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Sample records for aerobic reactions abbau

  1. Copper N-Heterocyclic Carbene: A Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation or Reduction Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Le-Wu; Han, Lei; Xing, Ping; Jiang, Biao

    2015-12-18

    Copper N-heterocyclic carbene complexes can be readily used as catalysts for both aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and reduction of imines to amines. Our methodology is universal for aromatic substrates and shows versatile tolerance to potential cascade reactions. A one-pot tandem synthetic strategy could afford useful imines and secondary amines via an oxidation-reduction strategy.

  2. Copper N-Heterocyclic Carbene: A Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation or Reduction Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Le-Wu; Han, Lei; Xing, Ping; Jiang, Biao

    2015-12-18

    Copper N-heterocyclic carbene complexes can be readily used as catalysts for both aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and reduction of imines to amines. Our methodology is universal for aromatic substrates and shows versatile tolerance to potential cascade reactions. A one-pot tandem synthetic strategy could afford useful imines and secondary amines via an oxidation-reduction strategy. PMID:26633757

  3. Analysis of Reaction Times and Aerobic Capacities of Soccer Players According to Their Playing Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz; Karakoc, Onder; Taskin, Mine; Dural, Murat

    2016-01-01

    70 soccer players in Gaziantep amateur league voluntarily participated in this study, (average of their ages 19,17±1,34years, average of their heights 181,28±5,06 cm, average of their body weights 76,75±4,43 kg and average of their sports experiences 3,78±0,95 years) to analyze visual and auditory reaction times and aerobic capacities of amateur…

  4. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  5. Controllable Chemoselectivity in Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Four Diverse Aerobic Radical Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfei; Ye, Xinyi; Bureš, Filip; Liu, Hongjun; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-21

    Reported is the controllable selectivity syntheses of four distinct products from the same starting materials by visible-light photoredox catalysis. By employing a dicyanopyrazine-derived chromophore (DPZ) as photoredox catalyst, an aerobic radical mechanism has been developed, and allows the reactions of N-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) with N-itaconimides to through four different pathways, including addition-cyclization, addition-elimination, addition-coupling, and addition-protonation, with satisfactory chemoselectivity. The current strategy provide straightforward access to four different but valuable N-heterocyclic adducts in moderate to excellent yields.

  6. Continuous Flow Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation Reactions Using a Heterogeneous Ru(OH)x/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ru(OH)x/Al2O3 is among the more versatile catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation and dehydrogenation of nitrogen heterocycles. Here, we describe the translation of batch reactions to a continuous-flow method that enables high steady-state conversion and single-pass yields in the oxidation of benzylic alcohols and dehydrogenation of indoline. A dilute source of O2 (8% in N2) was used to ensure that the reaction mixture, which employs toluene as the solvent, is nonflammable throughout the process. A packed bed reactor was operated isothermally in an up-flow orientation, allowing good liquid–solid contact. Deactivation of the catalyst during the reaction was modeled empirically, and this model was used to achieve high conversion and yield during extended operation in the aerobic oxidation of 2-thiophene methanol (99+% continuous yield over 72 h). PMID:25620869

  7. Initial reductive reactions in aerobic microbial metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Vorbeck, C; Lenke, H; Fischer, P; Spain, J C; Knackmuss, H J

    1998-01-01

    Because of its high electron deficiency, initial microbial transformations of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are characterized by reductive rather than oxidation reactions. The reduction of the nitro groups seems to be the dominating mechanism, whereas hydrogenation of the aromatic ring, as described for picric acid, appears to be of minor importance. Thus, two bacterial strains enriched with TNT as a sole source of nitrogen under aerobic conditions, a gram-negative strain called TNT-8 and a gram-positive strain called TNT-32, carried out nitro-group reduction. In contrast, both a picric acid-utilizing Rhodococcus erythropolis strain, HL PM-1, and a 4-nitrotoluene-utilizing Mycobacterium sp. strain, HL 4-NT-1, possessed reductive enzyme systems, which catalyze ring hydrogenation, i.e., the addition of a hydride ion to the aromatic ring of TNT. The hydride-Meisenheimer complex thus formed (H-TNT) was further converted to a yellow metabolite, which by electrospray mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses was established as the protonated dihydride-Meisenheimer complex of TNT (2H-TNT). Formation of hydride complexes could not be identified with the TNT-enriched strains TNT-8 and TNT-32, or with Pseudomonas sp. clone A (2NT), for which such a mechanism has been proposed. Correspondingly, reductive denitration of TNT did not occur.

  8. Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises.

    PubMed

    Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Tartaruga, M P; Kanitz, A C; Antunes, A H; Finatto, P; Kruel, L F M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (VO2), the muscle activity of lower limbs, and the vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF) of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities. 12 young women performed the experimental protocol, which consisted of 3 water exercises (stationary running [SR], frontal kick [FK] and cross country skiing [CCS]) at 3 intensities (first and second ventilatory thresholds and maximum effort). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used. Regarding VO2, different responses between intensities (p<0.001) were found, and values between exercises were similar. For electromyographic activity (EMG), differences between intensities for all muscles (p<0.001) were found. Greater EMG signals were observed in the FK compared to SR for rectus femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). Regarding V-GRF, there was an increase in the V-GRF at greater intensities compared to the first ventilatory threshold (p=0.001). In addition, lower values were found during CCS compared to the SR and FK exercises (p<0.001). Thus, greater cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses were observed with increasing intensity. Exercises such as CCS could be used to attenuate the V-GRF; if the purpose is to reduce the muscular activity of lower limbs at a specific intensity, SR could be recommended.

  9. Effect of Eight Weekly Aerobic Training Program on Auditory Reaction Time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine the effect of eight weekly aerobic exercises on auditory reaction time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in visual impairments. Forty visual impairment children that have blind 3 classification from the Turkey, experimental group; (age = 15.60 ± 1.10 years; height = 164.15 ± 4.88 cm; weight = 66.60 ± 4.77 kg) for twenty…

  10. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-08-26

    The first example of homogeneous copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes is reported. This method utilizes atmospheric oxygen as the sole oxidant, proceeds under extremely mild aqueous conditions, and covers a wide range of various functionalized aldehydes. Chromatography is generally not necessary for product purification. PMID:27505714

  11. The synthesis of a bifunctional copper metal organic framework and its application in the aerobic oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation sequential reaction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zongcheng; Luan, Yi; Qi, Chao; Ramella, Daniele

    2016-09-21

    A novel one-pot aerobic oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation reaction system was developed employing a Cu(ii)/amine bifunctional, basic metal-organic framework (MOF) as the catalyst. The sequential aerobic alcohol oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation reaction was efficiently promoted by the Cu3TATAT MOF catalyst in the absence of basic additives. The benzylidenemalononitrile product was produced in high yield and selectivity from an inexpensive benzyl alcohol starting material under an oxygen atmosphere. The role of the basic functionality was studied to demonstrate its role in the aerobic oxidation and Knoevenagel condensation reactions. The reaction progress was monitored in order to identify the reaction intermediate and follow the accumulation of the desired product. Lastly, results showed that the yield was not significantly compromised by the reuse of a batch of catalyst, even after more than five cycles.

  12. The synthesis of a bifunctional copper metal organic framework and its application in the aerobic oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation sequential reaction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zongcheng; Luan, Yi; Qi, Chao; Ramella, Daniele

    2016-09-21

    A novel one-pot aerobic oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation reaction system was developed employing a Cu(ii)/amine bifunctional, basic metal-organic framework (MOF) as the catalyst. The sequential aerobic alcohol oxidation/Knoevenagel condensation reaction was efficiently promoted by the Cu3TATAT MOF catalyst in the absence of basic additives. The benzylidenemalononitrile product was produced in high yield and selectivity from an inexpensive benzyl alcohol starting material under an oxygen atmosphere. The role of the basic functionality was studied to demonstrate its role in the aerobic oxidation and Knoevenagel condensation reactions. The reaction progress was monitored in order to identify the reaction intermediate and follow the accumulation of the desired product. Lastly, results showed that the yield was not significantly compromised by the reuse of a batch of catalyst, even after more than five cycles. PMID:27523776

  13. Cu-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxygenation and C-C bond cleavage: an approach to α-ketoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Feng, Peng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The Cu-catalyzed novel aerobic oxidative esterification reaction of 1,3-diones for the synthesis of α-ketoesters has been developed. This method combines C-C σ-bond cleavage, dioxygen activation and oxidative C-H bond functionalization, as well as provides a practical, neutral, and mild synthetic approach to α-ketoesters which are important units in many biologically active compounds and useful precursors in a variety of functional group transformations. A plausible radical process is proposed on the basis of mechanistic studies.

  14. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Richard T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Blowes, David W.; Kirshtein, Julie D.

    2011-07-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH 4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH 4 and CO 2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in δ 13C CH4 from an average of - 57.6‰ (± 1.7‰) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6‰ (± 8.7‰) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH 4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O 2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH 4 at this interface. Dissolved N 2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O 2 through aerobic degradation of CH 4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O 2 transport mechanisms.

  15. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Blowes, D.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in ??13CCH4 from an average of - 57.6??? (?? 1.7???) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6??? (?? 8.7???) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH4 at this interface. Dissolved N2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O2 through aerobic degradation of CH4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O2 transport mechanisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metallic Sn spheres and SnO2@C core-shells by anaerobic and aerobic catalytic ethanol and CO oxidation reactions over SnO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Joo; Lee, Sung Woo; Sohn, Youngku

    2015-01-01

    SnO2 has been studied intensely for applications to sensors, Li-ion batteries and solar cells. Despite this, comparatively little attention has been paid to the changes in morphology and crystal phase that occur on the metal oxide surface during chemical reactions. This paper reports anaerobic and aerobic ethanol and CO oxidation reactions over SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs), as well as the subsequent changes in the nature of the NPs. Uniform SnO2@C core-shells (10 nm) were formed by an aerobic ethanol oxidation reaction over SnO2 NPs. On the other hand, metallic Sn spheres were produced by an anaerobic ethanol oxidation reaction at 450 °C, which is significantly lower than that (1200 °C) used in industrial Sn production. Anaerobic and aerobic CO oxidation reactions were also examined. The novelty of the methods for the production of metallic Sn and SnO2@C core-shells including other anaerobic and aerobic reactions will contribute significantly to Sn and SnO2-based applications. PMID:26300041

  17. Metallic Sn spheres and SnO2@C core-shells by anaerobic and aerobic catalytic ethanol and CO oxidation reactions over SnO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Joo; Lee, Sung Woo; Sohn, Youngku

    2015-08-01

    SnO2 has been studied intensely for applications to sensors, Li-ion batteries and solar cells. Despite this, comparatively little attention has been paid to the changes in morphology and crystal phase that occur on the metal oxide surface during chemical reactions. This paper reports anaerobic and aerobic ethanol and CO oxidation reactions over SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs), as well as the subsequent changes in the nature of the NPs. Uniform SnO2@C core-shells (10 nm) were formed by an aerobic ethanol oxidation reaction over SnO2 NPs. On the other hand, metallic Sn spheres were produced by an anaerobic ethanol oxidation reaction at 450 °C, which is significantly lower than that (1200 °C) used in industrial Sn production. Anaerobic and aerobic CO oxidation reactions were also examined. The novelty of the methods for the production of metallic Sn and SnO2@C core-shells including other anaerobic and aerobic reactions will contribute significantly to Sn and SnO2-based applications.

  18. Reaction progress kinetic analysis of a copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling reaction with N-phenyl tetrahydroisoquinoline.

    PubMed

    Scott, Martin; Sud, Abhishek; Boess, Esther; Klussmann, Martin

    2014-12-19

    The results from a kinetic investigation of a Cu-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction between N-phenyl tetrahydroisoquinoline and a silyl enol ether using elemental oxygen as oxidant are presented. By using reaction progress kinetic analysis as an evaluation method for the obtained data, we discovered information regarding the reaction order of the substrates and catalysts. Based on this information and some additional experiments, a refined model for the initial oxidative activation of the amine substrate and the activation of the nucleophile by the catalyst was developed. The mechanistic information also helped to understand why silyl nucleophiles have previously failed in a related Cu-catalyzed reaction using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant and how to overcome this limitation. PMID:25203932

  19. Regioselective aerobic oxidative Heck reactions with electronically unbiased alkenes: efficient access to α-alkyl vinylarenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Changwu; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-08-18

    Branched-selective oxidative Heck coupling reactions have been developed between arylboronic acids and electronically unbiased terminal alkenes. The reactions exhibit high catalyst-controlled regioselectivity favoring the less common branched isomer. The reactions employ a catalyst composed of Pd(TFA)2/dmphen (TFA = trifluoroacetate, dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) and proceed efficiently at 45-60 °C under 1 atm of O2 without requiring other additives. A broad array of functional groups, including aryl halide, allyl silane and carboxylic acids are tolerated.

  20. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, David C.; Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T.; Ferreira, Eric M.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Caspi, Daniel D.; Trend, Raissa M.

    2010-01-01

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (−)-sparteine as chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of base and hydrogen bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 °C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good to excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones. PMID:19904777

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Homodimeric Type-I Reaction Center Complex from Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum, an Aerobic Chlorophototroph*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Romberger, Steven P.; Golbeck, John H.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered thermophilic acidobacterium Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum is the first aerobic chlorophototroph that has a type-I, homodimeric reaction center (RC). This organism and its type-I RCs were initially detected by the occurrence of pscA gene sequences, which encode the core subunit of the RC complex, in metagenomic sequence data derived from hot spring microbial mats. Here, we report the isolation and initial biochemical characterization of the type-I RC from Ca. C. thermophilum. After removal of chlorosomes, crude membranes were solubilized with 0.1% (w/v) n-dodecyl β-d-maltoside, and the RC complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The RC complex comprised only two polypeptides: the reaction center core protein PscA and a 22-kDa carotenoid-binding protein denoted CbpC. The absorption spectrum showed a large, broad absorbance band centered at ∼483 nm from carotenoids as well as smaller Qy absorption bands at 672 and 812 nm from chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a, respectively. The light-induced difference spectra of whole cells, membranes, and the isolated RC showed maximal bleaching at 840 nm, which is attributed to the special pair and which we denote as P840. Making it unique among homodimeric type-I RCs, the isolated RC was photoactive in the presence of oxygen. Analyses by optical spectroscopy, chromatography, and mass spectrometry revealed that the RC complex contained 10.3 bacteriochlorophyll aP, 6.4 chlorophyll aPD, and 1.6 Zn-bacteriochlorophyll aP′ molecules per P840 (12.8:8.0:2.0). The possible functions of the Zn-bacteriochlorophyll aP′ molecules and the carotenoid-binding protein are discussed. PMID:22184116

  2. Cu(II)-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxidative cleavage of C(CO)-C(alkyl) bonds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ran; He, Liang-Nian; Liu, An-Hua; Song, Qing-Wen

    2016-02-01

    A novel Cu(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones for the synthesis of esters has been developed with wide functional group tolerance. This process is assumed to go through a tandem sequence consisting of α-oxygenation/esterification/nucleophilic addition/C-C bond cleavage and carbon dioxide is released as the only byproduct.

  3. Free radicals: how do we stand them? Anaerobic and aerobic free radical (chain) reactions involved in the use of fluorogenic probes and in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Liochev, Stefan I

    2014-01-01

    Biologically significant conclusions have been based on the use of fluorogenic and luminogenic probes for the detection of reactive species. The basic mechanisms of the processes involved have not been satisfactorily elucidated. In the present work, the mechanism of the enzyme and photosensitized oxidation of NAD(P)H by resorufin is analyzed and appears to involve both aerobic and anaerobic free radical chain reactions. There are two major fallouts of this analysis. Many of the conclusions about the participation of radicals based on the use of probes such as resorufin and Amplex red need reevaluation. It is also concluded that anaerobic free radical reactions may be biologically significant, and the possible existence of enzymatic systems to eliminate certain free radicals is discussed.

  4. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of hydroxamic acids leads to a mild and versatile acylnitroso ene reaction.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Charles P; Engelking, Jarred R; Read de Alaniz, Javier

    2011-07-13

    A mild formation of transient acylnitroso intermediates using a copper chloride catalyst and 1 atm of air as the terminal oxidant is described. The mild reaction conditions enable the inter- and intramolecular acylnitroso ene reaction with a wide range of functionalized alkene partners, as well as the first asymmetric variant. Notably, this transformation provides a practical and operationally simple method for effecting allylic amidation using an environmentally benign oxidant and a readily abundant transition metal. PMID:21678942

  5. Integrated model of reaction rate equations and thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2011-06-01

    The integrated model is composed of two basic parts: one is a reaction rate model of biodegradation in combination with bioenergetics and the other is a thermal engineering model of energy flow and balance in the bioreactor. Integrating these models provides possibility to estimate microbial activity using time course of physicochemical parameters such as bed temperature, bed weight, and/or C02 concentration during decomposition.

  6. Stochastic-convective transport with nonlinear reaction and mixing: application to intermediate-scale experiments in aerobic biodegradation in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Murphy, E. M.; Chilakapati, A.; Seeboonruang, U.

    2001-03-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of benzoate by Pseudomonas cepacia sp. in a saturated heterogeneous porous medium was simulated using the stochastic-convective reaction (SCR) approach. A laboratory flow cell was randomly packed with low permeability silt-size inclusions in a high permeability sand matrix. In the SCR upscaling approach, the characteristics of the flow field are determined by the breakthrough of a conservative tracer. Spatial information on the actual location of the heterogeneities is not used. The mass balance equations governing the nonlinear and multicomponent reactive transport are recast in terms of reactive transports in each of a finite number of discrete streamtubes. The streamtube ensemble members represent transport via a steady constant average velocity per streamtube and a conventional Fickian dispersion term, and their contributions to the observed breakthroughs are determined by flux-averaging the streamtube solute concentrations. The resulting simulations were compared to those from a high-resolution deterministic simulation of the reactive transport, and to alternative ensemble representations involving (i) effective Fickian travel time distribution function, (ii) purely convective streamtube transport, and (iii) streamtube ensemble subset simulations. The results of the SCR simulation compare favorably to that of a sophisticated high-resolution deterministic approach.

  7. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  8. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  9. Recovery after aerobic exercise is manipulated by tempo change in a rhythmic sound pattern, as indicated by autonomic reaction on heart functioning

    PubMed Central

    Wallert, John; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Physical prowess is associated with rapid recovery from exhaustion. Here we examined whether recovery from aerobic exercise could be manipulated with a rhythmic sound pattern that either decreased or increased in tempo. Six men and six women exercised repeatedly for six minutes on a cycle ergometer at 60 percent of their individual maximal oxygen consumption, and then relaxed for six minutes while listening to one of two sound pattern conditions, which seemed to infinitely either decrease or increase in tempo, during which heart and breathing activity was measured. Participants exhibited more high-frequent heart rate variability when listening to decreasing tempo than when listening to increasing tempo, accompanied by a non-significant trend towards lower heart rate. The results show that neuropsychological entrainment to a sound pattern may directly affect the autonomic nervous system, which in turn may facilitate physiological recovery after exercise. Applications using rhythmic entrainment to aid physical recovery are discussed. PMID:25285076

  10. The development of copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling of H-tetrazoles with boronic acids and an insight into the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-You; Li, Yu; Ding, Jin-Ying; Dong, De-Wen; Han, Fu-She

    2014-02-17

    The development of a highly efficient and practical protocol for the direct C-N coupling of H-tetrazole and boronic acid was presented. A careful and patient optimization of a variety of reaction parameters revealed that this conventionally challenge reaction could indeed proceed efficiently in a very simple system, that is, just by stirring the tetrazoles and boronic acids under oxygen in the presence of different Cu(I) or Cu(II) salts with only 5 mol % loading in DMSO at 100 °C. Most significantly, the reaction could proceed very smoothly in a regiospecific manner to afford the 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles in high to excellent yields. A mechanistic study revealed that both tetrazole and DMSO are crucial for the generation of catalytically active copper species in the reaction process in addition to their role as reactant and solvent, respectively. It is demonstrated that in the reaction cycle, the Cu(I) catalyst could be oxidized to Cu(II) by oxygen to form a [CuT2D] complex (T = tetrazole anion; D = DMSO) through an oxidative copper amination reaction. The Cu(II) complex thus formed was confirmed to be the real catalytically active copper species. Namely, the Cu(II) complex disproportionates to aryl Cu(III) and Cu(I) in the presence of boronic acid. Facile elimination of the Cu(III) species delivers the C-N-coupled product. The results presented herein not only provide a reliable and efficient protocol for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles, but most importantly, the mechanistic results would have broad implications for the de novo design and development of new methods for Cu-catalyzed coupling reactions.

  11. The development of copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling of H-tetrazoles with boronic acids and an insight into the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-You; Li, Yu; Ding, Jin-Ying; Dong, De-Wen; Han, Fu-She

    2014-02-17

    The development of a highly efficient and practical protocol for the direct C-N coupling of H-tetrazole and boronic acid was presented. A careful and patient optimization of a variety of reaction parameters revealed that this conventionally challenge reaction could indeed proceed efficiently in a very simple system, that is, just by stirring the tetrazoles and boronic acids under oxygen in the presence of different Cu(I) or Cu(II) salts with only 5 mol % loading in DMSO at 100 °C. Most significantly, the reaction could proceed very smoothly in a regiospecific manner to afford the 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles in high to excellent yields. A mechanistic study revealed that both tetrazole and DMSO are crucial for the generation of catalytically active copper species in the reaction process in addition to their role as reactant and solvent, respectively. It is demonstrated that in the reaction cycle, the Cu(I) catalyst could be oxidized to Cu(II) by oxygen to form a [CuT2D] complex (T = tetrazole anion; D = DMSO) through an oxidative copper amination reaction. The Cu(II) complex thus formed was confirmed to be the real catalytically active copper species. Namely, the Cu(II) complex disproportionates to aryl Cu(III) and Cu(I) in the presence of boronic acid. Facile elimination of the Cu(III) species delivers the C-N-coupled product. The results presented herein not only provide a reliable and efficient protocol for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles, but most importantly, the mechanistic results would have broad implications for the de novo design and development of new methods for Cu-catalyzed coupling reactions. PMID:24449340

  12. Remarkable effect of bimetallic nanocluster catalysts for aerobic oxidation of alcohols: combining metals changes the activities and the reaction pathways to aldehydes/carboxylic acids or esters.

    PubMed

    Kaizuka, Kosuke; Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shū

    2010-11-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by novel carbon-stabilized polymer-incarcerated bimetallic nanocluster catalysts using molecular oxygen has been developed. The reactivity and the selectivity were strongly dependent on the combination of metals and solvent systems; aldehydes and ketones were obtained by the gold/platinum catalyst in benzotrifluoride, and esters were formed by the gold/palladium catalyst in methanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example that the reaction pathway has been changed dramatically in gold catalysis by combining with a second metal. The differences in the activity and the selectivity are considered to be derived from the difference in the structure of the bimetallic clusters.

  13. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  14. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  15. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  19. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  20. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  1. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  2. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  3. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  4. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  5. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  6. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  7. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  8. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  9. Catalytic Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Nitrogen Heterocycles Using Heterogeneous Cobalt Oxide Supported on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon.

    PubMed

    Iosub, Andrei V; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-09-18

    Dehydrogenation of (partially) saturated heterocycles provides an important route to heteroaromatic compounds. A heterogeneous cobalt oxide catalyst, previously employed for aerobic oxidation of alcohols and amines, is shown to be effective for aerobic dehydrogenation of various 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines to the corresponding quinolines. The reactions proceed in good yields under mild conditions. Other N-heterocycles are also successfully oxidized to their aromatic counterparts.

  10. Cu/Nitroxyl Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Amines into Nitriles at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-07-01

    An efficient catalytic method has been developed for aerobic oxidation of primary amines to the corresponding nitriles. The reactions proceed at room temperature and employ a catalyst consisting of (4,4'- (t) Bu2bpy)CuI/ABNO (ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one N-oxyl). The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and substrate scope, and are effective with benzylic, allylic and aliphatic amines. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that aerobic oxidation of the Cu catalyst is the turnover-limiting step of the reaction. PMID:24015373

  11. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  12. When Worlds Collide: Microbial Ecophysiology at the Aerobic/Anaerobic Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The aerobic/anaerobic interface is a transition zone, where conditions, from chemical concentrations to pH, vary along the oxycline. It has long been known that microbes flourish at such interfaces, presumably due to the potential energy available from catalyzing reduction-oxidation reactions using chemicals derived from the anaerobic and aerobic milieus. Indeed, some studies suggest that both microbial diversity and activity is greatest in such settings, and evidenced by the 2-10 fold greater cell abundances associated with such transition zones. That said, the nature of microbial activity found in such transition zones, and the precise extent of their activity, is usually poorly constrained. At hydrothermal vents, for example, scientists have found that distinct communities are associated with each microhabitat, yet our recent studies have shown that canonical anaerobic microbes are found to be active in fully aerobic waters, seemingly well beyond the aerobic/anaerobic interface. Moreover, our research has also shown that the activity of microbes at the aerobic/anaerobic interface can -through extracellular electron transfer- directly influence the activity of microbes in canonically reduced or oxidized habitats. Here we will present these results and discuss the implications for our understanding of how aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities are physiologically coupled across the aerobic/anaerobic interface.

