During that time, consistent column performance was achieved without the need to provide supplemental carbon or carbon regeneration. System biomass yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 g VSS/g COD removed and increased with effluent COD concentration.

  12. Efficient development and processing of thermal math models of very large space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Andrew H.; Arelt, Joseph E.; Lalicata, Anthony L.

    1993-01-01

    As the spacecraft moves along the orbit, the truss members are subjected to direct and reflected solar, albedo and planetary infra-red (IR) heating rates, as well as IR heating and shadowing from other spacecraft components. This is a transient process with continuously changing heating loads and the shadowing effects. The resulting nonuniform temperature distribution may cause nonuniform thermal expansion, deflection and stress in the truss elements, truss warping and thermal distortions. There are three challenges in the thermal-structural analysis of the large truss structures. The first is the development of the thermal and structural math models, the second - model processing, and the third - the data transfer between the models. All three tasks require considerable time and computer resources to be done because of a very large number of components involved. To address these challenges a series of techniques of automated thermal math modeling and efficient processing of very large space truss structures were developed. In the process the finite element and finite difference methods are interfaced. A very substantial reduction of the quantity of computations was achieved while assuring a desired accuracy of the results. The techniques are illustrated on the thermal analysis of a segment of the Space Station main truss.

  13. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  14. Aerobic Activity in Prevention & Symptom Control of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Semanik, Pamela; Chang, Rowland W.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 27 million US adults suffer from some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the US over the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis. The focus of this review is to examine the impact of aerobic activity on OA progression and symptom control. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for those with lower limb OA; although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes is unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials in knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which has independently been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including OA incidence and progression. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning. PMID:22632701

  15. Aerobic activity in prevention and symptom control of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semanik, Pamela A; Chang, Rowland W; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2012-05-01

    Almost 27 million adults in the United States experience some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the United States during the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee OA. Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip OA. The focus of this review is on the impact of aerobic activity on the progression and symptom control of OA. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for persons with lower limb OA, although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes are unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials for persons with knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which independently has been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including the incidence and progression of OA. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning.

  16. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  17. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge from the effluent of a vegetable oil processing plant mixed with household waste: physical-chemical, microbiological, and spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Abouelwafa, Rajae; Ait Baddi, Ghita; Souabi, Salah; Winterton, Peter; Cegarra, Juan; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2008-12-01

    Sludge from a sewage treatment plant dealing with the effluent produced during the processing of crude vegetable oil (Lesieur-Cristal, Morocco) was composted in two mixtures (M1 and M2) with household waste obtained from landfill. The different physico-chemical characteristics of the final composts after 5 months of composting were, for M1 and M2, respectively: pH: 8.5 and 7.08; C/N: 10 and 16; proportion of decomposition: 78% and 55%, NH(4)(+)/NO(3)(-): 0.78 and 1.02. Monitoring the levels of lipid and total polyphenols showed a reduction of 81% and 72% for lipids and of 75% and 76% for polyphenols in M1 and M2, respectively. These reductions were paralleled by a rise in the humic acid content to reach 22 and 36mg/g, respectively. Overall, these results were confirmed by the FTIR spectroscopy study of the two mixtures. For M1, the FTIR spectra taken at different stages showed that during composting, biodegradation of the aliphatic compounds occurred as the proportion of aromatic structures increased. The transformations observed qualitatively were then confirmed quantitatively by the changes occurring in the various absorption ratios during composting. Mixture M2, however, presented strong absorbance of aliphatic compounds. These results were statistically confirmed by correlation tests and principal components analysis, which confirmed the maturity of the two composts, M1 having matured more than M2.

  18. Measurement of large aspherical mirrors using coordinate measurement machine during the grinding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongwei; Kuang, Long; Fan, Tianquan; Cao, Xuedong

    2006-02-01

    A new method has been developed to measure large aspherical mirrors accurately, quickly, and economically by using CMM (coordinate measurement machine). By using CMM to get the 3D coordinates of the actual points on the large aspherical mirrors and make bestfitting of actual surface and nominal surface, we can evaluate the surface of the large aspherical mirrors. It costs only 2 hours to measure an aspherical mirror with diameter larger than 1000mm. The results show good agreement with the results measured by Hartmann-Shack interferometer. Using this method, we can supervise the profile error to less than 5 μm PV during the grinding process. All the aspherical mirrors with dimensions within the range of the machine can be measured.

  19. Load Shedding Scheme in Large Pulp Mill by Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, H. H.; Kok, B. C.; Lee, S. W.; Zin, A. A. Mohd.

    2011-06-01

    Pulp mill is one of the heavy industries that consumes large amount of electricity in its production. In particular, the breakdown of the generator would cause other generators to be overloaded. Thus, load shedding scheme is the best way in handling such condition. Selected load will be shed under this scheme in order to protect the generators from being damaged. In the meantime, the subsequence loads will be shed until the generators are sufficient to provide the power to other loads. In order to determine the sequences of load shedding scheme, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is introduced. Analytic Hierarchy Process is one of the multi-criteria decision making methods. By using this method, the priority of the load can be determined. This paper presents the theory of the alternative methods to choose the load priority in load shedding scheme for a large pulp mill.

  20. A mesh density study for application to large deformation rolling process evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    When addressing large deformation through an elastic-plastic analysis the mesh density is paramount in determining the accuracy of the solution. However, given the nonlinear nature of the problem, a highly-refined mesh will generally require a prohibitive amount of computer resources. This paper addresses finite element mesh optimization studies considering accuracy of results and computer resource needs as applied to large deformation rolling processes. In particular, the simulation of the thread rolling manufacturing process is considered using the MARC software package and a Cray C90 supercomputer. Both mesh density and adaptive meshing on final results for both indentation of a rigid body to a specified depth and contact rolling along a predetermined length are evaluated.

  1. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  2. Process virtualization of large-scale lidar data in a cloud computing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Zhong, Liang; Yongtao, Yu; Chapman, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Light detection and ranging (lidar) technologies have proven to be the most powerful tools to collect, within a short time, three-dimensional (3-D) point clouds with high-density, high-accuracy and significantly detailed surface information pertaining to terrain and objects. However, in terms of feature extraction and 3-D reconstruction in a computer-aided drawing (CAD) format, most of the existing stand-alone lidar data processing software packages are unable to process a large volume of lidar data in an effective and efficient fashion. To break this technical bottleneck, through the design of a Condor-based process virtualization platform, we presented in this paper a novel strategy that uses network-related computational resources to process, manage, and distribute vast quantities of lidar data in a cloud computing environment. Three extensive experiments with and without a cloud computing environment were compared. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed process virtualization approach is promisingly applicable and effective in the management of large-scale lidar point clouds.

  3. Microarray Data Processing Techniques for Genome-Scale Network Inference from Large Public Repositories.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sriram; Aluru, Maneesha; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-09-19

    Pre-processing of microarray data is a well-studied problem. Furthermore, all popular platforms come with their own recommended best practices for differential analysis of genes. However, for genome-scale network inference using microarray data collected from large public repositories, these methods filter out a considerable number of genes. This is primarily due to the effects of aggregating a diverse array of experiments with different technical and biological scenarios. Here we introduce a pre-processing pipeline suitable for inferring genome-scale gene networks from large microarray datasets. We show that partitioning of the available microarray datasets according to biological relevance into tissue- and process-specific categories significantly extends the limits of downstream network construction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our pre-processing pipeline by inferring genome-scale networks for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using two different construction methods and a collection of 11,760 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray chips. Our pre-processing pipeline and the datasets used in this paper are made available at http://alurulab.cc.gatech.edu/microarray-pp.

  4. Microarray Data Processing Techniques for Genome-Scale Network Inference from Large Public Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Sriram; Aluru, Maneesha; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Pre-processing of microarray data is a well-studied problem. Furthermore, all popular platforms come with their own recommended best practices for differential analysis of genes. However, for genome-scale network inference using microarray data collected from large public repositories, these methods filter out a considerable number of genes. This is primarily due to the effects of aggregating a diverse array of experiments with different technical and biological scenarios. Here we introduce a pre-processing pipeline suitable for inferring genome-scale gene networks from large microarray datasets. We show that partitioning of the available microarray datasets according to biological relevance into tissue- and process-specific categories significantly extends the limits of downstream network construction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our pre-processing pipeline by inferring genome-scale networks for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using two different construction methods and a collection of 11,760 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray chips. Our pre-processing pipeline and the datasets used in this paper are made available at http://alurulab.cc.gatech.edu/microarray-pp. PMID:27657141

  5. Microarray Data Processing Techniques for Genome-Scale Network Inference from Large Public Repositories.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sriram; Aluru, Maneesha; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Pre-processing of microarray data is a well-studied problem. Furthermore, all popular platforms come with their own recommended best practices for differential analysis of genes. However, for genome-scale network inference using microarray data collected from large public repositories, these methods filter out a considerable number of genes. This is primarily due to the effects of aggregating a diverse array of experiments with different technical and biological scenarios. Here we introduce a pre-processing pipeline suitable for inferring genome-scale gene networks from large microarray datasets. We show that partitioning of the available microarray datasets according to biological relevance into tissue- and process-specific categories significantly extends the limits of downstream network construction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our pre-processing pipeline by inferring genome-scale networks for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using two different construction methods and a collection of 11,760 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray chips. Our pre-processing pipeline and the datasets used in this paper are made available at http://alurulab.cc.gatech.edu/microarray-pp. PMID:27657141

  6. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  7. Detecting biotic and hydrogeochemical processes in large peat basins with Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was made of three large peat basins in boreal North America with Landsat TM imagery and field sampling. False-color composites composed of Bands 2, 3, and 4 are particularly effective in discriminating the major vegetation types and the important hydrogeochemical processes in these peatlands. This imagery indicates that the discharge of alkaline groundwater provides one of the most important regional and local controls on peatland development.

  8. Large Data at Small Universities: Astronomical processing using a computer classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Nathaniel James; Clarkson, William I.; Fluharty, Bill; Belanger, Zach; Dage, Kristen

    2016-06-01

    The use of large computing clusters for astronomy research is becoming more commonplace as datasets expand, but access to these required resources is sometimes difficult for research groups working at smaller Universities. As an alternative to purchasing processing time on an off-site computing cluster, or purchasing dedicated hardware, we show how one can easily build a crude on-site cluster by utilizing idle cycles on instructional computers in computer-lab classrooms. Since these computers are maintained as part of the educational mission of the University, the resource impact on the investigator is generally low.By using open source Python routines, it is possible to have a large number of desktop computers working together via a local network to sort through large data sets. By running traditional analysis routines in an “embarrassingly parallel” manner, gains in speed are accomplished without requiring the investigator to learn how to write routines using highly specialized methodology. We demonstrate this concept here applied to 1. photometry of large-format images and 2. Statistical significance-tests for X-ray lightcurve analysis. In these scenarios, we see a speed-up factor which scales almost linearly with the number of cores in the cluster. Additionally, we show that the usage of the cluster does not severely limit performance for a local user, and indeed the processing can be performed while the computers are in use for classroom purposes.

  9. Intrusive LIPs: Deep crustal magmatic processes during the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M. A.; Karlstrom, L.

    2011-12-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are characterized by magmatic activity on two distinct timescales. While these provinces have total active lifetimes of order 10-30 Ma, most of the erupted volume is emplaced within <1 Ma in many cases. The latter timescale is likely controlled by magmatic intrusion/evolution processes within the deep crust. We present seismic evidence for 5-15 km thick Moho-level ultramafic intrusive/cumulate layers underlying Phanerozoic LIPs worldwide [Ridley and Richards, 2010]. These deep crustal bodies are both observed and predicted to have volumes at least as large as the extrusive components of flood volcanism. The evidence for these layers is particularly clear for oceanic LIPs (plateaus). We hypothesize that thermally activated creep of the lower crust due to magma chamber emplacement controls a transition from largely extrusive to largely intrusive magmatism during mantle plume impingement on the lithosphere [Karlstrom and Richards, 2011]. We explore this hypothesis by modeling the thermomechanical evolution of Moho-level magma chambers. Comparing the timescale for viscoelastic relaxation of intrusion-related stresses with the timescale for sill formation and magma differentiation, we find that fracture processes leading to diking from Moho levels may plausibly be shut off on a timescale of ~1 Ma. Continued melt influx therefore results in intrusive magmatism, which may be manifest as plateau growth in oceanic settings. We suggest that maximum intrusion size may be limited by crustal thickness, resulting in smaller volume individual eruptions in oceanic versus continental LIPs.

  10. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-08-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  11. Removal of the anti-cancer drug methotrexate from water by advanced oxidation processes: Aerobic biodegradation and toxicity studies after treatment.

    PubMed

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Baginska, Ewelina; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Anti-cancer drugs are discussed as high risk substances in regard to human health and considered as problematic for the environment. They are of potential environmental relevance due to their poor biodegradability and toxicological properties. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolite that was introduced in the pharmaceutical market in the 40's and still today is one of the most consumed cytotoxic compounds around the world. In the present study MTX was only partially biodegraded in the closed bottle test (CBT). Therefore, it was submitted to three different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. The irradiation was carried out with a Hg medium-pressure lamp during 256min whereas the analytical monitoring was done through LC-UV-MS/MS and DOC analysis. MTX was easily removed in all the irradiation experiments, while the highest mineralization values and rates were achieved by the UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 treatment. The lowest resulted from the UV/H2O2 reactions. The UV/H2O2 treatment resulted in little biodegradable transformation products (TPs). However, the same treatment resulted in a reduction of the toxicity of MTX by forming less toxic TPs. Analysis by LC-UV-MS/MS revealed the existence of nine TPs formed during the photo-catalytic treatments. The pH of the solutions decreased from 6.4 (t 0min) to 5.15 in the UV/H2O2 and from 6.4 (t 0min) to 5.9 in the UV/TiO2 at the end of the experiments. The initial pH of the UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 experiments was adjusted to 5 and after the addition of H2O2 the pH decreased to around 3 and remained in this range until the end of the treatments.

  12. Description and capabilities of the large-scale in situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Carter, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An emerging thermal treatment process known as in situ vitrification is being developed to immobilize selected portions of radioactively contaminated soils. The process is a permanent remedial action that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides and heavy metals into a glass and crystalline form. The process's flexibility in design and broad capabilities make it potentially adaptable to mixed and chemical wastes, as well. The process consists of an electrical power system for vitrifying contaminated soil, a hood to contain gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. The process is mounted in three transportable trailers that can be easily moved from site to site. The process is capable of treating contaminated soils at least 13 m deep. The system components are designed to accommodate waste inclusions in the soil such as metals, combustibles, and large voids. Selectively applied to the more troublesome radioactively contaminated soils, in situ vitrification provides a potentially useful and permanent tool for remedial action.

  13. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  14. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    PubMed

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p < 0.001). AV is a common cause of vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  15. Solution-processible fabrication of large-area patterned and unpatterned gold nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Hongmei; Feng, Shengfei

    2009-10-21

    Solution-processible fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures using colloidal gold nanoparticles has proven its advantages not only in its simplicity, low cost, high speed, and high flexibility, but also in the realization of some nanoscale optoelectronic devices that cannot be achieved by conventional methods. We demonstrate in this paper a variety of techniques for fabricating different plasmonic nanostructures using solution-processible gold nanoparticles and differently designed annealing processes. Using interference lithography and low- (<300 degrees Celsius) or high-temperature (>350 degrees Celsius) annealing processes, we succeeded in fabricating high-quality one- and two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals which exhibit promising optical responses for the exploration of new optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, using direct high-temperature (>350 degrees Celsius) annealing of a thin film of colloidal gold nanoparticles, we succeeded in fabricating large-area unpatterned isolated gold nano-island structures with a mean diameter tunable from about 35 to 100 nm and a mean height from 20 to 70 nm by controlling the concentration of the gold nanoparticle colloid, the annealing temperature, and the surface properties of the substrate. The corresponding optical response is thus tunable in the visible spectral range by changing the fabrication parameters. This introduces a new lithography-free technique for the preparation of gold nanostructures. These flexible fabrication techniques constitute a systematic route for the realization of plasmonic nanodevices.

  16. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  17. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  18. An automated workflow for parallel processing of large multiview SPIM recordings

    PubMed Central

    Schmied, Christopher; Steinbach, Peter; Pietzsch, Tobias; Preibisch, Stephan; Tomancak, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM) allows to image developing organisms in 3D at unprecedented temporal resolution over long periods of time. The resulting massive amounts of raw image data requires extensive processing interactively via dedicated graphical user interface (GUI) applications. The consecutive processing steps can be easily automated and the individual time points can be processed independently, which lends itself to trivial parallelization on a high performance computing (HPC) cluster. Here, we introduce an automated workflow for processing large multiview, multichannel, multiillumination time-lapse SPIM data on a single workstation or in parallel on a HPC cluster. The pipeline relies on snakemake to resolve dependencies among consecutive processing steps and can be easily adapted to any cluster environment for processing SPIM data in a fraction of the time required to collect it. Availability and implementation: The code is distributed free and open source under the MIT license http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT. The source code can be downloaded from github: https://github.com/mpicbg-scicomp/snakemake-workflows. Documentation can be found here: http://fiji.sc/Automated_workflow_for_parallel_Multiview_Reconstruction. Contact: schmied@mpi-cbg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26628585

  19. Forecast of Large Earthquakes Through Semi-periodicity Analysis of Labeled Point Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinteros Cartaya, C. B.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Glowacka, E.; Gómez Treviño, E.; Dmowska, R.

    2016-08-01

    Large earthquakes have semi-periodic behavior as a result of critically self-organized processes of stress accumulation and release in seismogenic regions. Hence, large earthquakes in a given region constitute semi-periodic sequences with recurrence times varying slightly from periodicity. In previous papers, it has been shown that it is possible to identify these sequences through Fourier analysis of the occurrence time series of large earthquakes from a given region, by realizing that not all earthquakes in the region need belong to the same sequence, since there can be more than one process of stress accumulation and release in the region. Sequence identification can be used to forecast earthquake occurrence with well determined confidence bounds. This paper presents improvements on the above mentioned sequence identification and forecasting method: the influence of earthquake size on the spectral analysis, and its importance in semi-periodic events identification are considered, which means that earthquake occurrence times are treated as a labeled point process; a revised estimation of non-randomness probability is used; a better estimation of appropriate upper limit uncertainties to use in forecasts is introduced; and the use of Bayesian analysis to evaluate the posterior forecast performance is applied. This improved method was successfully tested on synthetic data and subsequently applied to real data from some specific regions. As an example of application, we show the analysis of data from the northeastern Japan Arc region, in which one semi-periodic sequence of four earthquakes with M ≥ 8.0, having high non-randomness probability was identified. We compare the results of this analysis with those of the unlabeled point process analysis.

  20. Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E.

    2010-06-01

    Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics.

  1. Hallucal grasping in Nycticebus coucang: further implications for the functional significance of a large peroneal process.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Amanda K; Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    Euprimate grasping feet are characterized by a suite of morphological traits, including an enlarged peroneal process on the base of the first metatarsal, which serves as the insertion site of the peroneus longus muscle. In prosimians, a large process has typically been associated with a powerful hallucal grasp via the contraction of the peroneus longus to adduct the hallux. Recent electromyography (EMG) studies have documented that peroneus longus does not contribute substantially to hallucal grasping in lemurids (Boyer et al., 2007). However, non-lemurid prosimians have a I-V opposable grasp complex that is morphologically different and phylogenetically more primitive than the I-II adductor grasp complex of the lemurids previously studied. Therefore, it is possible that peroneus longus did function during grasping in early euprimates, but lost this function in large-bodied lemurids. The present study tests the hypothesis that a large peroneal process is related to powerful grasping ability in primates displaying the more primitive I-V grasp complex. We use EMG to evaluate the recruitment of peroneus longus, other crural muscles, and adductor hallucis in static and locomotor grasping activities of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Results show that peroneus longus is active during grasping behaviors that require the subject to actively resist inversion of the foot, and likely contributes to a hallucal grasp in these activities. Peroneus longus activity level does not differ between grasping and power grasping activities, nor does it differ between grasping and non-grasping locomotor modes. Conversely, the digital flexors and hallucal adductor are recruited at higher levels during power grasping and grasping locomotor modes. Consequently, we reject the hypothesis that an enlarged peroneal process represents an adaptation specifically to enhance the power of the I-V grasp, but accept that the muscle likely plays a role in adducting the hallux during grasping

  2. Hallucal grasping in Nycticebus coucang: further implications for the functional significance of a large peroneal process.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Amanda K; Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    Euprimate grasping feet are characterized by a suite of morphological traits, including an enlarged peroneal process on the base of the first metatarsal, which serves as the insertion site of the peroneus longus muscle. In prosimians, a large process has typically been associated with a powerful hallucal grasp via the contraction of the peroneus longus to adduct the hallux. Recent electromyography (EMG) studies have documented that peroneus longus does not contribute substantially to hallucal grasping in lemurids (Boyer et al., 2007). However, non-lemurid prosimians have a I-V opposable grasp complex that is morphologically different and phylogenetically more primitive than the I-II adductor grasp complex of the lemurids previously studied. Therefore, it is possible that peroneus longus did function during grasping in early euprimates, but lost this function in large-bodied lemurids. The present study tests the hypothesis that a large peroneal process is related to powerful grasping ability in primates displaying the more primitive I-V grasp complex. We use EMG to evaluate the recruitment of peroneus longus, other crural muscles, and adductor hallucis in static and locomotor grasping activities of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Results show that peroneus longus is active during grasping behaviors that require the subject to actively resist inversion of the foot, and likely contributes to a hallucal grasp in these activities. Peroneus longus activity level does not differ between grasping and power grasping activities, nor does it differ between grasping and non-grasping locomotor modes. Conversely, the digital flexors and hallucal adductor are recruited at higher levels during power grasping and grasping locomotor modes. Consequently, we reject the hypothesis that an enlarged peroneal process represents an adaptation specifically to enhance the power of the I-V grasp, but accept that the muscle likely plays a role in adducting the hallux during grasping

  3. Leveraging human oversight and intervention in large-scale parallel processing of open-source data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Enrico; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.