  13. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  14. Biodegradation of three selected benzotriazoles in aquifer materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S.

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the biodegradation of three selected benzotriazoles (BTs), namely benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-benzotriazole (5-TTri) and 5-chloro-benzotriazole (CBT), in aquifer materials. Biodegradation experiments were conducted in microcosms with fresh groundwater and aquifer sediment materials under aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate, sulfate, and Fe (III) reducing) conditions. All three BTs were degraded by microorganisms in aquifer materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, BT and 5-TTri were found to be degraded fastest with their half-lives of 43 days and 31 days, respectively, among the redox conditions used. Under anaerobic conditions, CBT was found to be degraded better with its half-life of 21 days under nitrate reducing conditions than under aerobic conditions with its half-life of 47 days. The two BT derivatives 5-TTri and CBT could be biotransformed into BT via demethylation and dechlorination reactions, respectively.

  15. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  16. Base-catalyzed efficient tandem [3 + 3] and [3 + 2 + 1] annulation-aerobic oxidative benzannulations.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Aboubacar; Zhao, Yu-Long; Wang, He; Li, Sha-Sha; Ren, Chuan-Qing; Liu, Qun

    2012-11-16

    An efficient synthesis of substituted benzenes via a base-catalyzed [3 + 3] aerobic oxidative aromatization of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with dimethyl glutaconate was reported. All the reactions were carried out under mild, metal-free conditions to afford the products in high to excellent yields with molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant and water as the sole byproduct. Furthermore, a more convenient tandem [3 + 2 + 1] aerobic oxidative aromatization reaction was developed through the in situ generation of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from aldehydes and ketones.

  17. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  18. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  19. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  20. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  1. Bioinspired aerobic oxidation of secondary amines and nitrogen heterocycles with a bifunctional quinone catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2014-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases are a family of enzymes with quinone cofactors that oxidize primary amines to aldehydes. The native mechanism proceeds via an iminoquinone intermediate that promotes high selectivity for reactions with primary amines, thereby constraining the scope of potential biomimetic synthetic applications. Here we report a novel bioinspired quinone catalyst system consisting of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione/ZnI2 that bypasses these constraints via an abiological pathway involving a hemiaminal intermediate. Efficient aerobic dehydrogenation of non-native secondary amine substrates, including pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen heterocycles, is demonstrated. The ZnI2 cocatalyst activates the quinone toward amine oxidation and provides a source of iodide, which plays an important redox-mediator role to promote aerobic catalytic turnover. These findings provide a valuable foundation for broader development of aerobic oxidation reactions employing quinone-based catalysts. PMID:24328193

  2. Bioinspired Aerobic Oxidation of Secondary Amines and Nitrogen Heterocycles with a Bifunctional Quinone Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wendlandt, Alison E.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases are a family of enzymes with quinone cofactors that oxidize primary amines to aldehydes. The native mechanism proceeds via an iminoquinone intermediate that promotes high selectivity for reactions with primary amines, thereby constraining the scope of potential biomimetic synthetic applications. Here, we report a novel bioinspired quinone catalyst system, consisting of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione/ZnI2, that bypasses these constraints via an abiological pathway involving a hemiaminal intermediate. Efficient aerobic dehydrogenation of non-native secondary amine substrates, including pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen heterocycles, is demonstrated. The ZnI2 cocatalyst activates the quinone toward amine oxidation and provides a source of iodide, which plays an important redox-mediator role to promote aerobic catalytic turnover. These findings provide a valuable foundation for broader development of aerobic oxidation reactions employing quinone-based catalysts. PMID:24328193

  3. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  4. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  5. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  6. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  7. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  8. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  9. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  10. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  11. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic dehydrogenative aromatization of cyclohexanone imines to arylamines.

    PubMed

    Hajra, Alakananda; Wei, Ye; Yoshikai, Naohiko

    2012-11-01

    Dehydrogenative aromatization of cyclohexanone imines to arylamines has been achieved using a palladium catalyst under aerobic conditions. The reaction is applicable to a variety of imines that are either preformed or generated in situ from cyclohexanone derivatives and aryl or alkylamines.

  12. Aerobically incubated medium for decarboxylase testing of Enterobacteriaceae by replica-plating methods.

    PubMed

    Maccani, J E

    1979-12-01

    An aerobically incubated, agar-based medium was developed for amino acid decarboxylase testing of Enterobacteriaceae family members by replica-plating methods. Results with the new medium agreed 97 to 99% with the reference broth method of Moeller, and no false-positive reactions were encountered.

  13. Development of an iron(II)-catalyzed aerobic catechol cleavage and biomimetic synthesis of betanidin.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Nicolas; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk

    2014-07-28

    An aerobic iron(II)-catalyzed cleavage of catechols was developed. This reaction allows for the preparation of 2-methoxy-2 H-pyrans that can be employed as versatile building blocks for synthesis. The utility of this biomimetic oxidative cleavage is featured in the synthesis of betanidin, a natural colorant with antioxidant properties.

  14. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  15. P450-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z Jane; Kitto, Rebekah Z; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-10-01

    A variant of P450 from Bacillus megaterium five mutations away from wild type is a highly active catalyst for cyclopropanation of a variety of acrylamide and acrylate olefins with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA). The very high rate of reaction enabled by histidine ligation allowed the reaction to be conducted under aerobic conditions. The promiscuity of this catalyst for a variety of substrates containing amides has enabled synthesis of a small library of precursors to levomilnacipran derivatives. PMID:25221671

  16. Practical Synthesis of Amides via Copper/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Alcohols and Amines.

    PubMed

    Zultanski, Susan L; Zhao, Jingyi; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-05-25

    A modular Cu/ABNO catalyst system has been identified that enables efficient aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines to amides. All four permutations of benzylic/aliphatic alcohols and primary/secondary amines are viable in this reaction, enabling broad access to secondary and tertiary amides. The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and are complete within 30 min-3 h at rt. All components of the catalyst system are commercially available. PMID:27171973

  17. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. PMID:25078821

  18. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling: From ketone and diamine to pyrazine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kun; Huang, Zhiliang; Qi, Xiaotian; Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Chao; Yi, Hong; Meng, Lingkui; Bunel, Emilio E.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Pao, Chih-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Lan, Yu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C–H/N–H coupling between simple ketones and diamines was developed toward the synthesis of a variety of pyrazines. Various substituted ketones were compatible for this transformation. Preliminary mechanistic investigations indicated that radical species were involved. X-ray absorption fine structure experiments elucidated that the Cu(II) species 5 coordinated by two N atoms at a distance of 2.04 Å and two O atoms at a shorter distance of 1.98 Å was a reactive one for this aerobic oxidative coupling reaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the intramolecular coupling of cationic radicals was favorable in this transformation. PMID:26601302

  19. Copper-catalyzed aerobic radical C–C bond cleavage of N–H ketimines

    PubMed Central

    Tnay, Ya Lin; Ang, Gim Yean

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report herein studies on copper-catalyzed aerobic radical C–C bond cleavage of N–H ketimines. Treatment of N–H ketimines having an α-sp3 hybridized carbon under Cu-catalyzed aerobic reaction conditions resulted in a radical fragmentation with C–C bond cleavage to give the corresponding carbonitrile and carbon radical intermediate. This radical process has been applied for the construction of oxaspirocyclohexadienones as well as in the electrophilic cyanation of Grignard reagents with pivalonitrile as a CN source. PMID:26664613

  20. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  1. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  2. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  3. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  4. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  5. Experimental determination of carbon dioxide evolution during aerobic composting of agro-wastes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shilpa; Srivastava, J K

    2012-10-01

    This work aims at optimal composting of agro-wastes like sugarcane bagasse, wood straw and soya husk. A mixture of these substances along with small quantity of food waste as the seed was composted aerobically and carbon dioxide evolved was determined experimentally using a composting system comprising aerobic digester, operating in near-optimal conditions with regard to adequacy of oxygen and temperature in the system. During aerobic composting of agro-waste carbon dioxide is produced due to degradation of different carbon fractions in the substrate. Carbon dioxide production rate, which is a measure of bacterial/fungal activity in composting systems, can be related to various process parameters like different carbon fractions present in the substrate and their reaction rates, progress and termination of compost phenomenon and stabilization of organic matter. This gives a balanced compromise between complexity of mathematical model and extensive experimentation, and can be used for determining optimum conditions for composting. PMID:25151714

  6. Bacterial community composition and abundance in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yue, Bo; Wang, Qi; Huang, Zechun; Huang, Qifei; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill were compared through real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In semi-aerobic landfill scenario, the bacterial 16S rRNA copy numbers in leachate had no significant reduction from initial stage to stable period. In the scenario of anaerobic landfill, the largest bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number was found in leachate at initial stage, but it reduced significantly at stable period. Moreover, methane-oxidizing bacteria population in stable period was lower than that in initial period in both two landfill processes. However, semi-aerobic landfill leachate had more methanotrophic bacteria populations than that in the anaerobic one. Furthermore, according to the sequences and phylogenetic analysis, obvious difference could be detected in bacterial community composition in different scenarios. Proteobacteria and bacteroidetes took up a dominantly higher proportion in semi-aerobic landfill leachate. To summarize up, different landfill methods and its landfill ages had crucial impacts on bacterial abundance and composition in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of organic matter of a soil and vinasse mixture during aerobic or anaerobic incubation

    SciTech Connect

    Doelsch, Emmanuel Masion, Armand; Cazevieille, Patrick

    2009-06-15

    Mineralization potentials are often used to classify organic wastes. These methods involve measuring CO{sub 2} production during batch experiments, so variations in chemical compounds are not addressed. Moreover, the physicochemical conditions are not monitored during the reactions. The present study was designed to address these deficiencies. Incubations of a mixture of soil and waste (vinasse at 20% dry matter from a fermentation industry) were conducted in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and liquid samples obtained by centrifugation were collected at 2 h, 1 d and 28 d. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) patterns highlighted that: there was a 'soil effect' which increased organic matter (OM) degradation in all conditions compared to vinasse incubated alone; and OM degradation was faster under aerobic conditions since 500 mg kg{sup -1} of C remained after aerobic incubation, as compared to 4000 mg kg{sup -1} at the end of the anaerobic incubation period. No changes were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between 2 h and 1 d incubation. At 28 days incubation, the FTIR signal of the aerobic samples was deeply modified, thus confirming the high OM degradation. Under anaerobic conditions, the main polysaccharide contributions ({nu}(C-O)) disappeared at 1000 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, as also confirmed by the {sup 13}C NMR findings. Under aerobic incubation, a 50% decrease in the polysaccharide proportion was observed. Under anaerobic conditions, significant chemical modifications of the organic fraction were detected, namely formation of low molecular weight organic acids.

  8. A Biomimetic Mechanism for the Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxygenation of 4-tert-Butylphenol.

    PubMed

    Askari, Mohammad S; Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Ottenwaelder, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Controlling product selectivity during the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols remains a significant challenge that hinders reaction development. This work provides a mechanistic picture of a Cu-catalyzed, aerobic functionalization of phenols that is selective for phenoxy-coupled ortho-quinones. We show that the immediate product of the reaction is a Cu(II)-semiquinone radical complex and reveal that ortho-oxygenation precedes oxidative coupling. This complex is the resting state of the Cu catalyst during turnover at room temperature. A mechanistic study of the formation of this complex at low temperatures demonstrates that the oxygenation pathway mimics the dinuclear Cu enzyme tyrosinase by involving a dinuclear side-on peroxodicopper(II) oxidant. Unlike the enzyme, however, the rate-limiting step of the ortho-oxygenation reaction is the self-assembly of the oxidant from Cu(I) and O2. We provide details for all steps in the cycle and demonstrate that turnover is contingent upon proton-transfer events that are mediated by a slight excess of ligand. Finally, our knowledge of the reaction mechanism can be leveraged to diversify the reaction outcome. Thus, uncoupled ortho-quinones are favored in polar, coordinating media, highlighting unusually high levels of chemoselectivity for a catalytic aerobic oxidation of a phenol.

  9. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  10. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly.

  11. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  12. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  13. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; de Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms) and errors (n) were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (p<0.001). The number of errors made at the exercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011). Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ) of the exercise session and age (r 2=0.404, p=0.003). Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges. PMID:26564328

  14. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  15. The relationship between aerobic fitness and neural oscillations during visuo-spatial attention in young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung; Tsai, Chia-Liang

    2015-04-01

    While the cognitive benefits of aerobic fitness have been widely investigated, current findings in young adults remain unclear. Specifically, little is known about how these effects are reflected in the time-frequency domain. This study thus assessed the relationship between aerobic fitness and neural oscillations during visuo-spatial attention. A between-subjects design that included 20 participants with higher aerobic fitness (age = 21.95 ± 2.24 years; VO2max = 58.98 ± 6.94 ml/kg/min) and 20 age- and gender-matched lower aerobic fitness participants (age = 23.25 ± 2.07 years; VO2max = 35.87 ± 3.41 ml/kg/min) was used to examine the fitness-related differences in performance and neuroelectric indexes during a Posner visuo-spatial attention paradigm. The results demonstrated that high-fitness participants, in comparison with their low-fitness counterparts, showed faster reaction times as well as greater modulation of oscillatory theta and beta power during target processing, regardless of cue types. Moreover, the neurocognitive correlation showed that higher theta power was related to better task performance. Collectively, these findings suggest that aerobic fitness is associated with general enhanced attentional control in relation to visuo-spatial processing, as evidenced through greater motor preparation and in particular the up-regulation of attentional processing in healthy young adults. The present study may contribute to current knowledge by revealing the relationship between aerobic fitness and modulation of brain oscillations.

  16. Enzymatic aerobic ring rearrangement of optically active furylcarbinols.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Daniel; Doknić, Diana; Deska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic furans are currently discussed as highly attractive alternative feedstock in a post-fossil society; thus, also the creation of sustainable furan valorization pathways appears of great importance. Here an artificial Achmatowicz monooxygenase activity for the aerobic ring expansion of furans is achieved by the combination of commercial glucose oxidase as oxygen-activating biocatalyst and wild-type chloroperoxidase as oxygen-transfer mediator, providing a biological ready-to-use solution for this truly synthetic furan rearrangement. In concert with enzymatic transformations for the enantioselective preparation of optically active furylcarbinols, purely biocatalytic reaction cascades for the stereocontrolled construction of complex pyranones are obtained, exhibiting high functional group tolerance even to oxidation-sensitive moieties. PMID:25335580

  17. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  18. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  19. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  20. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  1. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  2. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  3. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  4. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  5. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexenes to Substituted Arene Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Andrei V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-01-01

    A palladium(II) catalyst system has been identified for aerobic dehydrogenation of substituted cyclohexenes to the corresponding arene derivatives. Use of sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AMS) as a co-catalyst enhances the product yields. A wide range of functional groups are tolerated in the reactions, and the scope and limitations of the method are described. The catalytic dehydrogenation of cyclohexenes is showcased in an efficient route to a phthalimide-based TRPA1 activity modulator. PMID:25734414

  7. Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation As a Tool to Identify Aerobic and Anaerobic PAH Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, Steffen; Starke, Robert; Chen, Gao; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic and anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation was characterized by compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of the carbon and hydrogen isotope effects of the enzymatic reactions initiating specific degradation pathways, using naphthalene and 2-methylnaphtalene as model compounds. Aerobic activation of naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene by Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17483 containing naphthalene dioxygenases was associated with moderate carbon isotope fractionation (εC = -0.8 ± 0.1‰ to -1.6 ± 0.2‰). In contrast, anaerobic activation of naphthalene by a carboxylation-like mechanism by strain NaphS6 was linked to negligible carbon isotope fractionation (εC = -0.2 ± 0.2‰ to -0.4 ± 0.3‰). Notably, anaerobic activation of naphthalene by strain NaphS6 exhibited a normal hydrogen isotope fractionation (εH = -11 ± 2‰ to -47 ± 4‰), whereas an inverse hydrogen isotope fractionation was observed for the aerobic strains (εH = +15 ± 2‰ to +71 ± 6‰). Additionally, isotope fractionation of NaphS6 was determined in an overlaying hydrophobic carrier phase, resulting in more reliable enrichment factors compared to immobilizing the PAHs on the bottle walls without carrier phase. The observed differences especially in hydrogen fractionation might be used to differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene biodegradation pathways at PAH-contaminated field sites.

  8. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration) and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense). The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  9. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  10. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  11. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-H functionalizations: trends and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Suess, Alison M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-11-18

    The selective oxidation of C-H bonds and the use of O(2) as a stoichiometric oxidant represent two prominent challenges in organic chemistry. Copper(II) is a versatile oxidant, capable of promoting a wide range of oxidative coupling reactions initiated by single-electron transfer (SET) from electron-rich organic molecules. Many of these reactions can be rendered catalytic in Cu by employing molecular oxygen as a stoichiometric oxidant to regenerate the active copper(II) catalyst. Meanwhile, numerous other recently reported Cu-catalyzed C-H oxidation reactions feature substrates that are electron-deficient or appear unlikely to undergo single-electron transfer to copper(II). In some of these cases, evidence has been obtained for the involvement of organocopper(III) intermediates in the reaction mechanism. Organometallic C-H oxidation reactions of this type represent important new opportunities for the field of Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidations. PMID:22034061

  12. Mechanism of Copper/Azodicarboxylate-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Evidence for Uncooperative Catalysis.

    PubMed

    McCann, Scott D; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-01-13

    Cooperative catalysis between Cu(II) and redox-active organic cocatalysts is a key feature of important chemical and enzymatic aerobic oxidation reactions, such as alcohol oxidation mediated by Cu/TEMPO and galactose oxidase. Nearly 20 years ago, Markó and co-workers reported that azodicarboxylates, such as di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate (DBAD), are effective redox-active cocatalysts in Cu-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation reactions [Markó, I. E., et al. Science 1996, 274, 2044], but the nature of the cooperativity between Cu and azodicarboxylates is not well understood. Here, we report a mechanistic study of Cu/DBAD-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation. In situ infrared spectroscopic studies reveal a burst of product formation prior to steady-state catalysis, and gas-uptake measurements show that no O2 is consumed during the burst. Kinetic studies reveal that the anaerobic burst and steady-state turnover have different rate laws. The steady-state rate does not depend on [O2] or [DBAD]. These results, together with other EPR and in situ IR spectroscopic and kinetic isotope effect studies, reveal that the steady-state mechanism consists of two interdependent catalytic cycles that operate in sequence: a fast Cu(II)/DBAD pathway, in which DBAD serves as the oxidant, and a slow Cu(II)-only pathway, in which Cu(II) is the oxidant. This study provides significant insight into the redox cooperativity, or lack thereof, between Cu and redox-active organic cocatalysts in aerobic oxidation reactions. PMID:26694091

  13. Mechanism of Copper/Azodicarboxylate-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Evidence for Uncooperative Catalysis.

    PubMed

    McCann, Scott D; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-01-13

    Cooperative catalysis between Cu(II) and redox-active organic cocatalysts is a key feature of important chemical and enzymatic aerobic oxidation reactions, such as alcohol oxidation mediated by Cu/TEMPO and galactose oxidase. Nearly 20 years ago, Markó and co-workers reported that azodicarboxylates, such as di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate (DBAD), are effective redox-active cocatalysts in Cu-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation reactions [Markó, I. E., et al. Science 1996, 274, 2044], but the nature of the cooperativity between Cu and azodicarboxylates is not well understood. Here, we report a mechanistic study of Cu/DBAD-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation. In situ infrared spectroscopic studies reveal a burst of product formation prior to steady-state catalysis, and gas-uptake measurements show that no O2 is consumed during the burst. Kinetic studies reveal that the anaerobic burst and steady-state turnover have different rate laws. The steady-state rate does not depend on [O2] or [DBAD]. These results, together with other EPR and in situ IR spectroscopic and kinetic isotope effect studies, reveal that the steady-state mechanism consists of two interdependent catalytic cycles that operate in sequence: a fast Cu(II)/DBAD pathway, in which DBAD serves as the oxidant, and a slow Cu(II)-only pathway, in which Cu(II) is the oxidant. This study provides significant insight into the redox cooperativity, or lack thereof, between Cu and redox-active organic cocatalysts in aerobic oxidation reactions.

  14. Revealing the halide effect on the kinetics of the aerobic oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yi; Zhang, Guanghui; Qi, Xiaotian; Liu, Chao; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Bunel, Emilio E.; Lan, Yu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    In situ infrared (IR) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic investigations reveal that different halide ligands have distinct effects on the aerobic oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II) in the presence of TMEDA (tetramethylethylenediamine). The iodide ligand gives the lowest rate and thus leads to the lowest catalytic reaction rate of aerobic oxidation of hydroquinone to benzoquinone. Further DFT calculations suggest that oxidation of CuI–TMEDA involves a side-on transition state, while oxidation of CuCl–TMEDA involves an end-on transition state which has a lower activation energy.

  15. Wastewater treatment from biodiesel production via a coupled photo-Fenton-aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ximena María Vargas; Mejía, Gina Maria Hincapié; López, Kelly Viviana Patiño; Vásquez, Gloria Restrepo; Sepúlveda, Juan Miguel Marín

    2012-01-01

    A coupled system of the photo-Fenton advanced oxidation technique and an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat wastewater from biodiesel production using either palm or castor oil. The photo-Fenton reaction and biological process were evaluated individually and were effective at treating the wastewater; nevertheless, each process required longer degradation times for the wastewater pollutants compared with the coupled system. The proposed coupled photo-Fenton/aerobic SBR system obtained a 90% reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in half of the time required for the biological system individually. PMID:22766873

  16. Parallel pathways of ethoxylated alcohol biodegradation under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zembrzuska, Joanna; Budnik, Irena; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Non-ionic surfactants (NS) are a major component of the surfactant flux discharged into surface water, and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are the major component of this flux. Therefore, biodegradation pathways of AE deserve more thorough investigation. The aim of this work was to investigate the stages of biodegradation of homogeneous oxyethylated dodecanol C12E9 having 9 oxyethylene subunits, under aerobic conditions. Enterobacter strain Z3 bacteria were chosen as biodegrading organisms under conditions with C12E9 as the sole source of organic carbon. Bacterial consortia of river water were used in a parallel test as an inoculum for comparison. The LC-MS technique was used to identify the products of biodegradation. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was selected for the isolation of C12E9 and metabolites from the biodegradation broth. The LC-MS/MS technique operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative determination of C12E9, C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6. Apart from the substrate, the homologues C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6, being metabolites of C12E9 biodegradation by shortening of the oxyethylene chain, as well as intermediate metabolites having a carboxyl end group in the oxyethylene chain (C12E8COOH, C12E7COOH, C12E6COOH and C12E5COOH), were identified. Poly(ethylene glycols) (E) having 9, 8 and 7 oxyethylene subunits were also identified, indicating parallel central fission of C12E9 and its metabolites. Similar results were obtained with river water as inoculum. It is concluded that AE, under aerobic conditions, are biodegraded via two parallel pathways: by central fission with the formation of PEG, and by Ω-oxidation of the oxyethylene chain with the formation of carboxylated AE and subsequent shortening of the oxyethylene chain by a single unit. PMID:27037882

  17. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols.

  18. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:23317450

  19. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Roseann; Darby, Lynn A; Fullenkamp, Adam; Morgan, Amy L

    2015-09-01

    Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11) who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max) exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max) exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times) and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function) were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC) and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these effects were maintained 30 min post-exercise. These findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise, regardless of intensity, can improve performance on tests of executive function in older women. Key pointsFew studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on executive function in older womenExecutive function improved after 20-min of aerobic exercise regardless of exercise intensity in older womenFindings from the study were not confounded by prescribed medications; all participants who were older women were not taking any medications.

  20. Aerobic growth of Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1(T): emended descriptions of A. pushchinoensis and the genus Anoxybacillus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena; Cleland, David; Tang, Jane

    2003-01-01

    In this work, corrections are made to the descriptions of the species Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis corrig. and the genus ANOXYBACILLUS: Experiments to determine the relationship of A. pushchinoensis K1(T) to oxygen showed that it was capable of aerobic growth, but preferred to grow anaerobically. During aerobic growth, the redox indicator resazurin was reduced as a result of hydrogen gas production. The facultatively anaerobic nature of K1(T) was ascertained by cultivation in aerobic liquid medium, where growth began at the bottom of the tube. The anaerobic nature of K1(T) was also indicated by a negative catalase reaction. This work is submitted to correct the description of the species A. pushchinoensis from obligate anaerobe to aerotolerant anaerobe and to emend the description of the genus Anoxybacillus from obligate anaerobes or facultative anaerobes to aerotolerant anaerobes or facultative anaerobes.

  1. Aerobic and Anaerobic Oxidation of Organic Acids in Yellowstone Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2007-12-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of energy supply based on samples collected from continental hot spring ecosystems at Yellowstone show that aerobic reactions yield the greatest energy. In terms of energy per mole of electrons transferred, aerobic oxidation of organic acids rivals or exceeds the energy supply from aerobic oxidation of hydrogen, CO, hydrogen sulfide, pyrite, sulfur or ammonia. This analysis is derived from samples collected where hot spring fluid are in contact with the atmosphere. It is likely that oxygen will be present at lower concentrations deeper in the system, which will place hard constraints on aerobic lifestyles. If so, which metabolisms could be supported deeper in the system? How will other oxidants be used to release energy? What characterizes the transition from aerobic to anaerobic oxidation? To answer these questions, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field while measurements of dissolved oxygen and other redox-sensitive species (nitrate, ammonia, ferrous iron, and sulfide) were made with field-portable spectrophotometers and samples were taken for analysis of organic and inorganic ions by ion chromatography. Conditions in the subsurface can be predicted by starting from measured oxygen concentrations and calculating the effect of decreasing the concentration on the overall energetics of the system. Depending on hot spring composition, the amount of energy from aerobic oxidation of organic acid anions like succinate matches that from anaerobic oxidation (by nitrate or sulfate) once the log of the activity of dissolved oxygen drops to -6 to -8. These activities are 1 to 4 orders of magnitude lower that values determined for surface water in the hot springs. At lower oxygen activities aerobic oxidation gives way to anaerobic oxidation, and organic oxidation is more likely to involve nitrate and sulfate. Preliminary estimates indicate that these changes may occur at shallow depths in hot spring sediments (perhaps within the

  2. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.

  3. Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst system for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-10-26

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  4. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  5. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  6. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  7. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  8. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  9. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  10. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  11. The use of ozone, ozone plus UV radiation, and aerobic microorganisms in the purification of some agro-industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Gonzalez, Teresa; Garcia, Juan

    2002-08-01

    The oxidation of the pollutant organic matter present in wastewaters generated during different stages in the black table-olive industry was investigated by using ozone alone or combined with UV radiation; by using aerobic microorganisms; and finally, by aerobic degradation of the previously ozonated wastewaters. In the ozonation processes, the removal of substrate (COD) and aromatic compounds, the decreases in BOD5 and pH, and the ozone consumed in the reaction were evaluated. A kinetic study was conducted that led to the evaluation of the stoichiometric ratio for the chemical reaction, as well as the rate constants for the substrate reduction and ozone disappearance. In the single aerobic degradation treatment, the evolution of substrate and biomass was monitored during the process, and a kinetic study was performed by applying the Contois model to the experimental data, giving the specific biokinetic constant, the cell yield coefficient, and the rate constant for the microorganism death phase. Finally, a combined process was performed, consisting in the aerobic degradation of pre-ozonated wastewaters, and the effect of such chemical pretreatment on the substrate removal and kinetic parameters of the later biological stage is discussed. PMID:15328694

  12. Settling behaviour of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor Anuar, A; Ujang, Z; van Loosdrecht, M C M; de Kreuk, M K

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.

  13. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  14. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of aerobic organisms. PMID:20974919

  15. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  16. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  17. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  18. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  19. [Value of aerobic rehabilitation in the management of fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Maquet, D; Croisier, J L; Demoulin, C; Faymonville, M; Crielaard, J M

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of a muscular aerobic revalidation program on the management of the fibromyalgia syndrome. After 3 months, benefits consisting of increased muscle performances associated with a reduction of pain and an improvement of quality of life were documented. This study confirms the value of aerobic muscle exercise in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:16566119

  20. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  1. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  2. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  3. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  4. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  5. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur. PMID:26685167

  6. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  7. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions. PMID:23304504

  8. Biodegradation of methyl t-butyl ether by aerobic granules under a cosubstrate condition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L L; Chen, J M; Fang, F

    2008-03-01

    Aerobic granules efficient at degrading methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with ethanol as a cosubstrate were successfully developed in a well-mixed sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Aerobic granules were first observed about 100 days after reactor startup. Treatment efficiency of MTBE in the reactor during stable operation exceeded 99.9%, and effluent MTBE was in the range of 15-50 microg/L. The specific MTBE degradation rate was observed to increase with increasing MTBE initial concentration from 25 to 500 mg/L, which peaked at 22.7 mg MTBE/g (volatile suspended solids).h and declined with further increases in MTBE concentration as substrate inhibition effects became significant. Microbial-community deoxyribonucleic acid profiling was carried out using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. The reactor was found to be inhabited by several diverse bacterial species, most notably microorganisms related to the genera Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Hyphomicrobium vulgare. These organisms were previously reported to be associated with MTBE biodegradation. A majority of the bands in the reactor represented a group of organisms belonging to the Flavobacteria-Proteobacteria-Actinobacteridae class of bacteria. This study demonstrates that MTBE can be effectively degraded by aerobic granules under a cosubstrate condition and gives insight into the microorganisms potentially involved in the process. PMID:18183384

  9. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  10. Mathematical modeling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate bioegradation on actinide speciation.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; VanBriesen, J.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1998-03-19

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and, hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modeling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bio-utilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modeling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems.

  11. The association between ace gene variation and aerobic capacity in winter endurance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, J; Zmijewski, P; Klusiewicz, A; Kaliszewski, P; Malczewska-Lenczowska, J; Gajewski, J; Pokrywka, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possible relationship between I/D polymorphism of ACE gene and selected indices of aerobic capacity among male and female athletes practising winter endurance sports. Sixty-six well-trained athletes (female n = 26, male n = 40), aged 18.4 ± 2.8 years, representing winter endurance sports (cross-country skiing, n = 48; biathlon, n = 8; Nordic combined, n = 10) participated in the study. Genotyping for ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal running velocity (Vmax) and running velocity at anaerobic threshold (VAT4) were determined in an incremental test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill. The ACE genotype had no significant effect on absolute VO2max, relative VO2max (divided by body mass or fat free body mass), VAT4 or Vmax. No interaction effect of gender x ACE genotype was found for each of the examined aerobic capacity indices. ACE gene variation was not found to be a determinant of aerobic capacity in either female or male Polish, well-trained endurance athletes participating in winter sports.

  12. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions.

  13. Synthesis, in vitro aerobic and hypoxic cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing activity of novel metronidazole tethered 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Several 2, 4-dinitrophenyl and 2,4-dinitrophenylamine tethered 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) compared to their components have shown minimal or no cytotoxicity to HT-29 cell line under aerobic conditions but high cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing effects under hypoxic conditions. In the present study the cytotoxicity and radiation potentiation of three novel analogues of these compounds by replacing 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety with 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, a known radiosensitizer and cytotoxic agent was investigated. Methods Tethered compounds 7–9 were prepared by the reaction of 1-(t-butoxycarbonyl)-5-fluorouracil 6 with metronidazole esters 2–4 followed by removal of the t-butoxycarbonyl protecting group. Cytotoxicity of compounds in HT-29 cells with or without radiation were determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), propidium iodide (PI)-digitonin and clonogenic assays. Results Tethered compounds 7–9 induced time-and concentration–dependent cytotoxicity under hypoxia but had no significant effect under aerobic conditions. These compounds also showed selective and concentration- dependent radiosensitization effects under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion Tethered compounds 7–9 compared to 5-FU 5 showed minimal cytotoxicities under aerobic and selective radiosensitizing activities under hypoxic conditions. Also effects of these compounds were higher than those of metronidazole 1 which is a known cytotoxin and radiosensitizer under hypoxic conditions. PMID:24359860

  14. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  15. Fe-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative C-CN Bond Cleavage of Arylacetonitriles Leading to Various Esters.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weiguang; Li, Bingnan; Xu, Xuezhao; Song, Qiuling

    2016-09-16

    Fe-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterifications of arylacetonitriles with alcohols, tri alkoxsilanes, silicate esters, or borate esters have been developed. The acyl groups which were in situ generated via chemoselective C(CO)-CN bond cleavage were directly used as electrophiles, leading to corresponding aryl esters in good to excellent yields under molecular oxygen when attacked by alcohols or alcohol surrogates. Dioxygen serves as both oxidant and reactant in this protocol. The reaction has a very broad substrate scope. Cheap starting materials as well as environmentally benign and inexpensive iron catalyst and ideal oxidant O2 feature this transformation and make it a practical and sustainable protocol to afford esters. PMID:27555329

  16. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2′-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  17. Iron/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Ambient Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianyue; Shang, SenSen; Li, Guosong; Ren, Lanhui; Lv, Ying; Gao, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    We report a new Fe(NO3)3·9H2O/9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-N-oxyl catalyst system that enables efficient aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system exhibits excellent activity and selectivity for primary aliphatic alcohol oxidation. This procedure can also be scaled up. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that C-H bond cleavage is the rate-determining step and that cationic species are involved in the reaction. PMID:26859251

  18. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-11-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  19. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  20. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women.

    PubMed

    Curry, Brad S; Chengkalath, Devendra; Crouch, Gordon J; Romance, Michelle; Manns, Patricia J

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three warm-up protocols--static stretching, dynamic stretching, and light aerobic activity--on selected measures of range of motion and power in untrained females and to investigate the sustained effects at 5 and 30 minutes after warm-up. A total of 24 healthy females (ages 23-29 years) attended one familiarization session and three test sessions on nonconsecutive days within 2 weeks. A within-subject design protocol with the testing investigators blinded to the subjects' warm-up was followed. Each session started with 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling followed by pretest baseline measures. Another 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling was completed and followed by one of the three randomly selected warm-up interventions (static stretching, dynamic stretching, or light aerobic activity). The following posttest outcome measures were collected 5 and 30 minutes following the intervention: modified Thomas test, countermovement jump, and isometric time to peak force knee extension measured by dynamometer. Analysis of the data revealed significant time effects on range of motion and countermovement jump changes. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the warm-up conditions on any of the variables. The variation in responses to warm-up conditions emphasizes the unique nature of individual reactions to different warm-ups; however, there was a tendency for warm-ups with an active component to have beneficial effects. The data suggests dynamic stretching has greater applicability to enhance performance on power outcomes compared to static stretching. PMID:19675479

  1. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  2. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  3. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  4. Aerobic oxidation of diverse primary alcohols to methyl esters with a readily accessible heterogeneous Pd/Bi/Te catalyst.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam B; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-10-01

    Efficient aerobic oxidative methyl esterification of primary alcohols has been achieved with a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of 1 mol % Pd/charcoal (5 wt %) in combination with bismuth(III) nitrate and tellurium metal. The Bi and Te additives significantly increase the reaction rate, selectivity, and overall product yields. This readily accessible catalyst system exhibits a broad substrate scope and is effective with both activated (benzylic) and unactivated (aliphatic) alcohols bearing diverse functional groups. PMID:24050194

  5. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  6. Isolation of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from black smoker plume waters of the juan de fuca ridge in the pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, V; Beatty, J T

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

  7. Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described. PMID:16349490

  8. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction.

  9. Mutagenicity of anaerobic fenitrothion metabolites after aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Taku; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Saeki, Ryo; Inoue, Takanobu

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the mutagenicity of fenitrothion increases during anaerobic biodegradation, suggesting that this insecticide's mutagenicity could effectively increase after it pollutes anaerobic environments such as lake sediments. To investigate possible changes to the mutagenicity of fenitrothion under aerobic conditions after it had already been increased by anaerobic biodegradation, batch incubation cultures were maintained under aerobic conditions. The mutagenicity, which had increased during anaerobic biodegradation, decreased under aerobic conditions with aerobic or facultative bacteria, but did not disappear completely in 22 days. In contrast, it did not change under aerobic conditions without bacteria or under continued anaerobic conditions. These observations suggest that the mutagenicity of anaerobically metabolized fenitrothion would not necessarily decrease after it arrives in an aerobic environment: this would depend on the presence of suitable bacteria. Therefore, fenitrothion-derived mutagenic compounds may pollute the water environment, including our drinking water sources, after accidental pollution of aerobic waters. Although amino-fenitrothion generated during anaerobic biodegradation of fenitrothion was the principal mutagen, non-trivial contributions of other, unidentified metabolites to the mutagenicity were also observed. PMID:16263383

  10. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Borglin, Sharon E; Hazen, Terry C; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Zawislanski, Peter T

    2004-07-01

    To increase the operating lifetime of landfills and to lower leachate treatment costs, an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are being managed as either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Landfill gas composition, respiration rates, and subsidence were measured for 400 days in 200-L tanks filled with fresh waste materials to compare the relative effectiveness of the two treatments. Tanks were prepared to provide the following conditions: (1) air injection and leachate recirculation (aerobic), (2) leachate recirculation (anaerobic), and (3) no treatment (anaerobic). Respiration tests on the aerobic wet tank showed a steady decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 400 days. Aerobic wet tanks produced, on average, 6 mol of carbon dioxide (CO2)/kg of MSW as compared with anaerobic wet tanks, which produced 2.2 mol methane/kg of MSW and 2.0 mol CO2/kg methane. Over the test period, the aerobic tanks settled on average 35%, anaerobic tanks settled 21.7%, and the no-treatment tank settled 7.5%, equivalent to overall mass loss in the corresponding reactors. Aerobic tanks reduced stabilization time and produced negligible odor compared with anaerobic tanks, possibly because of the 2 orders of magnitude lower leachate ammonia levels in the aerobic tank. Both treatment regimes provide the opportunity for disposal and remediation of liquid waste.

  11. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  12. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  13. Formation of Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactor: Comparison of Different Divalent Metal Ions as Cofactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Dawen; Zhang, Min

    2010-11-01

    The two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the different effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ augmentation on aerobic granulation. R1 was augmented with Ca2+ at 40 mg/L, while Mg+ was added to R2 with 40 mg/L. Results indicated that R1 had a faster granulation process, and aerobic granulation reached the steady state after 60 cycles in R1 but 80 cycles in R2. The mean diameter of the mature granules in R1 was 1.6 mm which was consistently larger than that (0.8 mm) in R2, and aerobic granules in R1 also showed a higher physical strength. However, the mature granules in R2 had the higher production yield of polysaccharides and proteins, and aerobic granules in R2 experienced a faster substrate biodegradation. Microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The results revealed that Mg2+ addition led to higher microbial diversity in mature granules. In addition, the uncultured bacterium (AB447697) was major specie in R1, and β-proteobacterium was dominant in R2.

  14. Dramatically enhanced aerobic atrazine degradation with Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires by tetrapolyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cao, Menghua; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-03-18

    In this study, the effects of an inorganic ligand tetrapolyphosphate on the molecular oxygen activation and the subsequent aerobic atrazine degradation by Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires were investigated systematically at a circumneutral to alkaline pH range (pH 6.0-9.0). We interestingly found that the addition of tetrapolyphosphate could enhance the aerobic atrazine degradation rate 955 times, which was even 10 times that of the traditional organic ligand ethylenediamine tetraacetate. This tetrapolyphosphate induced dramatic aerobic atrazine degradation enhancement could be attributed to two factors. One was that the presence of tetrapolyphosphate strongly suppressed hydrogen evolution from the reduction of proton by Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires through proton confinement, leaving over more electrons for the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) and the subsequent molecular oxygen activation. The other was that the complexation of tetrapolyphosphate with ferrous ions not only guaranteed enough soluble Fe(II) for Fenton reaction, but also provided another route to produce more •OH in the solution via the single-electron molecular oxygen reduction pathway. We employed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the atrazine degradation intermediates and proposed a possible aerobic atrazine degradation pathway. This study not only sheds light on the promotion effects of ligands on the molecular oxygen activation by nanoscale zerovalent iron, but also offers a facile and green iron-based method for the oxidative atrazine removal.

  15. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  16. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  17. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Keto Esters via Cu(II)-Catalyzed Aerobic Deacylation of Acetoacetate Alkylation Products: An Unusually Simple Synthetic Equivalent to the Glyoxylate Anion Synthon

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Kimberly M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the preparation of β-stereogenic α-keto esters is described using a copper(II)-catalyzed aerobic deacylation of substituted acetoacetate esters. The substrates for the title process arise from catalytic, enantioselective conjugate additions and alkylation reactions of acetoacetate esters. The mild conditions do not induce racemization of the incipient enolizable α-keto ester. The reaction is tolerant of esters, certain ketones, ketals, and nitro groups and utilizes inexpensive, readily available materials. PMID:21486076

  19. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is interactions, which may occur between ... more serious. Drug allergies are another type of reaction. They can be mild or life-threatening. Skin ...

  20. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  1. KetoABNO/NOx Cocatalytic Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehydes to Carboxylic Acids and Access to α-Chiral Carboxylic Acids via Sequential Asymmetric Hydroformylation/Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Miles, Kelsey C; Abrams, M Leigh; Landis, Clark R; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-08-01

    A method for aerobic oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids has been developed using organic nitroxyl and NOx cocatalysts. KetoABNO (9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one N-oxyl) and NaNO2 were identified as the optimal nitroxyl and NOx sources, respectively. The mildness of the reaction conditions enables sequential asymmetric hydroformylation of alkenes/aerobic aldehyde oxidation to access α-chiral carboxylic acids without racemization. The scope, utility, and limitations of the oxidation method are further evaluated with a series of achiral aldehydes bearing diverse functional groups.

  2. Silver(I) as a widely applicable, homogeneous catalyst for aerobic oxidation of aldehydes toward carboxylic acids in water—“silver mirror”: From stoichiometric to catalytic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Haining; Zeng, Huiying; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The first example of a homogeneous silver(I)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes in water is reported. More than 50 examples of different aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, including natural products, were tested, and all of them successfully underwent aerobic oxidation to give the corresponding carboxylic acids in extremely high yields. The reaction conditions are very mild and greener, requiring only a very low silver(I) catalyst loading, using atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant and water as the solvent, and allowing gram-scale oxidation with only 2 mg of our catalyst. Chromatography is completely unnecessary for purification in most cases. PMID:26601150

  3. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  4. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  5. Mental Aerobics: Exercises for the Mind in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paggi, Kay; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reports observations of the use of mental aerobics with 48 adults whose median age was 70. Provides examples of the group puzzles and logic, math, and word problems used to enhance cognitive functioning and creative thinking. (SK)

  6. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  7. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  8. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  9. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE. PMID:27239681

  10. [Aerobic microbial degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Zhou, Juan; Jiang, Wei-Ying; Gao, Shi-Xiang

    2008-11-01

    The biodegradation of 4, 4'-dibromodipheny ether (BDE15) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) by white rot fungi under aerobic conditions was studied. Effects of non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin as solubilizers on the apparent solubilities and biodegradation rates of BDE15 and BDE209 were also evaluated. The results showed that both BDE15 and BDE209 were efficiently degraded by white rot fungi. The degradation rates were 43.0% and 62.5% for BDE209 and BDE15, respectively, after 10 d incubation. The degradation of BDE209 was greatly enhanced by addition of Tween 80 (< or = 700 mg/L) and beta-cyclodextrin, which may own to their solubilization effects on BDE209. However, Tween 80 at a high concentration (900 mg/L) would restrain the fungal growth, thereby decrease the degradation of BDE209. Addition of Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin exhibited some negative effects on the degradation of BDE15, which may due to decreased concentration of free BDE15 in water solution resulted from inclusion function of Tween 80 micelles and beta-cyclodextrin cavity, although the apparent solubility of BDE15 was drastically increased by both of them. PMID:19186824

  11. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  12. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  13. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  14. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (p<0.05) and they also showed a non-significant trend to increased peak power output. In conclusion, children with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  15. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  16. Mathematical modelling of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J; de Gracia, M; Ayesa, E; Garcia-Heras, J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model for Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digesters. The reactor has been modelled as two completely mixed volumes to separately predict the behaviour of the liquid and gaseous phases as well as the interrelation between them. The model includes biochemical transformations based on the standard Activated Sludge Models of IWA, as well as physico-chemical transformations associated with the chemical equilibria and the mass transfer between the liquid and the gaseous phases similar to those proposed in the ADM1 of IWA. An energy balance has also been included in the model in order to predict the temperature of the system. This thermal balance takes into account all those biochemical and physico-chemical transformations that entail the most relevant heat interchanges. Reactor performance has been explored by simulation in two different scenarios: in the first where it acts as the initial stage in a Dual system, and in the second where it acts as a single-stage treatment. Each scenario enabled the identification of the relevance of the different parameters. PMID:17258787

  17. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  18. Nutrient Transformations in Soils Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P.; Lee, L.

    2003-12-01

    Poultry litter is most commonly land applied as a fertilizer for pastures. Soils vary according to landscape position and the biogeochemistry changes within the soils depending on the landscape position. This research focuses on nutrient speciation in aerobic and anaerobic environments. A 3.4 kg Ha-1 chicken litter application rate was used to determine the speciation of nutrients in these two environments. A 50 g sample of Ruston soil was placed in 250 mL centrifuge tubes and continuously stirred in anaerobic and aerobic environments. The Eh and pH were measured daily and a sample was collected at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. The Eh decreased from around 600 mV at day 0 to near 100 at day 2; whereas the aerobic sample had a decrease to around 450 mV. The pH increased from 6.5 to 7.0 in the anaerobic soil and from 6.5 to around 8.0 in the aerobic soil. The anaerobic soils had a rapid decrease in NO3- and a sharp increase in NH4+ to around 100 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil at day 7. The aerobic soil had an increase in NH4+ to 70 mg Nh4+ kg-1 soil at day 7 then decrease in NH4+ with a corresponding increase in NO3-. Both the anaerobic and aerobic soil had a rapid decrease in PO42- concentrations and remained low for 21 d.

  19. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  20. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  1. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation.

  2. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic performances in tethered swimming.

    PubMed

    Papoti, M; da Silva, A S R; Araujo, G G; Santiago, V; Martins, L E B; Cunha, S A; Gobatto, C A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the critical force (CritF) and anaerobic impulse capacity (AIC) - estimated by tethered swimming - reflect the aerobic and anaerobic performance of swimmers. 12 swimmers performed incremental test in tethered swimming to determine lactate anaerobic threshold (AnTLAC), maximal oxygen uptake ( ˙VO2MAX) and force associated with the ˙VO2MAX (i ˙VO2MAX). The swimmers performed 4 exhaustive (tlim) exercise bouts (100, 110, 120 and 130% i ˙VO2MAX) to compute the CritF and AIC (F vs. 1/tlim model); a 30-s all-out tethered swimming bout to determine their anaerobic fitness (ANF); 100, 200, and 400-m time-trials to determine the swimming performance. CritF (57.09±11.77 N) did not differ from AnTLAC (53.96±11.52 N, (P>0.05) but was significantly lower than i ˙VO2MAX (71.02±8.36 N). In addition, CritF presented significant correlation with AnTLAC (r=0.76; P<0.05) and i ˙VO2MAX (r=0.74; P<0.05). On the other hand, AIC (286.19±54.91 N.s) and ANF (116.10±13.66 N) were significantly correlated (r=0.81, p<0.05). In addition, CritF and AIC presented significant correlations with all time-trials. In summary, this study demonstrates that CritF and AIC can be used to evaluate AnTLAC and ANF and to predict 100, 200, and 400-m free swimming.

  4. Microsensor Measurements of Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Oxidation in Compact Microbial Communities of Aerobic Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Michael; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    1992-01-01

    The microzonation of O2 respiration, H2S oxidation, and SO42- reduction in aerobic trickling-filter biofilms was studied by measuring concentration profiles at high spatial resolution (25 to 100 μm) with microsensors for O2, S2-, and pH. Specific reaction rates were calculated from measured concentration profiles by using a simple one-dimensional diffusion reaction model. The importance of electron acceptor and electron donor availability for the microzonation of respiratory processes and their reaction rates was investigated. Oxygen respiration was found in the upper 0.2 to 0.4 mm of the biofilm, whereas sulfate reduction occurred in deeper, anoxic parts of the biofilm. Sulfate reduction accounted for up to 50% of the total mineralization of organic carbon in the biofilms. All H2S produced from sulfate reduction was reoxidized by O2 in a narrow reaction zone, and no H2S escaped to the overlying water. Turnover times of H2S and O2 in the reaction zone were only a few seconds owing to rapid bacterial H2S oxidation. Anaerobic H2S oxidation with NO3- could be induced by addition of nitrate to the medium. Total sulfate reduction rates increased when the availability of SO42- or organic substrate increased as a result of deepening of the sulfate reduction zone or an increase in the sulfate reduction intensity, respectively. PMID:16348687

  5. Unusual aerobic stabilization of Cob(I)alamin by a B12-trafficking protein allows chemoenzymatic synthesis of organocobalamins.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Lesniak, Nicholas A; Banerjee, Ruma

    2014-11-19

    CblC, a B12 trafficking protein, exhibits glutathione transferase and reductive decyanase activities for processing alkylcobalamins and cyanocobalamin, respectively, to a common intermediate that is subsequently converted to the biologically active forms of the cofactor. We recently discovered that the Caenorhabditis elegans CblC catalyzes thiol-dependent decyanation of CNCbl and reduction of OH2Cbl and stabilizes the paramagnetic cob(II)alamin product under aerobic conditions. In this study, we report the striking ability of the worm CblC to stabilize the highly reactive cob(I)alamin product of the glutathione transferase reaction. The unprecedented stabilization of the supernucleophilic cob(I)alamin species under aerobic conditions by the intrinsic thiol oxidase activity of CblC, was exploited for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of organocobalamin derivatives under mild conditions.