    2015-05-01

    The popularity of cloud computing along with the increased availability of cheap storage have led to the necessity of elaboration and transformation of large volumes of open-source data, all in parallel. One way to handle such extensive volumes of information properly is to take advantage of distributed computing frameworks like Map-Reduce. Unfortunately, an entirely automated approach that excludes human intervention is often unpredictable and error prone. Highly accurate data processing and decision-making can be achieved by supporting an automatic process through human collaboration, in a variety of environments such as warfare, cyber security and threat monitoring. Although this mutual participation seems easily exploitable, human-machine collaboration in the field of data analysis presents several challenges. First, due to the asynchronous nature of human intervention, it is necessary to verify that once a correction is made, all the necessary reprocessing is done in chain. Second, it is often needed to minimize the amount of reprocessing in order to optimize the usage of resources due to limited availability. In order to improve on these strict requirements, this paper introduces improvements to an innovative approach for human-machine collaboration in the processing of large amounts of open-source data in parallel.

  4. Applying Convolution-Based Processing Methods To A Dual-Channel, Large Array Artificial Olfactory Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. E.; Che Harun, F. K.; Covington, J. A.; Gardner, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Our understanding of the human olfactory system, particularly with respect to the phenomenon of nasal chromatography, has led us to develop a new generation of novel odour-sensitive instruments (or electronic noses). This novel instrument is in need of new approaches to data processing so that the information rich signals can be fully exploited; here, we apply a novel time-series based technique for processing such data. The dual-channel, large array artificial olfactory mucosa consists of 3 arrays of 300 sensors each. The sensors are divided into 24 groups, with each group made from a particular type of polymer. The first array is connected to the other two arrays by a pair of retentive columns. One channel is coated with Carbowax 20 M, and the other with OV-1. This configuration partly mimics the nasal chromatography effect, and partly augments it by utilizing not only polar (mucus layer) but also non-polar (artificial) coatings. Such a device presents several challenges to multi-variate data processing: a large, redundant dataset, spatio-temporal output, and small sample space. By applying a novel convolution approach to this problem, it has been demonstrated that these problems can be overcome. The artificial mucosa signals have been classified using a probabilistic neural network and gave an accuracy of 85%. Even better results should be possible through the selection of other sensors with lower correlation.

  5. Aerobic Glycolysis in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Emel; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblasts, the chief bone-making cells in the body, are a focus of osteoporosis research. Although teriparatite, a synthetic fragment of the human parathyroid hormone (PTH), has been an effective bone anabolic drug, there remains a clinical need for additional therapeutics that safely stimulates osteoblast number and function. Work in the past several decades has provided unprecedented clarity about the roles of growth factors and transcription factors in regulating osteoblast differentiation and activity, but whether these factors may regulate cellular metabolism to influence cell fate and function has been largely unexplored. The past few years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the cellular metabolism of osteoblasts, with the hope that elucidation of their metabolic profile may open new avenues for developing bone anabolic agents. Here we review the current understanding about glucose metabolism in osteoblasts. PMID:25200872

  6. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  7. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  8. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  9. The large impact process inferred from the geology of lunar multiring basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of the impact process has been inferred through the study of the geology of a wide variety of impact crater types and sizes. Some of the largest craters known are the multiring basins found in ancient terrains of the terrestrial planets. Of these features, those found on the Moon possess the most extensive and diverse data coverage, including morphological, geochemical, geophysical, and sample data. The study of the geology of lunar basins over the past 10 years has given us a rudimentary understanding of how these large structures have formed and evolved. The topics covered include basin morphology, basin ejecta, basin excavation, and basin ring formation.

  10. Organizing the Extremely Large LSST Database forReal-Time Astronomical Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jacek; Lim, Kian-Tat; Monkewitz, Serge; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Thakar, Ani; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-11-07

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will catalog billions of astronomical objects and trillions of sources, all of which will be stored and managed by a database management system. One of the main challenges is real-time alert generation. To generate alerts, up to 100K new difference detections have to be cross-correlated with the huge historical catalogs, and then further processed to prune false alerts. This paper explains the challenges, the implementation of the LSST Association Pipeline and the database organization strategies we are planning to use to meet the real-time requirements, including data partitioning, parallelization, and pre-loading.

  11. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    PubMed

    Stothart, Cary R; Simons, Daniel J; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking) interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning) for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains). These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  12. Bathymetric comparisons adjacent to the Louisiana barrier islands: Processes of large-scale change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, J.H.; Jaffe, B.E.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Hansen, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a comparative bathymetric study encompassing 150 km of the Louisiana barrier-island coast. Bathymetric data surrounding the islands and extending to 12 m water depth were processed from three survey periods: the 1880s, the 1930s, and the 1980s. Digital comparisons between surveys show large-scale, coherent patterns of sea-floor erosion and accretion related to the rapid erosion and disintegration of the islands. Analysis of the sea-floor data reveals two primary processes driving this change: massive longshore transport, in the littoral zone and at shoreface depths; and increased sediment storage in ebb-tidal deltas. Relative sea-level rise, although extraordinarily high in the study area, is shown to be an indirect factor in causing the area's rapid shoreline retreat rates.

  13. Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuka, H.; Yamano, A.; Uchiyama, H.; Takahashi, M.; Fukui, T.; Yoki, M.; Akase, T.

    2012-01-01

    A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

  14. Functional traits reveal processes driving natural afforestation at large spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Mason, Norman W H; Wiser, Susan K; Richardson, Sarah J; Thorsen, Michael J; Holdaway, Robert J; Dray, Stéphane; Thomson, Fiona J; Carswell, Fiona E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the processes governing natural afforestation over large spatial scales is vital for enhancing forest carbon sequestration. Models of tree species occurrence probability in non-forest vegetation could potentially identify the primary variables determining natural afforestation. However, inferring processes governing afforestation using tree species occurrence is potentially problematic, since it is impossible to know whether observed occurrences are due to recruitment or persistence of existing trees following disturbance. Plant functional traits have the potential to reveal the processes by which key environmental and land cover variables influence afforestation. We used 10,061 survey plots to identify the primary environmental and land cover variables influencing tree occurrence probability in non-forest vegetation in New Zealand. We also examined how these variables influenced diversity of functional traits linked to plant ecological strategy and dispersal ability. Mean annual temperature was the most important environmental predictor of tree occurrence. Local woody cover and distance to forest were the most important land cover variables. Relationships between these variables and ecological strategy traits revealed a trade-off between ability to compete for light and colonize sites that were marginal for tree occurrence. Biotically dispersed species occurred less frequently with declining temperature and local woody cover, suggesting that abiotic stress limited their establishment and that biotic dispersal did not increase ability to colonize non-woody vegetation. Functional diversity for ecological strategy traits declined with declining temperature and woody cover and increasing distance to forest. Functional diversity for dispersal traits showed the opposite trend. This suggests that low temperatures and woody cover and high distance to forest may limit tree species establishment through filtering on ecological strategy traits, but not on

  15. Breeding and Genetics Symposium: really big data: processing and analysis of very large data sets.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Newman, S; Foertter, F; Aguilar, I; Coffey, M

    2012-03-01

    15 m. Large data sets also create challenges for the delivery of genetic evaluations that must be overcome in a way that does not disrupt the transition from conventional to genomic evaluations. Processing time is important, especially as real-time systems for on-farm decisions are developed. The ultimate value of these systems is to decrease time-to-results in research, increase accuracy in genomic evaluations, and accelerate rates of genetic improvement. PMID:22100598

  16. Breeding and Genetics Symposium: really big data: processing and analysis of very large data sets.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Newman, S; Foertter, F; Aguilar, I; Coffey, M

    2012-03-01

    15 m. Large data sets also create challenges for the delivery of genetic evaluations that must be overcome in a way that does not disrupt the transition from conventional to genomic evaluations. Processing time is important, especially as real-time systems for on-farm decisions are developed. The ultimate value of these systems is to decrease time-to-results in research, increase accuracy in genomic evaluations, and accelerate rates of genetic improvement.

  17. Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories and nonlinear random processes

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P. V.

    2011-02-15

    We propose a stochastic method for solving Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories. Expectation values of single-trace operators are sampled by stationary probability distributions of the so-called nonlinear random processes. The set of all the histories of such processes corresponds to the set of all planar diagrams in the perturbative expansions of the expectation values of singlet operators. We illustrate the method on examples of the matrix-valued scalar field theory and the Weingarten model of random planar surfaces on the lattice. For theories with compact field variables, such as sigma models or non-Abelian lattice gauge theories, the method does not converge in the physically most interesting weak-coupling limit. In this case one can absorb the divergences into a self-consistent redefinition of expansion parameters. A stochastic solution of the self-consistency conditions can be implemented as a 'memory' of the random process, so that some parameters of the process are estimated from its previous history. We illustrate this idea on the two-dimensional O(N) sigma model. The extension to non-Abelian lattice gauge theories is discussed.

  18. Research on the drawing process with a large total deformation wires of AZ31 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajor, T.; Muskalski, Z.; Suliga, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magnesium and their alloys have been extensively studied in recent years, not only because of their potential applications as light-weight engineering materials, but also owing to their biodegradability. Due to their hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure, cold plastic processing of magnesium alloys is difficult. The preliminary researches carried out by the authors have indicated that the application of the KOBO method, based on the effect of cyclic strain path change, for the deformation of magnesium alloys, provides the possibility of obtaining a fine-grained structure material to be used for further cold plastic processing with large total deformation. The main purpose of this work is to present research findings concerning a detailed analysis of mechanical properties and changes occurring in the structure of AZ31 alloy wire during the multistage cold drawing process. The appropriate selection of drawing parameters and the application of multistep heat treatment operations enable the deformation of the AZ31 alloy in the cold drawing process with a total draft of about 90%.

  19. A digital archiving system and distributed server-side processing of large datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomier, Julien; Aylward, Stephen R.; Marion, Charles; Lee, Joowhi; Styner, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present MIDAS, a web-based digital archiving system that processes large collections of data. Medical imaging research often involves interdisciplinary teams, each performing a separate task, from acquiring datasets to analyzing the processing results. Moreover, the number and size of the datasets continue to increase every year due to recent advancements in acquisition technology. As a result, many research laboratories centralize their data and rely on distributed computing power. We created a web-based digital archiving repository based on openstandards. The MIDAS repository is specifically tuned for medical and scientific datasets and provides a flexible data management facility, a search engine, and an online image viewer. MIDAS enables users to run a set of extensible image processing algorithms from the web to the selected datasets and to add new algorithms to the MIDAS system, facilitating the dissemination of users' work to different research partners. The MIDAS system is currently running in several research laboratories and has demonstrated its ability to streamline the full image processing workflow from data acquisition to image analysis and reports.

  20. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  1. Advanced optical sensing and processing technologies for the distributed control of large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. M.; Fraser, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine state-of-the-art optical sensing and processing technology applied to control the motion of flexible spacecraft. Proposed large flexible space systems, such an optical telescopes and antennas, will require control over vast surfaces. Most likely distributed control will be necessary involving many sensors to accurately measure the surface. A similarly large number of actuators must act upon the system. The used technical approach included reviewing proposed NASA missions to assess system needs and requirements. A candidate mission was chosen as a baseline study spacecraft for comparison of conventional and optical control components. Control system requirements of the baseline system were used for designing both a control system containing current off-the-shelf components and a system utilizing electro-optical devices for sensing and processing. State-of-the-art surveys of conventional sensor, actuator, and processor technologies were performed. A technology development plan is presented that presents a logical, effective way to develop and integrate advancing technologies.

  2. Morphotectonic evolution of passive margins undergoing active surface processes: large-scale experiments using numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, Romain; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Extension of the continental lithosphere can lead to the formation of a wide range of rifted margins styles with contrasting tectonic and geomorphological characteristics. It is now understood that many of these characteristics depend on the manner extension is distributed depending on (among others factors) rheology, structural inheritance, thermal structure and surface processes. The relative importance and the possible interactions of these controlling factors is still largely unknown. Here we investigate the feedbacks between tectonics and the transfers of material at the surface resulting from erosion, transport, and sedimentation. We use large-scale (1200 x 600 km) and high-resolution (~1km) numerical experiments coupling a 2D upper-mantle-scale thermo-mechanical model with a plan-form 2D surface processes model (SPM). We test the sensitivity of the coupled models to varying crust-lithosphere rheology and erosional efficiency ranging from no-erosion to very efficient erosion. We discuss how fast, when and how the topography of the continents evolves and how it can be compared to actual passive margins escarpment morphologies. We show that although tectonics is the main factor controlling the rift geometry, transfers of masses at the surface affect the timing of faulting and the initiation of sea-floor spreading. We discuss how such models may help to understand the evolution of high-elevated passive margins around the world.

  3. Computation of Large Covariance Matrices by SAMMY on Graphical Processing Units and Multicore CPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Arbanas, Goran; Dunn, Michael E; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    Computational power of Graphical Processing Units and multicore CPUs was harnessed by the nuclear data evaluation code SAMMY to speed up computations of large Resonance Parameter Covariance Matrices (RPCMs). This was accomplished by linking SAMMY to vendor-optimized implementations of the matrix-matrix multiplication subroutine of the Basic Linear Algebra Library to compute the most time-consuming step. The U-235 RPCM computed previously using a triple-nested loop was re-computed using the NVIDIA implementation of the subroutine on a single Tesla Fermi Graphical Processing Unit, and also using the Intel's Math Kernel Library implementation on two different multicore CPU systems. A multiplication of two matrices of dimensions 16,000 x 20,000 that had previously taken days, took approximately one minute on the GPU. Similar performance was achieved on a dual six-core CPU system. The magnitude of the speed-up suggests that these, or similar, combinations of hardware and libraries may be useful for large matrix operations in SAMMY. Uniform interfaces of standard linear algebra libraries make them a promising candidate for a programming framework of a new generation of SAMMY for the emerging heterogeneous computing platforms.

  4. Which processes shape stellar population gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers (stellar accretion) and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar population gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing a set of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity and color gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity and colour gradients in agreement with present-day observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations (too flat). In the wind model, colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (like MaNGA and Califa), which in turn can help to better constrain still uncertain models for energetic processes in simulations.

  5. Biologically inspired large scale chemical sensor arrays and embedded data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, S.; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, A.; Lansner, A.; Martinez, D.; Rospars, J. P.; Beccherelli, R.; Perera, A.; Pearce, T.; Vershure, P.; Persaud, K.

    2013-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. EU Funded Project NEUROCHEM (Bio-ICT-FET- 216916) has developed novel computing paradigms and biologically motivated artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator has been built featuring a large scale sensor array (65K elements) in conducting polymer technology mimicking the olfactory receptor neuron layer, and abstracted biomimetic algorithms have been implemented in an embedded system that interfaces the chemical sensors. The embedded system integrates computational models of the main anatomic building blocks in the olfactory pathway: the olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex in vertebrates (alternatively, antennal lobe and mushroom bodies in the insect). For implementation in the embedded processor an abstraction phase has been carried out in which their processing capabilities are captured by algorithmic solutions. Finally, the algorithmic models are tested with an odour robot with navigation capabilities in mixed chemical plumes

  6. GMP cryopreservation of large volumes of cells for regenerative medicine: active control of the freezing process.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Fuller, Barry; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G John

    2014-09-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to -60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze-viabilities at 93.4% ± 7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3 ± 1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5 ± 1.7

  7. GMP Cryopreservation of Large Volumes of Cells for Regenerative Medicine: Active Control of the Freezing Process

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G. John

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to −60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze—viabilities at 93.4%±7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3±1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5±1.7

  8. GMP cryopreservation of large volumes of cells for regenerative medicine: active control of the freezing process.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Fuller, Barry; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G John

    2014-09-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to -60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze-viabilities at 93.4% ± 7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3 ± 1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5 ± 1.7

  9. Conditionally Averaged Large-Scale Motions in the Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Insights for Aeolian Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Chinthaka; Anderson, William

    2016-06-01

    Aeolian erosion of flat, arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by the aerodynamic surface stress imposed by flow in the atmospheric surface layer. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment mass flux, Q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1 . This scaling demonstrates the importance of turbulent fluctuations in driving aeolian processes. In order to illustrate the importance of surface-stress intermittency in aeolian processes, and to elucidate the role of turbulence, conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress has been used within large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary-layer flow over an arid, flat landscape. The conditional-sampling thresholds are defined based on probability distribution functions of surface stress. The simulations have been performed for a computational domain with ≈ 25 H streamwise extent, where H is the prescribed depth of the neutrally-stratified boundary layer. Thus, the full hierarchy of spatial scales are captured, from surface-layer turbulence to large- and very-large-scale outer-layer coherent motions. Spectrograms are used to support this argument, and also to illustrate how turbulent energy is distributed across wavelengths with elevation. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Results indicate that surface-stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. Fluid in the interfacial shear layers between these adjacent quasi-uniform momentum regions exhibits high streamwise and vertical vorticity.

  10. The power of event-driven analytics in Large Scale Data Processing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    FeedZai is a software company specialized in creating high-­-throughput low-­-latency data processing solutions. FeedZai develops a product called "FeedZai Pulse" for continuous event-­-driven analytics that makes application development easier for end users. It automatically calculates key performance indicators and baselines, showing how current performance differ from previous history, creating timely business intelligence updated to the second. The tool does predictive analytics and trend analysis, displaying data on real-­-time web-­-based graphics. In 2010 FeedZai won the European EBN Smart Entrepreneurship Competition, in the Digital Models category, being considered one of the "top-­-20 smart companies in Europe". The main objective of this seminar/workshop is to explore the topic for large-­-scale data processing using Complex Event Processing and, in particular, the possible uses of Pulse in the scope of the data processing needs of CERN. Pulse is available as open-­-source and can be licensed both for non-­-commercial and commercial applications. FeedZai is interested in exploring possible synergies with CERN in high-­-volume low-­-latency data processing applications. The seminar will be structured in two sessions, the first one being aimed to expose the general scope of FeedZai's activities, and the second focused on Pulse itself: 10:00-11:00 FeedZai and Large Scale Data Processing Introduction to FeedZai FeedZai Pulse and Complex Event Processing Demonstration Use-Cases and Applications Conclusion and Q&A 11:00-11:15 Coffee break 11:15-12:30 FeedZai Pulse Under the Hood A First FeedZai Pulse Application PulseQL overview Defining KPIs and Baselines Conclusion and Q&A About the speakers Nuno Sebastião is the CEO of FeedZai. Having worked for many years for the European Space Agency (ESA), he was responsible the overall design and development of Satellite Simulation Infrastructure of the agency. Having left ESA to found FeedZai, Nuno is

  11. The power of event-driven analytics in Large Scale Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-24

    FeedZai is a software company specialized in creating high-­-throughput low-­-latency data processing solutions. FeedZai develops a product called "FeedZai Pulse" for continuous event-­-driven analytics that makes application development easier for end users. It automatically calculates key performance indicators and baselines, showing how current performance differ from previous history, creating timely business intelligence updated to the second. The tool does predictive analytics and trend analysis, displaying data on real-­-time web-­-based graphics. In 2010 FeedZai won the European EBN Smart Entrepreneurship Competition, in the Digital Models category, being considered one of the "top-­-20 smart companies in Europe". The main objective of this seminar/workshop is to explore the topic for large-­-scale data processing using Complex Event Processing and, in particular, the possible uses of Pulse in the scope of the data processing needs of CERN. Pulse is available as open-­-source and can be licensed both for non-­-commercial and commercial applications. FeedZai is interested in exploring possible synergies with CERN in high-­-volume low-­-latency data processing applications. The seminar will be structured in two sessions, the first one being aimed to expose the general scope of FeedZai's activities, and the second focused on Pulse itself: 10:00-11:00 FeedZai and Large Scale Data Processing Introduction to FeedZai FeedZai Pulse and Complex Event Processing Demonstration Use-Cases and Applications Conclusion and Q&A 11:00-11:15 Coffee break 11:15-12:30 FeedZai Pulse Under the Hood A First FeedZai Pulse Application PulseQL overview Defining KPIs and Baselines Conclusion and Q&A About the speakers Nuno Sebastião is the CEO of FeedZai. Having worked for many years for the European Space Agency (ESA), he was responsible the overall design and development of Satellite Simulation Infrastructure of the agency. Having left ESA to found FeedZai, Nuno is

  12. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia-southern Siberia and on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komatsu, G.; Dohm, J.M.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  13. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia southern Siberia and on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Dohm, James M.; Hare, Trent M.