  6. Copper(I)/ABNO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation: alleviating steric and electronic constraints of Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-10-23

    Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems promote efficient aerobic oxidation of sterically unhindered primary alcohols and electronically activated substrates, but they show reduced reactivity with aliphatic and secondary alcohols. Here, we report a catalyst system, consisting of ((MeO)bpy)Cu(I)(OTf) and ABNO ((MeO)bpy = 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine; ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl), that mediates aerobic oxidation of all classes of alcohols, including primary and secondary allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic alcohols with nearly equal efficiency. The catalyst exhibits broad functional group compatibility, and most reactions are complete within 1 h at room temperature using ambient air as the source of oxidant. PMID:24128057

  7. A new model for the aerobic metabolism of yeast allows the detailed analysis of the metabolic regulation during glucose pulse.

    PubMed

    Kesten, Duygu; Kummer, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Hübner, Katrin

    2015-11-01

    The onset of aerobic fermentation (the so-called Crabtree effect) in yeast has long been of interest. However, the underlying mechanisms at the metabolic level are not yet fully understood. We developed a detailed kinetic model of the aerobic central metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising glycolysis, TCA cycle and major transport reactions across the mitochondrial membrane to investigate this phenomenon. It is the first one of this extent in the literature. The model is able to reproduce experimental steady state fluxes and time-course behavior after a glucose pulse. Due to the lack of parameter identifiability in the model, we analyze a model ensemble consisting of a set of differently parameterized models for robust findings. The model predicts that the cooperativity of pyruvate decarboxylase with respect to pyruvate and the capacity difference between alcohol dehydrogenase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass play a major role for the onset of the Crabtree effect. PMID:26176974

  8. Simulating the effect of aerobic biodegradation on soil vapor intrusion into buildings: influence of degradation rate, source concentration, and depth.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Lilian D V; Johnson, Paul C

    2006-04-01

    Steady-state vapor intrusion scenarios involving aerobically biodegradable chemicals are studied using a three-dimensional multicomponent numerical model. In these scenarios, sources of aerobically biodegradable chemical vapors are placed at depths of 1-14 m beneath a 10 m x 10 m basement or slab-on-grade construction building, and the simultaneous transport and reaction of hydrocarbon and oxygen vapors are simulated. The results are presented as Johnson and Ettinger attenuation factors alpha (predicted indoor air hydrocarbon concentration/source vapor concentration), and normalized contour plots of hydrocarbon and oxygen concentrations. In addition to varying the vapor source depth, the effects of source concentration (2-200 mg chemical/L vapor) and oxygen-limited first-order reaction rates (0.018-1.8 h(-1)) are studied. Hydrocarbon inputs were specific to benzene, although the relevant properties are similar to those for a range of hydrocarbons of interest. Overall, the results suggest that aerobic biodegradation could play a significant role in reducing vapor intrusion into buildings (decreased alpha-values) relative to the no-biodegradation case, with the significance of aerobic biodegradation increasing with increasing vapor source depth, decreasing vapor source concentration, and increasing first-order biodegradation rate. In contrast to the no-biodegradation case, differences in foundation construction can be significant in some settings. The significance of aerobic biodegradation is directly related to the extent to which oxygen is capable of migrating beneath the foundation. For example, in the case of a basement scenario with a 200 mg/L vapor source located at 3 m bgs, oxygen is consumed before it can migrate beneath the foundation, so the attenuation factors for simulations with and without aerobic biodegradation are similar for all first-order rates studied. For the case of a 2 mg/L vapor source located at 8 m bgs, the oxygen is widely distributed

  9. Visible-light-mediated chan-lam coupling reactions of aryl boronic acids and aniline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Woo-Jin; Tsukamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-05-26

    The copper(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling reaction between aryl boronic acids and aniline derivatives was found to be improved significantly under visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis. The substrate scope of this oxidative Chan-Lam reaction was thus expanded to include electron-deficient aryl boronic acids as viable starting materials.

  10. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  11. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  12. Aqueous Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Protein-Labeling Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidou, Maria Eleni; van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Baas, Bert-Jan; Jeronimus-Stratingh, Margot; Gottumukkala, Aditya L; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Dekker, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of chemical reactions are being employed for bio-orthogonal ligation of detection labels to protein-bound functional groups. Several of these strategies, however, are limited in their application to pure proteins and are ineffective in complex biological samples such as cell lysates. Here we present the palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction as a new and robust bio-orthogonal strategy for linking functionalized arylboronic acids to protein-bound alkenes in high yields and with excellent chemoselectivity even in the presence of complex protein mixtures from living cells. Advantageously, this reaction proceeds under aerobic conditions, whereas most other metal-catalyzed reactions require inert atmosphere. PMID:24376051

  13. Aerobic Degradation of N-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline (MNA) by Pseudomonas sp. Strain FK357 Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Vyas, Bhawna; Pal, Deepika; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT) as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent) reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway. PMID:24116023

  14. Effect of Mn2+ augmentation on reinforcing aerobic sludge granulation in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Weiliang; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors were synchronously operated to investigate the effect of manganese (II) (Mn(2+)) augmentation on aerobic granulation. Reactor 1 (R1) was added with 10 mg/L Mn(2+), while there was no Mn(2+) augmentation in reactor 2 (R2). Results showed that R1 had a faster granulation process than R2 and R1 performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) removal efficiencies. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with Mn(2+) behaved better on their physical characteristics and size distributions, and they also had higher production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. The result of three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix fluorescence showed that Mn(2+) had the function of causing organic material diversity (especially proteins diversity) in EPS fraction from granules. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques were employed to analyze the microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules. The results exhibited that Mn(2+) augmentation was mainly responsible for the higher microbial diversity of granules from R1 compared with that from R2. Uncultured sludge bacterium A16 (AF234726) and Rhodococcus sp. WTZ-R2 (HM004214) were the major species in R1, while only uncultured sludge bacterium A16 (AF234726) in R2. Moreover, there were eight species of organisms found in both two aerobic granules, and three species were found only in aerobic granules from R1. It could be concluded that Mn(2+) could enhance the sludge granulation process and have a key effect role on the biological properties during the sludge granulation. PMID:21894480

  15. [Modeling formation of aerobic granule and influence of hydrodynamic shear forces on granule diameter].

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimension aerobic granule mathematical model was established, basing on mathematical biofilm model and activated sludge model. The model was used to simulate simple aerobic granule process such as nutrients removal, granule diameter evolution, cycle performance as well as depth profiles of DO and biomass. The effluent NH4(+) -N concentration decreased as the modeling processed. The simulation effluent NO3(-)-N concentration decreased to 3 mg x L(-1) as the granules grew. While the granule diameter increased from 1.1 mm on day 30 to 2.5 mm on day 100, the TN removal efficiency increased from less than 10% to 91%. The denitrification capacity was believed to enhance because the anoxic zone would be enlarged with the increasing granule diameter. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred inside the big aerobic granules. The oxygen permeating depth increased with the consumption of substrate. It was about 100-200 microm at the beginning of the aeration phase, and it turned to near 800 microm at the end of reaction. The autotrophs (AOB and NOB) were mostly located at the out layer where the DO concentration was high. The heterotrophic bacteria were distributed through the whole granule. As hydrodynamic shear coefficient k(de) increased from 0.25 (m x d)(-1) to 5 (m x d)(-1), the granule diameter under steady state decreased form 3.5 mm to 1.8 mm. The granule size under the dynamic steady-state decreased with the increasing hydrodynamic shear force. The granule size could be controlled by adjusting aeration intensity. PMID:22452208

  16. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  17. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  18. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  19. Aerobic Activity in Prevention & Symptom Control of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Semanik, Pamela; Chang, Rowland W.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 27 million US adults suffer from some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the US over the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis. The focus of this review is to examine the impact of aerobic activity on OA progression and symptom control. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for those with lower limb OA; although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes is unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials in knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which has independently been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including OA incidence and progression. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning. PMID:22632701

  20. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    PubMed

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p < 0.001). AV is a common cause of vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  1. Aerobic activity in prevention and symptom control of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semanik, Pamela A; Chang, Rowland W; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2012-05-01

    Almost 27 million adults in the United States experience some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the United States during the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee OA. Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip OA. The focus of this review is on the impact of aerobic activity on the progression and symptom control of OA. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for persons with lower limb OA, although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes are unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials for persons with knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which independently has been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including the incidence and progression of OA. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning.

  2. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  3. Gait characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis before and after a 6-month aerobic training program.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, M M; Mulcare, J A; King, D L; Mathews, T; Gupta, S C; Glaser, R M

    1999-07-01

    Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic conditioning might also affect gait abnormalities in individuals with MS. Subjects included 18 individuals with MS who presented a range of disability. Passive range of motion (PROM) in the lower limbs was measured and gait analyzed before and after exercise conditioning. Three-dimensional kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic information were acquired as subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Hip PROM increased following conditioning. Mean walking velocity, cadence, and posterior shear GRF (push-off force) decreased. During walking, maximum ankle dorsiflexion decreased and ankle plantarflexion increased. Total knee flexion/extension range during the walking cycle decreased slightly as did maximum hip extension. Results suggest this 6-mo training program had minimal effect on gait abnormalities. PMID:10659801

  4. Use of aerobic granules for treating synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Wan, Chunli; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mature aerobic granules were utilized to treat synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters with chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratios of 3.9-6.9. The contributions of various mechanisms to the removal of ammonium were determined. Ammonium levels of 600-2000 mg-N l-1 had little adverse effect on the COD removal rate (91.6%-95.3%) with an influent COD of 4490-9860 mg l-1. The TN removal rate was slightly reduced from 71.3% to 59.6% as the influent ammonium concentration was increased from 600 to 2000 mg-N l-1. Experimental results indicated that aerobic granules removed 94.5% of COD and 59.6% of TN in the treatment of synthetic high-strength wastewater (9860 mg-COD l-1 and 2000 mg NH+4-Nl-1) during a 12 h cycle. Granular adsorption, air stripping and conversion by nitrification/denitrification were responsible for removing 9%, 15% and 76%, respectively, of the total removed NHf -N. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was a useful process indicator of the biological reactions in the treatment of high-level ammonium wastewaters.

  5. Evaluation of nitrate removal by continuous culturing of an aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Paracoccus pantotrophus.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Kurisu, K; Otani, Y; Hanaki, K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate removal under aerobic conditions was investigated using pure cultures of Paracoccus pantotrophus, which is a well-known aerobic-denitrifying (AD) bacterium. When a high concentration of cultures with a high carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio was preserved at the beginning of batch experiments, subsequently added nitrate was completely removed. When continuous culturing was perpetuated, a high nitrate removal rate (66.5%) was observed on day 4 post-culture, although gradual decreases in AD ability with time were observed. The attenuation in AD ability was probably caused by carbon limitation, because when carbon concentration of inflow water was doubled, nitrate removal efficiency improved from 18.1% to 59.6%. Bacterial community analysis using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed that P. pantotrophus disappeared in the suspended medium on day 8 post-culture, whereas other bacterial communities dominated by Acidovorax sp. appeared. Interestingly, this replaced bacterial community also showed AD ability. As P. pantotrophus was detected as attached colonies around the membrane and bottom of the reactor, this bacterium can therefore be introduced in a fixed form for treatment of wastewater containing nitrate with a high C/N ratio. PMID:17163031

  6. Effects of Rate-Limited Mass Transfer on Modeling Vapor Intrusion with Aerobic Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Hou, Deyi; Lu, Chunhui; Spain, Jim C; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Most of the models for simulating vapor intrusion accept the local equilibrium assumption for multiphase concentration distributions, that is, concentrations in solid, liquid and vapor phases are in equilibrium. For simulating vapor transport with aerobic biodegradation controlled by counter-diffusion processes, the local equilibrium assumption combined with dual-Monod kinetics and biomass decay may yield near-instantaneous behavior at steady state. The present research investigates how predicted concentration profiles and fluxes change as interphase mass transfer resistances are increased for vapor intrusion with aerobic biodegradation. Our modeling results indicate that the attenuation coefficients for cases with and without mass transfer limitations can be significantly different by orders of magnitude. Rate-limited mass transfer may lead to larger overlaps of contaminant vapor and oxygen concentrations, which cannot be simulated by instantaneous reaction models with local equilibrium mass transfer. In addition, the contaminant flux with rate-limited mass transfer is much smaller than that with local equilibrium mass transfer, indicating that local equilibrium mass transfer assumption may significantly overestimate the biodegradation rate and capacity for mitigating vapor intrusion through the unsaturated zone. Our results indicate a strong research need for field tests to examine the validity of local equilibrium mass transfer, a widely accepted assumption in modeling vapor intrusion.

  7. Effects of Rate-Limited Mass Transfer on Modeling Vapor Intrusion with Aerobic Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Hou, Deyi; Lu, Chunhui; Spain, Jim C; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Most of the models for simulating vapor intrusion accept the local equilibrium assumption for multiphase concentration distributions, that is, concentrations in solid, liquid and vapor phases are in equilibrium. For simulating vapor transport with aerobic biodegradation controlled by counter-diffusion processes, the local equilibrium assumption combined with dual-Monod kinetics and biomass decay may yield near-instantaneous behavior at steady state. The present research investigates how predicted concentration profiles and fluxes change as interphase mass transfer resistances are increased for vapor intrusion with aerobic biodegradation. Our modeling results indicate that the attenuation coefficients for cases with and without mass transfer limitations can be significantly different by orders of magnitude. Rate-limited mass transfer may lead to larger overlaps of contaminant vapor and oxygen concentrations, which cannot be simulated by instantaneous reaction models with local equilibrium mass transfer. In addition, the contaminant flux with rate-limited mass transfer is much smaller than that with local equilibrium mass transfer, indicating that local equilibrium mass transfer assumption may significantly overestimate the biodegradation rate and capacity for mitigating vapor intrusion through the unsaturated zone. Our results indicate a strong research need for field tests to examine the validity of local equilibrium mass transfer, a widely accepted assumption in modeling vapor intrusion. PMID:27486832

  8. Nitrogen Removal in Aerobic Granular Sludge SBR: Real-time Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangjuan; Gao, Dawen

    2010-11-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granules was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentration on biological nitrogen removal for synthetic sewage treatment, and the spatial profiles of DO, ORP and pH as on-line control parameters in such systems were investigated. The results showed that DO concentrations had significant effect on nitrification efficiencies and the profiles of DO, ORP and pH. High DO concentration improved the nitrification causing volumetric NH4+-N removal increased and shortened the nitrification duration. Also there existed a good correlation between on-line control parameters (ORP, pH) and nutrients (COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N) variations in aerobic granules when DO was 2.5 mg/L, 3.5 mg/L and 4.5 mg/L. However it is difficult to identify the end of nitrification and denitrification when DO was 1.0 mg/L, due to no apparent bending points on ORP and pH curves. In conclusion the optimal DO concentration was suggested at 2.5 mg/L as it not only achieved high nitrogen removal efficiency and decreased the reaction duration, but also saved operation cost by aeration and mixing.

  9. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation.

  10. Aerobic biotransformation of 2,4-dinitroanisole in soil and soil Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Nancy N; Manno, Dominic; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2012-04-01

    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is a low sensitive melt-cast chemical being tested by the Military Industry as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosive formulations. Little is known about the fate of DNAN and its transformation products in the natural environment. Here we report aerobic biotransformation of DNAN in artificially contaminated soil microcosms. DNAN was completely transformed in 8 days in soil slurries supplemented with carbon and nitrogen sources. DNAN was completely transformed in 34 days in slurries supplemented with carbons alone and persisted in unamended microcosms. A strain of Bacillus (named 13G) that transformed DNAN by co-metabolism was isolated from the soil. HPLC and LC-MS analyses of cell-free and resting cell assays of Bacillus 13G with DNAN showed the formation of 2-amino-4-nitroanisole as the major end-product via the intermediary formation of the arylnitroso (ArNO) and arylhydroxylamino (ArNHOH) derivatives, indicating regioselective reduction of the ortho-nitro group. A series of secondary reactions involving ArNO and ArNHOH gave the corresponding azoxy- and azo-dimers. Acetylated and demethylated products were identified. Overall, this paper provides the evidence of fast DNAN transformation by the indigenous microbial populations of an amended soil with no history of contamination with explosives and a first insight into the aerobic metabolism of DNAN by the soil isolate Bacillus 13G.

  11. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  12. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  13. Effects of meditation and aerobic exercise on EEG patterns.

    PubMed

    Severtsen, B; Bruya, M A

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two stress-reducing wellness activities, meditation and aerobic exercise, on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns of normal subjects. Ten nursing students completed the study: five performed meditation daily and five performed aerobic exercise daily. Stress was determined using the Stanford University Self Assessment and Holmes-Rahe Social Adjustment Rating Scales prior to the stress-reducing activities and again following the six-week study. Although neither group demonstrated a significant increase in alpha waves, self-rating scores for both measures were improved at the end of the six-week study. Meditation and aerobic activity were associated with a perception of increased ability to cope and a generally positive feeling about the value of exercise and meditation in their lives.

  14. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  15. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  16. Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stability, and this acid acts as an inhibitor of spoilage organisms. Therefore, stability increases exponentially with acetic acid concentration. Only butyric acid has a similar effect. Other compounds, like lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and 1-propanol, have been shown to have no effect, while fructose and mannitol reduce stability. PMID:12514042

  17. Aerobic biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment of a phenolic wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Lin; Weber, A.S. )

    1992-05-01

    Organic removal rates achieved in the aerobic BAC process were comparable to rates typically reported for traditional aerobic fixed-film systems. When operated at organic loading rates lower than 0.03 g COD/g GAC-d and air as the oxygen source, greater than 90% COD removal and 99% phenol removal was achieved. At higher organic loading rates, oxygen limitations resulted in less than optimal performance. Observed oxygen limitations were mitigated by the use of pure oxygen. Long-term stability of operation of the BAC process was excellent with one aerobic BAC column operated under the same conditions in excess of 260 days. During that time, consistent column performance was achieved without the need to provide supplemental carbon or carbon regeneration. System biomass yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 g VSS/g COD removed and increased with effluent COD concentration.

  18. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism.

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands. PMID:27154570

  20. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  1. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  2. Copper(II)-catalyzed room temperature aerobic oxidation of hydroxamic acids and hydrazides to acyl-nitroso and azo intermediates, and their Diels-Alder trapping.

    PubMed

    Chaiyaveij, Duangduan; Cleary, Leah; Batsanov, Andrei S; Marder, Todd B; Shea, Kenneth J; Whiting, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    CuCl(2), in the presence of a 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline ligand, is an effective catalyst for the room temperature, aerobic oxidation of hydroxamic acids and hydrazides, to acyl-nitroso and azo dienophiles respectively, which are efficiently trapped in situ via both inter- and intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reactions with dienes. Both inter- and intramolecular variants of the Diels-Alder reaction are suitable under the reaction conditions using a variety of solvents. Under the same conditions, an acyl hydrazide was also oxidized to give an acyl-azo dienophile which was trapped intramolecularly by a diene. PMID:21644530

  3. Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using food waste (UFW) and effluents from acidogenic biohydrogen production process (FFW) were studied employing aerobic mixed culture as biocatalyst. Anoxic microenvironment documented higher PHA production, while aerobic microenvironment showed higher substrate degradation. FFW showed higher PHA accumulation (39.6%) than UFW (35.6%) due to ready availability of precursors (fatty acids). Higher fraction of poly-3-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) was observed compared to poly-3-hydroxy valerate (PHV) in the accumulated PHA in the form of co-polymer [P3(HB-co-HV)]. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Integration with fermentative biohydrogen production yielded additional substrate degradation under both aerobic (78%) and anoxic (72%) microenvironments apart from PHA production. Microbial community analysis documented the presence of aerobic and facultative organisms capable of producing PHA. Integration strategy showed feasibility of producing hydrogen along with PHA by consuming fatty acids generated during acidogenic process in association with increased treatment efficiency.

  4. Hormonal and metabolic response in middle-aged women to moderate physical effort during aerobics.

    PubMed

    Charmas, Małgorzata; Opaszowski, Benedykt H; Charmas, Robert; Rózańska, Dorota; Jówko, Ewa; Sadowski, Jerzy; Dorofeyeva, Lena

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the metabolic and hormone response in middle-aged women to acute physical aerobic exercise accompanied by music, the so-called "aerobics." The experiment (single 60-minute aerobics session) included 11 women aged between 30 and 50. The following variables were determined in blood samples collected from the participants four times (in fasting state [I], before exercise [II], after exercise [III], and after 12 hours of rest [IV]): concentration of lactic acid, glucose, free fatty acids, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, the measurements included body mass before and after the exercise, and body temperature was taken in the auditory canal and on the forehead. The heart rate was registered during the exercise on a continuous basis. In all cases, the heart rate did not reach its maximum level, and on average, it amounted to approximately 70% of the maximum pulse rate. Therefore, this effort can be considered as submaximal. In all cases, we observed loss of body mass (from 0.2 to 0.7 kg) (p > 0.02) increase in the temperature measured on forehead. Significantly, accompanied by nonsignificant increase in the temperature measured on the tympanic membrane was registered. Single loading gives rise to change in hormone and metabolic profiles. Furthermore, a decrease in blood concentration of glucose before and after aerobics (p > 0.001) could be observed, and if the determination taken at measurement IV of glucose in blood is taken into consideration, then the value taken in measurement I is significantly the highest in relation to other measurements. Concentration of free fatty acids were increased (p > 0.002) after exercise and remained on the same level until the following day. The levels of insulin were significantly decreased, but growth hormone levels were increased. The exercise had no impact on testosterone concentration, whereas average blood concentration of leptin in the successive

  5. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  6. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  7. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  8. Vertical distribution and characterization of aerobic phototrophic bacteria at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Christopher; Lince, Michael T; Alric, Jean; Lang, Andrew S; Humphrey, Elaine; Blankenship, Robert E; Verméglio, André; Plumley, F Gerald; Van Dover, Cindy L; Beatty, J Thomas; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2008-09-01

    The vertical distribution of culturable anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was investigated at five sites at or near the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Twelve similar strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria were isolated in pure culture, from depths ranging from 500 to 2,379 m below the surface. These strains appear morphologically, physiologically, biochemically, and phylogenetically similar to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum strain JF-1, a bacterium previously isolated from hydrothermal vent plume waters. Only one aerobic phototrophic strain was isolated from surface waters. This strain is morphologically and physiologically distinct from the strains isolated at deeper sampling locations, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is most closely related to the genus Erythrobacter. Phototrophs were cultivated from three water casts taken above vents but not from two casts taken away from active vent sites. No culturable anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs were detected. The photosynthetic apparatus was investigated in strain JF-1 and contains light-harvesting I and reaction center complexes, which are functional under aerobic conditions.