    2004-04-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres.

  14. Disturbance of aerobic metabolism accompanies neurobehavioral changes induced by nickel in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Min-Di; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yan; Xiong, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiao; Lu, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    The oral ingestion of soluble nickel compounds leads to neurological symptoms in humans. Deficiencies in aerobic metabolism induced by neurotoxic stimulus can cause an energy crisis in the brain that results in a variety of neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we focused on the aerobic metabolic states to investigate whether disturbance of aerobic metabolism was involved in nickel-induced neurological effects in mice. Mice were orally administered nickel chloride, and neurobehavioral performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze and open field tests at different time points. Aerobic metabolic states in the cerebral cortex were analyzed at the same time points at which neurobehavioral changes were evident. We found that nickel exposure caused deficits in both spatial memory and exploring activity in mice and that nickel was deposited in their cerebral cortex. Deficient aerobic metabolism manifested as decreased O2 consumption and ATP concentrations, lactate and NADH accumulation, and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the activity of prototypical iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) containing enzymes that are known to control aerobic metabolism, including complex I and aconitase, and the expression of ISC assembly scaffold protein (ISCU) were inhibited following nickel deposition. Overall, these data suggest that aerobic metabolic disturbances, which accompanied the neurobehavioral changes, may participate in nickel-induced neurologic effects. The inactivation of ISC containing metabolic enzymes may result in the disturbance of aerobic metabolism. A better understanding of how nickel impacts the energy metabolic processes may provide insight into the prevention of nickel neurotoxicity.

  15. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  16. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  17. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed. PMID:25306537

  18. Treatment of HMX-production wastewater in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Min-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Meng

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic granules were applied to the treatment of HMX-production wastewater using a gradual domestication method in a SBR. During the process, the granules showed a good settling ability, a high biomass retention rate, and high biological activity. After 40 days of stable operation, aerobic granular sludge performed very effectively in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds from HMX-production wastewater. Organic matter removal rates up to 97.57% and nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 80% were achieved during the process. Researchers conclude that using aerobic granules to treat explosive wastewater has good prospects for success.

  19. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units.

    PubMed

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaž; Todorović, Kristina; Kostić, Srdjan; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We study the activation process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly activation process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local activation processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse. PMID:26764779

  20. Subpixelic measurement of large 1D displacements: principle, processing algorithms, performances and software.

    PubMed

    Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations-leading to high resolution-while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 µs for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-σ repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 µm measurement range. PMID:24625736

  1. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-12-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water-ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation.

  2. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G. John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water–ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24 h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation. PMID:25219980

  3. Large deviation probabilities for correlated Gaussian stochastic processes and daily temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massah, Mozhdeh; Kantz, Holger

    2016-04-01

    As we have one and only one earth and no replicas, climate characteristics are usually computed as time averages from a single time series. For understanding climate variability, it is essential to understand how close a single time average will typically be to an ensemble average. To answer this question, we study large deviation probabilities (LDP) of stochastic processes and characterize them by their dependence on the time window. In contrast to iid variables for which there exists an analytical expression for the rate function, the correlated variables such as auto-regressive (short memory) and auto-regressive fractionally integrated moving average (long memory) processes, have not an analytical LDP. We study LDP for these processes, in order to see how correlation affects this probability in comparison to iid data. Although short range correlations lead to a simple correction of sample size, long range correlations lead to a sub-exponential decay of LDP and hence to a very slow convergence of time averages. This effect is demonstrated for a 120 year long time series of daily temperature anomalies measured in Potsdam (Germany).

  4. Further development of chemical vapor deposition process for production of large diameter carbon-base monofilaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, R. L.; Richmond, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The development of large diameter carbon-base monofilament in the 50 micron to 250 micron diameter range using the chemical vapor deposition process is described. The object of this program was to determine the critical process variables which control monofilament strength, monofilament modulus, and monofilament diameter. It was confirmed that wide scatter in the carbon substrate strength is primarily responsible for the scatter in the monofilament strength. It was also shown through etching experiments that defective substrate surface conditions which can induce low strength modular growth in the monofilament layers are best controlled by processing improvements during the synthesis of the substrate. Modulus was found to be linearily proportional to monofilament boron content. Filament modulus was increased to above 27.8MN/sq cm but only by a considerable increase in monofilament boron content to 60 wt. % or more. Monofilament diameter depended upon dwell time in the synthesis apparatus. A monofilament was prepared using these findings which had the combined properties of a mean U.T.S. of 398,000 N/sq cm, a modulus of 18.9 MN/sq cm (24,000,000 psi), and a diameter of 145 microns. Highest measured strength for this fiber was 451,000 N/sq cm (645,000 psi).

  5. Integration of the stratigraphic aspects of very large sea-floor databases using information processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Clinton N.; Flocks, J.; Kulp, M.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Information-processing methods are described that integrate the stratigraphic aspects of large and diverse collections of sea-floor sample data. They efficiently convert common types of sea-floor data into database and GIS (geographical information system) tables, visual core logs, stratigraphic fence diagrams and sophisticated stratigraphic statistics. The input data are held in structured documents, essentially written core logs that are particularly efficient to create from raw input datasets. Techniques are described that permit efficient construction of regional databases consisting of hundreds of cores. The sedimentological observations in each core are located by their downhole depths (metres below sea floor - mbsf) and also by a verbal term that describes the sample 'situation' - a special fraction of the sediment or position in the core. The main processing creates a separate output event for each instance of top, bottom and situation, assigning top-base mbsf values from numeric or, where possible, from word-based relative locational information such as 'core catcher' in reference to sampler device, and recovery or penetration length. The processing outputs represent the sub-bottom as a sparse matrix of over 20 sediment properties of interest, such as grain size, porosity and colour. They can be plotted in a range of core-log programs including an in-built facility that better suits the requirements of sea-floor data. Finally, a suite of stratigraphic statistics are computed, including volumetric grades, overburdens, thicknesses and degrees of layering. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  6. Event processing time prediction at the CMS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cury, Samir; Gutsche, Oliver; Kcira, Dorian

    2014-06-01

    The physics event reconstruction is one of the biggest challenges for the computing of the LHC experiments. Among the different tasks that computing systems of the CMS experiment performs, the reconstruction takes most of the available CPU resources. The reconstruction time of single collisions varies according to event complexity. Measurements were done in order to determine this correlation quantitatively, creating means to predict it based on the data-taking conditions of the input samples. Currently the data processing system splits tasks in groups with the same number of collisions and does not account for variations in the processing time. These variations can be large and can lead to a considerable increase in the time it takes for CMS workflows to finish. The goal of this study was to use estimates on processing time to more efficiently split the workflow into jobs. By considering the CPU time needed for each job the spread of the job-length distribution in a workflow is reduced.

  7. In-database processing of a large collection of remote sensing data: applications and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikhtenko, Vladimir; Mamash, Elena; Chubarov, Dmitri; Voronina, Polina

    2016-04-01

    Large archives of remote sensing data are now available to scientists, yet the need to work with individual satellite scenes or product files constrains studies that span a wide temporal range or spatial extent. The resources (storage capacity, computing power and network bandwidth) required for such studies are often beyond the capabilities of individual geoscientists. This problem has been tackled before in remote sensing research and inspired several information systems. Some of them such as NASA Giovanni [1] and Google Earth Engine have already proved their utility for science. Analysis tasks involving large volumes of numerical data are not unique to Earth Sciences. Recent advances in data science are enabled by the development of in-database processing engines that bring processing closer to storage, use declarative query languages to facilitate parallel scalability and provide high-level abstraction of the whole dataset. We build on the idea of bridging the gap between file archives containing remote sensing data and databases by integrating files into relational database as foreign data sources and performing analytical processing inside the database engine. Thereby higher level query language can efficiently address problems of arbitrary size: from accessing the data associated with a specific pixel or a grid cell to complex aggregation over spatial or temporal extents over a large number of individual data files. This approach was implemented using PostgreSQL for a Siberian regional archive of satellite data products holding hundreds of terabytes of measurements from multiple sensors and missions taken over a decade-long span. While preserving the original storage layout and therefore compatibility with existing applications the in-database processing engine provides a toolkit for provisioning remote sensing data in scientific workflows and applications. The use of SQL - a widely used higher level declarative query language - simplifies interoperability

  8. Large-Scale Simulation of a Process for Cataloguing Small Orbital Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillion, D.; Pertica, A.; Fasenfest, B.; Horsley, M.; de Vries, W.; Springer, H.; Jefferson, D.; Olivier, S.; Hill, K.; Sabol, C.

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate a methodology for establishing orbits for the abundant, un-catalogued, yet dangerous, small orbital debris that will become observable with planned improvements to the Space Fence. Although roughly 15,000 orbital objects are present in the SSN catalog, it is believed that at least 200,000 objects that are massive enough to cause significant damage are in Earth orbit. With improvements to the Space Fence, LEO debris down to 5 cm in size may become observable. The additional hundreds of thousands of observations a day of mostly un-catalogued objects will present a significant data processing challenge. Of particular concern are the large numbers of observations that are uncorrelated either to a known object or to a single object. To deal with the large-scale uncorrelated track (UCT) problem, we have ported the Covariance-Based Track Algorithm (CBTA) into the supercomputer-based Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA) in order to perform simulations at scale. CBTA bins UCTs for which initial orbits and initial covariance matrices could be determined back to a common epoch and then uses a statistical measure to see if they correlate given the state vectors and covariance matrices at that common time. If they do, the observations from the two tracks are combined and orbit determination (OD) is used to attempt to fit an orbit to the combined tracks. If OD converges, a new UCT hypothesis is created and the state and covariance of that hypothesis is saved with the other pre-existing UCTs. If a certain number of tracks are successfully combined then they are used to create a new catalog object. Old UCTs are weeded out of the pool of hypotheses when they become obsolete, or when at least some of the observations are used to create a new catalog object. For the simulation, we developed a Radar detection model simulating the performance of a notional new Space Fence. We propagated thousands of objects over a several day period creating a

  9. Integrated Technologies for Large-Scale Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorace-Agaskar, C.; Bramhavar, S.; Kharas, D.; Mehta, K. K.; Loh, W.; Panock, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; McConnell, R.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2016-05-01

    Atomic ions trapped and controlled using electromagnetic fields hold great promise for practical quantum information processing due to their inherent coherence properties and controllability. However, to realize this promise, the ability to maintain and manipulate large-scale systems is required. We present progress toward the development of, and proof-of-principle demonstrations and characterization of, several technologies that can be integrated with ion-trap arrays on-chip to enable such scaling to practically useful sizes. Of particular use are integrated photonic elements for routing and focusing light throughout a chip without the need for free-space optics. The integration of CMOS electronics and photo-detectors for on-chip control and readout, and methods for monolithic fabrication and wafer-scale integration to incorporate these capabilities into tile-able 2D ion-trap array cells, are also explored.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF IGNITION PROCESSES IN LARGE NATURAL GAS ENGINES USING LASER SPARK IGNITION

    SciTech Connect

    Azer Yalin; Morgan Defoort; Bryan Willson

    2005-01-01

    The current report details project progress made during the first quarterly reporting period of the DOE sponsored project ''Fundamental studies of ignition processes in large natural gas engines using laser spark ignition''. The goal of the overall research effort is to develop a laser ignition system for natural gas engines, with a particular focus on using fiber optic delivery methods. In this report we present our successful demonstration of spark formation using fiber delivery made possible though the use of novel coated hollow fibers. We present results of (high power) experimental characterizations of light propagation using hollow fibers using both a high power research grade laser as well as a more compact laser. Finally, we present initial designs of the system we are developing for future on-engine testing using the hollow fibers.

  11. Validation of the process control system of an automated large scale manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, H; Kremers, H; Karrer, T; Traut, R H

    1998-02-01

    The validation procedure for the process control system of a plant for the large scale production of human albumin from plasma fractions is described. A validation master plan is developed, defining the system and elements to be validated, the interfaces with other systems with the validation limits, a general validation concept and supporting documentation. Based on this master plan, the validation protocols are developed. For the validation, the system is subdivided into a field level, which is the equipment part, and an automation level. The automation level is further subdivided into sections according to the different software modules. Based on a risk categorization of the modules, the qualification activities are defined. The test scripts for the different qualification levels (installation, operational and performance qualification) are developed according to a previously performed risk analysis.

  12. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  13. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  14. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  15. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports.

    PubMed

    Nath, Chinmoy; Albaghdadi, Mazen S; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92-99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  16. A large-scale circuit mechanism for hierarchical dynamical processing in the primate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Gariel, Marie-Alice; Kennedy, Henry; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    We developed a large-scale dynamical model of the macaque neocortex, which is based on recently acquired directed- and weighted-connectivity data from tract-tracing experiments, and which incorporates heterogeneity across areas. A hierarchy of timescales naturally emerges from this system: sensory areas show brief, transient responses to input (appropriate for sensory processing), whereas association areas integrate inputs over time and exhibit persistent activity (suitable for decision-making and working memory). The model displays multiple temporal hierarchies, as evidenced by contrasting responses to visual versus somatosensory stimulation. Moreover, slower prefrontal and temporal areas have a disproportionate impact on global brain dynamics. These findings establish a circuit mechanism for “temporal receptive windows” that are progressively enlarged along the cortical hierarchy, suggest an extension of time integration in decision-making from local to large circuits, and should prompt a re-evaluation of the analysis of functional connectivity (measured by fMRI or EEG/MEG) by taking into account inter-areal heterogeneity. PMID:26439530

  17. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  18. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  19. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  20. Geographic and seasonal variation of dissolved methane and aerobic methane oxidation in Alaskan lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Anthony, K. Walter; Thalasso, F.

    2015-03-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria play an important role oxidizing a significant fraction of methane (CH4) produced in lakes. Aerobic CH4 oxidation depends on lake CH4 and oxygen (O2) concentrations, temperature, and organic carbon input to lakes, including from thawing permafrost in thermokarst (thaw)-affected lakes. Given the large variability in these environmental factors, CH4 oxidation is expected to be subject to large seasonal and geographic variations, which have been scarcely reported in the literature. In the present study, we measured CH4 oxidation rates in 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south latitudinal transect during winter and summer with a new field laser spectroscopy method. Additionally, we measured dissolved CH4 and O2 concentrations. We found that in the winter, aerobic CH4 oxidation was mainly controlled by the dissolved O2 concentration, while in the summer it was controlled primarily by the CH4 concentration, which was in deficit compared to dissolved O2. The permafrost environment of the lakes was identified as another key factor. Thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in yedoma-type permafrost had significantly higher CH4 oxidation rates compared to other thermokarst and non-thermokarst lakes formed in non-yedoma permafrost environments. These results confirm that landscape processes play an important role in lake CH4 cycling.

  1. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    PubMed

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  2. Gaining insight into river ecosystem processes from a large-scale flow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Pike, A.; Boughton, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In rivers throughout the world, anthropogenic impacts related to large dams have altered or eliminated the habitat necessary for many aquatic organisms. Flow experiments, both planned and unplanned, provide unique opportunities to evaluate the extent to which alternative dam operations can provide downstream ecological benefits. Here we use an unanticipated, reservoir release on the Santa Ynez River in southern California to investigate how a large flood influenced river ecosystem processes. We directly measured the flood-induced, topographic changes over 80 km of the river and floodplain using two high-resolution field and remote sensing data sets that bracketed the flood event. DEM-differencing of the pre- and post-flood topography was used to calculate shifts in the active channel planform and the net volumetric fluxes in gravel storage along the channel and floodplain. LiDAR and image-based habitat mapping was conducted to quantify the proportion of different habitat units before and after the flood. Large-scale geomorphic changes were observed as a result of the flood, including lateral migration of the river channel, gravel bar formation and the development of off-channel chute habitat. Spatial patterns of gravel storage changed with distance from the dam, with the upper 20 km experiencing a net sediment deficit and the lower 60 km undergoing net deposition. The longitudinal trends in gravel transport and storage reflect differences in the channel gradient, valley confinement and density of floodplain vegetation. We found that the flood nearly doubled the extent of pool habitat, primarily by converting runs to pools and by incising new pools adjacent to valley walls and terraces. The increase in the number of pools was predicted to have positive impacts on steelhead habitat, by providing a broader range of water depths and micro-habitats utilized by different age classes. Results from this study highlight the value of using flow pulses as opportunities to

  3. Potential for on-orbit manufacture of large space structures using the pultrusion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

    1987-01-01

    On-orbit manufacture of lightweight, high-strength, advanced-composite structures using the pultrusion process is proposed. This process is adaptable to a zero-gravity environment by using preimpregnated graphite-fiber reinforcement systems. The reinforcement material is preimpregnated with a high-performance thermoplastic resin at a ground station, is coiled on spools for compact storage, and is transported into Earth orbit. A pultrusion machine is installed in the Shuttle cargo bay from which very long lengths of the desired structure is fabricated on-orbit. Potential structural profiles include rods, angles, channels, hat sections, tubes, honeycomb-cored panels, and T, H, and I beams. A potential pultrudable thermoplastic/graphite composite material is presented as a model for determining the effect on Earth-to-orbit package density of an on-orbit manufacture, the package density is increased by 132 percent, and payload volume requirement is decreased by 56.3 percent. The fabrication method has the potential for on-orbit manufacture of structural members for space platforms, large space antennas, and long tethers.

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of Transient Flow, Solidification, and Particle Transport Processes in Continuous-Casting Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2014-07-01

    The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.

  5. Validation of New Process Models for Large Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin; Kunc, Vlastimil; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2012-02-23

    This report describes the work conducted under the CRADA Nr. PNNL/304 between Battelle PNNL and Autodesk whose objective is to validate the new process models developed under the previous CRADA for large injection-molded LFT composite structures. To this end, the ARD-RSC and fiber length attrition models implemented in the 2013 research version of Moldflow was used to simulate the injection molding of 600-mm x 600-mm x 3-mm plaques from 40% glass/polypropylene (Dow Chemical DLGF9411.00) and 40% glass/polyamide 6,6 (DuPont Zytel 75LG40HSL BK031) materials. The injection molding was performed by Injection Technologies, Inc. at Windsor, Ontario (under a subcontract by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL) using the mold offered by the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC). Two fill speeds under the same back pressure were used to produce plaques under slow-fill and fast-fill conditions. Also, two gating options were used to achieve the following desired flow patterns: flows in edge-gated plaques and in center-gated plaques. After molding, ORNL performed measurements of fiber orientation and length distributions for process model validations. The structure of this report is as follows. After the Introduction (Section 1), Section 2 provides a summary of the ARD-RSC and fiber length attrition models. A summary of model implementations in the latest research version of Moldflow is given in Section 3. Section 4 provides the key processing conditions and parameters for molding of the ACC plaques. The validations of the ARD-RSC and fiber length attrition models are presented and discussed in Section 5. The conclusions will be drawn in Section 6.

  6. Relative importance of breakage and decay as processes depleting large wood from streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Eric C.; Vaz, Pedro G.; Decker-Fritz, Jo A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2013-05-01

    Large wood pieces affect virtually every physical, chemical, and biological process in fluvial systems, including hydraulics, transport of materials, algal biomass accrual, nutrient uptake, and trophic interactions. The processes that deplete wood are thus of broad importance to stream ecosystems. We assessed the relative contributions for breakage-induced mobilization (where pieces are more prone to transport as a result of breakage into shorter parts) and gradual biochemical decay to wood depletion rates in a field study on 12 northern Minnesota, USA, streams. Wood pieces > 0.05 m in diameter for a portion > 1 m in length were individually tagged (n = 651), measured, and remeasured a year later. Pieces showed significant reductions in density and branching complexity (i.e., branches and twigs) and 22% of pieces broke (i.e., lost 10% or more of length). Processes related to breakage and decay were examined using Bayesian structural equation modeling and multiple regression. Breakage was more likely for pieces that were thin in diameter, long, deeply submerged, braced, buried, and traveled long distances. Pieces lost more density if they were initially dense, traveled a long distance, were not deeply submerged, lacked bark, were thin in diameter, were steeply pitched, were long, and were not buried. Pieces lost more branching complexity if they were complex with little gap between them and the streambed. Actual mass losses related to breakage and decay were 7.3% and 1.9% (respectively), both less than the 36% observed for total fluvial export. In contrast to the associations of breakage and decay with structural properties of the wood pieces and their position, hydraulic and geomorphic variables (stream power, slope, velocity, width) had little effect.