  9. Molecular characterization of a microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification under micro-aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingjing; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Liang; Ju, Xi; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    Methane can be used as an alternative carbon source in biological denitrification because it is nontoxic, widely available and relatively inexpensive. A microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (MOD) was enriched with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors under micro-aerobic conditions. The 16S rRNA gene combined with pmoA phylogeny of methanotrophs and nirK phylogeny of denitrifiers were analysed to reveal the dominant microbial populations and functional microorganisms. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed high numbers of methanotrophs and denitrifiers in the enriched consortium. The 16S rRNA gene clone library revealed that Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae were the dominant populations in the MOD ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses of pmoA gene clone libraries indicated that all methanotrophs belonged to Methylococcaceae, a type I methanotroph employing the ribulose monophosphate pathway for methane oxidation. Methylotrophic denitrifiers of the Methylophilaceae that can utilize organic intermediates (i.e. formaldehyde, citrate and acetate) released from the methanotrophs played a vital role in aerobic denitrification. This study is the first report to confirm micro-aerobic denitrification and to make phylogenetic and functional assignments for some members of the microbial assemblages involved in MOD. PMID:24245852

  10. Doped graphene as a metal-free carbocatalyst for the selective aerobic oxidation of benzylic hydrocarbons, cyclooctane and styrene.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Primo, Ana; Concepcion, Patricia; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2013-06-01

    Nitrogen (N)-, boron (B)-, and boron,nitrogen (B,N)-doped graphene (G) act as carbocatalysts, promoting the aerobic oxidation of the benzylic positions of aromatic hydrocarbons and cyclooctane to the corresponding alcohol/ketone mixture with more than 90 % selectivity. The most active material was the co-doped (B,N)G, which, in the absence of solvent and with a substrate/(B,N)G ratio of 200, achieved 50 % tetralin conversion in 24 h with a alcohol/ketone selectivity of 80 %. An FT-Raman spectroscopic study of a sample of (B,N)G heated at 100 °C in the presence of oxygen revealed new bands that disappeared upon evacuation and that have been attributed to hydroperoxide-like species formed on the G sheet based on the isotopic shift of the peak from 819 to 779 cm(-1) when (18)O2 was used as the oxidizing reagent. Furthermore, (B)G and (N)G exhibited high catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde (BA) in 4 h. However, the product distribution changed over time and after 10 h a significant percentage of styrene oxide (SO) was observed under the same conditions. The use of doped G as catalyst appears to offer broad scope for the aerobic oxidation of benzylic compounds and styrene, for which low catalyst loading, mild reaction temperatures, and no additional solvents are required.

  11. Reducing NO and N₂O emission during aerobic denitrification by newly isolated Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maosheng; He, Da; Ma, Tao; Chen, Qian; Liu, Sitong; Ahmad, Muhammad; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2014-06-01

    As two obligatory intermediates of denitrification, both NO and N2O had harmful environmental and biological impacts. An aerobic denitrifying bacterial strain PCN-1 was newly isolated and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, which was capable of high efficient nitrogen removal under aerobic condition with maximal NO and N2O accumulation as low as 0.003% and 0.33% of removed NO3(-)-N, respectively. Further experiment taking nitrite as denitrifying substrate indicated similar low NO and N2O emission of 0.006% and 0.29% of reduced NO2(-)-N, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the coordinate expression of denitrification gene nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase), cnorB (for NO reductase) and nosZ (for N2O reductase) was the fundamental reason of low NO and N2O accumulation. Activated sludge system bioaugmented by strain PCN-1 demonstrated a significant reduction of NO and N2O emission from wastewater during aerobic denitrification, implied great potential of PCN-1 in practical applications.

  12. Molecular characterization of a microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification under micro-aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Liang; Ju, Xi; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    Methane can be used as an alternative carbon source in biological denitrification because it is nontoxic, widely available and relatively inexpensive. A microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (MOD) was enriched with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors under micro-aerobic conditions. The 16S rRNA gene combined with pmoA phylogeny of methanotrophs and nirK phylogeny of denitrifiers were analysed to reveal the dominant microbial populations and functional microorganisms. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed high numbers of methanotrophs and denitrifiers in the enriched consortium. The 16S rRNA gene clone library revealed that Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae were the dominant populations in the MOD ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses of pmoA gene clone libraries indicated that all methanotrophs belonged to Methylococcaceae, a type I methanotroph employing the ribulose monophosphate pathway for methane oxidation. Methylotrophic denitrifiers of the Methylophilaceae that can utilize organic intermediates (i.e. formaldehyde, citrate and acetate) released from the methanotrophs played a vital role in aerobic denitrification. This study is the first report to confirm micro-aerobic denitrification and to make phylogenetic and functional assignments for some members of the microbial assemblages involved in MOD.

  13. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  14. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Rich; Cunliffe, Michael; Scanlan, Julie; Moussard, Helene; Kits, K. Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Jetten, MSM; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Han, James; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Stein, Lisa Y.; Murrell, Collin

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  16. Tuning graphitic oxide for initiator- and metal-free aerobic epoxidation of linear alkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattisson, Samuel; Nowicka, Ewa; Gupta, Upendra N.; Shaw, Greg; Jenkins, Robert L.; Morgan, David J.; Knight, David W.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2016-09-01

    Graphitic oxide has potential as a carbocatalyst for a wide range of reactions. Interest in this material has risen enormously due to it being a precursor to graphene via the chemical oxidation of graphite. Despite some studies suggesting that the chosen method of graphite oxidation can influence the physical properties of the graphitic oxide, the preparation method and extent of oxidation remain unresolved for catalytic applications. Here we show that tuning the graphitic oxide surface can be achieved by varying the amount and type of oxidant. The resulting materials differ in level of oxidation, surface oxygen content and functionality. Most importantly, we show that these graphitic oxide materials are active as unique carbocatalysts for low-temperature aerobic epoxidation of linear alkenes in the absence of initiator or metal. An optimum level of oxidation is necessary and materials produced via conventional permanganate-based methods are far from optimal.

  17. Tuning graphitic oxide for initiator- and metal-free aerobic epoxidation of linear alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Pattisson, Samuel; Nowicka, Ewa; Gupta, Upendra N.; Shaw, Greg; Jenkins, Robert L.; Morgan, David J.; Knight, David W.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphitic oxide has potential as a carbocatalyst for a wide range of reactions. Interest in this material has risen enormously due to it being a precursor to graphene via the chemical oxidation of graphite. Despite some studies suggesting that the chosen method of graphite oxidation can influence the physical properties of the graphitic oxide, the preparation method and extent of oxidation remain unresolved for catalytic applications. Here we show that tuning the graphitic oxide surface can be achieved by varying the amount and type of oxidant. The resulting materials differ in level of oxidation, surface oxygen content and functionality. Most importantly, we show that these graphitic oxide materials are active as unique carbocatalysts for low-temperature aerobic epoxidation of linear alkenes in the absence of initiator or metal. An optimum level of oxidation is necessary and materials produced via conventional permanganate-based methods are far from optimal. PMID:27687877

  18. Mechanistic Studies of Wacker-Type Intramolecular Aerobic Oxidative Amination of Alkenes Catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2/Pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; Liu, Guosheng; Popp, Brian V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Wacker-type oxidative cyclization reactions have been the subject of extensive research for several decades, but few systematic mechanistic studies of these reactions have been reported. The present study features experimental and DFT computational studies of Pd(OAc)2/pyridine-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes. The data support a stepwise catalytic mechanism that consists of (1) steady-state formation of a PdII-amidate-alkene chelate with release of one equivalent of pyridine and AcOH from the catalyst center, (2) alkene insertion into a Pd–N bond, (3) reversible β-hydride elimination, (4) irreversible reductive elimination of AcOH, and (5) aerobic oxidation of palladium(0) to regenerate the active trans-Pd(OAc)2(py)2 catalyst. Evidence is obtained for two energetically viable pathways for the key C–N bond-forming step, featuring a pyridine-ligated and a pyridine-dissociated PdII species. Analysis of natural charges and bond lengths of the alkene-insertion transition state suggest that this reaction is best described as an intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the amidate ligand on the coordinated alkene. PMID:21250706

  19. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl/NOx Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and many aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we show that the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be achieved at high potentials by using soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO), nor NOx species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective ORR mediators. The combination of nitroxyl/NOx species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction with overpotentials as low as 300 mV in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The overpotentials accessible with this ORR system are significantly lower than widely studied molecular metal-macrocycle ORR catalysts and benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NOx species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NOx species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls. PMID:27162977

  20. Nanoscaled copper metal-organic framework (MOF) based on carboxylate ligands as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for aerobic epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of benzylic and allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Luan, Yi; Yu, Jie; Peng, Xiong; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-19

    Aerobic epoxidation of olefins at a mild reaction temperature has been carried out by using nanomorphology of [Cu3(BTC)2] (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) as a high-performance catalyst through a simple synthetic strategy. An aromatic carboxylate ligand was employed to furnish a heterogeneous copper catalyst and also serves as the ligand for enhanced catalytic activities in the catalytic reaction. The utilization of a copper metal-organic framework catalyst was further extended to the aerobic oxidation of aromatic alcohols. The shape and size selectivity of the catalyst in olefin epoxidation and alcohol oxidation was investigated. Furthermore, the as-synthesized copper catalyst can be easily recovered and reused several times without leaching of active species or significant loss of activity. PMID:25430789

  1. Aerobic Pd-Catalyzed sp3 C–H Olefination: A Route to Both N-Heterocyclic Scaffolds and Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, Kara J.; Fortner, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This communication describes a new method for the Pd/polyoxometalate-catalyzed aerobic olefination of unactivated sp3 C–H bonds. Nitrogen heterocycles serve as directing groups, and air is used as the terminal oxidant. The products undergo reversible intramolecular Michael addition, which protects the mono-alkenylated product from over-functionalization. Hydrogenation of the Michael adducts provides access to bicyclic nitrogen-containing scaffolds that are prevalent in alkaloid natural products. Additionally, the cationic Michael adducts undergo facile elimination to release α,β-unsaturated olefins, which can be elaborated in numerous C–C and C–heteroatom bond-forming reactions. PMID:21476513

  2. Waiting to inhale: HIF-1 modulates aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Johnson, Randall S

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1 is known to promote anaerobic respiration during low oxygen conditions (hypoxia). In this issue, Fukuda et al. (2007) expand the range of HIF-1's functions by showing that it modulates aerobic respiration as well.

  3. Peak Aerobic Fitness of Visually Impaired and Sighted Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, C. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study compared 10 visually impaired and 10 sighted girls on a discontinuous incremental treadmill test and found no significant difference between the peak oxygen intake of the 2 groups. The results indicate that visually impaired children can attain aerobic fitness levels similar to those of sighted children. (Author/CR)

  4. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  5. Characterization of aerobically fit individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Iris A; Farias-Godoy, Alejandra; Isserow, Saul; Myers, Jonathan; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    With an ageing population there is an increased prevalence of individuals living with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Characteristics of older aerobically fit individuals with previously diagnosed CVD have not been studied. Therefore, our knowledge is limited as to how, or if, aerobically fit individuals with CVD attempt to adapt their physical activity and the intensity of their training programmes. The objective of this paper is to characterise the physical activity habits and behaviours of older aerobically fit individuals with CVD. We identified 28 aerobically fit patients with CVD from those who completed a minimum of 15 and 12 min of the Bruce treadmill protocol for men and women, respectively. Consenting participants responded to questionnaires regarding physical activity levels, competitive event participation and self-monitoring since diagnosis of heart disease. Average age and treadmill time of participants were 56 and 49 years and 15.6 and 13.0 min for males and females, respectively. Data were obtained regarding recent medical history (medical diagnoses, surgeries/procedures). Despite the majority of individuals participating in the same or more activity since their diagnosis, 25% indicated that their condition limited their activity and 39% reported having symptoms during activity. Nearly all participants (93%) indicated that they monitored their heart rate during exercise. However, only 14% of participants stated that their physician advised them on how to exercise safely. It is necessary for physicians and cardiac rehabilitation programmes to be involved in safe and effective exercise programming to allow individuals to return to sport after CVD. PMID:24433153

  6. Identification of serum analytes and metabolites associated with aerobic capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies aimed at identifying serum markers of cellular metabolism (biomarkers) that are associated at baseline with aerobic capacity (V02 max) in young, healthy individuals have yet to be reported. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to use the standard chemistry screen and untargeted mass ...

  7. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  8. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  9. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  10. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  11. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  12. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  13. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  14. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  15. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  16. Aerobic response to exercise of the fastest land crab.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Herreid, C F

    1983-04-01

    To view the aerobic response to exercise, the ghost crab Ocypode guadichaudii was run in a treadmill respirometer at three velocities (0.13, 0.19, and 0.28 km/h) while oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored. A steady-state VO2 that increased linearly with velocity was attained. VO2 transient periods at the beginning and end of exercise were extremely rapid with half times from 50 to 150 s. The magnitude of oxygen deficit and debt were small and both showed increases with an increase in velocity. Oxygen debt was measured at each velocity after 4-, 10-, and 20-min exercise bouts. No change in the magnitude of oxygen debt was observed with respect to exercise duration. Maximal VO2 was 11.9 times the average resting VO2. Oxygen uptake kinetics have shown only very sluggish and reduced rates in five other more sedentary crab species previously tested. The aerobic response pattern observed in the present study is more comparable to that of exercising mammals and highly aerobic ectothermic vertebrates. This suggests that the ghost crab meets the energy demand of sustained exercise by aerobic ATP production in contrast to many other crab species.

  17. Aerobic Jogging Instruction for Students in Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    Jogging, a form of aerobic exercise, is the act of running at a slow trot. This guide describes an instructional program for high school students to jog progressively longer distances. The emphasis is on participation and gradual improvement. Training principles, teaching methods, common jogging problems, and safety precautions are listed to aid…

  18. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  19. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  20. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  1. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  2. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  3. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed. PMID:25306537

  4. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  5. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  6. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  7. Olefin Metathesis Reaction in Water and in Air Improved by Supramolecular Additives.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Jasmine; Seßler, Miriam; Gröger, Harald; Schatz, Jürgen

    2015-10-21

    A range of water-immiscible commercially available Grubbs-type precatalysts can be used in ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction in high yields. The synthetic transformation is possible in pure water under ambient conditions. Sulfocalixarenes can help to boost the reactivity of the metathesis reaction by catalyst activation, improved mass transfer, and solubility of reactants in the aqueous reaction media. Additionally, the use of supramolecular additives allows lower catalyst loadings, but still high activity in pure water under aerobic conditions.

  8. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups

  9. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Stennis Watson, G.; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. Design Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Setting Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System clinical research unit. Participants Thirty-three adults (17 women) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment ranging in age from 55 to 85 years (mean age,70 years). Intervention Participants were randomized either to a high-intensity aerobic exercise or stretching control group. The aerobic group exercised under the supervision of a fitness trainer at 75% to 85% of heart rate reserve for 45 to 60 min/d, 4 d/wk for 6 months. The control group carried out supervised stretching activities according to the same schedule but maintained their heart rate at or below 50% of their heart rate reserve. Before and after the study, glucometabolic and treadmill tests were performed and fat distribution was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, month 3, and month 6, blood was collected for assay and cognitive tests were administered. Main Outcome Measures Performance measures on Symbol-Digit Modalities, Verbal Fluency, Stroop, Trails B, Task Switching, Story Recall, and List Learning. Fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulinlike growth factor-I, and β-amyloids 40 and 42. Results Six months of high-intensity aerobic exercise had sex-specific effects on cognition, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trophic activity despite comparable gains in cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat reduction. For women, aerobic exercise improved performance on multiple tests of executive function, increased glucose disposal during the metabolic clamp, and reduced fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. For men

  10. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  11. (E)-α,β-unsaturated amides from tertiary amines, olefins and CO via Pd/Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative N-dealkylation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Renyi; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Gan, Pei; Sha, Yuchen; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Qiang; Beller, Matthias; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-02-21

    A novel Pd/Cu-catalyzed chemoselective aerobic oxidative N-dealkylation/carbonylation reaction has been developed. Tertiary amines are utilized as a "reservoir" of "active" secondary amines in this transformation, which inhibits the formation of undesired by-products and the deactivation of the catalysts. This protocol allows for an efficient and straightforward construction of synthetically useful and bioactive (E)-α,β-unsaturated amide derivatives from easily available tertiary amines, olefins and CO. PMID:25610923

  12. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  13. [Study on technological characters of anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor landfill].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu-Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Ting; Jiang, Juan; Cao, Li; Lü, Zhi-Zhong; Li, Xi-Kun; Li, Xiao-Bao

    2007-04-01

    A technology of anaerobic-aerobic landfill bioreactor aimed at reusing landfill site is studied, and it's based on landfill bioreactor technology. A set of stimulating equipment is designed, and the technology characters are studied. In the anaerobic period, technological conditions are controlled by the means of leachate recirculation. The main experimental results are: pH, R1 rises to 6.7 - 7.8 in 6 weeks, and R2 is under 6.8 in 17 weeks; COD concentration of leachate, R1 declines to 10 617 mg/L in 13 weeks, while R2 rises to 60 000 mg/L in 5 weeks, and keeps stabilization in long time; the cumulating methane production, R1 reaches 44% in 8 weeks, while R2 almost cannot produce methane. The stabilization can be evaluated by pH of leachate, COD and BOD5/COD decreasing ratio, and cumulating methane production. They are main evidences to transform anaerobic period to aerobic period. In the aerobic period, odor and moisture are reduced by the means of aeration. The main experimental results are: ammonia concentration reduces to 1.16 mg/m3 in 19 days, and the odor concentration reduces to 19 in 23 days; the moisture of the wastes reduces to 26% in 14 days. The technological indexes to evaluate finishing of this period can be determined by the ultimately purpose of exploited wastes. Numerical modeling has been researched with the use of experimental data. The succession of microbes in the anaerobic-aerobic course is studied by RISA (ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) analysis. There are 4 preponderant groups in this course, and some facultative anaerobes play important roles in the transition of anaerobic period to aerobic period.

  14. Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary inflammation induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Clarice R; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Almeida, Francine M; Lourenço, Juliana D; Abreu, Rodrigo M; Arantes, Petra M M; Lopes, Fernanda Dtqs; Martins, Milton A

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recognized as a stimulator of the immune system, but its effect on bacterial infection has not been extensively evaluated. We studied whether moderate aerobic exercise training prior to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection influences pulmonary inflammatory responses. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Sedentary Untreated (sedentary without infection); Sedentary Infected (sedentary with infection); Trained Untreated (aerobic training without infection); and Trained Infected (aerobic training with infection). Animals underwent aerobic training for 4 wk, and 72 h after last exercise training, animals received a challenge with S. pneumoniae and were evaluated either 12 h or 10 days after instillation. In acute phase, Sedentary Infected group had an increase in respiratory system resistance and elastance; number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL); polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma; and levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) in lung homogenates. Exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in all of these parameters and induced an increase in expression of antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD and MnSOD) in lungs. Trained Infected mice had a significant decrease in the number of colony-forming units of pneumococci in the lungs compared with Sedentary Infected animals. Ten days after infection, Trained Infected group exhibited lower numbers of macrophages in BAL, polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma and IL-6 in lung homogenates compared with Sedentary Infected group. Our results suggest a protective effect of moderate exercise training against respiratory infection with S. pneumoniae. This effect is most likely secondary to an effect of exercise on oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  15. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  16. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise.

  17. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  18. [Effect of training on treadmill performance, aerobic capacity and body reactions to acute cold exposure].

    PubMed

    Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V; Kuznetsova, O V; Son'kin, V D

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold is able to stimulate an increase in the amount of body fat brown or beige, which can manifest itself in increasing lactate utilization during exercise and increase the reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used are: ramp test, regional acute cold exposure, measurement of gas exchange, lactate and glucose in the blood, heart rate, and heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging, statistical methods of results analysis. Workout 10 physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of the persona VO2max for 30 minutes 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in test work duration but VO2max on average changed little. The increase in power of anaerobic threshold was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate in progress of ramp test. Lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, significantly increased work efficiency at a test load. Not revealed noticeable changes in the condition and response to a standard functional tests of autonomic systems, as judged by heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1 minute cooling of the feet in ice water) is not changed after a cycle of training--either in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.), or the dynamics of the skin temperature in areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm the previously expressed (2010) hypothesis about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if under the influence of physical activity and hormone irisin produced by muscles the formation of the beige adipose tissue is stimulated, the one that is involved in lactate utilization, but is not involved in thermoregulatory responses. PMID:25707221

  19. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  20. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  1. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Graham, Marilynn H; Bush, Jill A; Olvera, Norma; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (≥ 95 th body mass index [BMI] percentile) and 16 children who were considered normal weight (<85th BMI percentile) participated in this study. Performance outcomes included test duration (in minutes) and exercise heart rate (HR) (first-stage and peak HR) for each test. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and independent t-tests were used to assess differences in primary outcomes. Mean PACER test duration was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 1.3 minutes for children who were obese and normal weight, respectively. Modified PACER duration was higher than 3 minutes for the obese (3.6 ± 0.6 minutes) and normal weight (5.3 ± 1.2 minutes) groups. Children first-stage HR, expressed as a percent of peak HR, was above the predicted anaerobic threshold during the PACER, but below the anaerobic threshold during the MPACER. Relative first-stage HR was not significantly different between groups for the PACER, but they were significantly different between groups for the MPACER. In conclusion, the MPACER was a better alternative than the PACER for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who were normal weight and obese. When validated, this modified field test could be used to assess aerobic fitness in Hispanic children, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Additionally, the study provides evidence in which physical educators, personal trainers, and others most apt to assess aerobic fitness in children who are obese, should modify tests originally designed for the population who are normal weight.

  2. Intracellular Shuttle: The Lactate Aerobic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; Penteado Dos Santos, Rafael; Fernandes Mendes de Oliveira, Mariana; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a highly dynamic metabolite that can be used as a fuel by several cells of the human body, particularly during physical exercise. Traditionally, it has been believed that the first step of lactate oxidation occurs in cytosol; however, this idea was recently challenged. A new hypothesis has been presented based on the fact that lactate-to-pyruvate conversion cannot occur in cytosol, because the LDH enzyme characteristics and cytosolic environment do not allow the reaction in this way. Instead, the Intracellular Lactate Shuttle hypothesis states that lactate first enters in mitochondria and only then is metabolized. In several tissues of the human body this idea is well accepted but is quite resistant in skeletal muscle. In this paper, we will present not only the studies which are protagonists in this discussion, but the potential mechanism by which this oxidation occurs and also a link between lactate and mitochondrial proliferation. This new perspective brings some implications and comes to change our understanding of the interaction between the energy systems, because the product of one serves as a substrate for the other. PMID:22593684

  3. Microsensor measurements of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation in compact microbial communities of aerobic biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, M.; Joergensen, B.B. )

    1992-04-01

    The microzonation of O{sub 2} respiration, H{sub 2}S oxidation, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction in aerobic trickling-filter biofilms was studied by measuring concentration profiles at high spatial resolution (25 to 100 {mu}m) with microsensors for O{sub 2}, S{sup 2{minus}}, and pH. Specific reaction rates were calculated from measured concentration profiles by using a simple one-dimensional diffusion reaction model. The importance of electron acceptor and electron donor availability for the microzonation of respiratory processes and their reaction rates was investigated. Oxygen respiration was found in the upper 0.2 to 0.4 mm of the biofilm, whereas sulfate reduction occurred in deeper, anoxic parts of the biofilm. Sulfate reduction accounted for up to 50% of the total mineralization of organic carbon in the biofilms. All H{sub 2}S produced from sulfate reduction was reoxidized by O{sub 2} in a narrow reaction zone, and no H{sub 2}S escaped to the overlying water. Turnover times of H{sub 2}S and O{sub 2} in the reaction zone were only a few seconds owing to rapid bacterial H{sub 2}S oxidation. Anaerobic H{sub 2}S oxidation with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} could be induced by addition of nitrate to the medium. Total sulfate reduction rates increased when the availability of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} or organic substrate increased as a result of deepening of the sulfate reduction zone or an increase in the sulfate reduction intensity, respectively.

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Low Aerobic Performance Levels in Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina; Augusto Santos Silva, Diego; Gimenes Nunes, Heloyse Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Low aerobic performance levels have been considered one of the risk factors for premature mortality, regardless of presence of other health problems. The critical analysis of studies on the prevalence of low aerobic performance and associated factors may contribute to the epidemiological knowledge and analysis / discussion of socio-cultural aspects that influence low aerobic performance. The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies on the prevalence of low aerobic performance levels and possible associations between low aerobic performance and demographic/ biological factors, lifestyle and excess body fat in adolescents (11-19 years). The search was conducted in PubMed and SciELO databases using descriptors "aerobic capacity" or "aerobic fitness", "cardiorespiratory capacity" or "cardiorespiratory fitness", "aerobic power" or "aerobic endurance" or "cardiorespiratory endurance" and "adolescents". After the search and exclusion criteria, 33 articles were selected. Factors that were associated with low aerobic performance levels were female gender, low income, low consumption of dairy products and/or bread/cereals, increased consumption of sweetened beverages, insufficient physical activity level, excessive screen time and excess body fat. The heterogeneity of factors related to low aerobic performance levels demonstrates the complexity of this topic and the need for further studies to obtain definitive conclusions.

  5. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  6. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  7. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-14

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.