  7. Complex processing patterns of mRNAs of the large ATP synthase operon in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Malik Ghulam, Mustafa; Ghulam, Mustafa Malik; Courtois, Florence; Lerbs-Mache, Silva; Merendino, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic cell organelles which have evolved from endosymbiosis of the cyanobacterial ancestor. In chloroplasts, genes are still organized into transcriptional units as in bacteria but the corresponding poly-cistronic mRNAs undergo complex processing events, including inter-genic cleavage and 5' and 3' end-definition. The current model for processing proposes that the 3' end of the upstream cistron transcripts and the 5' end of the downstream cistron transcripts are defined by the same RNA-binding protein and overlap at the level of the protein-binding site. We have investigated the processing mechanisms that operate within the large ATP synthase (atp) operon, in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts. This operon is transcribed by the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase starting from two promoters, which are upstream and within the operon, respectively, and harbors four potential sites for RNA-binding proteins. In order to study the functional significance of the promoters and the protein-binding sites for the maturation processes, we have performed a detailed mapping of the atp transcript ends. Our data indicate that in contrast to maize, atpI and atpH transcripts with overlapping ends are very rare in Arabidopsis. In addition, atpA mRNAs, which overlap with atpF mRNAs, are even truncated at the 3' end, thus representing degradation products. We observe, instead, that the 5' ends of nascent poly-cistronic atp transcripts are defined at the first protein-binding site which follows either one of the two transcription initiation sites, while the 3' ends are defined at the subsequent protein-binding sites or at hairpin structures that are encountered by the progressing RNA polymerase. We conclude that the overlapping mechanisms of mRNA protection have only a limited role in obtaining stable processed atp mRNAs in Arabidopsis. Our findings suggest that during evolution of different plant species as maize and Arabidopsis, chloroplasts have evolved multiple

  8. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  9. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  10. Extension of 4-8 Texture Hierarchies to Large Video Processing and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Senecal, J G; Wegner, A E

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this Techbase was to reduce to practice the tiled 4-8 texture hierarchy for the display of video imagery (i.e. sequences of frames). The immediate intent was to demonstrate its use in the analysis and display of sensor imagery. As sensors are increasing in resolution the physical amount of imagery that needs to be displayed can quickly overwhelm most display systems. For example, a sensor with a horizontal resolution of over 8000 pixels would generate an image over 10 feet wide on a standard 72 DPI display. Breaking an image into tiles, and then decomposing each tile into a multiresolution hierarchy, allows a user (or software) to efficiently select and display only those parts of the image that are of interest to the user. The originator of the idea of 4-8 Texture Hierarchies was Dr. Mark Duchaineau, and we consulted with him in much of our work. We also consulted with Dan Knight, from SequoiaTek Corp., who is a contractor responsible for implementing the viewers for our applications. Most of the code for actual 4-8 Texture Hierarchy generation already existed; a large focus of the Techbase was to determine how to best use what was available for video imagery. The majority of progress was made in specifying and implementing the software framework, which turned out to be rather involved. This framework is to support the creation, storage, and display of images, both tiled and untiled. A first albeit incomplete version was successfully tested in the field in August 2007. The framework structures the process of collecting and processing images conceptually as a pipeline, where work is passed along and a different operation is performed at each stage. In practice, the pipeline is implemented by a group of processes (not threads), or 'workers', each responsible for a specific type of operation. Associated with these workers is a pool of memory (cache). As each process finishes its work, it places the results into the cache and sends a message to the

  11. Investigating convective transport processes and large scale stratospheric dynamics with ICON-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen, Christian; Ruhnke, Roland; Schröter, Jennifer; Daniel, Rieger; Bischoff-Gauss, Ingeborg; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    We have extended the global ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) modelling framework. ICON is a joint development by the German Weather Service (DWD) and the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M). We added modules for gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics (ART, Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) [1]. ICON allows a regional grid refinement with two-way interactions between the different horizontal grids. It is used by DWD for numerical weather predictions and will be used by MPI-M for climate projections [2]. The extended modelling framework ICON-ART is developed in an analogous way to its predecessors COSMO-ART [3], so that aerosol and chemical composition feedbacks can be considered in a comprehensive way. Up to now, ICON-ART accounts for volcanic ash tracers, radioactive tracers, sea salt and mineral dust aerosols. Additionally, several gaseous tracers have been introduced. For the dynamics (transport and diffusion) of aerosol and gaseous tracers, the original ICON tracer framework is used. For the model physics, numerical time integration follows a process splitting approach separating physical processes. Each process is called independently via an interface module. Currently, the processes of emission, dry and wet deposition, sedimentation, and first order chemical reactions are included. We will present a simulation of the transport of ozone depleting short-lived trace gases from the surface into the stratosphere as well as of long-lived tracers. The simulated tracer distributions are used to investigate the ability of ICON-ART to simulate convective vertical transport in the troposphere as well as of large-scale stratospheric dynamics. [1] Rieger, D., et al. (2014), ICON-ART - A new online-coupled model system from the global to regional scale, submitted to Geosci. Model Dev. [2] Zängl, G., et al. (2014), The ICON (ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic) modelling framework of DWD MPI-M: Description of the non-hydrostatic dynamical core. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc

  12. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  13. Quantification of aerobic biodegradation and volatilization rates of gasoline hydrocarbons near the water table under natural attenuation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.; Baker, Ronald J.

    1999-03-01

    Aerobic biodegradation and volatilization near the water table constitute a coupled pathway that contributes significantly to the natural attenuation of hydrocarbons at gasoline spill sites. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation and volatilization were quantified by analyzing vapor transport in the unsaturated zone at a gasoline spill site in Beaufort, South Carolina. Aerobic biodgradation rates decreased with distance above the water table, ranging from 0.20 to 1.5 g m-3 d-1 for toluene, from 0.24 to 0.38 g m-3 d-1 for xylene, from 0.09 to 0.24 g m-3 d-1 for cyclohexene, from 0.05 to 0.22 g m-3 d-1 for ethylbenzene, and from 0.02 to 0.08 g m-3 d-1 for benzene. Rates were highest in the capillary zone, where 68% of the total hydrocarbon mass that volatilized from the water table was estimated to have been biodegraded. Hydrocarbons were nearly completely degraded within 1m above the water table. This large loss underscores the importance of aerobic biodradation in limiting the transport of hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone and implies that vapor-plume migration to basements and other points of contact may only be significant if a source of free product is present. Furthermore, because transport of the hydrocarbon in the unsaturated zone can be limited relative to that of oxygen and carbon dioxide, soil-gas surveys conducted at hydrocarbon-spill sites would benefit by the inclusion of oxygen- and carbon-dioxide-gas concentration measurements. Aerobic degradation kinetics in the unsaturated zone were approximately first-order. First-order rate constants near the water table were highest for cyclohexene (0.21-0.65 d-1) and nearly equivalent for ethylbenzene (0.11-0.31 d-1), xylenes (0.10-0.31 d-1), toluene (0.09-0.30 d-1), and benzene (0.07-0.31 d-1). Hydrocarbon mass loss rates at the water table resulting from the coupled aerobic biodgradation and volatilization process were determined by extrapolating gas transport rates through the capillary zone. Mass loss

  14. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  15. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  16. Observational and Model Studies of Large-Scale Mixing Processes in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.

    1997-01-01

    The following is the final technical report for grant NAGW-3442, 'Observational and Model Studies of Large-Scale Mixing Processes in the Stratosphere'. Research efforts in the first year concentrated on transport and mixing processes in the polar vortices. Three papers on mixing in the Antarctic were published. The first was a numerical modeling study of wavebreaking and mixing and their relationship to the period of observed stratospheric waves (Bowman). The second paper presented evidence from TOMS for wavebreaking in the Antarctic (Bowman and Mangus 1993). The third paper used Lagrangian trajectory calculations from analyzed winds to show that there is very little transport into the Antarctic polar vortex prior to the vortex breakdown (Bowman). Mixing is significantly greater at lower levels. This research helped to confirm theoretical arguments for vortex isolation and data from the Antarctic field experiments that were interpreted as indicating isolation. A Ph.D. student, Steve Dahlberg, used the trajectory approach to investigate mixing and transport in the Arctic. While the Arctic vortex is much more disturbed than the Antarctic, there still appears to be relatively little transport across the vortex boundary at 450 K prior to the vortex breakdown. The primary reason for the absence of an ozone hole in the Arctic is the earlier warming and breakdown of the vortex compared to the Antarctic, not replenishment of ozone by greater transport. Two papers describing these results have appeared (Dahlberg and Bowman; Dahlberg and Bowman). Steve Dahlberg completed his Ph.D. thesis (Dahlberg and Bowman) and is now teaching in the Physics Department at Concordia College. We also prepared an analysis of the QBO in SBUV ozone data (Hollandsworth et al.). A numerical study in collaboration with Dr. Ping Chen investigated mixing by barotropic instability, which is the probable origin of the 4-day wave in the upper stratosphere (Bowman and Chen). The important result from

  17. Quantifying the process-product relationship in the large sandy Rio Paraná

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, P. J.; Amsler, M.; Best, J.; Orfeo, O.; Parsons, D.; Reesink, A.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Szupiany, R.

    2010-12-01

    Whilst recent technological advances have enabled the measurement and modelling of alluvial processes and dynamics, arguably less progress has been made in relating the morphodynamics to the resulting sedimentary alluvial architecture. This paper will present data from the sandy, multi-channel Rio Paraná, Argentina, where the evolution of km-scale braid-bars is being related directly to the resultant sedimentary deposits. Bathymetric data from the Rio Paraná was collected from survey vessels using single and multi-beam echo-sounding located by RTK dGPS. Flow data at various flow stages was also collected using acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) surveys at key cross-sections. The subsurface architecture was characterised at low flow using 10s of km of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and ground-truthed using suction coring. GPR achieved penetration depths down to 10 m and reflections allowed quantification of the radar facies to within +/- 0.2 m in the vertical. These techniques, and the logistical considerations required in their deployment and integration in the field, will be discussed. The paper will also highlight how an integrated morphodynamic and GPR survey programme in one of the world’s largest rivers can provide high-resolution data that: (i) links blocks of sedimentation to specific, identifiable channel processes, (ii) quantifies the vertical and horizontal distribution of sedimentary facies in large rivers, and relates this to the temporal evolution of the channel, and (iii) is at sub-seismic resolution and therefore suitable for reservoir-scale lithofacies modelling.

  18. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Stennis Watson, G.; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    , aerobic exercise increased plasma levels of insulinlike growth factor I and had a favorable effect only on Trails B performance. Conclusions This study provides support, using rigorous controlled methodology, for a potent nonpharma-cologic intervention that improves executive control processes for older women at high risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, our results suggest that a sex bias in cognitive response may relate to sex-based differences in glucometabolic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to aerobic exercise. PMID:20065132

  19. Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults. PMID:24282403

  20. Time-dependent simulations of large-scale quantum mechanical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    Time dependent linear and nonlinear equations govern the evolution of an extensive set of physical systems and processes describing, to enumerate just a few, Bose-Einstein condensates; soliton propagation in optical and photonic band-gap fibers; quantum control of atomic and molecular collisions and reactions; highly-compressed liquids; and dense and ultracold plasmas. While the media vary substantially, the basic computational procedures have many common features. We focus on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and discuss two powerful approaches to its propagation: the Arnoldi/Lanczos(AL)l and Real Space Product Formula(RSPF)2. Both provide efficient systematic approximations to the short-time exponential propagator that moves the solution between time steps. We implement the former in a discrete variable representation (DVR)3 both in spatial grid and finite element forms and the latter in a spatial mesh with a finite difference representation of the kinetic energy operator. Both approaches require O(N) operations to propagate the wavefunction between time steps and handle multidimensional systems. We shall also draw connections with Liouville formulations used in quantum molecular dynamics simulations of large collections of atoms and molecules. After briefly outlining these formulations, we shall discuss some of the varied applications.

  1. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects, and (6) limits and overloads.

  2. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in. var phi. sup 3 theory

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in {var phi}{sup 3} theory. He shows that in the limit s {much gt} {vert bar}t{vert bar} {much gt} m{sup 2}, the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s{sup {minus}1}{vert bar}t{vert bar}{sup {minus}N+1} times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N {minus} 2 and ln s and ln {vert bar}t{vert bar}. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln {vert bar}t{vert bar} to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln {vert bar}t{vert bar} = {gamma} ln s for {gamma} = 1/2, 1/3, {hor ellipsis}, 1/N{minus}2.

  3. The Macro Model of the Inequality Process and the Surging Relative Frequency of Large Wage Incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, John

    2008-03-01

    Particles are randomly paired in the Inequality Process (IP), a particle system scattering a positive quantity, wealth. Each particle has a parameter, φ, the fraction of wealth lost in a loss whose probability is 0.5. The stationary distribution of the wealth of particles with φψ is approximated by a γ pdf, the IP's macro model, with shape and scale parameters expressed in terms of φψ. The model's dynamics are driven by the product, φtμt, where φt is the harmonic mean of the φ's in the population at time t and μt, the population mean of wealth at time t. This γ pdf model fits the annual distribution of annual wage income in the U.S. 1961-2003. These data also confirm that the time-series of scalar statistics of wage income that labor economists think are produced by the U.S. distribution of wage income being ``hollowed out'' (bimodal), the increasing dispersion of wage income and the surging relative frequency of large wage incomes, are produced by the distribution being stretched over larger wage incomes, as implied by the IP's macro model when φtμt increases. The IP's macro model includes wage income distribution dynamics into statistical mechanics. To appear in The Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks.

  4. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Although we have an intuitive understanding of the behavior and functions of groundwater in the Earth's critical zone at the scales of a column (atmosphere-plant-soil-bedrock), along a toposequence (ridge to valley), and across a small catchment (up to third-order streams), this paper attempts to assess the relevance of groundwater to understanding large-scale patterns and processes such as represented in global climate and Earth system models. Through observation syntheses and conceptual models, evidence are presented that groundwater influence is globally prevalent, it forms an environmental gradient not fully captured by the climate, and it can profoundly shape critical zone evolution at continental to global scales. Four examples are used to illustrate these ideas: (1) groundwater as a water source for plants in rainless periods, (2) water table depth as a driver of plant rooting depth, (3) the accessibility of groundwater as an ecological niche separator, and (4) groundwater as the lower boundary of land drainage and a global driver of wetlands. The implications to understanding past and future global environmental change are briefly discussed, as well as critical discipline, scale, and data gaps that must be bridged in order for us to translate what we learn in the field at column, hillslope and catchment scales, to what we must predict at regional, continental, and global scales.

  5. Post-project geomorphic assessment of a large process-based river restoration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, John C.; Allred, Tyler M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes channel changes following completion of the Provo River Restoration Project (PRRP), the largest stream restoration project in Utah and one of the largest projects in the United States in which a gravel-bed river was fully reconstructed. We summarize project objectives and the design process, and we analyze monitoring data collected during the first 7 years after project completion. Post-project channel adjustment during the study period included two phases: (i) an initial phase of rapid, but small-scale, adjustment during the first years after stream flow was introduced to the newly constructed channel and (ii) a subsequent period of more gradual topographic adjustment and channel migration. Analysis of aerial imagery and ground-survey data demonstrate that the channel has been more dynamic in the downstream 4 km where a local source contributes a significant annual supply of bed material. Here, the channel migrates and exhibits channel adjustments that are more consistent with project objectives. The upstream 12 km of the PRRP are sediment starved, the channel has been laterally stable, and this condition may not be consistent with large-scale project objectives.

  6. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects; and (6) limits and overloads.

  7. The large deviations of the whitening process in random constraint satisfaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Dall'Asta, Luca; Semerjian, Guilhem; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2016-05-01

    Random constraint satisfaction problems undergo several phase transitions as the ratio between the number of constraints and the number of variables is varied. When this ratio exceeds the satisfiability threshold no more solutions exist; the satisfiable phase, for less constrained problems, is itself divided in an unclustered regime and a clustered one. In the latter solutions are grouped in clusters of nearby solutions separated in configuration space from solutions of other clusters. In addition the rigidity transition signals the appearance of so-called frozen variables in typical solutions: beyond this threshold most solutions belong to clusters with an extensive number of variables taking the same values in all solutions of the cluster. In this paper we refine the description of this phenomenon by estimating the location of the freezing transition, corresponding to the disappearance of all unfrozen solutions (not only typical ones). We also unveil phase transitions for the existence and uniqueness of locked solutions, in which all variables are frozen. From a technical point of view we characterize atypical solutions with a number of frozen variables different from the typical value via a large deviation study of the dynamics of a stripping process (whitening) that unveils the frozen variables of a solution, building upon recent works on atypical trajectories of the bootstrap percolation dynamics. Our results also bear some relevance from an algorithmic perspective, previous numerical studies having shown that heuristic algorithms of various kinds usually output unfrozen solutions.

  8. Post-project geomorphic assessment of a large process-based river restoration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, John C.; Allred, Tyler M.

    2016-10-01

    This study describes channel changes following completion of the Provo River Restoration Project (PRRP), the largest stream restoration project in Utah and one of the largest projects in the United States in which a gravel-bed river was fully reconstructed. We summarize project objectives and the design process, and we analyze monitoring data collected during the first 7 years after project completion. Post-project channel adjustment during the study period included two phases: (i) an initial phase of rapid, but small-scale, adjustment during the first years after stream flow was introduced to the newly constructed channel and (ii) a subsequent period of more gradual topographic adjustment and channel migration. Analysis of aerial imagery and ground-survey data demonstrate that the channel has been more dynamic in the downstream 4 km where a local source contributes a significant annual supply of bed material. Here, the channel migrates and exhibits channel adjustments that are more consistent with project objectives. The upstream 12 km of the PRRP are sediment starved, the channel has been laterally stable, and this condition may not be consistent with large-scale project objectives.

  9. Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, a standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible proteomics informatics

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Mendoza, Luis; Shteynberg, David; Slagel, Joseph; Sun, Zhi; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Democratization of genomics technologies has enabled the rapid determination of genotypes. More recently the democratization of comprehensive proteomics technologies is enabling the determination of the cellular phenotype and the molecular events that define its dynamic state. Core proteomic technologies include mass spectrometry to define protein sequence, protein:protein interactions, and protein post-translational modifications. Key enabling technologies for proteomics are bioinformatic pipelines to identify, quantitate, and summarize these events. The Trans-Proteomics Pipeline (TPP) is a robust open-source standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible quantitative mass spectrometry proteomics. It supports all major operating systems and instrument vendors via open data formats. Here we provide a review of the overall proteomics workflow supported by the TPP, its major tools, and how it can be used in its various modes from desktop to cloud computing. We describe new features for the TPP, including data visualization functionality. We conclude by describing some common perils that affect the analysis of tandem mass spectrometry datasets, as well as some major upcoming features. PMID:25631240

  10. Anamet anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Frostell, B.

    1982-01-01

    The process, consisting of a closed anaerobic tank reactor with side mounted agitator and electric heaters to control temperature at 35-37 degrees, an external solids separator for recycle of anaerobic sludge, an open aerobic tank reactor with an air sparger at the bottom, and a conical settling clarifier to separate and recycle aerobic sludge, decreased the COD from 3-89 to 0.10-18 and the BOD5 from 1.4-26 to 0.03-0.30 g O2/L in dairy, vegetable cannery, beet sugar, wheat starch, mixed pulp and paper, citric acid, and rum distillery wastewater. Recoveries of CH4-containing gas produced by the process were 69-107% of theory. Total excess sludge production was only 0.05 kg/kg COD added or 0.06 kg/kg COD removed.

  11. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  12. Successful treatment of high azo dye concentration wastewater using combined anaerobic/aerobic granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR): simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    The application of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater containing 1,000 mg/L Acid Red 18 (AR18) was investigated in this research. The treatment system consisted of a sequencing batch reactor equipped with moving GAC as biofilm support. Each treatment cycle consisted of two successive anaerobic (14 h) and aerobic (8 h) reaction phases. Removal of more than 91% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 97% AR18 was achieved in this study. Investigation of dye decolorization kinetics showed that the dye removal was stimulated by the adsorption capacity of the GAC at the beginning of the anaerobic phase and then progressed following a first-order reaction. Based on COD analysis results, at least 77.8% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that more than 97% of 1-naphthyalamine-4-sulfonate as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase. According to the scanning electron microscopic analysis, the microbial biofilms grew in most cavities and pores of the GAC, but not on the external surfaces of the GAC.

  13. Aerobic fitness ecological validity in elite soccer players: a metabolic power approach.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Impellizzeri, Franco; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between match metabolic power (MP) categories and aerobic fitness in elite-level male soccer players. Seventeen male professional soccer players were tested for VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), VO2 at ventilatory threshold (VO2VT and %VO2VT), and speed at a selected blood lactate concentration (4 mmol·L(-1), V(L4)). Aerobic fitness tests were performed at the end of preseason and after 12 and 24 weeks during the championship. Aerobic fitness and MP variables were considered as mean of all seasonal testing and of 16 Championship home matches for all the calculations, respectively. Results showed that VO2max (from 0.55 to 0.68), MAS (from 0.52 to 0.72), VO2VT (from 0.72 to 0.83), %VO2maxVT (from 0.62 to 0.65), and V(L4) (from 0.56 to 0.73) were significantly (p < 0.05 to 0.001) large to very large associated with MP variables. These results provide evidence to the ecological validity of aerobic fitness in male professional soccer. Strength and conditioning professionals should consider aerobic fitness in their training program when dealing with professional male soccer players. The MP method resulted an interesting approach for tracking external load in male professional soccer players.

  14. Large eddy simulations of turbulent flows on graphics processing units: Application to film-cooling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Aaron F.

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations can be very computationally expensive, especially for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent ows. In LES the large, energy containing eddies are resolved by the computational mesh, but the smaller (sub-grid) scales are modeled. In DNS, all scales of turbulence are resolved, including the smallest dissipative (Kolmogorov) scales. Clusters of CPUs have been the standard approach for such simulations, but an emerging approach is the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which deliver impressive computing performance compared to CPUs. Recently there has been great interest in the scientific computing community to use GPUs for general-purpose computation (such as the numerical solution of PDEs) rather than graphics rendering. To explore the use of GPUs for CFD simulations, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver was developed for a GPU. This solver is capable of simulating unsteady laminar flows or performing a LES or DNS of turbulent ows. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a fractional-step method and are spatially discretized using the finite volume method on a Cartesian mesh. An immersed boundary method based on a ghost cell treatment was developed to handle flow past complex geometries. The implementation of these numerical methods had to suit the architecture of the GPU, which is designed for massive multithreading. The details of this implementation will be described, along with strategies for performance optimization. Validation of the GPU-based solver was performed for fundamental bench-mark problems, and a performance assessment indicated that the solver was over an order-of-magnitude faster compared to a CPU. The GPU-based Navier-Stokes solver was used to study film-cooling flows via Large Eddy Simulation. In modern gas turbine engines, the film-cooling method is used to protect turbine blades from hot combustion gases. Therefore, understanding the physics of

  15. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  16. Complex Nucleation Process of Large North Chile Earthquakes, Implications for Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, S.; Meneses, G.; Sobiesiak, M.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the nucleation process of Northern Chile events that included the large earthquakes of Tocopilla 2007 Mw 7.8 and Iquique 2014 Mw 8.1, as well as the background seismicity recorded from 2011 to 2013 by the ILN temporary network and the IPOC and CSN permanent networks. We built our catalogue of 393 events starting from the CSN catalogue, which has a completeness of magnitude Mw > 3.0 in Northern Chile. We re-located and computed moment magnitude for each event. We also computed Early Warning (EW) parameters - Pd, Pv, τc and IV2 - for each event including 13 earthquakes of Mw>6.0 that occurred between 2007-2012. We also included part of the seismicity from March-April 2014 period. We find that Pd, Pv and IV2 are good estimators of magnitude for interplate thrust and intraplate intermediate depth events with Mw between 4.0 and 6.0. However, the larger magnitude events show a saturation of the EW parameters. The Tocopilla 2007 and Iquique 2014 earthquake sequences were studied in detail. Almost all events with Mw>6.0 present precursory signals so that the largest amplitudes occur several seconds after the first P wave arrival. The recent Mw 8.1 Iquique 2014 earthquake was preceded by low amplitude P waves for 20 s before the main asperity was broken. The magnitude estimation can improve if we consider longer P wave windows in the estimation of EW parameters. There was, however, a practical limit during the Iquique earthquake because the first S waves arrived before the arrival of the P waves from the main rupture. The 4 s P-wave Pd parameter estimated Mw 7.1 for the Mw 8.1 Iquique 2014 earthquake and Mw 7.5 for the Mw 7.8 Tocopilla 2007 earthquake.

  17. Breast Implant–associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Updated Results from a Structured Expert Consultation Process

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Zachary S.; Mattke, Soeren; van Busum, Kristin; Gidengil, Courtney A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite increased cases published on breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), important clinical issues remain unanswered. We conducted a second structured expert consultation process to rate statements related to the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of this disease, based on their interpretation of published evidence. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of 12 experts was selected based on nominations from national specialty societies, academic department heads, and recognized researchers in the United States. Results: Panelists agreed that (1) this disease should be called “BIA-ALCL”; (2) late seromas occurring >1 year after breast implantation should be evaluated via ultrasound, and if a seroma is present, the fluid should be aspirated and sent for culture, cytology, flow cytometry, and cell block to an experienced hematopathologist; (3) surgical removal of the affected implant and capsule (as completely as possible) should occur, which is sufficient to eradicate capsule-confined BIA-ALCL; (4) surveillance should consist of clinical follow-up at least every 6 months for at least 5 years and breast ultrasound yearly for at least 2 years; and (5) BIA-ALCL is generally a biologically indolent disease with a good prognosis, unless it extends beyond the capsule and/or presents as a mass. They firmly disagreed with statements that chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be given to all patients with BIA-ALCL. Conclusions: Our assessment yielded consistent results on a number of key, incompletely addressed issues regarding BIA-ALCL, but additional research is needed to support these statement ratings and enhance our understanding of the biology, treatment, and outcomes associated with this disease. PMID:25674377

  18. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  19. Developing Software Requirements for a Knowledge Management System That Coordinates Training Programs with Business Processes and Policies in Large Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiper, J. Richard

    2013-01-01

    For large organizations, updating instructional programs presents a challenge to keep abreast of constantly changing business processes and policies. Each time a process or policy changes, significant resources are required to locate and modify the training materials that convey the new content. Moreover, without the ability to track learning…

  20. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  1. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  2. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in

  3. Controlling calcium precipitation in an integrated anaerobic-aerobic treatment system of a "zero-discharge" paper mill.

    PubMed

    van Lier, J B; Boncz, M A

    2002-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry uses significant amounts of water and energy for the paper production process. Closing the water cycles in this industry, therefore, promises large benefits for the environment and has the potential of huge cost savings for the industry. Closing the water cycle on the other hand also introduces problems with process water quality, quality of the end-product and scaling, owing to increased water contamination. An inline treatment system is discussed in which anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors perform a central role for removing both organic and inorganic pollutants from the process water cycle. In the proposed set-up, the organic compounds are converted to methane gas and reused for energy supply, while sulphur compounds are stripped from the process cycle and calcium carbonate is removed by precipitation. Improved control of the treatment system will direct the inorganic precipitates to a location where it does not adversely affect paper production and process water treatment. A simulation program for triggering and controlling CaCO3 precipitation was developed that takes both biological conversions and all relevant chemical equilibria in the system into account. Simulation results are in good agreement with data gathered in a full-scale "zero-emission" paper plant and indicate that control of CaCO3 precipitation can be improved, e.g. in the aerobic post-treatment. Alternatively, a separate precipitation unit could be considered.

  4. Quantification of aerobic biodegradation and volatilization rates of gasoline hydrocarbons near the water table under natural attenuation conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation and volatilization near the water table constitute a coupled pathway that contributes significantly to the natural attenuation of hydrocarbons at gasoline spill sites. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation and volatilization were quantified by analyzing vapor transport in the unsaturated zone at a gasoline spill site in Beaufort, South Carolina. Aerobic biodegradation rates decreased with distance above the water table, ranging from 0.20 to 1.5g m-3 d-1 for toluene, from 0.24 to 0.38 g m-3 d-1 for xylene, from 0.09 to 0.24 g m-3 d-1 for cyclohexene, from 0.05 to 0.22 g m-3 d-1 for ethylbenzene, and from 0.02 to 0.08 g m-3 d-1 for benzene. Rates were highest in the capillary zone, where 68% of the total hydrocarbon mass that volatilized from the water table was estimated to have been biodegraded. Hydrocarbons were nearly completely degraded within 1 m above the water table. This large loss underscores the importance of aerobic biodegradation in limiting the transport of hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone and implies that vapor-plume migration to basements and other points of contact may only be significant if a source of free product is present. Furthermore, because transport of the hydrocarbon in the unsaturated zone can be limited relative to that of oxygen and carbon dioxide, soil, gas surveys conducted at hydrocarbon-spill sites would benefit by the inclusion of oxygen- and carbon-dioxide-gas concentration measurements. Aerobic degradation kinetics in the unsaturated zone were approximately first-order. First-order rate constants near the water table were highest for cyctohexene (0.21-0.65 d-1) and nearly equivalent for ethylbenzene (0.11-20.31 d-1), xylenes (0.10-0.31 d-1), toluene (0.09-0.30 d-1), and benzene (0.07,0.31 d-1). Hydrocarbon mass loss rates at the water table resulting from the coupled aerobic biodegradation and volatilization process were determined by extrapolating gas transport rates through the capillary zone. Mass

  5. Small and Large Number Processing in Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Ansari, Daniel; Xu, Fei; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that typically developing 6-month-old infants are able to discriminate between small and large numerosities. However, discrimination between small numerosities in young infants is only possible when variables continuous with number (e.g. area or circumference) are confounded. In contrast, large number discrimination…

  6. Rupture process of large earthquakes in the northern Mexico subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Larry J.; Miller, Angus D.

    1994-03-01

    The Cocos plate subducts beneath North America at the Mexico trench. The northernmost segment of this trench, between the Orozco and Rivera fracture zones, has ruptured in a sequence of five large earthquakes from 1973 to 1985; the Jan. 30, 1973 Colima event ( M s 7.5) at the northern end of the segment near Rivera fracture zone; the Mar. 14, 1979 Petatlan event ( M s 7.6) at the southern end of the segment on the Orozco fracture zone; the Oct. 25, 1981 Playa Azul event ( M s 7.3) in the middle of the Michoacan “gap”; the Sept. 19, 1985 Michoacan mainshock ( M s 8.1); and the Sept. 21, 1985 Michoacan aftershock ( M s 7.6) that reruptured part of the Petatlan zone. Body wave inversion for the rupture process of these earthquakes finds the best: earthquake depth; focal mechanism; overall source time function; and seismic moment, for each earthquake. In addition, we have determined spatial concentrations of seismic moment release for the Colima earthquake, and the Michoacan mainshock and aftershock. These spatial concentrations of slip are interpreted as asperities; and the resultant asperity distribution for Mexico is compared to other subduction zones. The body wave inversion technique also determines the Moment Tensor Rate Functions; but there is no evidence for statistically significant changes in the moment tensor during rupture for any of the five earthquakes. An appendix describes the Moment Tensor Rate Functions methodology in detail. The systematic bias between global and regional determinations of epicentral locations in Mexico must be resolved to enable plotting of asperities with aftershocks and geographic features. We have spatially “shifted” all of our results to regional determinations of epicenters. The best point source depths for the five earthquakes are all above 30 km, consistent with the idea that the down-dip edge of the seismogenic plate interface in Mexico is shallow compared to other subduction zones. Consideration of uncertainties in

  7. Fine-Scale Relief in the Amazon Drives Large Scale Ecohydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, A. D.; Cuartas, A.; Hodnett, M.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Access to soil water by roots is a key ecophysiological factor for plant productivity in natural systems. Periodically during dry seasons or critically during episodic climate droughts, shortage of water supply can reduce or severely impair plant life. At the other extreme persistent soil waterlogging will limit root respiration and restrict local establishment to adapted species, usually leading to stunted and less productive communities. Soil-water availability is therefore a very important climate variable controlling plant physiology and ecosystem dynamics. Terra-firme, the non-seasonally floodable terrain that covers 82% of the landscape in Amazonia,[1] supports the most massive part of the rainforest ecosystem. The availability of soil water data for terra-firme is scant and very coarse. This lack of data has hampered observational and modeling studies aiming to develop a large-scale integrative ecohydrological picture of Amazonia and its vulnerability to climate change. We have mapped the Amazon basin with a new terrain model developed in our group (HAND, Height Above the Nearest drainage[2]), delineating soil water environments using topographical data from the SRTM digital elevation model (250 m horizontal interpolated resolution). The preliminary results show that more than 50% of Terra-firme has the water table very close to the surface (up to 2 m deep), while the remainder of the upland landscape has variable degree of dependence on non-saturated soil (vadose layer). The mapping also shows extremely heterogeneous patterns of fine-scale relief across the basin, which implies complex ecohydrological regional forcing on the forest physiology. Ecoclimate studies should therefore take into account fine-scale relief and its implications for soil-water availability to plant processes. [1] Melack, J. M., & Hess, L. L. (2011). Remote sensing of the distribution and extent of wetlands in the Amazon basin. In W. J. Junk & M. Piedade (Eds.), Amazonian floodplain

  8. Waste degradation and gas production with enzymatic enhancement in anaerobic and aerobic landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, J P A; Jayasinghe, P A; Bartholameuz, E M; Kumar, S

    2014-05-01

    The presence of lignin is the limiting factor at later stages of biodegradation of municipal solid waste under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Supplying enzymes into the system could facilitate lignin degradation, thereby aiding anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation processes. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments were conducted under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using enzymes in accelerating lignin-rich waste degradation. After 30 days of anaerobic operation, MnP and LiP enzyme treated reactors produced 36 and 23 times higher cumulative methane (CH4), respectively, compared to that of the control reactor devoid of enzyme treatments. The carbon dioxide (CO2) yield of MnP enhanced aerobic reactor showed more than two-fold increase.

  9. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed.

  10. Waste degradation and gas production with enzymatic enhancement in anaerobic and aerobic landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, J P A; Jayasinghe, P A; Bartholameuz, E M; Kumar, S

    2014-05-01

    The presence of lignin is the limiting factor at later stages of biodegradation of municipal solid waste under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Supplying enzymes into the system could facilitate lignin degradation, thereby aiding anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation processes. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments were conducted under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using enzymes in accelerating lignin-rich waste degradation. After 30 days of anaerobic operation, MnP and LiP enzyme treated reactors produced 36 and 23 times higher cumulative methane (CH4), respectively, compared to that of the control reactor devoid of enzyme treatments. The carbon dioxide (CO2) yield of MnP enhanced aerobic reactor showed more than two-fold increase. PMID:24684817

  11. A process for creating multimetric indices for large-scale aquatic surveys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in sampling and laboratory protocols, differences in techniques used to evaluate metrics, and differing scales of calibration and application prohibit the use of many existing multimetric indices (MMIs) in large-scale bioassessments. We describe an approach to develop...

  12. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  13. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  14. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  15. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  16. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  17. Monitoring operational and leachate characteristics of an aerobic simulated landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Giannis, A; Makripodis, G; Simantiraki, F; Somara, M; Gidarakos, E

    2008-01-01

    Long-term biodegradation of MSW in an aerobic landfill bioreactor was monitored as a function of time during 510 days of operation. Operational characteristics such as air importation, temperature and leachate recirculation were monitored. The oxygen utilization rates and biodegradation of organic matter rates showed that aerobic biodegradation was feasible and appropriate to proceed in aerobic landfill bioreactor. Leachate analyses showed that the aerobic bioreactor could remove above 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and close to 100% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) from leachate. Ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and sulphate (SO4(2-)) concentrations of leachate samples were regularly measured. Results suggest that nitrification and denitrification occurred simultaneously, and the increase in nitrate did not reach the levels predicted stoichiometrically, suggesting that other processes were occurring. Leachate recirculation reduced the concentrations of heavy metals because of the effect of the high pH of the leachate, causing heavy metals to be retained by processes such as sorption on MSW, carbonate precipitation, and hydroxide precipitation. Furthermore, the compost derived from the aerobic biodegradation of the organic matter of MSW may be considered as soil improvement in the agricultural plant production. Bio-essays indicated that the ecotoxicity of leachate from the aerobic bioreactor was not toxic at the end of the experiment. Finally, after 510 days of degradation, waste settlement reached 26% mainly due to the compost of the organic matter.

  18. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  19. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  20. Centre seeded infiltration and growth process for fabrication of large grain bulk YBCO/Ag superconducting composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Seshubai, V.

    2012-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a large grain bulk YBCO/Ag superconductor using a novel technique which we call Centre Seeded Infiltration and Growth Process (CSIGP). Using this technique, it has been made possible to get bulk YBCO/Ag composite sample with uniform grain growth textured along the c-axis. The resulting large grain sample has been found to have high critical current densities up to large magnetic fields. We correlate the improved superconducting and magnetic properties to the modified grain growth conditions employed in this fabrication technique.

  1. Integrated observations of processes and products of large scale cratering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.; Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Taddeucci, J.; Zimanowski, B.; Lube, G.; Kueppers, U.; Bowman, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed analysis of volcanic craters and ballistic deposits can provide insight into eruption dynamics and evolution. As fully exposed craters and associated unmodified deposits are rarely preserved, the dynamics involved can only be inferred. Large-scale blast experiments conducted at the University at Buffalo Geohazards Field Station produced deposits from single and multiple subsurface explosions at individual craters, along with a range of observational data, and provide a unique opportunity to link dynamics with geologic structures and deposits. Meter-scale craters were produced through repeated blasts using chemical explosives in 15 cm thick strata constructed of compacted aggregates (e.g. sands and gravels). Each experiment had 1-3 individual explosions with the same epicenter to form a single crater, with a total of 12 blasts and five craters. Three craters were produced through a series of shallow blasts (34-75 cm depth, six blasts) and two additional craters were produced by deeper blasts (75-100 cm, six blasts). The experiments successfully reproduced crater structures similar to those of maar volcanoes, which are the product of one or more subsurface explosions resulting from the interaction of magma with groundwater. Deep explosion tests successfully reproduced mixing and structures similar to maar-diatremes. The ballistics produced were collected in sample boxes up to 18 m from the blast center. The pits were later excavated and the vertical structures and deposits were described and sampled. Deposits can be described as bedded-diatreme (fallback/inter-crater deposits), unbedded diatreme (disturbed subsurface material), tephra ring (debris on the pre-blast surface) and distal extra-crater deposits. Granulometry and componentry were acquired for all samples. The diatreme structures and deposit componentry were interpreted using high-speed video recordings of the blasts. A comparison of ballistic source depth and collection location revealed the

  2. Hydrological recurrence as a measure for large river basin classification and process understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R.; Sayama, T.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological functions of river basins are summarized as collection, storage and discharge, which can be characterized by the dynamics of hydrological variables including precipitation, evaporation, storage and runoff. The temporal patterns of each variable can be indicators of the functionality of a basin. In this paper we introduce a measure to quantify the degree of similarity in intra-annual variations at monthly scale at different years for the four main variables. We introduce this measure under the term of recurrence and define it as the degree to which a monthly hydrological variable returns to the same state in subsequent years. The degree of recurrence in runoff is important not only for the management of water resources but also for the understanding of hydrologic processes, especially in terms of how the other three variables determine the recurrence in runoff. The main objective of this paper is to propose a simple hydrologic classification framework applicable to large basins at global scale based on the combinations of recurrence in the four variables using a monthly scale time series. We evaluate it with lagged autocorrelation (AC), fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and Colwell's indices of variables obtained from the EU-WATCH data set, which is composed of eight global hydrologic model (GHM) and land surface model (LSM) outputs. By setting a threshold to define high or low recurrence in the four variables, we classify each river basin into 16 possible classes. The overview of recurrence patterns at global scale suggested that precipitation is recurrent mainly in the humid tropics, Asian monsoon area and part of higher latitudes with an oceanic influence. Recurrence in evaporation was mainly dependent on the seasonality of energy availability, typically high in the tropics, temperate and sub-arctic regions. Recurrence in storage at higher latitudes depends on energy/water balances and snow, while that in runoff is mostly affected by the different

  3. The TRIPSE: A Process-Oriented Exam for Large Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    The TRIPSE (tri-partite problem solving exercise), a process-oriented exam that mimics the scientific process, was used previously in small classes (15-25). Provided limited data, students frame explanations and design experimental tests that they later revise with additional information. Our 6-year experience using it with larger numbers…

  4. Large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels - process design as an inherent part of microorganism development.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Maria C; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

    2013-06-01

    Industrial biotechnology is playing an important role in the transition to a bio-based economy. Currently, however, industrial implementation is still modest, despite the advances made in microorganism development. Given that the fuels and commodity chemicals sectors are characterized by tight economic margins, we propose to address overall process design and efficiency at the start of bioprocess development. While current microorganism development is targeted at product formation and product yield, addressing process design at the start of bioprocess development means that microorganism selection can also be extended to other critical targets for process technology and process scale implementation, such as enhancing cell separation or increasing cell robustness at operating conditions that favor the overall process. In this paper we follow this approach for the microbial production of diesel-like biofuels. We review current microbial routes with both oleaginous and engineered microorganisms. For the routes leading to extracellular production, we identify the process conditions for large scale operation. The process conditions identified are finally translated to microorganism development targets. We show that microorganism development should be directed at anaerobic production, increasing robustness at extreme process conditions and tailoring cell surface properties. All the same time, novel process configurations integrating fermentation and product recovery, cell reuse and low-cost technologies for product separation are mandatory. This review provides a state-of-the-art summary of the latest challenges in large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels.

  5. Depth gradients in food web processes linking large lake habitats -presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large lakes around the world, shifts in ecological communities are often associated with water depth. This suggests that there may be concomitant changes in patterns of resource allocation. Using Lake Superior as an example, we explored this idea through stable isotope analyse...

  6. Large Aircraft Robotic Paint Stripping (LARPS) system and the high pressure water process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, David W.; Hofacker, Scott A.; Stone, M. Anthony; Harbaugh, Darcy

    1993-03-01

    The aircraft maintenance industry is beset by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines on air emissions, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, dwindling labor markets, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety guidelines, and increased operating costs. In light of these factors, the USAF's Wright Laboratory Manufacturing Technology Directorate and the Aircraft Division of the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center initiated a MANTECH/REPTECH effort to automate an alternate paint removal method and eliminate the current manual methylene chloride chemical stripping methods. This paper presents some of the background and history of the LARPS program, describes the LARPS system, documents the projected operational flow, quantifies some of the projected system benefits and describes the High Pressure Water Stripping Process. Certification of an alternative paint removal method to replace the current chemical process is being performed in two phases: Process Optimization and Process Validation. This paper also presents the results of the Process Optimization for metal substrates. Data on the coating removal rate, residual stresses, surface roughness, preliminary process envelopes, and technical plans for process Validation Testing will be discussed.