  8. Aerobic methane emissions from stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense) capsules

    PubMed Central

    Qaderi, Mirwais M; Reid, David M

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic methane (CH4) emission from plant vegetative parts has been confirmed by many studies. However, the origin of aerobic CH4 from plants and its emission from reproductive parts have not been well documented. We determined the effects of developmental stages (early, mid, late) and incubation conditions (darkness, dim light, bright light) on CH4 emissions from stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense) capsules. We found that CH4 emissions from capsules varied with developmental stage and incubation light. Methane emission was highest for the late harvested capsules and for those incubated under lower (dim) light condition. Our results also showed a significant negative correlation between CH4 emission and capsule moisture content. We conclude that CH4 emissions vary with capsule age and diurnal light environment. PMID:25482797

  9. Effect of media characteristics on performance of upflow aerobic biofilters.

    PubMed

    Srinikethan, G; Shrihari, S; Pradeepan, V S

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the influence of media related factors such as porosity, pore size, particle size and specific surface area on the performance of upflow aerobic biofilters (ABFs). Three simple models of 8 litre capacity upflow submerged ABFs packed with support media of size 40 mm, 20 mm and 10 mm respectively were installed. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was maintained as 12 hours. The study was carried out for a period of 90 days. The reactor performance indicated that the aerobic biofilter (ABF-3), associated with media of lowest porosity, pore size, particle size and highest specific surface area, demonstrating the highest BOD and COD removal efficiency of 93.32% and 85.01% respectively.

  10. Photoautotrophic hydrogen production by eukaryotic microalgae under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Jeong-A; Abou-Shanab, R A I; Dempsey, Brian A; Regan, John M; Kim, Jung Rae; Song, Hocheol; Nam, In-Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Woojung; Park, Donghee; Kim, Yongje; Choi, Jaeyoung; Ji, Min-Kyu; Jung, Woosik; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria produce hydrogen under anaerobic and limited aerobic conditions. Here we show that novel microalgal strains (Chlorella vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16) upregulate the expression of the hydrogenase gene (HYDA) and simultaneously produce hydrogen through photosynthesis, using CO2 as the sole source of carbon under aerobic conditions with continuous illumination. We employ dissolved oxygen regimes that represent natural aquatic conditions for microalgae. The experimental expression of HYDA and the specific activity of hydrogenase demonstrate that C. vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16 enzymatically produce hydrogen, even under atmospheric conditions, which was previously considered infeasible. Photoautotrophic H2 production has important implications for assessing ecological and algae-based photolysis.

  11. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene in aerobic soils

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, F.; Balcer, J.L.; Wolt, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The degradation of the soil fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), was investigated to determine its rate of degradation and the identify of metabolites in aerobic soils. Studies were conducted in the dark at 25{degrees}C with uniformly {sup 14}C-labeled 1,3-D at a concentration of approximately 100 ug/g on three soils: Wahiawa silty clay, Catlin silt loam and Fuquay loamy sand. Aerobic soil half-lives for 1,3-D were 1.8, 11.5 and 52.5 days on the Wahiawa silty clay, Catlin silt loam, and Fuquay loamy sand, respectively. Degradation of 1,3-D resulted in the formation of cis- and trans-3-chloroallyl alcohol, cis- and trans-3-chloroacrylic acid, numerous minor carboxylic acid metabolites, and carbon dioxide. In addition, there was also extensive incorporation of {sup 14}C labeled material into the soil organic matter of both soils.

  12. Anamet anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Frostell, B.

    1982-01-01

    The process, consisting of a closed anaerobic tank reactor with side mounted agitator and electric heaters to control temperature at 35-37 degrees, an external solids separator for recycle of anaerobic sludge, an open aerobic tank reactor with an air sparger at the bottom, and a conical settling clarifier to separate and recycle aerobic sludge, decreased the COD from 3-89 to 0.10-18 and the BOD5 from 1.4-26 to 0.03-0.30 g O2/L in dairy, vegetable cannery, beet sugar, wheat starch, mixed pulp and paper, citric acid, and rum distillery wastewater. Recoveries of CH4-containing gas produced by the process were 69-107% of theory. Total excess sludge production was only 0.05 kg/kg COD added or 0.06 kg/kg COD removed.

  13. Aerobic biotransformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, B.H.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Respirometric mineralization studies of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted with microorganisms isolated from a site contaminated with munitions waste in Illinois. Nine aerobic bacterial species were isolated under a carbon- and nitrogen-limited condition and tentatively identified as: one Pseudomonas species; one Enterobacter species; and seven Alcaligenes species. Experiments were performed using each of the nine organisms individually and with a consortium of all nine bacterial species. The aerobic microorganisms were cultured in a sterile nutrient solution with glucose and 20 mg/L TNT. Mineralization was determined using uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-TNT in a respirometer that trapped the evolved CO{sub 2}. Biodegradation behavior was characterized based on oxygen consumption, distribution of {sup 14}C activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of TNT and its transformation products.

  14. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  15. Influence of Small Scale Permeability Heterogeneity on Aerobic Respiration and Denitrification in the Streambed: A Stochastic Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Gerrit; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Schmidt, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In streams and rivers, streambed permeability heterogeneity is known to increase hyporheic flux and to decrease hyporheic residence time through preferential flow paths. However, the link between permeability and biogeochemical reactions remains poorly understood. Previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions, likely because of the limited number of heterogeneity scenarios considered. In this study we systematically study the influence of permeability heterogeneity on ripple-induced hyporheic exchange, aerobic respiration and denitrification in the streambed. We simulated and evaluated more than 2000 2D-heterogeneity scenarios by means of Gaussian random fields. The conductivity distributions of those Gaussian fields were transformed to either log-normal or binary distributions with varying variance of hydraulic conductivity in order to investigate both continuous and discrete heterogeneities on a large range of intensities. The results indicate that total aerobic respiration in the domain increases with heterogeneity intensity, expressed as the variance of hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, total denitrification in the domain is minimally influenced by the intensity of heterogeneity, because of the competing effect of increasing solute flux and decreasing reaction time. These results represent the general trends among the entire range of scenarios. The total solute transformation of single realizations revealed strong deviations from these trends whenever special spatial permeability distributions such as clogging layers occurred. The permeability distribution in the uppermost layer of the domain, at the interface between surface water and sediment, was found to strongly influence the extent of deviation from the general trends.

  16. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 ± 3.2 years; 167.6 ± 6.4 cm; 65.0 ± 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise.

  17. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  18. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  19. Comparison of two aerobic field tests in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Fargeas-Gluck, Marie-Agnès; Léger, Luc A

    2012-11-01

    This study compares the maximal responses of a new aerobic tennis field test, the NAVTEN to a known aerobic field test, often used with young tennis players, that is, the continuous multistage 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT). The NAVTEN is an intermittent (1-minute/1-minute) multistage test with side-to-side displacements and ball hitting. Ten young elite tennis players aged 12.9 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) randomly performed both tests and were continuously monitored for heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) using the Vmax ST (Sensormedics). The 20-m SRT and NAVTEN show similar HRpeak (202 ± 6.1 vs. 208 ± 9.5, respectively) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (54.2 ± 5.9 vs. 54.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min). Pearson correlations between both tests were 0.88 and 0.92 for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and maximal speed, respectively. The NAVTEN yielded V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values that are typical for active subjects of that age and are similar to the 20-m SRT supporting its use to measure aerobic fitness of young tennis players in specific and entertaining field conditions. The fact that two-thirds of the tennis players achieved a different ranking (±1 rank) with the NAVTEN and the 20-m SRT suggests that the NAVTEN may be more specific than the 20-m SRT to assess aerobic fitness of tennis players. From a practical point of view, the NAVTEN test is more specific and pedagogical for young tennis players even though both tests yield similar maximal values.

  20. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  1. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    PubMed

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  2. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  3. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects. PMID:27757381

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of the chloroethenes: pathways, enzymes, ecology, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Timothy E; Alexander, Anne K; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2010-07-01

    Extensive use and inadequate disposal of chloroethenes have led to prevalent groundwater contamination worldwide. The occurrence of the lesser chlorinated ethenes [i.e. vinyl chloride (VC) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE)] in groundwater is primarily a consequence of incomplete anaerobic reductive dechlorination of the more highly chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene). VC and cDCE are toxic and VC is a known human carcinogen. Therefore, their presence in groundwater is undesirable. In situ cleanup of VC- and cDCE-contaminated groundwater via oxidation by aerobic microorganisms is an attractive and potentially cost-effective alternative to physical and chemical approaches. Of particular interest are aerobic bacteria that use VC or cDCE as growth substrates (known as the VC- and cDCE-assimilating bacteria). Bacteria that grow on VC are readily isolated from contaminated and uncontaminated environments, suggesting that they are widespread and influential in aerobic natural attenuation of VC. In contrast, only one cDCE-assimilating strain has been isolated, suggesting that their environmental occurrence is rare. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the physiology, biodegradation pathways, genetics, ecology, and evolution of VC- and cDCE-assimilating bacteria. Techniques (e.g. PCR, proteomics, and compound-specific isotope analysis) that aim to determine the presence, numbers, and activity of these bacteria in the environment will also be discussed.

  5. Obesity promotes aerobic glycolysis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, David A; deGraffenried, Matthew J; Apte, Shruti A; Bowers, Laura W; Whelan, Kaitlin A; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the leading preventable comorbidity associated with increased prostate cancer-related recurrence and mortality. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that a body mass index >30 is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage within the prostate gland and increased prostate cancer-related mortality. Here we provide evidence that obesity promotes worse clinical outcome through induction of metabolic abnormalities known to promote genotoxic stress. We have previously reported that blood serum derived from obese mice may enhance the proliferative and invasive potential of human prostate cancer cell lines ex vivo. Here we show that a 1-h exposure of LNCaP or PacMetUT1 prostate cancer cell lines and nonmalignant RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells to 2% serum from obese mice induces markers of aerobic glycolysis relative to those exposed to serum from nonobese mice. This metabolic change was correlated with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased frequency of DNA double-strand breaks. Interestingly, N-tert-Butylhydroxylamine, an antioxidant, significantly suppressed markers of aerobic glycolysis in the cells exposed to the blood serum of obese mice, suggesting that ROS contributes to a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. Here we describe obesity-induced changes in key metabolic markers that impact prostate cancer cell progression and explore the role of antioxidants in ameliorating these effects. PMID:25264717

  6. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A

    1987-10-01

    Many human responses to the weightless environment have been documented from actual spaceflights. These include physiological effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and fluid balance, and the musculoskeletal system, as well as psychological effects. Simulations on Earth have added to our knowledge about the physiology of weightlessness. Early data on orthostatic intolerance after real and simulated spaceflight led some scientists to discourage a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts. They believed it was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth. However, most of the data available today do not support this contention. Furthermore, aerobic fitness is beneficial to cardiovascular function and mental performance. Therefore, it may be important in performing extra-vehicular activities during flight. Some astronauts claim exercise enhances their feeling of well-being and self image. And, although the cardiovascular system and exercise performance may recover more slowly after flight to preflight levels when fitness level prior to flight is high, the musculoskeletal system may recover more rapidly. Research is needed to determine optimal levels of aerobic training for performing tasks in flight, maintaining health and well-being during flight, and assuring satisfactory recovery on return to Earth. PMID:3314852

  7. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  8. Degradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil, Prajeesh; Vijaya Nadaraja, Anupama; Bhasi, Arya; Khan, Sudheer; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2012-07-01

    Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyl diphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent present in a number of house hold consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from different inoculum sources. Biodegradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic (denitrifying and sulphate reducing conditions), and anaerobic conditions was studied in batch cultures with isolated pure strains and enrichment consortium developed. Under aerobic conditions, the isolated strains tolerated triclosan up to 1 g/L and degraded the compound in inorganic-mineral-broth and agar media. At 10 mg/L level triclosan, 95 ± 1.2% was degraded in 5 days, producing phenol, catechol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol as the degradation products. The strains were able to metabolize triclosan and its degradation products in the presence of monooxygenase inhibitor 1-pentyne. Under anoxic/anaerobic conditions highest degradation (87%) was observed in methanogenic system with acetate as co-substrate and phenol, catechol, and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were among the products. Three of the isolated strains tolerating 1 g/L triclosan were identified as Pseudomonas sp. (BDC 1, 2, and 3).

  9. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  10. Adaptation of Aerobically Growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Copper Starvation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I.; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA′-′lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  11. Posttranscriptional Control of T Cell Effector Function by Aerobic Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Faubert, Brandon; Villarino, Alejandro V.; O’Sullivan, David; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Blagih, Julianna; Qiu, Jing; Weber, Jason D.; Pearce, Edward J.; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A “switch” from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that aerobic glycolysis is specifically required for effector function in T cells but that this pathway is not necessary for proliferation or survival. When activated T cells are provided with costimulation and growth factors but are blocked from engaging glycolysis, their ability to produce IFN-γ is markedly compromised. This defect is translational and is regulated by the binding of the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH to AU-rich elements within the 3′ UTR of IFN-γ mRNA. GAPDH, by engaging/disengaging glycolysis and through fluctuations in its expression, controls effector cytokine production. Thus, aerobic glycolysis is a metabolically regulated signaling mechanism needed to control cellular function. PMID:23746840

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  14. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  15. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed.

  16. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed. PMID:27573267

  17. Pentachlorophenol aerobic removal in a sequential reactor: start-up procedure and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Domenica Mosca; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the applicability of a simple technology such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated with suspended biomass, to the aerobic biodegradation of a highly toxic compound, the pentachlorophenol (PCP). An enrichment of a microbial consortium, originated from the biomass of an urban wastewater treatment plant, was performed and 70 days were sufficient to achieve removal efficiencies of ∼90% with the compound fed as only carbon and energy source Once completed the start-up period, the SBR was operated with the acclimatized biomass for 60 days at a feed concentration of PCP in the range of 10-20 mg L(-1). Improved performance was observed at increased influent concentration and the reached removal efficiency for the highest concentrations was stable at values≥90%. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of the acclimated biomass was performed with biodegradation tests carried out in the bioreactor during the reaction phase. The classical and a modified four-parameter forms of the Haldane equation were applied to model the substrate inhibited kinetics. Both models provided reliable predictions with high correlation coefficients (>0.99). The biomass characterization was completed with the evaluation of the growth yield coefficient, Y (0.075 on chemical oxygen demand base) and endogenous respiration rate, b (0.054 d(-1)). The aerobic SBR, operated in the metabolic mode with a mixed culture, showed superior performance in comparison to continuous systems applied in the same range of PCP influent loads and achieved removal rates are suitable for application.

  18. Hot Stuff: Lability of Forest Floor DOM to Aerobic Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbonniere, R. A.; Creed, I. F.; Kapila, R.; Collins, J.

    2004-05-01

    The hypothesis that the lability of DOM to aerobic microbial degradation to CO2 is related to its age and character is tested in an incubation study conducted using an assemblage of soil bacteria in their natural state. Extracts (WF) of leaf and forest floor material characterized by different degrees of degradation: green leaves, fresh fallen leaves, litter (one year weathering), fibric matter, hemic matter and peat were used in this study. The working hypothesis is that these extracts represent a chronosequence of degradation and DOM extracted from them might also represent a similar lability sequence. As well aliquots of the WF extracts were processed to remove DOM fractions. Thus a fulvic acid (FA) fraction was made by precipitating and removing humic acid, and a hydrophilic fraction (HPI) by removing hydrophobics from the FA using XAD-8 resin. Incubations were carried out on all three DOM solutions from each extract to determine if there were differences in lability among the fractions. When comparing the WF solutions for CO2 production, the green leaves, litter, fibric and hemic extracts showed approximately the same CO2 yield, on an equal C basis, and the fresh fallen leaves and peat produced less. For five of the six extracts the respective WF and HPI solutions yielded nearly the same quantity of CO2 per mg C suggesting that the HPI component contributes almost all the lability. Furthermore the magnitudes of the C-normalized CO2 yield for these solutions are similar to that for glucose, which fractionates as HPI. For the same five extracts the FA solution yielded lower quantities of CO2, on an equal C basis, than WF and HPI suggesting that the hydrophobic content of the extracts may inhibit aerobic degradation. The peat extract solutions yielded a different CO2 production distribution with the HPI only slightly higher than the FA which in turn was much greater than WF. The material from which this extract was made is much older and contains significant HA

  19. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  20. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females.

    PubMed

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-12-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance.

  1. Mechanism of the Aerobic Homocoupling of Phenylboronic Acid on Au₂₀⁻: A DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Karanjit, Sangita; Ehara, Masahiro; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of the gold nanocluster-catalyzed aerobic homocoupling of arylboronic acids has been elucidated by means of DFT calculations with Au20(-) as a model cluster for the Au:[poly(N-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one)] catalyst. We found that oxygen affects the adsorption of phenylboronic acid and, by lowering the energy barrier, a water molecule enhances dissociation of the C-B bond, which is probably the rate-determining step. The key role of oxygen is in activating the surface of the gold cluster by generating Lewis acidic sites for adsorption and activation of the phenylboronic acid, leading to the formation of biphenyl through a superoxo-like species. Moreover, the oxygen adsorbed on the Au nanocluster can act as an oxidant for phenylboronic acid, giving phenol as a byproduct. As shown by NBO analysis, the basic aqueous reaction medium facilitates the reductive elimination process by weakening the Au-C bond, thereby enhancing the formation of biphenyl. The coupling of phenyl and reductive elimination of biphenyl occur at the top or facet site with low-energy-barrier through spillover of phenyl group on Au NC. The present findings are useful for the interpretation or design of other coupling reactions with Au NC.

  2. Osmium(ii) complexes for light-driven aerobic oxidation of amines to imines.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Le; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Li, Zhao-Sheng; Yan, Shi-Cheng; Chen, Guang-Hui; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of three Os(ii) complexes (i.e., [Os(fptz)2(PPhMe2)2] (1, fptzH = 3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazole), [Os(fptz)2(CO)(L1)] (2, L1 = PPh3; 3, L1 = pyridine)) that have been successfully utilized as good photocatalysts to promote aerobic oxidative coupling of amines to imines with molecular oxygen in air as a green oxidant. Complex 1 is the most effective catalyst for the oxidative coupling of benzylamine with molecular O2 (air) as the oxidant because of the complex's strong absorption of visible light and long-lived triplet state. The application of a low catalyst loading (0.06 mol%) of complex 1 to the oxidative coupling of a wide range of amines affords the corresponding imines efficiently and selectively in most cases. The reaction mechanism was investigated via relevant control and quenching experiments. The results indicated that the reaction occurs via an active (1)O2-involved pathway. The (1)O2-generating ability of complex 1 as a photosensitizer was evaluated using 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA) as a chemical trap for (1)O2. PMID:27431765

  3. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  4. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  5. Assessing Enhanced Anaerobic and Intrinsic Aerobic Biodegradation of Trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, K. S.; Ely, R. L.; Martin, J. P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Kauffman, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    Biodegradation of chloroethenes can proceed either anaerobically or aerobically; however, the techniques for monitoring the two pathways are quite different. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN, a combination of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) is being employed for restoration of a large plume of contaminated groundwater. During stimulation of anaerobic biodegradation of TCE through lactate addition, several assessment tools have proven effective for various objectives. Monitoring TCE and its lesser chlorinated degradation products provides a straightforward assessment tool for the occurrence of degradation. It does not, however, provide information regarding the potential for reductive dechlorination, nor progress from less suitable to more suitable conditions. A technique for obtaining this information is monitoring redox-sensitive geochemical parameters such as dissolved iron, sulfate, methane, and oxidation-reduction potential. This approach was demonstrated by the strong correlation of steps in the reductive dechlorination pathway to redox conditions at the TAN site. Yet another tool is required to determine adequacy of conditions for efficient dechlorination. Dechlorination efficiency appears to be dependent upon the predominant electron donor utilization (or fermentation) process occurring at any given time, an observation consistent with thermodynamic considerations. Thus, monitoring of added electron donor and intermediate product concentrations can help determine an efficient operations strategy. One final tool demonstrated at the TAN site was monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios. As TCE was dechlorinated, a clear fractionation occurred from cis-dichloroethene to vinyl chloride, and from vinyl chloride to ethene. This fractionation provides a clear signature of reductive dechlorination. Assessment of aerobic biodegradation of chloroethenes at TAN is more challenging because

  6. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  7. Biodegradation of Reactive blue 13 in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic fluidized beds system with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L1 capable of degrading the azo textile dye Reactive blue 13, was isolated from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A continuous two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biological fluidized bed system was used to decolorize and mineralize Reactive blue 13. The key factors affecting decolorization were investigated and the efficiency of degradation was also optimized. An overall color removal of 83.2% and COD removal of 90.7% was achieved at pH 7, a residence time of 70 h and a glucose concentration of 2 g/L, HRT=70 h and C(glucose)=2000 mg/L. Oxygen was contributing to blocking the azo bond cleavage. Consequently, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic reactor while partial mineralization was achieved in the aerobic reactor. A possible degradation pathway based on the analysis of intermediates and involving azoreduction, desulfonation, deamination and further oxidation reactions is presented.

  8. Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols by using less-hindered nitroxyl-radical/copper catalysis: optimum catalyst combinations and their substrate scope.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yusuke; Kogure, Naoki; Nishiyama, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Shota; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    The oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. In our recent report, 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO)/copper catalysis promoted the highly chemoselective aerobic oxidation of unprotected amino alcohols into amino carbonyl compounds. Herein, we investigated the extension of the promising AZADO/copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols to other types of alcohol. During close optimization of the reaction conditions by using various alcohols, we found that the optimum combination of nitroxyl radical, copper salt, and solution concentration was dependent on the type of substrate. Various alcohols, including highly hindered and heteroatom-rich ones, were efficiently oxidized into their corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with lower amounts of the catalysts.

  9. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  10. Asymmetric Electrophilic α-Amination of Silyl Enol Ether Derivatives via the Nitrosocarbonyl Hetero-ene Reaction.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, David; Samoshin, Andrey V; Read de Alaniz, Javier

    2015-09-18

    The first example of a general asymmetric nitrosocarbonyl hetero-ene reaction is described. The procedure uses a copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of a commercially available chiral nitrosocarbonyl precursor (EleNOr) and is operationally simple. The transformation is both high yielding and highly diastereoselective for a range of silyl enol ether derivatives. A variety of synthetically useful postfunctionalization reactions are presented along with a mechanistic rationale that can be used as a predictive model for future asymmetric reactions with nitrosocarbonyl intermediates.

  11. New generic mathematical model for WWTP sludge digesters operating under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: Model building and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    de Gracia, M; Grau, P; Huete, E; Gómez, J; García-Heras, J L; Ayesa, E

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model developed to reproduce the performance of a generic sludge digester working either under aerobic or anaerobic operational conditions. The digester has been modelled as two completely mixed tanks associated with gaseous and liquid volumes. The conversion model has been developed based on a plant wide modelling methodology (PWM) and comprises biochemical transformations, physicochemical reactions and thermodynamic considerations. The model predicts the reactor temperature and the temporary evolution of an extensive vector of model components which are completely defined in terms of elemental mass fractions (C, H, O, N and P) and charge density. Thus, the comprehensive definition of the model components guarantees the continuity of elemental mass and charge in all the model transformations and between any two systems defined by the model. The aim of the generic digester model is to overcome the problems that arise when trying to connect aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes working in series or to connect water and sludge lines in a WWTP. The modelling methodology used has allowed the systematic construction of the biochemical model which acts as an initial illustrative example of an application that has been experimentally verified. The variation of the temperature is also predicted based on a thermal dynamic model. Real data from four different facilities and a straightforward calibration have been used to successfully verify the model predictions in the cases of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion as well as autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD). The large amount of data from the full scale ATAD and the anaerobic digestion pilot plants, all of them working under different conditions, has allowed the validation of the model for that case study. PMID:19720390

  12. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  13. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  14. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Long, Xi; Zheng, Min; Qiu, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the environment face the threat of antibiotics. However, most studies investigating the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics have been conducted on microorganisms in aerobic conditions, while studies examining the anaerobic toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics are still limited. In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on Escherichia coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)>log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)≈log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) value, which represents the affinity between SAs and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) but rather on the total binding energy. Furthermore, SAs with greatly similar structures were categorized into different groups. This deep insight into the difference between aerobic and anaerobic toxicities will benefit environmental science, and the results of this study will serve as a reference for the risk assessment of chemicals in the environment.

  15. Removal of Pesticides and Inorganic Contaminants in Anaerobic and Aerobic Biological Contactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation contains data on the removal of pesticides (acetochlor, clethodim, dicrotophos), ammonia, nitrate, bromate and perchlorate through aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes.