  7. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  8. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  9. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  10. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  11. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  12. Biodegradation of 14C-dicofol in wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jaime L da M; Silva, Denise P; Martins, Edir M; Langenbach, Tomaz; Dezotti, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Organic micropollutants are often found in domestic and industrial effluents. Thus, it is important to learn their fate, the metabolites generated and their sorption during biological treatment processes. This work investigated the biodegradation of 14C-dicofol organochloride during wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion. The performance of these processes was evaluated by physical-chemical parameters. Radioactivity levels were monitored in both treatments, and residues of dicofol (DCF) and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were quantified by HPLC/UV. The efficiency of the aerobic and anaerobic processes was slightly reduced in the presence of DCF and DBP. After aerobic treatment, only 0.1% of DCF was mineralized, and 57% of radioactivity remained sorbed on biological sludge as DBP. After 18 days of anaerobiosis, only 3% of DCF and 5% of DBP were detected in the sludge. However, 70% of radioactivity remained in the sludge, probably as other metabolites. Dicofol was biodegraded in the investigated process, but not mineralized. PMID:22629645

  13. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions.

  14. Automation of Survey Data Processing, Documentation and Dissemination: An Application to Large-Scale Self-Reported Educational Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Eunjae; Shim, Minsuk K.; Felner, Robert D.

    Automation of the survey process has proved successful in many industries, yet it is still underused in educational research. This is largely due to the facts (1) that number crunching is usually carried out using software that was developed before information technology existed, and (2) that the educational research is to a great extent trapped…

  15. Two pass method and radiation interchange processing when applied to thermal-structural analysis of large space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Andrew H.; Arelt, Joseph E.; Lalicata, Anthony L.; Rogers, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of efficient and automated thermal-structural processing of very large space structures is presented. The method interfaces the finite element and finite difference techniques. It also results in a pronounced reduction of the quantity of computations, computer resources and manpower required for the task, while assuring the desired accuracy of the results.

  16. An Efficient Simulation Environment for Modeling Large-Scale Cortical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Richert, Micah; Nageswaran, Jayram Moorkanikara; Dutt, Nikil; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a spiking neural network simulator, which is both easy to use and computationally efficient, for the generation of large-scale computational neuroscience models. The simulator implements current or conductance based Izhikevich neuron networks, having spike-timing dependent plasticity and short-term plasticity. It uses a standard network construction interface. The simulator allows for execution on either GPUs or CPUs. The simulator, which is written in C/C++, allows for both fine grain and coarse grain specificity of a host of parameters. We demonstrate the ease of use and computational efficiency of this model by implementing a large-scale model of cortical areas V1, V4, and area MT. The complete model, which has 138,240 neurons and approximately 30 million synapses, runs in real-time on an off-the-shelf GPU. The simulator source code, as well as the source code for the cortical model examples is publicly available. PMID:22007166

  17. Applications of Parallel Process HiMAP for Large Scale Multidisciplinary Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Potsdam, Mark; Rodriguez, David; Kwak, Dochay (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    HiMAP is a three level parallel middleware that can be interfaced to a large scale global design environment for code independent, multidisciplinary analysis using high fidelity equations. Aerospace technology needs are rapidly changing. Computational tools compatible with the requirements of national programs such as space transportation are needed. Conventional computation tools are inadequate for modern aerospace design needs. Advanced, modular computational tools are needed, such as those that incorporate the technology of massively parallel processors (MPP).

  18. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  19. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  20. Large critical current density improvement in Bi-2212 wires through the groove-rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagoli, A.; Bernini, C.; Braccini, V.; Romano, G.; Putti, M.; Chaud, X.; Debray, F.

    2013-04-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in Bi-2212 superconductor round wire for high magnetic field use despite the fact that an increase of the critical current is still needed to boost its successful use in such applications. Recent studies have demonstrated that the main obstacle to current flow, especially in long wires, is the residual porosity inside these powder-in-tube processed conductors that develops from bubble agglomeration when the Bi-2212 melts. In this work we tried to overcome this issue affecting the wire densification by changing the deformation process. Here we show the effects of groove rolling versus the drawing process on the critical current density JC and on the microstructure. In particular, groove-rolled multifilamentary wires show a JC increased by a factor of about 3 with respect to drawn wires prepared with the same Bi-2212 powder and architecture. We think that this approach in the deformation process is able to produce the required improvements both because the superconducting properties are enhanced and because it makes the fabrication process faster and cheaper.

  1. Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Process Modeling for Large Transport Aircraft Wing Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, Tamara W.; Loos, Alfred C.

    2000-01-01

    Resin film infusion (RFI) is a cost-effective method for fabricating stiffened aircraft wing structures. The RFI process lends itself to the use of near net shape textile preforms manufactured through a variety of automated textile processes such as knitting and braiding. Often, these advanced fiber architecture preforms have through-the-thickness stitching for improved damage tolerance and delamination resistance. The challenge presently facing RFI is to refine the process to ensure complete infiltration and cure of a geometrically complex shape preform with the high fiber volume fraction needed for structural applications. An accurate measurement of preform permeability is critical for successful modeling of the RFI resin infiltration process. Small changes in the permeability can result in very different infiltration behavior and times. Therefore, it is important to accurately measure the permeabilities of the textile preforms used in the RFI process. The objective of this investigation was to develop test methods that can be used to measure the compaction behavior and permeabilities of high fiber volume fraction, advanced fiber architecture textile preforms. These preforms are often highly compacted due to through-the-thickness stitching used to improve damage tolerance. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated and used to measure both transverse and in-plane permeabilities. The fixtures were used to measure the permeabilities of multiaxial warp knit and triaxial braided preforms at fiber volume fractions from 55% to 65%. In addition, the effects of stitching characteristics, thickness, and batch variability on permeability and compaction behavior were investigated.

  2. Large-scale monoclonal antibody purification by continuous chromatography, from process design to scale-up.

    PubMed

    Girard, Valérie; Hilbold, Nicolas-Julian; Ng, Candy K S; Pegon, Laurence; Chahim, Wael; Rousset, Fabien; Monchois, Vincent

    2015-11-10

    The development and optimization of a purification process of monoclonal antibodies based on two continuous chromatography steps for capture and intermediate purification are presented. The two chromatography steps were individually optimized using either batch chromatography or sequential multicolumn chromatography (SMCC). Proprietary simulation software was used to optimize SMCC and to evaluate the potential gains compared with batch chromatography. The SMCC recipes provided by the simulation software were evaluated experimentally. A good correlation was found between the simulated results and experimental observations. Significant gains were observed on the productivity, buffer consumption and the volume of resin required for SMCC over batch chromatography. Based on these results, a chained process from the capture to polishing steps was implemented. This chained process demonstrated significantly better performance compared with the batch equivalent while satisfying the specifications. The expected positive impact provided by implementing continuous chromatography is also discussed.

  3. Large-scale monoclonal antibody purification by continuous chromatography, from process design to scale-up.

    PubMed

    Girard, Valérie; Hilbold, Nicolas-Julian; Ng, Candy K S; Pegon, Laurence; Chahim, Wael; Rousset, Fabien; Monchois, Vincent

    2015-11-10

    The development and optimization of a purification process of monoclonal antibodies based on two continuous chromatography steps for capture and intermediate purification are presented. The two chromatography steps were individually optimized using either batch chromatography or sequential multicolumn chromatography (SMCC). Proprietary simulation software was used to optimize SMCC and to evaluate the potential gains compared with batch chromatography. The SMCC recipes provided by the simulation software were evaluated experimentally. A good correlation was found between the simulated results and experimental observations. Significant gains were observed on the productivity, buffer consumption and the volume of resin required for SMCC over batch chromatography. Based on these results, a chained process from the capture to polishing steps was implemented. This chained process demonstrated significantly better performance compared with the batch equivalent while satisfying the specifications. The expected positive impact provided by implementing continuous chromatography is also discussed. PMID:25962790

  4. ISETTA: Service Orientation in the "Bologna Process" of a Large University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossen, Gottfried; Thies, Gunnar

    With the signing of the "Bologna Declaration" in June 1999 by 29 representatives of the European education ministries, a decision was made to introduce comparable educational structures among European universities based on a. Bachelor-Master system until the year 2010. The process itself, collectively known as the "Bologna process,"1 is now well-underway and has created both administrative as well as technical challenges. The ISETTA project at the University of Muenster in Germany aims at the development of an Integrated Student, Exam, Test, and Teaching Application that properly reflects the changes of the university's internal activities caused by the Bologna process. In this paper, we report on the specific requirements of the project, the approach that has been taken and the current status of ISETTA.

  5. GLAST: Exploring Nature's Highest Energy Processes with the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, Seth; Myers, J. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international and multi-agency space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. Several successful exploratory missions in gamma-ray astronomy led to the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Launched in 1991, EGRET made the first complete survey of the sky in the 30 MeV-10 GeV range. EGRET showed the high-energy gamma-ray sky to be surprisingly dynamic and diverse, with sources ranging from the sun and moon to massive black holes at large redshifts. Most of the gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET remain unidentified. In light of the discoveries with EGRET, the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, as well as a secondary instrument to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), will have superior area, angular resolution, field of view, and deadtime that together will provide a factor of 30 or more advance in sensitivity, as well as provide capability for study of transient phenomena. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will have a field of view several times larger than the LAT and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 keV. The basic parameters of the GBM are compared to those of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on CGRO in Table 1-2. With the LAT and GBM, GLAST will be a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. NASA plans to launch GLAST in late 2005.

  6. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

  7. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Georgiana F; de Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Angolini, Célio Ff; Dellagnezze, Bruna M; Garcia, Isabel Ns; de Oliveira, Valéria M; Dos Santos Neto, Eugenio V; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2011-12-23

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses.

  8. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1972-01-01

    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  9. Index Compression and Efficient Query Processing in Large Web Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    The inverted index is the main data structure used by all the major search engines. Search engines build an inverted index on their collection to speed up query processing. As the size of the web grows, the length of the inverted list structures, which can easily grow to hundreds of MBs or even GBs for common terms (roughly linear in the size of…

  10. Sublimites: An Uncommon Terrestrial Process with Large Implications for Planetary Sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, M.; Rondeau, B.; Thomas, M.; Ginot, P.; Bourgeois, O.; Schmitt, B.; De Angelis, M.; Civet, F.

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of a cold and dry glacier in the Chilean Andes reveals that sulfate crystals can form by sublimation only. This crystallization process may be dominant in the solar system and is particularly relevant for the martian North Polar Cap.

  11. Dissolving decision making? Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, Stans

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making. Attention is paid to three aspects of the wider context of the models: a) the history of the construction process; b) (changes in) the political and scientific environments; and c) the use in policy processes over longer periods of time. Models are more successfully used when they are constructed in a stable political and scientific environment. Stability and certainty within a scientific field seems to be a key predictor for the usefulness of models for policy making. The economic model is more disputed than the ecology-based model and the model that has its theoretical foundation in physics and chemistry. The roles models play in policy processes are too complex to be considered as straightforward technocratic powers. PMID:25549446

  12. A Distributed Processing Approach to Payroll Time Reporting for a Large School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Raoul J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a system for payroll reporting from geographically disparate locations in which data is entered, edited, and verified locally on minicomputers and then uploaded to a central computer for the standard payroll process. Communications and hardware, time-reporting software, data input techniques, system implementation, and its advantages are…

  13. Plasma Processing of Large Surfaces with Application to SRF Cavity Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Popovic, Svetozar; Vuskovic, Leposova; Im, Do; Valente, Anne-Marie; Phillips, H

    2013-09-01

    Plasma based surface modifications of SRF cavities present promising alternatives to the wet etching technology currently applied. To understand and characterize the plasma properties and chemical kinetics of plasma etching processes inside a single cell cavity, we have built a specially-designed cylindrical cavity with 8 observation ports. These ports can be used for holding niobium samples and diagnostic purposes simultaneously. Two frequencies (13.56 MHz and 2.45 GHz) of power source are used for different pressure, power and gas compositions. The plasma parameters were evaluated by a Langmuir probe and by an optical emission spectroscopy technique based on the relative intensity of two Ar 5p-4s lines at 419.8 and 420.07 nm. Argon 5p-4s transition is chosen to determine electron temperature in order to optimize parameters for plasma processing. Chemical kinetics of the process was observed using real-time mass spectroscopy. The effect of these parameters on niobium surface would be measured, presented at this conference, and used as guidelines for optimal design of SRF etching process.

  14. Scaling-up Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Techniques for Teaching Large Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Myers, Trina; Gray, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Promoting engagement during lectures becomes significantly more challenging as class sizes increase. Therefore, lecturers need to experiment with new teaching methodologies to embolden deep learning outcomes and to develop interpersonal skills amongst students. Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning is a teaching approach that uses highly…

  15. Automated spray coating process for the fabrication of large-area artificial opals on textured substrates.

    PubMed

    Sprafke, Alexander N; Schneevoigt, Daniela; Seidel, Sophie; Schweizer, Stefan L; Wehrspohn, Ralf B

    2013-05-01

    3D photonic crystals, such as opals, have been shown to have a high potential to increase the efficiency of solar cells by enabling advanced light management concepts. However, methods which comply with the demands of the photovoltaic industry for integration of these structures, i. e. the fabrication in a low-cost, fast, and large-scale manner, are missing up to now. In this work, we present the spray coating of a colloidal suspension on textured substrates and subsequent drying. We fabricated opaline films of much larger lateral dimensions and in much shorter times than what is possible using conventional opal fabrication methods. PMID:24104441

  16. Processing of Large-Scale Nano-ink Data by Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungsuk; Gil, Joon-Min

    Recently, the simulation techniques using computers have been actively utilized to examine the effects of social or physical interactions. Those works often generate very large amounts of data, and to deal with them, it may be necessary to use high-performance supercomputers as well as to develop efficient algorithms. This paper presents the results of the simulation works to deal with the data generated in developing a printable board using nano-size, conductible inks. Our works are conducted with a supercomputer, based on parallel programming using message passing interface (MPI). The simulation results obtained from our works can be utilized to verify the findings obtained from the real physical experiments.

  17. Oceanographic Processes in Chilean Fjords of Patagonia: From small to large-scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, José L.; Pantoja, Silvio; Daneri, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Subantarctic ecosystems, such as the inner shelf of southern Chile (41-55°S), are characterized by a complex system of fjords, channels, gulf, estuaries, bays, and are affected by physical regimes that may strongly modulate biological productivity. Rhythms and rates of primary production in these highly fluctuating fjord environments depend to a large extent on the timing and magnitude of nutrient supply and light availability for primary producers. In such complex fjord systems, the interaction between oceanic waters and freshwater from multiple sources (e.g., rivers, surface and groundwater runoff, snow/glacier melting, and precipitation) produces strong vertical and horizontal gradients in salinity, density, organic and inorganic nutrient ratios and light availability (Pickard, 1971; Dávila et al., 2002; Silva and Palma 2006; Jacob et al., 2014). The vertical structure of the water column (stratified/mixed), modulated by the seasonal and inter-annual changes of the pycnocline may affect biomass and composition of pelagic and benthic assemblages, and ultimately spatial and temporal patterns of carbon fluxes (the 'Biological Pump'), and biogeochemical balances in this large region. In addition, the region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic influences (Iriarte et al., 2010). Remote and large-scale climatic-oceanographic phenomena (e.g., ENSO and Southern Annular Mode) and global climate trends may alter freshwater discharge of large rivers such as the Puelo and Palena, as has also been suggested for the Baker River located between Patagonian Ice fields and other northern fjords shown by paleo-oceanographic (Sepúlveda et al., 2009; Rebolledo et al., 2011) and dendrochronological studies (Lara et al., 2008). Although changes in climate are expected to alter the regional atmospheric forcing such as the West Wind Drift (Quintana and Aceituno, 2012; Garreaud et al., 2013) and the local ocean circulation in this region, including the

  18. Automated spray coating process for the fabrication of large-area artificial opals on textured substrates.

    PubMed

    Sprafke, Alexander N; Schneevoigt, Daniela; Seidel, Sophie; Schweizer, Stefan L; Wehrspohn, Ralf B

    2013-05-01

    3D photonic crystals, such as opals, have been shown to have a high potential to increase the efficiency of solar cells by enabling advanced light management concepts. However, methods which comply with the demands of the photovoltaic industry for integration of these structures, i. e. the fabrication in a low-cost, fast, and large-scale manner, are missing up to now. In this work, we present the spray coating of a colloidal suspension on textured substrates and subsequent drying. We fabricated opaline films of much larger lateral dimensions and in much shorter times than what is possible using conventional opal fabrication methods.

  19. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  20. Large-scale synthesis of nickel sulfide micro/nanorods via a hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng-fei; Han, Xiang-yu; Zhou, Chao; Xia, Chuan-hui; Hu, Chun-lian; Sun, Li-li

    2015-07-01

    Rhombohedral-phase NiS micro/nanorods were synthesized on a large scale through a hydrothermal method using NiCl2·6H2O and thiourea crystals as starting precursors. Recrystallized thiourea was observed to play an important role in the formation of micro/nanosized rods and flower-like structures. The molar ratio and reaction temperature of the precursors influenced the morphology and phase of NiS products. Pure rhombohedral NiS micro/nanorods were obtained on a large scale when the molar ratio between NiCl2·6H2O and thiourea crystals was fixed at 2:1, and the mixture was heated at 250°C for 5 h. Flower-like NiS nanostructures were formed when the molar ratio between NiCl2·6H2O and thiourea crystals was maintained at 1:1. The Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the as-prepared rhombohedral NiS micro/nanorods were collected, and their magnetic properties were investigated. The results showed that the FTIR absorption peaks of the as-prepared product are located at 634 cm-1 and their Raman peaks are located at 216 and 289 cm-1; the as-prepared NiS micro/nanorods exhibited weak ferromagnetic behavior due to the size effect.

  1. Evolutionary Techniques for Image Processing a Large Dataset of Early Drosophila Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirov, Alexander; Holloway, David M.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding how genetic networks act in embryonic development requires a detailed and statistically significant dataset integrating diverse observational results. The fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster) is used as a model organism for studying developmental genetics. In recent years, several laboratories have systematically gathered confocal microscopy images of patterns of activity (expression) for genes governing early Drosophila development. Due to both the high variability between fruit fly embryos and diverse sources of observational errors, some new nontrivial procedures for processing and integrating the raw observations are required. Here we describe processing techniques based on genetic algorithms and discuss their efficacy in decreasing observational errors and illuminating the natural variability in gene expression patterns. The specific developmental problem studied is anteroposterior specification of the body plan.

  2. Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, A.; Balch, R.; House, L.; Hartse, H.

    1995-12-01

    San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

  3. MOSAIC - A space-multiplexing technique for optical processing of large images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athale, Ravindra A.; Astor, Michael E.; Yu, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    A technique for Fourier processing of images larger than the space-bandwidth products of conventional or smart spatial light modulators and two-dimensional detector arrays is described. The technique involves a spatial combination of subimages displayed on individual spatial light modulators to form a phase-coherent image, which is subsequently processed with Fourier optical techniques. Because of the technique's similarity with the mosaic technique used in art, the processor used is termed an optical MOSAIC processor. The phase accuracy requirements of this system were studied by computer simulation. It was found that phase errors of less than lambda/8 did not degrade the performance of the system and that the system was relatively insensitive to amplitude nonuniformities. Several schemes for implementing the subimage combination are described. Initial experimental results demonstrating the validity of the mosaic concept are also presented.

  4. Large-scale analytical Fourier transform of photomask layouts using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Julia A.

    2015-10-01

    Compensation of lens-heating effects during the exposure scan in an optical lithographic system requires knowledge of the heating profile in the pupil of the projection lens. A necessary component in the accurate estimation of this profile is the total integrated distribution of light, relying on the squared modulus of the Fourier transform (FT) of the photomask layout for individual process layers. Requiring a layout representation in pixelated image format, the most common approach is to compute the FT numerically via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the file size for a standard 26- mm×33-mm mask with 5-nm pixels is an overwhelming 137 TB in single precision; the data importing process alone, prior to FFT computation, can render this method highly impractical. A more feasible solution is to handle layout data in a highly compact format with vertex locations of mask features (polygons), which correspond to elements in an integrated circuit, as well as pattern symmetries and repetitions (e.g., GDSII format). Provided the polygons can decompose into shapes for which analytical FT expressions are possible, the analytical approach dramatically reduces computation time and alleviates the burden of importing extensive mask data. Algorithms have been developed for importing and interpreting hierarchical layout data and computing the analytical FT on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for rapid parallel processing, not assuming incoherent imaging. Testing was performed on the active layer of a 392- μm×297-μm virtual chip test structure with 43 substructures distributed over six hierarchical levels. The factor of improvement in the analytical versus numerical approach for importing layout data, performing CPU-GPU memory transfers, and executing the FT on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPU was 1.6×104, 4.9×103, and 3.8×103, respectively. Various ideas for algorithm enhancements will be discussed.

  5. Removal of oxytetracycline and determining its biosorption properties on aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Mihciokur, Hamdi; Oguz, Merve

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates biosorption of Oxytetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, using aerobic granular sludge as an adsorbent in aqueous solutions. A sequencing batch reactor fed by a synthetic wastewater was operated to create aerobic granular sludge. Primarily, the pore structure and surface area of granular sludge, the chemical structure and the molecular sizes of the pharmaceutical, operating conditions, such as pH, stirring rate, initial concentration of Oxytetracycline, during adsorption process was verified. Subsequently, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption were examined and adsorption isotherm studies were carried out. It was shown that the aerobic granular sludge was a good alternative for biosorption of this pharmaceutical. The pharmaceutical was adsorbed better at pH values of 6-8. The adsorption efficiency increased with rising ionic strength. Also, it was seen that the adsorption process was an exothermic process in terms of thermodynamics. The adsorption can be well explained by Langmuir isotherm model. PMID:27485178

  6. Simulation of wastewater treatment by aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor based on cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Benzhai, Hai; Lei, Liu; Ge, Qin; Yuwan, Peng; Ping, Li; Qingxiang, Yang; Hailei, Wang

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using synthetic wastewater, and 81 % of granular rate was obtained after 15-day cultivation. Aerobic granules have a 96 % BOD removal to the wastewater, and the reactor harbors a mount of biomass including bacteria, fungi and protozoa. In view of the complexity of kinetic behaviors of sludge and biological mechanisms of the granular SBR, a cellular automata model was established to simulate the process of wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the model not only visualized the complex adsorption and degradation process of aerobic granules, but also well described the BOD removal of wastewater and microbial growth in the reactor. Thus, CA model is suitable for simulation of synthetic wastewater treatment. This is the first report about dynamical and visual simulation of treatment process of synthetic wastewater in a granular SBR.

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Processing and characterization of edgeless radiation detectors for large area detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliopuska, J.; Wu, X.; Jakubek, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2013-12-01

    The edgeless or active edge silicon pixel detectors have been gaining a lot of interest due to improved silicon processing capabilities. At VTT, we have recently triggered a multi-project wafer process of edgeless silicon detectors. Totally 80 pieces of 150 mm wafers were processed to provide a given number of detector variations. Fabricated detector thicknesses were 100, 200, 300 and 500 μm. The polarities of the fabricated detectors on the given thicknesses were n-in-n, p-in-n, n-in-p and p-in-p. On the n-in-n and n-in-p wafers the pixel isolation was made either with a common p-stop grid or with a shallow p-spray doping. The wafer materials were high resistivity Float Zone and Magnetic Czochralski silicon with crystal orientation of <100>. In this paper, the electric properties on various types of detectors are presented. The results from spectroscopic measurement show a good energy resolution of the edge pixels, indicating an excellent charge collection near the edge pixels of the edgeless detector.

  9. Observation of the Mold-Filling Process of a Large Hydro-Turbine Guide Vane Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jinwu; Long, Haimin; Li, Yongjie; You, Rui; Hao, Xiaokun; Nie, Gang; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    The mold-filling process has a determining effect on the quality of castings, and it has always been a hot but difficult research topic. The authors developed a wireless monitoring system for the mold-filling process of castings based on a contact time method and an observation system based on heat-resistant high-speed cameras. By using these two systems, the filling process of a turbine guide vane casting with a stepped gating system was investigated. The filling profile of the casting was recorded, and the filling time of nine typical positions was acquired. These results show that at the beginning, the liquid steel flowed out from the top ingate, which was designed to be the last to fill. The numerical simulation of the filling of the guide vane was performed, and the outflow from the top ingate were predicted. Finally, the gating system of the casting was improved with enlarged sprue. The new design features bigger sprue to ingate ratio; therefore, it could avoid the overflow from the top ingate and realize stable filling.

  10. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  11. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating), as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  12. A practical overview and comparison of certain commercial forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations. In particular, we focus on the new version of Nuix 4.2 and compare it with AccessData FTK 4.2, X-Ways Forensics 16.9 and Guidance Encase Forensic 7 regarding its performance, functionality, usability and capability. We will show how these software tools work with large forensic images and how capable they are in examining complex and big data scenarios.

  13. Large-Scale Reactive Atomistic Simulation of Shock-induced Initiation Processes in Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    Initiation in energetic materials is fundamentally dependent on the interaction between a host of complex chemical and mechanical processes, occurring on scales ranging from intramolecular vibrations through molecular crystal plasticity up to hydrodynamic phenomena at the mesoscale. A variety of methods (e.g. quantum electronic structure methods (QM), non-reactive classical molecular dynamics (MD), mesoscopic continuum mechanics) exist to study processes occurring on each of these scales in isolation, but cannot describe how these processes interact with each other. In contrast, the ReaxFF reactive force field, implemented in the LAMMPS parallel MD code, allows us to routinely perform multimillion-atom reactive MD simulations of shock-induced initiation in a variety of energetic materials. This is done either by explicitly driving a shock-wave through the structure (NEMD) or by imposing thermodynamic constraints on the collective dynamics of the simulation cell e.g. using the Multiscale Shock Technique (MSST). These MD simulations allow us to directly observe how energy is transferred from the shockwave into other processes, including intramolecular vibrational modes, plastic deformation of the crystal, and hydrodynamic jetting at interfaces. These processes in turn cause thermal excitation of chemical bonds leading to initial chemical reactions, and ultimately to exothermic formation of product species. Results will be presented on the application of this approach to several important energetic materials, including pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). In both cases, we validate the ReaxFF parameterizations against QM and experimental data. For PETN, we observe initiation occurring via different chemical pathways, depending on the shock direction. For PETN containing spherical voids, we observe enhanced sensitivity due to jetting, void collapse, and hotspot formation, with sensitivity increasing with void size. For ANFO, we

  14. GraphReduce: Processing Large-Scale Graphs on Accelerator-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Dipanjan; Song, Shuaiwen; Agarwal, Kapil; Schwan, Karsten

    2015-11-15

    Recent work on real-world graph analytics has sought to leverage the massive amount of parallelism offered by GPU devices, but challenges remain due to the inherent irregularity of graph algorithms and limitations in GPU-resident memory for storing large graphs. We present GraphReduce, a highly efficient and scalable GPU-based framework that operates on graphs that exceed the device’s internal memory capacity. GraphReduce adopts a combination of edge- and vertex-centric implementations of the Gather-Apply-Scatter programming model and operates on multiple asynchronous GPU streams to fully exploit the high degrees of parallelism in GPUs with efficient graph data movement between the host and device.

  15. Low-impedance internal linear inductive antenna for large-area flat panel display plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.N.; Jung, S.J.; Lee, Y.J.; Yeom, G.Y.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.K.

    2005-03-15

    An internal-type linear inductive antenna, that is, a double-comb-type antenna, was developed for a large-area plasma source having the size of 1020 mmx830 mm, and high density plasmas on the order of 2.3x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} were obtained with 15 mTorr Ar at 5000 W of inductive power with good plasma stability. This is higher than that for the conventional serpentine-type antenna, possibly due to the low impedance, resulting in high efficiency of power transfer for the double-comb antenna type. In addition, due to the remarkable reduction of the antenna length, a plasma uniformity of less than 8% was obtained within the substrate area of 880 mmx660 mm at 5000 W without having a standing-wave effect.

  16. Floating substrate process: Large-area silicon sheet task low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, M.; Hall, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    Supercooling of silicon-tin alloy melts was studied. Values as high as 78 C at 1100 C and 39 C at 1200 C were observed, corresponding to supersaturation parameter values 0.025 and 0.053 at 1050 C and 1150 C, respectively. The interaction of tin with silane gas streams was investigated over the temperature range 1000 to 1200 C. Single-pass conversion efficiencies exceeding 30% were obtained. The growth habit of spontaneously-nucleated surface growth was determined to be consistent with dendritic and web growth from singly-twinned triangular nucleii. Surface growth of interlocking silicon crystals, thin enough to follow the surface of the liquid and with growth velocity as high as 5 mm/min, was obtained. Large area single-crystal growth along the melt surface was not achieved. Small single-crystal surface growth was obtained which did not propagate beyond a few millimeters.

  17. Key ingredients needed when building large data processing systems for scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. C.

    2002-01-01

    Why is building a large science software system so painful? Weren't teams of software engineers supposed to make life easier for scientists? Does it sometimes feel as if it would be easier to write the million lines of code in Fortran 77 yourself? The cause of this dissatisfaction is that many of the needs of the science customer remain hidden in discussions with software engineers until after a system has already been built. In fact, many of the hidden needs of the science customer conflict with stated needs and are therefore very difficult to meet unless they are addressed from the outset in a system's architectural requirements. What's missing is the consideration of a small set of key software properties in initial agreements about the requirements, the design and the cost of the system.

  18. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  19. Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinger, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

  20. Hot Stuff: Lability of Forest Floor DOM to Aerobic Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbonniere, R. A.; Creed, I. F.; Kapila, R.; Collins, J.

    2004-05-01

    The hypothesis that the lability of DOM to aerobic microbial degradation to CO2 is related to its age and character is tested in an incubation study conducted using an assemblage of soil bacteria in their natural state. Extracts (WF) of leaf and forest floor material characterized by different degrees of degradation: green leaves, fresh fallen leaves, litter (one year weathering), fibric matter, hemic matter and peat were used in this study. The working hypothesis is that these extracts represent a chronosequence of degradation and DOM extracted from them might also represent a similar lability sequence. As well aliquots of the WF extracts were processed to remove DOM fractions. Thus a fulvic acid (FA) fraction was made by precipitating and removing humic acid, and a hydrophilic fraction (HPI) by removing hydrophobics from the FA using XAD-8 resin. Incubations were carried out on all three DOM solutions from each extract to determine if there were differences in lability among the fractions. When comparing the WF solutions for CO2 production, the green leaves, litter, fibric and hemic extracts showed approximately the same CO2 yield, on an equal C basis, and the fresh fallen leaves and peat produced less. For five of the six extracts the respective WF and HPI solutions yielded nearly the same quantity of CO2 per mg C suggesting that the HPI component contributes almost all the lability. Furthermore the magnitudes of the C-normalized CO2 yield for these solutions are similar to that for glucose, which fractionates as HPI. For the same five extracts the FA solution yielded lower quantities of CO2, on an equal C basis, than WF and HPI suggesting that the hydrophobic content of the extracts may inhibit aerobic degradation. The peat extract solutions yielded a different CO2 production distribution with the HPI only slightly higher than the FA which in turn was much greater than WF. The material from which this extract was made is much older and contains significant HA

  1. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  2. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  3. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  4. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars

    2014-09-01

    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation.

  5. On uniform plasma generation for the large area plasma processing in intermediate pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Hwang, Hye-Ju; Cho, Jeong Hee; Chae, Hee Sun; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-04-21

    Radial plasma discharge characteristics in the range of 450 mm were studied in a dual inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which consisted of a helical ICP and the side type ferrite ICPs. Since the energy relaxation length is shorter than the distance between each of the ferrite ICPs in an intermediate pressure (600 mTorr), local difference in the plasma ignition along the antenna position were observed. In addition, large voltage drop in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs causes an increase in the displacement current to the plasma, and separate discharge mode (E and H mode) according to the antenna position was observed. This results in non-uniform plasma distribution. For the improvement in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs, a capacitor which is placed between the ends of antenna and the ground is adjusted to minimize the displacement current to the plasma. As a result, coincident transitions from E to H mode were observed along the antenna position, and radially concave density profile (edge focused) was measured. For the uniform density distribution, a helical ICP, which located at the center of the discharge chamber, was simultaneously discharged with the ferrite ICPs. Due to the plasma potential variation through the simultaneous discharge of helical ICP and ferrite ICPs, uniform radial distribution in both plasma density and electron temperature are achieved.

  6. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Tsumori, K; Ikeda, K; Nakano, H; Kisaki, M; Geng, S; Wada, M; Sasaki, K; Nishiyama, S; Goto, M; Serianni, G; Agostinetti, P; Sartori, E; Brombin, M; Veltri, P; Wimmer, C; Nagaoka, K; Osakabe, M; Takeiri, Y; Kaneko, O

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H(-)) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H(-) density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields. PMID:26932108

  7. Large eddy simulation of fuel injection and mixing process in a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Xie, Mao-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Shi, Jun-Rui

    2011-08-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) approach implemented in the KIVA-3V code and based on one-equation sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy model are employed for numerical computation of diesel sprays in a constant volume vessel and in a Caterpillar 3400 series diesel engine. Computational results are compared with those obtained by an RANS (RNG k- ɛ) model as well as with experimental data. The sensitivity of the LES results to mesh resolution is also discussed. The results show that LES generally provides flow and spray characteristics in better agreement with experimental data than RANS; and that small-scale random vortical structures of the in-cylinder turbulent spray field can be captured by LES. Furthermore, the penetrations of fuel droplets and vapors calculated by LES are larger than the RANS result, and the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and sub-grid turbulent viscosity provided by the LES model are evidently less than those calculated by the RANS model. Finally, it is found that the initial swirl significantly affects the spray penetration and the distribution of fuel vapor within the combustion chamber.

  8. Large-area sol-gel highly-reflective coatings processed by the dipping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Belleville, P.; Pegon, P.

    1997-12-01

    The Centre d`Etudes de Limeil-Valenton is currently involved in a project which consists of the construction of a 2 MJ/500TW (351-nm) pulsed Nd:glass laser devoted to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. With 240 laser beams, the proposed megajoule-class laser conceptual design necessitates 44-cm x 2 44-cm x 6-cm cavity-end mirrors (1053-nm) representing more than 50-m{sup 2} of coated area. These dielectric mirrors are made of quaterwave stacks of SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}-PVP (PolyVinylPyrrolidone) and are prepared from colloidal suspensions (sols) using the sol-gel route. After a sustained search effort. we have prepared (SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}-PVP){sup 10} mirrored coatings with up to 99% reflection at 1053-nm and for different incidence use. Adequate laser-conditioned damage thresholds ranging 14 - 15 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053-nm wavelength and with 3-ns pulse duration were achieved. Large-area mirrors with good coating uniformity and weak edge-effect were produced by dip-coating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

  9. On uniform plasma generation for the large area plasma processing in intermediate pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Hwang, Hye-Ju; Kim, Dong Hwan; Cho, Jeong Hee; Chae, Hee Sun; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-04-01

    Radial plasma discharge characteristics in the range of 450 mm were studied in a dual inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which consisted of a helical ICP and the side type ferrite ICPs. Since the energy relaxation length is shorter than the distance between each of the ferrite ICPs in an intermediate pressure (600 mTorr), local difference in the plasma ignition along the antenna position were observed. In addition, large voltage drop in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs causes an increase in the displacement current to the plasma, and separate discharge mode (E and H mode) according to the antenna position was observed. This results in non-uniform plasma distribution. For the improvement in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs, a capacitor which is placed between the ends of antenna and the ground is adjusted to minimize the displacement current to the plasma. As a result, coincident transitions from E to H mode were observed along the antenna position, and radially concave density profile (edge focused) was measured. For the uniform density distribution, a helical ICP, which located at the center of the discharge chamber, was simultaneously discharged with the ferrite ICPs. Due to the plasma potential variation through the simultaneous discharge of helical ICP and ferrite ICPs, uniform radial distribution in both plasma density and electron temperature are achieved.

  10. Observation of large photoacoustic signal phase changes during a diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Stanley J; Jones, Roger W; McClelland, John F

    2005-11-01

    The phase of the photoacoustic signal is known to be a sensitive and accurate means to investigate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, static multilayer heterogeneous systems. According to theory, the maximum phase delay for a very weakly absorbing homogeneous sample should be within 45 degrees of a very strongly absorbing sample, while for heterogeneous samples the phase delay can be greater than 45 degrees. Here we report the observation of photoacoustic phase delays greater than 350 degrees by extending the use of step-scan phase modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy to study a non-repetitive dynamic system in situ, in real time. These large phase delays correspond to sampling several thermal diffusion lengths into the sample. The model system used in this study consisted of a hydrocarbon grease diffusing through a porous Teflon film. The progress of the diffusion was tracked by monitoring both the photoacoustic signal magnitude and the phase of the hydrocarbon grease after isolation from the Teflon film signal contributions at two different phase modulation frequencies.

  11. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Geng, S.; Wada, M.; Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Goto, M.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P.; Wimmer, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H-) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H- density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  12. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity.

  13. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. PMID:25694619

  14. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. PMID:25694619

  15. Large volume flow electroporation of mRNA: clinical scale process.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhong; Allen, Cornell; Shivakumar, Rama; Peshwa, Madhusudan V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic modification for enhancing cellular function has been continuously pursued for fighting diseases. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transfection is found to be a promising solution in modifying hematopoietic and immune cells for therapeutic purpose. We have developed a flow electroporation-based system for large volume electroporation of cells with various molecules, including mRNA. This allows robust and scalable mRNA transfection of primary cells of different origin. Here we describe transfection of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) mRNA into NK cells to modulate the ability of NK cells to target tumor cells. High levels of CAR expression in NK cells can be maintained for 3-7 days post transfection. CD19-specific CAR mRNA transfected NK cells demonstrate targeted lysis of CD19-expressing tumor cells OP-1, primary B-CLL tumor cells, and autologous CD19+ B cells in in vitro assays with enhanced potency: >80% lysis at effector-target ratio of 1:1. This allows current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and regulatory compliant manufacture of CAR mRNA transfected NK cells for clinical delivery. PMID:23296932

  16. Indirect and direct relations between aerobic fitness, physical activity, and academic achievement in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, K.; Hansen, D.M.; Szabo, A.N.; Lee, J.; Herrmann, S.D.; Donnelly, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that increasing physical activity (PA) improves academic achievement (AA) in children and that aerobic fitness is associated with both cognitive function and AA. However, it is not known how these variables are interrelated and analyses with adequate control for socioeconomic variables are needed. It was hypothesized that PA would not directly affect AA but would have an indirect effect on AA through its effect on aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesized mediation using path analysis. METHODS Cross-sectional data including AA, aerobic fitness, and daily PA assessed through accelerometry were collected from a large sample (N = 687) of 2nd and 3rd grade students. Demographic data were assessed via parent self-report. RESULTS A total of 401 students wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours on 3 days or more and were included in the final path analysis to evaluate potential relations among PA (predictor), aerobic fitness (mediator), and WIAT-III subtest standard scores (outcomes; i.e., reading, spelling, and mathematics). Findings showed a direct effect of PA on aerobic fitness (b = 0.009, p < 0.001) and an indirect effect (mediation) of PA via fitness on math achievement (b = 0.003, p < 0.01) after controlling for student’s grade, gender, body mass index, mother’s education level, and household income, as well as intraclass correlations among classes and schools. Neither PA nor aerobic fitness were correlated with WIAT-III reading or spelling scores. CONCLUSIONS Mediation analysis indicated that PA exerted an influence on math achievement through its effects on aerobic fitness but was not associated with reading or spelling achievement scores. PMID:25984236

  17. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  18. A vacuum flash–assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiong; Bi, Dongqin; Yi, Chenyi; Décoppet, Jean-David; Luo, Jingshan; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) currently attract enormous research interest because of their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication costs, but their practical development is hampered by difficulties in achieving high performance with large-size devices. We devised a simple vacuum flash–assisted solution processing method to obtain shiny, smooth, crystalline perovskite films of high electronic quality over large areas. This enabled us to fabricate solar cells with an aperture area exceeding 1 square centimeter, a maximum efficiency of 20.5%, and a certified PCE of 19.6%. By contrast, the best certified PCE to date is 15.6% for PSCs of similar size. We demonstrate that the reproducibility of the method is excellent and that the cells show virtually no hysteresis. Our approach enables the realization of highly efficient large-area PSCs for practical deployment.

  19. A numerical study of large-scale ionospheric modulation due to the thermal process by powerful wave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Moran; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Shi, Run; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuannong; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2016-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional numerical model of large-scale ionospheric electron density and temperature modulation by powerful electromagnetic waves by incorporating the transport equations and the three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm. Based on this numerical model, the changes of ionospheric electron density and temperature at nighttime are investigated. The simulation results present (1) the ionospheric electron temperature enhancement due to the energy absorption; (2) the ionospheric electron density depletion at the reflection region and enhancement at the upper/lower region along the field line due to the thermal pressure; and (3) large-scale field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) due to the thermal self-focusing instability with transverse scale of ~10 km. The results are quantitatively consistent with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations, which indicate that the thermal processes play an important role in the ionospheric electron density/temperature modulation and large-scale FAI generation.

  20. A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Bi, Dongqin; Yi, Chenyi; Décoppet, Jean-David; Luo, Jingshan; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) currently attract enormous research interest because of their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication costs, but their practical development is hampered by difficulties in achieving high performance with large-size devices. We devised a simple vacuum flash-assisted solution processing method to obtain shiny, smooth, crystalline perovskite films of high electronic quality over large areas. This enabled us to fabricate solar cells with an aperture area exceeding 1 square centimeter, a maximum efficiency of 20.5%, and a certified PCE of 19.6%. By contrast, the best certified PCE to date is 15.6% for PSCs of similar size. We demonstrate that the reproducibility of the method is excellent and that the cells show virtually no hysteresis. Our approach enables the realization of highly efficient large-area PSCs for practical deployment.

  1. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong Chang, Hong-Young; An, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  2. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong; Chang, Hong-Young; An, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  3. Design of an RF Antenna for a Large0Bore, High Power, Steady State Plasma Processing Chamber for Material Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Freeman, R.L.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC, (Contractor), and Archimedes Technology Group, (Participant) is to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure. The project objectives are to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure.