  16. Beyond vascularization: aerobic fitness is associated with N-acetylaspartate and working memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a promising form of prevention for cognitive decline; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and fitness impacts the human brain. Several studies have postulated that increased regional brain volume and function are associated with aerobic fitness because of increased vascularization rather than increased neural tissue per se. We tested this position by examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the right frontal cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NAA is a nervous system specific metabolite found predominantly in cell bodies of neurons. We reasoned that if aerobic fitness was predominantly influencing the vasculature of the brain, then NAA levels should not vary as a function of aerobic fitness. However, if aerobic fitness influences the number or viability of neurons, then higher aerobic fitness levels might be associated with greater concentrations of NAA. We examined NAA levels, aerobic fitness, and cognitive performance in 137 older adults without cognitive impairment. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we found that higher aerobic fitness levels offset an age-related decline in NAA. Furthermore, NAA mediated an association between fitness and backward digit span performance, suggesting that neuronal viability as measured by NAA is important in understanding fitness-related cognitive enhancement. Since NAA is found exclusively in neural tissue, our results indicate that the effect of fitness on the human brain extends beyond vascularization; aerobic fitness is associated with neuronal viability in the frontal cortex of older adults.

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  18. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  19. Aerobic Granules: Microbial Landscape and Architecture, Stages, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In “old” granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters “rooting” from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Reidy, S P; Kerr, S R; Nelson, J A

    2000-01-01

    Individual Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exercised using three different measures of swimming performance. (1) An endurance test (critical swimming speed, U(crit), protocol) designed to assess predominantly aerobic endurance swimming (duration hours). (2) An acceleration test (U(burst)), in which the fish were required to swim against a rapidly increasing current until exhausted (duration minutes). This test was designed to assess predominantly glycolytic-based swimming capacity. (3) A sprint test that examined the animals' ability to swim away from a sudden stimulus (duration seconds). Rates of oxygen consumption ( mdot (O2)) during the endurance test and various morphological variables of the individual fish were also measured. Both aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual cod were found to be significantly repeatable over a 3 month period. mdot (O2) during the U(crit) protocol was also significantly repeatable at intermediate to high swimming speeds, but not at low speeds. Our results support extrapolation from metabolic rates at incremented swimming speeds to zero activity as the best way to measure standard metabolic rate in cod. While performance in the U(crit) test and the sprint test were positively correlated, there was a negative correlation between performance in the U(crit) test and performance in the U(burst) test. This implies a potential trade-off in individual cod between stamina and the ability to use glycolytic-based locomotion. Inter-individual variation in swimming performance during these protocols, while substantial, was not correlated with individual variation in fin surface areas, age or morphology. However, U(burst) performance was dependent upon the sex of the animals, while performance during the U(crit) protocol was significantly correlated with their aerobic scope for activity.

  1. Motor abilities and aerobic fitness of obese children.

    PubMed

    Korsten-Reck, U; Kaspar, T; Korsten, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Bös, K; Berg, A; Dickhuth, H-H

    2007-09-01

    Obesity is considered to be epidemic worldwide. Stopping further progression interdisciplinary, outpatient intervention therapy programs for obese children have become increasingly important. FITOC (Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children) consists of a combination of organized sports, behavioral therapy and nutritional advice. The effectiveness of the therapy is determined on the basis of anthropometrical and physical performance data. The purpose of this report is to give a differentiated view of the motor abilities of obese children and to describe changes in the course of the therapy program FITOC. Data were collected on n = 49 obese children (BMI > 97th percentile) aged 8 - 12 in a pretest at the beginning and posttest at the end of the intensive phase of the therapy. These data were compared with an age-matched German reference group. Besides the General Sports-Motor Test (Allgemeiner Sportmotorischer Test [AST]), the BMI-SDS values, the body fat mass (FM %) and the aerobic capacity (Watt/kg body weight) were recorded. In the pretest, the running exercise results and the aerobic capacity checked ranged significantly below the values of the reference group. The performance in the coordinative tests of the AST was differentiated. The medicine-ball toss was significantly above average of the reference group. In the posttest, the BMI-SDS values and the body fat mass (% FM) decreased (p < 0.001) and the aerobic capacity improved (p < 0.001). Performance in all motor abilities tests improved and the difference between the strength of the obese children and the strength of the reference group decreased. This study demonstrates that in obese children weight-bearing activities are below average but not all motor abilities.

  2. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-01

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, XRD patterns, TEM and HRTEM images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, UV-vis spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and EDS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02949c

  3. Chiral tetranuclear and dinuclear copper(ii) complexes for TEMPO-mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols: are four metal centres better than two?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Proni, Gloria; Zhao, Sherry; Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Neuburger, Markus; Zampese, Jennifer A

    2014-08-28

    The one-pot reaction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, (R)-2-aminoglycinol and Cu(OAc)2·2H2O in a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio in the presence of triethylamine led to the isolation of X-ray quality crystals of the chiral complex (R)- in high yield. The single crystal structure of (R)- reveals a tetranuclear copper(ii) complex that contains a {Cu4(μ-O)2(μ3-O)2N4O4} core. A reaction using (1S,2R)-2-amino-1,2-diphenylethanol as precursor under the same conditions generated the chiral complex (S,R)-; its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography and was found to contain a {Cu2(μ-O)2N2O2} core. Both (R)- and (S,R)- have been used for catalytic aerobic oxidation of benzylic alcohols in combination with the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl) radical. (R)- selectively catalyses the conversion of various aromatic primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with high yields (99%) and TONs (770) in the air, while (S,R)- exhibits less promising catalytic performance under the same reaction conditions. The role of the cluster structures in (R)- and (S,R)- in controlling the reactivity towards aerobic oxidation reactions is discussed. PMID:24986135

  4. [Oropharyngeal aerobic flora in patients hospitalized in an ORL department].

    PubMed

    Dumont, Y; Borderon, E; Farcy, M C; Penot, J C

    1986-01-01

    As patients with E.N.T. carcinoma have relative frequent infectious complications of E.N.T. area, we have carried out a study or oropharyngeal colonization by aerobic bacteria and fungi in 84 hospitalized patients. The results of the tests are analysed according to different parameters, essentially the presence or the absence of neoplasia and antibiotherapy. The presence of one of these two factors does not substantially modify oropharyngeal flora of patients. However their association coincides with a height percentage of colonies of enterobacteriaceae, of pseudomonas and of fungi.

  5. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuba, V.; Pospíšil, M.; Múčka, V.; Jeníček, P.; Dohányos, M.; Zábranská, J.

    2003-01-01

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters.

  6. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  7. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  8. Skin temperature modifies the impact of hypohydration on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, R W; Cheuvront, S N; Palombo, L J; Ely, B R; Sawka, M N

    2010-07-01

    This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient temperature (T(a)). Our hypothesis was that 4% hypohydration would impair aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress. Thirty-two men [22 +/- 4 yr old, 45 +/- 8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak))] were divided into four matched cohorts (n = 8) and tested at one of four T(a) in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HYPO, -4% body mass) conditions. Subjects completed 30 min of preload exercise (cycle ergometer, 50% Vo(2 peak)) followed by a 15 min self-paced time trial. Time-trial performance (total work, change from EU) was -3% (P = 0.1), -5% (P = 0.06), -12% (P < 0.05), and -23% (P < 0.05) in 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C T(a), respectively. During preload exercise, skin temperature (T(sk)) increased by approximately 4 degrees C per 10 degrees C T(a), while core (rectal) temperature (T(re)) values were similar within EU and HYPO conditions across all T(a). A significant relationship (P < 0.05, r = 0.61) was found between T(sk) and the percent decrement in time-trial performance. During preload exercise, hypohydration generally blunted the increases in cardiac output and blood pressure while reducing blood volume over time in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C T(a). Our conclusions are as follows: 1) hypohydration degrades aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress; 2) when T(sk) is >29 degrees C, 4% hypohydration degrades aerobic performance by approximately 1.6% for each additional 1 degrees C T(sk); and 3) cardiovascular strain from high skin blood flow requirements combined with blood volume reductions induced by hypohydration

  9. Development of a Specific Anaerobic Field Test for Aerobic Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  10. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759

  11. Aerobic bacterial flora of addled raptor eggs in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Houston, C S; Saunders, J R; Crawford, R D

    1997-04-01

    In south-central Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1986, 1987 and 1989, the aerobic bacterial flora was evaluated from 75 unhatched raptor eggs of three species: 42 of the Swainson's hawk (Buteo Swainsoni), 21 of the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), and 12 of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). In addled Swainson's hawk eggs, the most common bacterial genera were Enterobacter (18 eggs), Escherichia (12), and Streptococcus (10). Seven great horned owl eggs and six ferruginous hawk eggs also contained Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. were not isolated. These bacteria were interpreted as secondary contaminants and not the primary cause of reproductive failure. PMID:9131569

  12. Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production.

    PubMed

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production.

  13. Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production. PMID:23969939

  14. P-Doped Porous Carbon as Metal Free Catalysts for Selective Aerobic Oxidation with an Unexpected Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehulkumar A; Luo, Feixiang; Khoshi, M Reza; Rabie, Emann; Zhang, Qing; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Garfunkel, Eric; Szostak, Michal; He, Huixin

    2016-02-23

    An extremely simple and rapid (seconds) approach is reported to directly synthesize gram quantities of P-doped graphitic porous carbon materials with controlled P bond configuration. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the P-doped carbon materials can be used as a selective metal free catalyst for aerobic oxidation reactions. The work function of P-doped carbon materials, its connectivity to the P bond configuration, and the correlation with its catalytic efficiency are studied and established. In direct contrast to N-doped graphene, the P-doped carbon materials with higher work function show high activity in catalytic aerobic oxidation. The selectivity trend for the electron donating and withdrawing properties of the functional groups attached to the aromatic ring of benzyl alcohols is also different from other metal free carbon based catalysts. A unique catalytic mechanism is demonstrated, which differs from both GO and N-doped graphene obtained by high temperature nitrification. The unique and unexpected catalytic pathway endows the P-doped materials with not only good catalytic efficiency but also recyclability. This, combined with a rapid, energy saving approach that permits fabrication on a large scale, suggests that the P-doped porous materials are promising materials for "green catalysis" due to their higher theoretical surface area, sustainability, environmental friendliness, and low cost.

  15. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl / NOx Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, James B.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-07-15

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and aerobic oxidation catalysis. In the present study, we investigate the electrochemical reduction of O2 with soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl), nor NOx species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective mediators of electrochemical O2 reduction. The combination of nitroxyl/NOx species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction at electrochemical potentials of 0.19–0.33 V (vs. Fc/Fc+) in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The high potentials observed with this ORR system benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NOx species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NOx species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. Ascorbic acid enhanced activation of oxygen by ferrous iron: A case of aerobic degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaojing; Shen, Wenjuan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-05-01

    Molecular oxygen activation by ferrous ions (Fe(II)) in aqueous solution could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high oxidation potential via reaction between Fe(II) and oxygen molecules (Fe(II)/air), however, ROS yielded in the Fe(II)/air process is insufficient for removal of organic pollutants due to the irreversible ferric ions (Fe(III)) accumulation. In this study, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid (AA) could enhance ROS generation via oxygen activation by ferrous irons (AA/Fe(II)/air) and thus improve the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) significantly. It was found that the first-order aerobic degradation rate of RhB in the AA/Fe(II)/air process in the presence of ascorbic acid is more than 4 times that of the Fe(II)/Air system without adding ascorbic acid. The presence of ascorbic acid could relieve the accumulation of Fe(III) by reductive accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, as well as lower the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II) through chelating effect, leading to enhanced ROS generation for promoting RhB degradation. This study not only sheds light on the effect of ascorbic acid on aerobic Fe(II) oxidation, but also provides a green method for effective remediation of organic pollutants.

  17. Aerobic bioremediation of chlorobenzene source-zone soil in flow-through columns: performance assessment using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Rosa F; da Silva, Marcio L B; McGuire, Travis M; Adamson, David; Newell, Charles J; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-07-01

    Flow-through aquifer columns were operated for 12 weeks to evaluate the benefits of aerobic biostimulation for the bioremediation of source-zone soil contaminated with chlorobenzenes (CBs). Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used to measure the concentration of total bacteria (16S rRNA gene) and oxygenase genes involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds (i.e., toluene dioxygenase, ring hydroxylating monooxygenase, naphthalene dioxygenase, phenol hydroxylase, and biphenyl dioxygenase). Monochlorobenzene, which is much more soluble than dichlorobenzenes, was primarily removed by flushing, and biostimulation showed little benefit. In contrast, dichlorobenzene removal was primarily due to biodegradation, and the removal efficiency was much higher in oxygen-amended columns compared to a control column. To our knowledge, this is the first report that oxygen addition can enhance CB source-zone soil bioremediation. Analysis by qPCR showed that whereas the biphenyl and toluene dioxygenase biomarkers were most abundant, increases in the concentration of the phenol hydroxylase gene reflected best the higher dichlorobenzene removal due to aerobic biostimulation. This suggests that quantitative molecular microbial ecology techniques could be useful to assess CB source-zone bioremediation performance.

  18. Aeration control of thermophilic aerobic digestion using fluorescence monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process is recognized as an effective method for rapid waste activated sludge (WAS) degradation and the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. Yet, high energy costs due to heating and aeration have limited the commercialization of economical TAD processes. Previous research on autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) has already reduced the heating cost. However, only a few studies have focused on reducing the aeration cost. Therefore, this study applied a two-step aeration control strategy to a fill-and-draw mode semicontinuous TAD process. The NADH-dependent fluorescence was monitored throughout the TAD experiment, and the aeration rate shifted according to the fluorescence intensity. As a result, the simple two-step aeration control operation achieved a 20.3% reduction in the total aeration, while maintaining an effective and stable operation. It is also expected that more savings can be achieved with a further reduction of the lower aeration rate or multisegmentation of the aeration rate. PMID:19190414

  19. Toxic effects of butyl elastomers on aerobic methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea I.; Blees, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Large quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane are liberated into the water column of marine and lacustrine environments where it may be consumed by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.The reliable quantification of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates is consequently of paramount importance for estimating methane budgets and to understand the controls on water column methane cycling. A widely used set of methods for measuring MOx rates is based on the incubation of water samples during which the consumption of methane is monitored, for instance with radio-tracer assays. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber stoppers because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases at the relevant time scales. We tested the effect of different stopper materials (unmodified- and halogenated butyl rubber) on MOx activity in environmental samples and in cultures of methane oxidising bacteria. MOx rates in samples sealed with unmodified butyl rubber were > 75% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber seals, suggesting inhibiting/toxic effects associated with the use of unmodified butyl elastomers. To further explore the cause of these effects, we analysed aqueous extracts of the different stoppers. Halogenated butyl rubber stoppers appeared to bleed off comparably little amounts of organics. In stark contrast, extracts of unmodified butyl rubber were contaminated with various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes, phenylalkanes and benzuothiazoles. We also found tetramethylthiourea, a scavenger of active oxygen species, which may inhibit the MOx pathway.

  20. Critical period of weed control in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, A

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return.

  1. The relationship between childhood aerobic fitness and brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; Takeda, Yuji; Takai, Yohei; Haramura, Miki

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have indicated that higher levels of childhood aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive function, and this association is disproportionately observed in tasks requiring greater top-down control. We designed the current study to clarify the relationship between childhood fitness and top-down control in terms of functional connectivity among brain regions, by evaluating phase-locking values (PLVs), which is a measure of frequency-specific phase synchrony between electroencephalographic signals during a visual search task. Lower-fit and higher-fit children performed a visual search task that included feature search and conjunction search conditions. The conjunction search condition required greater top-down control to reduce interference from task-irrelevant distractors that shared a basic feature with the target. Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited higher response accuracy relative to lower-fit children across search conditions. The results of PLVs showed that higher-fit children had greater functional connectivity for the conjunction relative to the feature search condition, whereas lower-fit children showed no difference in functional connectivity between search conditions. Furthermore, PLVs showed different time courses between groups; that is, higher-fit children sustained upregulation of top-down control throughout the task period, whereas lower-fit children transiently upregulated top-down control after stimulus onset and could not sustain the upregulation. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood aerobic fitness is related to brain functional connectivity involved in the sustained upregulation of top-down control.

  2. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  3. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment. PMID:27232417

  4. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation.

  5. [Stability control of aerobic granules using an innovative reactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Fan; Li, Sheng; Xie, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2012-06-01

    Uncontrolled variation of diameter and density of aerobic granules frequently resulted in instability and thus brought about operation failure. An innovative reactor was therefore developed for the control of diameter and density of aerobic granules. There were two ways to select the sludge, one was the short settling time select the big and dense granules in the reactor, and the other was the hydro cyclone that washed out the big and compact granules preventing big and compact fourthly growth in the reactor. By these means, the diameter of granules could maintained in the range of 300-1 000 microm for a long time, consequently, the long term stability could be obtained. According to the kinetic analysis, it was found that the energy maintenance coefficient was 0.08-0.10, which was much higher than the conventional granular system (0.06), and the ratio of the COD used for maintenance to the influent was higher than the conventional one. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonia were 92% and 60%, respectively.

  6. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Rodney A.; Berggren, Kiersten L.; Kerr, Abigail L.; Patel, Ami; Peplinski, Caitlin; Sikorski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging. PMID:24961267

  7. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  8. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency.

  9. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  10. Aerobic biodegradation of 4-methylquinoline by a soil bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S D; Pfaller, S L; Shann, J R; Warshawsky, D; Kinkle, B K; Vestal, J R

    1996-01-01

    Methylquinolines and related N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds are common contaminants associated with the use of hydrocarbons in both coal gasification and wood treatment processes. These compounds have been found in groundwater, and many are known mutagens. A stable, five-member bacterial consortium able to degrade 4-methylquinoline was established by selective enrichment using soil collected from an abandoned coal gasification site. The consortium was maintained for 5 years by serial transfer in a medium containing 4-methylquinoline. A gram-negative soil bacterium, strain Lep1, was isolated from the consortium and shown to utilize 4-methylquinoline as a source of carbon and energy during growth in liquid medium. A time course experiment demonstrated that both the isolate Lep1 and the consortium containing Lep1 were able to degrade 4-methylquinoline under aerobic conditions. Complete degradation of 4-methylquinoline by either strain Lep1 alone or the consortium was characterized by the production and eventual disappearance of 2-hydroxy-4-methylquinoline, followed by the appearance and persistence of a second metabolite tentatively identified as a hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin. Currently, there is no indication that 4-methylquinoline degradation proceeds differently in the consortium culture compared with Lep1 alone. This is the first report of 4-methylquinoline biodegradation under aerobic conditions. PMID:8702284

  11. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  12. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment.

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  15. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

  16. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks. PMID:18484014

  17. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks.

  18. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Senan, Resmi C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-08-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium consisting of two isolated strains (BF1, BF2) and a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC1194) was developed for the aerobic degradation of a mixture of textile azodyes and individual azodyes at alkaline pH (9-10.5) and salinity (0.9-3.68 g/l) at ambient temperature (28 +/- 2 degrees C). The degradation efficiency of the strains in different media (mineral media and in the Simulated textile effluent (STE)) and at different dye concentrations were studied. The presence of a H2O2 independent oxidase-laccase (26.5 IU/ml) was found in the culture filtrate of the organism BF2. The analysis of the degraded products by TLC and HPLC, after the microbial treatment of the dyes showed the absence of amines and the presence of low molecular weight oxidative degradation products. The enzymes present in the crude supernatant was found to be reusable for the dye degradation.

  19. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN. PMID:2782387

  20. [Aerobic methanotrophic communities in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Gaĭnutdinova, E A; Eshinimaev, B Ts; Tsyrenzhapova, I S; Dagurova, O P; Suzina, N E; Khmelenina, V N; Namsaraev, B B; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2005-01-01

    The results of the first methodical investigation into the aerobic methanotrophic communities inhabiting the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal are reported. Use of the radioisotopic method revealed methane consumption in 12 10- to 50-cm-long sediment cores. The maximum methane consumption rates (495-737 microl/(dm3 day) were recorded in sediments in the regions of hydrothermal vents and oil and gas occurrence. Methane consumption was most active in the surface layers of the sediments (0-4 cm); it decreased with the sediment depth and became negligible or absent at depths below 20 cm. The number of methanotrophic bacteria usually ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/cm3 of sediment and reached 1 million cells/cm3 in the regions of oil and gas occurrence. The 17 enrichment cultures obtained were represented mainly by morphotype II methanotrophs. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment cultures in terms of the amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of the membrane-bound methane monooxygenase revealed the predominance of methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis. The results obtained suggest the presence of an active aerobic methanotrophic community in Lake Baikal. PMID:16211862

  1. Efficient utilization of aerobic metabolism helps Tibetan locusts conquer hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Responses to hypoxia have been investigated in many species; however, comparative studies between conspecific geographical populations at different altitudes are rare, especially for invertebrates. The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is widely distributed around the world, including on the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the low-altitude North China Plain (NP). TP locusts have inhabited Tibetan Plateau for over 34,000 years and thus probably have evolved superior capacity to cope with hypoxia. Results Here we compared the hypoxic responses of TP and NP locusts from morphological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. We found that TP locusts were more tolerant of extreme hypoxia than NP locusts. To evaluate why TP locusts respond to extreme hypoxia differently from NP locusts, we subjected them to extreme hypoxia and compared their transcriptional responses. We found that the aerobic metabolism was less affected in TP locusts than in NP locusts. RNAi disruption of PDHE1β, an entry gene from glycolysis to TCA cycle, increased the ratio of stupor in TP locusts and decreased the ATP content of TP locusts in hypoxia, confirming that aerobic metabolism is critical for TP locusts to maintain activity in hypoxia. Conclusions Our results indicate that TP and NP locusts have undergone divergence in hypoxia tolerance. These findings also indicate that insects can adapt to hypoxic pressure by modulating basic metabolic processes. PMID:24047108

  2. Single-culture aerobic granules with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-03-01

    Aerobic granules are cultivated by a single bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). This strain presents as a good phenol reducer and an efficient auto coagulator in the presence of phenol, mediated by heat-sensitive adhesins proteins. Stable 2.3-mm granules were formed in the SBR following a 7-week cultivation. These granules exhibit excellent settling attributes and degrade phenol efficiently at concentrations of 250-2,000 mg l(-1). The corresponding phenol degradation rate reached 993.6 mg phenol g(-1) volatile suspended solids (VSS) day(-1) at 250 mg l(-1) phenol and 519.3 mg phenol g(-1) VSS day(-1) at 2,000 mg l(-1) phenol concentration. Meanwhile, free A. calcoaceticus cells were fully inhibited at phenol>1,500 mg l(-1). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint profile demonstrated no genetic modification in the strain during aerobic granulation. The present single-strain granules showed long-term structural stability and performed high phenol degrading capacity and high phenol tolerance. The confocal laser scanning microscopic test revealed that live A. calcoaceticus cells principally distributed at 200-250 microm beneath the outer surface, with an extracellular polymeric substance layer covering them to defend phenol toxicity. Autoaggregation assay tests demonstrated the possibly significant role of secreted proteins on the formation of single-culture A. calcoaceticus granules.

  3. Aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold of wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, A; Sagiv, M; Ben-Sira, D; Werber, G; Hutzler, J; Annenburg, H

    1994-03-01

    This study evaluated the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold of national level Israeli wheelchair basketball players. Subjects were tested working on a wheelchair rolling on a motor driven treadmill and on an arm cycle ergometer. Metabolic and cardiopulmonary parameters were measured during graded maximal exercise tests. Blood lactic acid (LA) concentration was measured in the intervals between loads during the test on the wheelchair. Heart rate (HR) and % heart rate reserve (%HRR) corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (4 mM blood LA) were evaluated while working on the wheelchair rolling on a motor driven treadmill. While working on the wheelchair the following peak exercise values were obtained: VO2 = 24.7 ml.kg/min, VE = 92.09 l/min HR = 181.5 b/min and R = 1.22. Values corresponding to the anaerobic threshold were found to be, HR = 139 b/min and %HRR = 57.02. Low correlations were obtained between peak exercise VO2 and VE measured while working on the wheelchair and those measured with arm cycle ergometer (r = 0.57 p = 0.137 and r = 0.4 p = 0.233 respectively). As athletes, subjects in the present study may be classified as having a low aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold. It is also concluded that the ergometer type may have an important influence on test results.

  4. Anaerobic and aerobic performances in elite basketball players.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Papoti, Marcelo; Camargo, Bruno Henrique Ferreira; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2014-09-29

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO PROPOSE A SPECIFIC LACTATE MINIMUM TEST FOR ELITE BASKETBALL PLAYERS CONSIDERING THE: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m) during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26), Guard (n= 7), Forward (n=11) and Center (n=8). The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST) method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h) over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree) for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m) can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis.

  5. Upscaling Mixed-Limited Reactions for Equilibrium and Fast Complete Kinetic Reactions in Radial and 1-D Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A. M.; Ginn, T. R.; Le Borgne, T.; Dentz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The new upscaling approach that implements the lamella concept utilizing the Lagrangian frame of reference gives a promising result when applied to the calcite precipitation equilibrium mixing-limited reaction. Here it is applied to the radial injection case representing aquifer remediation. To approximate aerobic biodegradation, the irreversible bimolecular kinetic reaction case is studied here also using the lamella approach for the one dimensional case. The theoretical rate for the mixing-limited kinetic reaction is derived from Gramling et al. (2002) for the special case where the total concentration of the injected component equals the total concentration of the ambient component, and then this special case is generalized for arbitrary concentrations. The results for both the equilibrium and the kinetic reaction cases are tested numerically versus COMSOL which matched the theoretical cases very well.