  4. In-situ monitoring of surface post-processing in large aperture fused silica optics with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, G M; Bass, I l; Hackel, R P; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during post-processing via CO{sub 2} laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5-cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

  5. Different plant hormones regulate similar processes through largely nonoverlapping transcriptional responses.

    PubMed

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Hong, Fangxin; Chory, Joanne

    2006-08-11

    Small-molecule hormones govern every aspect of the biology of plants. Many processes, such as growth, are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones, and recent studies have revealed extensive crosstalk among different hormonal signaling pathways. These results have led to the proposal that a common set of signaling components may integrate inputs from multiple hormones to regulate growth. In this study, we tested this proposal by asking whether different hormones converge on a common set of transcriptional targets in Arabidopsis seedlings. Using publicly available microarray data, we analyzed the transcriptional effects of seven hormones, including abscisic acid, gibberellin, auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and jasmonate. A high-sensitivity analysis revealed a surprisingly low number of common target genes. Instead, different hormones appear to regulate distinct members of protein families. We conclude that there is not a core transcriptional growth-regulatory module in young Arabidopsis seedlings.

  6. Technical aspects of a large size industrial process turbo compressor revamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świder, Piotr; Kozanecki, Zbigniew, Jr.; Graczykowski, Marek; Kryłłowicz, Władysław

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes several modernization aspects of the process 8 MW air compressor and its driver. The main aim of the revamp was to increase internal efficiencies of both the compressor and turbine and increase the load of the compressor without additional power consumption. The original pressure ratio was preserved. To meet these requirements a redesign of the flow path of both machineswas necessary.Moreover, the turbineworking conditions were changed from extraction-condensing to condensing. In terms of compressor, impeller blade redesign, adaptation of diffusers and Abradable seals were a part of the scope. The revamp was completed in April 2014 with all the requirements met. This paper covers the general outline and a comparison of the original and modernized machine operating parameters, design and technical assumptions and also describes some problematic issues which occurred during the realization of the project.

  7. On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-jin; Liu, Han-Li

    2013-09-15

    Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.

  8. Large scale industrialized cell expansion: producing the critical raw material for biofabrication processes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Starly, Binil

    2015-01-01

    Cellular biomanufacturing technologies are a critical link to the successful application of cell and scaffold based regenerative therapies, organs-on-chip devices, disease models and any products with living cells contained in them. How do we achieve production level quantities of the key ingredient-'the living cells' for all biofabrication processes, including bioprinting and biopatterning? We review key cell expansion based bioreactor operating principles and how 3D culture will play an important role in achieving production quantities of billions to even trillions of anchorage dependent cells. Furthermore, we highlight some of the challenges in the field of cellular biomanufacturing that must be addressed to achieve desired cellular yields while adhering to the key pillars of good manufacturing practices-safety, purity, stability, potency and identity. Biofabrication technologies are uniquely positioned to provide improved 3D culture surfaces for the industrialized production of living cells. PMID:26539629

  9. Large scale effects of localized physical heterogeneity on environmental processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, E.; Appuhamillage, T.; Bokil, V. A.; Waymire, E. C.; Wood, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    Fragmented or network like environments serve as examples of spatial domains in which sharp discontinuities in some of the physical/biological characteristics are naturally encountered. Modeling dispersion in such environments require a careful understanding of the relevant physical/biological processes to capture the appropriate interface conditions and can lead to surprising consequences in the structure of basic quantities of interest to environmental scientists. In this talk, a survey of examples will be presented. A feature common to these examples is that the mathematical modeling leads to partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients. The conditions on the interface depend on the particular application affecting the behavior of physically relevant quantities. Examples from hydrology, ecology and physical oceanography will be presented to illustrate these concepts and present recent related results on effects of sharp heterogeneity. This talk is based on joint work with Thilanka Appuhamilage, Vrushali Bokil, Ed Waymire and Brian Wood.

  10. Preparation of large-particle-size monodisperse latexes in space - Polymerization kinetics and process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.; Kornfeld, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Monodisperse polystyrene latexes are prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization; however, sizes larger than 2 microns are difficult to prepare because of the creaming and settling of the particles and their sensitivity to mechanical shear. Preparation in space would obviate the creaming and settling, and allow agitation just sufficient for good heat transfer and mixing. Three polymerizations yielding 3-5 micron size particles were carried out successfully on the third flight of the 'Columbia' launched Mar. 22, 1982; however, four polymerizations yielding sizes up to 10 microns on the fourth flight launched June 27, 1982 were incomplete owing to apparatus malfunction. The results of these polymerizations and the prospects of developing a preparative space process are reviewed.

  11. The Montage architecture for grid-enabled science processing of large, distributed datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Katz, Daniel S .; Prince, Thomas; Berriman, Bruce G.; Good, John C.; Laity, Anastasia C.; Deelman, Ewa; Singh, Gurmeet; Su, Mei-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Montage is an Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Computational Technologies (CT) Round III Grand Challenge investigation to deploy a portable, compute-intensive, custom astronomical image mosaicking service for the National Virtual Observatory (NVO). Although Montage is developing a compute- and data-intensive service for the astronomy community, we are also helping to address a problem that spans both Earth and Space science, namely how to efficiently access and process multi-terabyte, distributed datasets. In both communities, the datasets are massive, and are stored in distributed archives that are, in most cases, remote from the available Computational resources. Therefore, state of the art computational grid technologies are a key element of the Montage portal architecture. This paper describes the aspects of the Montage design that are applicable to both the Earth and Space science communities.

  12. AsterAnts: A Concept for Large-Scale Meteoroid Return and Processing using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Biegel, Bryan A.; Traugott, Steve

    2004-01-01

    AsterAnts is a concept calling for a fleet of solar sail powered spacecraft to retrieve large numbers of small (1/2-1 meter diameter) Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for orbital processing. AsterAnts could use the International Space Station (ISS) for NEO processing, solar sail construction, and to test NEO capture hardware. Solar sails constructed on orbit are expected to have substantially better performance than their ground built counterparts [Wright 1992]. Furthermore, solar sails may be used to hold geosynchronous communication satellites out-of-plane [Forward 1981] increasing the total number of slots by at least a factor of three. potentially generating $2 billion worth of orbital real estate over North America alone. NEOs are believed to contain large quantities of water, carbon, other life-support materials and metals. Thus. with proper processing, NEO materials could in principle be used to resupply the ISS, produce rocket propellant, manufacture tools, and build additional ISS working space. Unlike proposals requiring massive facilities, such as lunar bases, before returning any extraterrestrial larger than a typical inter-planetary mission. Furthermore, AsterAnts could be scaled up to deliver large amounts of material by building many copies of the same spacecraft, thereby achieving manufacturing economies of scale. Because AsterAnts would capture NEOs whole, NEO composition details, which are generally poorly characterized, are relatively unimportant and no complex extraction equipment is necessary. In combination with a materials processing facility at the ISS, AsterAnts might inaugurate an era of large-scale orbital construction using extraterrestrial materials.

  13. The Large Impact Process Inferred from the Geology of Lunar Multiring Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the geology of multiring impact basins on the Moon over the past ten years has given us a rudimentary understanding of how these large structures have formed and evolved on the Moon and other bodies. Two-ring basins on the Moon begin to form at diameters of about 300 km; the transition diameter at which more than two rings appear is uncertain, but it appears to be between 400 and 500 km in diameter. Inner rings tend to be made up of clusters or aligned segments of massifs and are arranged into a crudely concentric pattern; scarp-like elements may or may not be present. Outer rings are much more scarp-like and massifs are rare to absent. Basins display textured deposits, interpreted as ejecta, extending roughly an apparent basin radius exterior to the main topographic rim. Ejecta may have various morphologies, ranging from wormy and hummocky deposits to knobby surfaces; the causes of these variations are not known, but may be related to the energy regime in which the ejecta are deposited. Outside the limits of the textured ejecta are found both fields of satellitic craters (secondaries) and light plains deposits. Impact melt sheets are observed on the floors of relatively unflooded basins. Samples of impact melts from lunar basins have basaltic major-element chemistry, characterized by K, rare-earth elements (REE), P, and other trace elements of varying concentration (KREEP); ages are between 3.8 and 3.9 Ga. These lithologies cannot be produced through the fusion of known pristine (plutonic) rock types, suggesting the occurrence of unknown lithologies within the Moon. These melts were probably generated at middle to lower crustal levels. Ejecta compositions, preservation of pre-basin topography, and deposit morphologies all indicate that the excavation cavity of multiring basins is between about 0.4 and 0.6 times the diameter of the apparent crater diameter. Basin depths of excavation can be inferred from the composition of basin ejecta. A variety of

  14. A New Look into the Effect of Large Drops on Radiative Transfer Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a cloudy atmosphere absorbs more solar radiation than any current 1D or 3D radiation model can predict. The excess absorption is not large, perhaps 10-15 W/sq m or less, but any such systematic bias is of concern since radiative transfer models are assumed to be sufficiently accurate for remote sensing applications and climate modeling. The most natural explanation would be that models do not capture real 3D cloud structure and, as a consequence, their photon path lengths are too short. However, extensive calculations, using increasingly realistic 3D cloud structures, failed to produce photon paths long enough to explain the excess absorption. Other possible explanations have also been unsuccessful so, at this point, conventional models seem to offer no solution to this puzzle. The weakest link in conventional models is the way a size distribution of cloud particles is mathematically handled. Basically, real particles are replaced with a single average particle. This "ensemble assumption" assumes that all particle sizes are well represented in any given elementary volume. But the concentration of larger particles can be so low that this assumption is significantly violated. We show how a different mathematical route, using the concept of a cumulative distribution, avoids the ensemble assumption. The cumulative distribution has jumps, or steps, corresponding to the rarer sizes. These jumps result in an additional term, a kind of Green's function, in the solution of the radiative transfer equation. Solving the cloud radiative transfer equation with the measured particle distributions, described in a cumulative rather than an ensemble fashion, may lead to increased cloud absorption of the magnitude observed.

  15. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden.

  16. Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Process Modeling for Large Transport Aircraft Wing Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Caba, Aaron C.; Furrow, Keith W.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation completed the verification of a three-dimensional resin transfer molding/resin film infusion (RTM/RFI) process simulation model. The model incorporates resin flow through an anisotropic carbon fiber preform, cure kinetics of the resin, and heat transfer within the preform/tool assembly. The computer model can predict the flow front location, resin pressure distribution, and thermal profiles in the modeled part. The formulation for the flow model is given using the finite element/control volume (FE/CV) technique based on Darcy's Law of creeping flow through a porous media. The FE/CV technique is a numerically efficient method for finding the flow front location and the fluid pressure. The heat transfer model is based on the three-dimensional, transient heat conduction equation, including heat generation. Boundary conditions include specified temperature and convection. The code was designed with a modular approach so the flow and/or the thermal module may be turned on or off as desired. Both models are solved sequentially in a quasi-steady state fashion. A mesh refinement study was completed on a one-element thick model to determine the recommended size of elements that would result in a converged model for a typical RFI analysis. Guidelines are established for checking the convergence of a model, and the recommended element sizes are listed. Several experiments were conducted and computer simulations of the experiments were run to verify the simulation model. Isothermal, non-reacting flow in a T-stiffened section was simulated to verify the flow module. Predicted infiltration times were within 12-20% of measured times. The predicted pressures were approximately 50% of the measured pressures. A study was performed to attempt to explain the difference in pressures. Non-isothermal experiments with a reactive resin were modeled to verify the thermal module and the resin model. Two panels were manufactured using the RFI process. One was a stepped

  17. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  18. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of a 9% Ni Steel for Large LNG Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. M.; Li, H.; Yang, F.; Chi, Q.; Ji, L. K.; Feng, Y. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two different heat treatment processes of a 9% Ni steel for large liquefied natural gas storage tanks were performed in an industrial heating furnace. The former was a special heat treatment process consisting of quenching and intercritical quenching and tempering (Q-IQ-T). The latter was a heat treatment process only consisting of quenching and tempering. Mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing and charpy impact testing, and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that outstanding mechanical properties were obtained from the Q-IQ-T process in comparison with the Q-T process, and a cryogenic toughness with charpy impact energy value of 201 J was achieved at 77 K. Microstructure analysis revealed that samples of the Q-IQ-T process had about 9.8% of austenite in needle-like martensite, while samples of the Q-T process only had about 0.9% of austenite retained in tempered martensite.

  20. New developments in the precessions process for manufacturing free-form, large-optical, and precision-mechanical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. D.; Beaucamp, A. T. H.; Doubrovski, V.; Dunn, C.; Freeman, R.; Hobbs, G.; McCavana, G.; Morton, R.; Riley, D.; Simms, J.; Wei, X.

    2006-02-01

    The recent upsurge in the demand for off-axis and complex "freeform" optical surfaces is driving the development of novel processes for their fabrication. This paper focuses on recent developments of the Precessions CNC polishing process for freeform surfaces, including off-axis as a special case. First, the surface-prescription and metrology-data, and their relation to the data-input for the polishing machines, are considered. The relevance of consistent coordinate frames is emphasised. An outline of how the process can 'polish' a ground freeform part (improve the texture), and then 'figure' the part (reduce the form errors) is given. Specific experimental case-studies are then presented, illustrating the versatility of the process on different materials and forms. Recent work is included in which the process-speed has been moderated in order to remove tens of nanometres of stock material, rather then the more usual hundreds of nanometres to tens of microns as in the standard Precessions process. The relevance of this to improving the ultimate surface-precision that should be achievable by this method is described. As a final illustration, the potential of the process to the rapid fabrication of the hundreds to thousands of 1-2 metre class mirror segments required for extremely large telescopes is considered.

  1. ScanSAR interferometric processing using existing standard InSAR software for measuring large scale land deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Cunren; Zeng, Qiming; Jia, Jianying; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Xi'ai

    2013-02-01

    Scanning synthetic aperture radar (ScanSAR) mode is an efficient way to map large scale geophysical phenomena at low cost. The work presented in this paper is dedicated to ScanSAR interferometric processing and its implementation by making full use of existing standard interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) software. We first discuss the properties of the ScanSAR signal and its phase-preserved focusing using the full aperture algorithm in terms of interferometry. Then a complete interferometric processing flow is proposed. The standard ScanSAR product is decoded subswath by subswath with burst gaps padded with zero-pulses, followed by a Doppler centroid frequency estimation for each subswath and a polynomial fit of all of the subswaths for the whole scene. The burst synchronization of the interferometric pair is then calculated, and only the synchronized pulses are kept for further interferometric processing. After the complex conjugate multiplication of the interferometric pair, the residual non-integer pulse repetition interval (PRI) part between adjacent bursts caused by zero padding is compensated by resampling using a sinc kernel. The subswath interferograms are then mosaicked, in which a method is proposed to remove the subswath discontinuities in the overlap area. Then the following interferometric processing goes back to the traditional stripmap processing flow. A processor written with C and Fortran languages and controlled by Perl scripts is developed to implement these algorithms and processing flow based on the JPL/Caltech Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage (ROI_PAC). Finally, we use the processor to process ScanSAR data from the Envisat and ALOS satellites and obtain large scale deformation maps in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction.

  2. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  3. New generic mathematical model for WWTP sludge digesters operating under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: Model building and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    de Gracia, M; Grau, P; Huete, E; Gómez, J; García-Heras, J L; Ayesa, E

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model developed to reproduce the performance of a generic sludge digester working either under aerobic or anaerobic operational conditions. The digester has been modelled as two completely mixed tanks associated with gaseous and liquid volumes. The conversion model has been developed based on a plant wide modelling methodology (PWM) and comprises biochemical transformations, physicochemical reactions and thermodynamic considerations. The model predicts the reactor temperature and the temporary evolution of an extensive vector of model components which are completely defined in terms of elemental mass fractions (C, H, O, N and P) and charge density. Thus, the comprehensive definition of the model components guarantees the continuity of elemental mass and charge in all the model transformations and between any two systems defined by the model. The aim of the generic digester model is to overcome the problems that arise when trying to connect aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes working in series or to connect water and sludge lines in a WWTP. The modelling methodology used has allowed the systematic construction of the biochemical model which acts as an initial illustrative example of an application that has been experimentally verified. The variation of the temperature is also predicted based on a thermal dynamic model. Real data from four different facilities and a straightforward calibration have been used to successfully verify the model predictions in the cases of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion as well as autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD). The large amount of data from the full scale ATAD and the anaerobic digestion pilot plants, all of them working under different conditions, has allowed the validation of the model for that case study. PMID:19720390

  4. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5 years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  5. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice. PMID:23365140

  6. Comparing riparian forest processes on large rivers to inform floodplain management and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, J. C.; Piegay, H.; Gruel, C.; Riddle, J.; Raepple, B.

    2014-12-01

    by Acer negundo (box elder), which is non-native and invasive in Europe, suggesting similar processes of colonization and propagation in both systems. Overall, the Sacramento can serve as a predictive reference system for the Rhône, where significant restoration efforts are undeway to improve riparian structure and function in diverted river reaches.

  7. Aeration control of thermophilic aerobic digestion using fluorescence monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process is recognized as an effective method for rapid waste activated sludge (WAS) degradation and the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. Yet, high energy costs due to heating and aeration have limited the commercialization of economical TAD processes. Previous research on autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) has already reduced the heating cost. However, only a few studies have focused on reducing the aeration cost. Therefore, this study applied a two-step aeration control strategy to a fill-and-draw mode semicontinuous TAD process. The NADH-dependent fluorescence was monitored throughout the TAD experiment, and the aeration rate shifted according to the fluorescence intensity. As a result, the simple two-step aeration control operation achieved a 20.3% reduction in the total aeration, while maintaining an effective and stable operation. It is also expected that more savings can be achieved with a further reduction of the lower aeration rate or multisegmentation of the aeration rate. PMID:19190414

  8. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  9. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  10. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  11. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  12. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  13. Azo dye treatment with simultaneous electricity production in an anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor and microbial fuel cell coupled system.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Jun; Han, Song; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-06-01

    A microbial fuel cell and anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor coupled system was used for azo dye degradation with simultaneous electricity production. Electricity was produced during the co-metabolism process of glucose and azo dye. A microorganism cultured graphite-granular cathode effectively decreased the charge transfer resistance of the cathode and yielded higher power density. Operation parameters including glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time were optimized. The results indicated that recovering electricity during a sequential aerobic-anaerobic azo dye treatment process enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and did not decrease azo dye removal. Moreover, UV-vis spectra and GC-MS illustrated that the azo bond was cleaved biologically in the anaerobic chamber and abiotically in the aerobic chamber. The toxic intermediates, aromatic amines, were removed by aerobic treatment. Our work demonstrated that the microbial fuel cell and sequential anode-cathode reactor coupled system could be applied to achieve electricity production with simultaneous azo dye degradation. PMID:20188540

  14. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  15. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  16. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  17. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianghui; Wu, Junjie; Li, Wenchao; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Jianyu; Yang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS), which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR) provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP) is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD) based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP) is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application. PMID:27472341

  18. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianghui; Wu, Junjie; Li, Wenchao; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Jianyu; Yang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS), which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR) provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP) is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD) based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP) is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application. PMID:27472341

  19. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianghui; Wu, Junjie; Li, Wenchao; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Jianyu; Yang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS), which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR) provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP) is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD) based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP) is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application.

  20. Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Lalonde, Stefan V; Planavsky, Noah J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Lyons, Timothy W; Mojzsis, Stephen J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Barley, Mark E; Rosìere, Carlos; Fralick, Phillip W; Kump, Lee R; Bekker, Andrey

    2011-10-20

    The enrichment of redox-sensitive trace metals in ancient marine sedimentary rocks has been used to determine the timing of the oxidation of the Earth's land surface. Chromium (Cr) is among the emerging proxies for tracking the effects of atmospheric oxygenation on continental weathering; this is because its supply to the oceans is dominated by terrestrial processes that can be recorded in the Cr isotope composition of Precambrian iron formations. However, the factors controlling past and present seawater Cr isotope composition are poorly understood. Here we provide an independent and complementary record of marine Cr supply, in the form of Cr concentrations and authigenic enrichment in iron-rich sedimentary rocks. Our data suggest that Cr was largely immobile on land until around 2.48 Gyr ago, but within the 160 Myr that followed--and synchronous with independent evidence for oxygenation associated with the Great Oxidation Event (see, for example, refs 4-6)--marked excursions in Cr content and Cr/Ti ratios indicate that Cr was solubilized at a scale unrivalled in history. As Cr isotope fractionations at that time were muted, Cr must have been mobilized predominantly in reduced, Cr(III), form. We demonstrate that only the oxidation of an abundant and previously stable crustal pyrite reservoir by aerobic-respiring, chemolithoautotrophic bacteria could have generated the degree of acidity required to solubilize Cr(III) from ultramafic source rocks and residual soils. This profound shift in weathering regimes beginning at 2.48 Gyr ago constitutes the earliest known geochemical evidence for acidophilic aerobes and the resulting acid rock drainage, and accounts for independent evidence of an increased supply of dissolved sulphate and sulphide-hosted trace elements to the oceans around that time. Our model adds to amassing evidence that the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary was marked by a substantial shift in terrestrial geochemistry and biology. PMID:22012395