  6. Reaction-diffusion constraints in living tissue: effectiveness factors in skeletal muscle design.

    PubMed

    Dasika, S K; Kinsey, S T; Locke, B R

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to analyze the effects of intracellular diffusion of O(2) and high-energy phosphate metabolites on aerobic energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypotheses that in a range of muscle fibers from different species (1) aerobic metabolism was not diffusion limited and (2) that fibers had a combination of rate and fiber size that placed them at the brink of substantial diffusion limitation. A simplified chemical reaction rate law for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was developed utilizing a published detailed model of isolated mitochondrial function. This rate law was then used as a boundary condition in a reaction-diffusion model that was further simplified using the volume averaging method and solved to determine the rates of oxidative phosphorylation as functions of the volume fraction of mitochondria, the size of the muscle cell, and the amount of oxygen delivered by the capillaries. The effectiveness factor, which is the ratio of reaction rate in the system with finite rates of diffusion to those in the absence of any diffusion limitations, defined the regions where intracellular diffusion of metabolites and O(2) may limit aerobic metabolism in both very small, highly oxidative fibers as well as in larger fibers with lower aerobic capacity. Comparison of model analysis with experimental data revealed that none of the fibers was strongly limited by diffusion, as expected. However, while some fibers were near substantial diffusion limitation, most were well within the domain of reaction control of aerobic metabolic rate. This may constitute a safety factor in muscle that provides a level of protection from diffusion constraints under conditions such as hypoxia.

  7. We Huff and Puff: The Parameters and the Program of Aerobics for Children under Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    In today's society, young children have few experiences with aerobic activities, a pattern of exercise traditionally reserved for adults. This paper discusses how aerobic exercises can be used in a preschool environment, arguing that such activities are best presented using a thematic approach so that young children can form impressions about…

  8. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  9. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  10. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  11. Carbon offsets from improved swine manure management using aerobic treatment technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic treatment of manure is an accepted manure management system under protocols adopted through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from replacement of anaerobic lagoons with aerobic treatme...

  12. Noise Levels during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. Noise levels were measured…

  13. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivi...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - AUTOTHERMAL THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a promising technology — autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion — for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...

  15. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  16. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  17. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  18. Disturbance of aerobic metabolism accompanies neurobehavioral changes induced by nickel in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Min-Di; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yan; Xiong, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiao; Lu, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    The oral ingestion of soluble nickel compounds leads to neurological symptoms in humans. Deficiencies in aerobic metabolism induced by neurotoxic stimulus can cause an energy crisis in the brain that results in a variety of neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we focused on the aerobic metabolic states to investigate whether disturbance of aerobic metabolism was involved in nickel-induced neurological effects in mice. Mice were orally administered nickel chloride, and neurobehavioral performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze and open field tests at different time points. Aerobic metabolic states in the cerebral cortex were analyzed at the same time points at which neurobehavioral changes were evident. We found that nickel exposure caused deficits in both spatial memory and exploring activity in mice and that nickel was deposited in their cerebral cortex. Deficient aerobic metabolism manifested as decreased O2 consumption and ATP concentrations, lactate and NADH accumulation, and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the activity of prototypical iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) containing enzymes that are known to control aerobic metabolism, including complex I and aconitase, and the expression of ISC assembly scaffold protein (ISCU) were inhibited following nickel deposition. Overall, these data suggest that aerobic metabolic disturbances, which accompanied the neurobehavioral changes, may participate in nickel-induced neurologic effects. The inactivation of ISC containing metabolic enzymes may result in the disturbance of aerobic metabolism. A better understanding of how nickel impacts the energy metabolic processes may provide insight into the prevention of nickel neurotoxicity.

  19. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    PubMed

    Stothart, Cary R; Simons, Daniel J; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking) interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning) for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains). These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  20. [Aerobic capacity and quality of life in school children from 8 to 12].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga Lopez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a powerful physiological indicator of the overall health status. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between aerobic capacity and quality of life in a sample of 298 (159 girls) school children aged 8-12 years. Aerobic capacity was tested using the Course-Navette test. Quality of life was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index scale. Males showed higher performance in the Course-Navette test and highest values of VO2max (P<.001 for both). ANOVA statistical analysis showed that the quality of life was significantly higher in school children with increased level of aerobic capacity compared to those with a low level (P=.001). Children with high aerobic capacity showed higher quality of life scores in relation to their peers with low scores (P<.001). As for the females, significant differences were found among those with high aerobic capacity level and their peers low levels (P<.031). The results of this study suggest that school children with higher level of aerobic capacity show better results in the quality of life index. Long-term intervention studies are needed to verify if an aerobic capacity development programme may upgrade the quality of life of children and adolescents.

  1. Steps Counts among Middle School Students Vary with Aerobic Fitness Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Masurier, Guy C.; Corbin, Charles B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if steps/day taken by middle school students varied based on aerobic fitness classification. Middle school students (N = 223; 112 girls, 111 boys) were assigned to three aerobic fitness categories (HIGH, MOD, LOW) based on results of the FITNESSGRAM PACER test. Four weekdays of pedometer monitoring…

  2. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-03-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  3. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal.

  4. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal. PMID:27155411

  5. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous-oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Jungwon; Choi, Wonyong

    2014-06-15

    This study evaluates the ability of Fe(II)-oxalate complexes for the generation of OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe(2+) and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe(2+) or oxalate. The formation of Fe(II)-oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H2O2 and subsequent production of OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H2O2 and OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe(2+)], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [Fe(II)(Ox)2(2-)], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [Fe(II)(Ox)2(2-)]+[Fe(II)(Ox)(0)]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the Fe(II)-oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with OH.

  6. [Distribution of Aerobic Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Sediments from Adjacent Waters of Rushan Bay].

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-zhu; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Lu-lu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen cycle is a key process in material circulation of marine ecosystem, which plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance. The ammonia oxidation process promoted by aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganism (AOM) is a rate-limiting step of nitrification. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR ), along with the determination of potential nitrification rates (PNR) was carried out in this study to understand the distribution of AOM in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay in August, 2014. The results indicated that the abundance of total ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was always greater than that of total ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the three sampling stations; the ratio of active AOB to total AOB was less than 1%, while no active AOA was detected in this study; the PNR significantly decreased after adding ampicillin which could inhibit the activity of AOB (P < 0.05). It was speculated that AOB might play a more important role in the ammonia oxidation in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay in August, 2014. Dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature and ammonium concentrations played a significant role in distribution of AOM in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay.

  7. Adaptation of aerobic, ethene-assimilating Mycobacterium strains to vinyl chloride as a growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yang Oh; Mattes, Timothy E

    2008-07-01

    Contamination of drinking water source zones by vinyl chloride (VC), a known human carcinogen and common groundwater contaminant, poses a public health risk. Bioremediation applications involving aerobic, VC-assimilating bacteria could be useful in alleviating environmental VC cancer risk, but their evolution and activity in the environment are poorly understood. In this study, adaptation of ethene-assimilating Mycobacterium strains JS622, JS623, JS624, and JS625 to VC as a growth substrate was investigated to test the hypothesis that VC-assimilating bacteria arise from naturally occurring ethene-assimilating bacteria. VC consumption in the absence of microbial growth was initially observed in cultures grown in both ethene and 1/10-strength trypticase soy agar + 1% (w/v) glucose. After extended incubations (55-476 days), all strains commenced growth-coupled VC consumption patterns. VC-adapted cultures grown on 20 mM acetate subsequently retained their ability to assimilate VC. Three independent purity check methods (streak plates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction) verified culture purity prior to and following VC adaptation. Overall, our results suggest that ethene-assimilating mycobacteria have a widespread ability to adapt to VC as a growth substrate.

  8. Determination of degradation of radioactivity and its kinetics in aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ipek, Ubeyde; Obek, Erdal; Akca, Lütfi; Arslan, E Işil; Hasar, Halil; Dogru, Mahmut; Baykara, Oktay

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the kinetics of disappearance of radioactivity in aerobic composting was investigated. For this purpose, compost materials were prepared by mixing sugar beet wastes, wine factory wastes (grape wastes), straw and biological treatment sludge in different amounts. While alpha-radioactivity was not initially detected in all composting materials, the composting materials had some beta-radioactivity. In the mixtures of sugar beet wastes--straw-biological treatment sludge (1), sugar beet wastes-wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (II) and wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (III), the beta-radioactivity reduced by 82%, 58%, 85% respectively of initial values after 52 d. The beta-radioactivity degradation in the composting process could be represented by first-order kinetics and reaction rate constants of mixtures of I, II and III were k = 0.0693 d(-1) (R2 - 0.84), k = 0.0453 d(-1) (R2 = 0.98), k = 0.0234 d(-1) (R2 = 0.97), respectively.

  9. (Catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase from aerobic N sub 2 -fixing microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes which catalyze reactions involving dihydrogen. They serve integral roles in a number of microbial metabolic pathways. Our research is focussed on investigations of the catalytic mechanism of the hydrogenases found in aerobic, N{sub 2}-fixing microorganisms such as Azotobacter vinelandii and the agronomically important Bradyrhizobium japonicum as well as microorganisms with similar hydrogenases. The hydrogenases isolated from these microorganisms are Ni- and Fe-containing heterodimers. Our work has focussed on three areas during the last grant period. In all cases, a central theme has been the role of inhibitors in the characteristics under investigation. In addition, a number of collaborative efforts have yielded interesting results. In metalloenzymes such as hydrogenase, inhibitors often influence the activity of the enzyme through ligand interactions with redox centers, often metals, within the enzyme. Therefore, investigations of the ability of various compounds to inhibit an enzyme's activity, as well as the mechanism of inhibition, can provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme as well as the role of various redox centers in catalysis. We have investigated in detail four inhibitors of A. vinelandii and the results are summarized here. The influence of these inhibitors on the spectral properties of the enzyme are summarized. Electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectra investigations are discussed. 9 figs.

  10. Remediation of explosive-polluted soil in slurry phase by aerobic biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Baoping; Shen, Mengyue; Aslam, Hina; Wu, Feng

    2013-06-01

    There is a great volume of polluted soil by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing wastewater containing dozen of nitrocompounds in China. In this study, biostimulation was used for remediating the explosive-polluted soil in aerobic bioslurry by monitoring the removal of total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that the pulp density had almost no effect on TOC removal; whereas the acetone addition evidently improved remediation efficiency of the polluted soil by intrinsic microorganism, and the TOC removal increased from 25% to 38.4% when dose of acetone increased from 0% to 4% (v/v). The maximum TOC removal of 49.1% was achieved through further adjusting pH at 9.0 and temperature at 30 °C. The second order reaction fits well removal dynamics of TOC under the optimum conditions. With the average conditions, liquid phase TOC decreased from 3404 to 3144 mg/L and solid phase TOC dropped from 1022 to 104 mg/L, leading to toxicity decline by 35%; the optimum condition witnessed 48.9% of TOC removal from 4500 to 2300 mg/L in liquid phase, causing toxicity drop by 62%.

  11. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks. PMID:25191243

  12. Complete remediation of PCE contaminated unsaturated soils by sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioventing.

    PubMed

    Mihopoulos, P G; Suidan, M T; Sayles, G D

    2001-01-01

    Bioventing principles have been applied to completely dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene vapors in the unsaturated zone in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic pattern. The aerobic step yields trans-DCE and VC as PCE reductive dechlorination byproducts, while TCE and cis-DCE are observed as intermediates. The aerobic step results in rapid oxidation of the VC and trans-DCE to carbon dioxide. Hydrogen was delivered in the gas phase as a reducing agent for the anaerobic step at levels of 1%, and oxygen at 4.2% was used as an electron acceptor in the aerobic step. PCE and VC half lives in the anaerobic and aerobic steps respectively, where less than 10 min.

  13. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  14. A heme oxygenase isoform is essential for aerobic growth in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: modes of differential operation of two isoforms/enzymes to adapt to low oxygen environments in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Rina; Goto, Takeaki; Fujita, Yuichi

    2011-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the oxygen-dependent cleavage of heme to produce biliverdin IXα in phycobilin biosynthesis. In the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 there are two genes, ho1 (sll1184) and ho2 (sll1875), encoding HO isoforms. Reverse transcription-PCR indicated that ho1 is constitutively expressed, and ho2 is induced under micro-oxic conditions. A mutant lacking ho1 (Δho1) failed to grow under aerobic conditions while it did grow at a significantly slower rate than the wild type under anaerobic (micro-oxic) conditions. When micro-oxically grown Δho1 was incubated under aerobic conditions, the cells underwent chlorosis with a significant decrease in phycocyanin accompanied by anomalous accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. These results suggested that HO1 is essential for aerobic growth as the sole HO and is dispensable under micro-oxic conditions. A mutant lacking ho2 (Δho2) grew under both aerobic and micro-oxic conditions like the wild type at low light intensity (50 μmol(photon) m⁻² s⁻¹). At higher light intensity (120 μmol(photon) m⁻² s⁻¹) the Δho2 mutant showed significant growth retardation under micro-oxic conditions. It is suggested that HO2 operates as a dominant HO under high light and micro-oxic environments and acts as an accessory HO at low light intensity. Constitutive expression of HO2 in a neutral site of the chromosome restored aerobic growth of Δho1, suggesting that HO2 has an activity high enough to substitute for HO1 under aerobic conditions. The differential operation of two isoforms/enzymes in cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole biosynthesis to adapt to low oxygen environments is discussed, including three other reactions.

  15. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone catalyzed by Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2: evidence for ligand-controlled chemoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Diao, Tianning; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-01

    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones affords cyclohexenones or phenols via removal of 1 or 2 equiv of H2, respectively. We recently reported several Pd(II) catalyst systems that effect aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones with different product selectivities. Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 is unique in its high chemoselectivity for the conversion of cyclohexanones to cyclohexenones, without promoting subsequent dehydrogenation of cyclohexenones to phenols. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these reactions reveal the key role of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ligand in controlling this chemoselectivity. DMSO has minimal kinetic influence on the rate of Pd(TFA)2-catalyzed dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, while it strongly inhibits the second dehydrogenation step, conversion of cyclohexenone to phenol. These contrasting kinetic effects of DMSO provide the basis for chemoselective formation of cyclohexenones.

  16. A Narf-like gene from Cryptosporidium parvum resembles homologues observed in aerobic protists and higher eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Stejskal, Frantisek; Slapeta, Jan; Ctrnáctá, Vlasta; Keithly, Janet S

    2003-12-01

    Here we report a Narf-like gene from the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum (CpNARF). CpNARF is an intronless, single-copy gene of 1680 bp which encodes a putative protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 63.1 kDa. This gene contains a single highly conserved N-terminal iron-sulfur cluster ([4Fe-4S]) binding site, as well as most of the H-cluster conserved residues. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that CpNARF is expressed by the intracellular stages of C. parvum. Although the function of this gene is as yet unknown, phylogenetic analyses suggest that CpNARF belongs to the group of NARF-like proteins from aerobic protists and higher eukaryotes, which are thought to have had an ancestor in common with [Fe]-hydrogenases.

  17. Measuring aerobic cycling power as an assessment of childhood fitness.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Aaron L; Sledge, Jeffrey S; Ventura, Steve J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens; Allen, David B

    2007-08-01

    The emergence of obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and type-2 diabetes (T2DM) in children requires a rational, effective public health response. Physical activity remains an important component of prevention and treatment for obesity, T2DM, and IR. Studies in adults show cardiovascular fitness (CVF) to be more important than obesity in predicting IR. We recently demonstrated that a school-based fitness intervention in children who were overweight can improve cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, but it remains unclear whether accurate assessment of fitness could be performed at the school or outside of an exercise laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine if a new methodology using measurement of cycling power could estimate cardiovascular aerobic fitness (as defined by maximum oxygen consumption; VO(2)max) in middle school children who were overweight. Thirty-five middle school children who were overweight (mean age 12 +/- 0.4 years) underwent testing on a power sensor- equipped Cycle Ops Indoor Cycle (IC), as well as body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and VO(2)max by treadmill determination. Insulin sensitivity was also estimated by fasting glucose and insulin. Maximal heart rate (MHR) was determined during VO(2)max testing, and power produced at 80% of MHR was recorded. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to evaluate associations. Mean power determined on the IC at 80% of MHR was 129 +/- 77 watts, and average power at 80% MHR divided by total body weight (TBW) was 1.5 +/- 0.5. A significant correlation between watts/TBW was seen for VO(2)max (ml/kg/min) (p = 0.03), and significant negative correlation was seen between watts/TBW and fasting insulin (p < 0.05). In middle-school children who were overweight, there was a significant relationship between the power component of fitness and cardiovascular aerobic fitness (measured by VO(2)max). This more accessible and less intimidating field

  18. Measuring aerobic cycling power as an assessment of childhood fitness.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Aaron L; Sledge, Jeffrey S; Ventura, Steve J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens C; Allen, David B

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in children requires a rational, effective public health response. Physical activity remains an important component of prevention and treatment for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. Studies in adults show cardiovascular fitness to be more important than obesity in predicting insulin resistance. We recently demonstrated that a school-based fitness intervention in children who are overweight could improve cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, but it remains unclear whether accurate assessment of fitness could be performed at the school or outside of an exercise laboratory. To determine whether new methodology using measurement of cycling power could estimate cardiovascular aerobic fitness (as defined by VO2max) in middle school children who were overweight. Thirty-five middle school children (mean age 12 +/- 0.4 years) who were overweight underwent testing on a power sensor-equipped Cycle Ops indoor cycle (Saris Cycling Group, Fitchburg, WI) as well as body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry and VO2max by treadmill determination. Insulin sensitivity was also estimated by fasting glucose and insulin. Maximal heart rate (MHR) was determined during VO2max testing, and power produced at 80%MHR was recorded. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to evaluate associations. Mean power determined on the indoor cycle at 80% of MHR was 129 +/- 77 watts, and average power at 80% MHR divided by total body weight was 1.5 +/- 0.5. A significant correlation between watts and total body weight was seen for VO2max (P = 0.03), and significant negative correlation was seen between watts/total body weight and fasting insulin (P < 0.05). Among middle school children who were overweight, there was a significant relationship between the power component of fitness and cardiovascular aerobic fitness (measured by VO2max). This more accessible and less intimidating field

  19. Measuring aerobic cycling power as an assessment of childhood fitness.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Aaron L; Sledge, Jeffrey S; Ventura, Steve J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens C; Allen, David B

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in children requires a rational, effective public health response. Physical activity remains an important component of prevention and treatment for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. Studies in adults show cardiovascular fitness to be more important than obesity in predicting insulin resistance. We recently demonstrated that a school-based fitness intervention in children who are overweight could improve cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, but it remains unclear whether accurate assessment of fitness could be performed at the school or outside of an exercise laboratory. To determine whether new methodology using measurement of cycling power could estimate cardiovascular aerobic fitness (as defined by VO2max) in middle school children who were overweight. Thirty-five middle school children (mean age 12 +/- 0.4 years) who were overweight underwent testing on a power sensor-equipped Cycle Ops indoor cycle (Saris Cycling Group, Fitchburg, WI) as well as body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry and VO2max by treadmill determination. Insulin sensitivity was also estimated by fasting glucose and insulin. Maximal heart rate (MHR) was determined during VO2max testing, and power produced at 80%MHR was recorded. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to evaluate associations. Mean power determined on the indoor cycle at 80% of MHR was 129 +/- 77 watts, and average power at 80% MHR divided by total body weight was 1.5 +/- 0.5. A significant correlation between watts and total body weight was seen for VO2max (P = 0.03), and significant negative correlation was seen between watts/total body weight and fasting insulin (P < 0.05). Among middle school children who were overweight, there was a significant relationship between the power component of fitness and cardiovascular aerobic fitness (measured by VO2max). This more accessible and less intimidating field

  20. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl/NO x Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gerken, James B; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-08-26

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and many aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we show that the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be achieved at high potentials by using soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO), nor NO x species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective ORR mediators. The combination of nitroxyl/NO x species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction with overpotentials as low as 300 mV in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The overpotentials accessible with this ORR system are significantly lower than widely studied molecular metal-macrocycle ORR catalysts and benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NO x species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NO x species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls.

  1. Anthropometrics, body composition, and aerobic fitness in Norwegian home guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-11-01

    The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mL·kg·minute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces.

  2. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to phenol catalyzed by Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine: evidence for the role of Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pun, Doris; Diao, Tianning; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-01

    We have carried out a mechanistic investigation of aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones and cyclohexenones to phenols with a Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine catalyst system. Numerous experimental methods, including kinetic studies, filtration tests, Hg poisoning experiments, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering, provide compelling evidence that the initial Pd(II) catalyst mediates the first dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, after which it evolves into soluble Pd nanoparticles that retain catalytic activity. This nanoparticle formation and stabilization is facilitated by each of the components in the catalytic reaction, including the ligand, TsOH, DMSO, substrate, and cyclohexenone intermediate.

  3. From ketones to esters by a Cu-catalyzed highly selective C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond cleavage: aerobic oxidation and oxygenation with air.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xinyao; Zou, Miancheng; Song, Song; Tang, Conghui; Yuan, Yizhi; Jiao, Ning

    2014-10-22

    The Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones via C-C bond cleavage has been developed. Varieties of common ketones, even inactive aryl long-chain alkyl ketones, are selectively converted into esters. The reaction tolerates a wide range of alcohols, including primary and secondary alcohols, chiral alcohols with retention of the configuration, electron-deficient phenols, as well as various natural alcohols. The usage of inexpensive copper catalyst, broad substrate scope, and neutral and open air conditions make this protocol very practical. (18)O labeling experiments reveal that oxygenation occurs during this transformation. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that two novel pathways are mainly involved in this process. PMID:25251943

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene and phenol co-contaminants in groundwater by a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide as the sole oxygen source.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Shi-yang; Wang, Xiao-li; Yang, Jie; Gu, Ji-dong; Zhu, Rui-li; Wang, Ping; Lin, Kuang-fei; Liu, Yong-di

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and phenol were often found together as co-contaminants in the groundwater of industrial contaminated sites. An effective method to remove TCE was aerobic biodegradation by co-metabolism using phenol as growth substrates. However, the aerobic biodegradation process was easily limited by low concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater, and DO was improved by air blast technique with difficulty. This study enriched a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the sole oxygen source to aerobically degrade TCE by co-metabolism with phenol in groundwater. The enriched cultures were acclimatized to 2-8 mM H2O2 which induced catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase to decompose H2O2 to release O2 and reduce the toxicity. The bacterial community could degrade 120 mg/L TCE within 12 days by using 8 mM H2O2 as the optimum concentration, and the TCE degradation efficiency reached up to 80.6%. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing showed that Bordetella, Stenotrophomonas sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp. and Sphingobium sp. were the dominant species in the enrichments, which were clustered in three phyla: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction detection proved that phenol hydroxylase (Lph) gene was involved in the co-metabolic degradation of phenol and TCE, which indicated that hydroxylase might catalyse the epoxidation of TCE to form the unstable molecule TCE-epoxide. The findings are significant for understanding the mechanism of biodegradation of TCE and phenol co-contamination and helpful for the potential applications of an aerobic bioremediation in situ the contaminated sites.

  5. Reinvestigation of a New Type of Aerobic Benzoate Metabolism in the Proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Zaar, Annette; Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Fuchs, Georg

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic metabolism of benzoate in the proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was reinvestigated. The known pathways leading to catechol or protocatechuate do not operate in this bacterium. The presumed degradation via 3-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and gentisate could not be confirmed. The first committed step is the activation of benzoate to benzoyl-CoA by a specifically induced benzoate-CoA ligase (AMP forming). This enzyme was purified and shown to differ from an isoenzyme catalyzing the same reaction under anaerobic conditions. The second step postulated involves the hydroxylation of benzoyl-CoA to a so far unknown product by a novel benzoyl-CoA oxygenase, presumably a multicomponent enzyme system. An iron-sulfur flavoprotein, which may be a component of this system, was purified and characterized. The homodimeric enzyme had a native molecular mass of 98 kDa as determined by gel filtration and contained 0.72 mol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 10.4 to 18.4 mol of Fe, and 13.3 to 17.9 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of native protein, depending on the method of protein determination. This benzoate-induced enzyme catalyzed a benzoyl-CoA-, FAD-, and O2-dependent NADPH oxidation surprisingly without hydroxylation of the aromatic ring; however, H2O2 was formed. The gene (boxA, for benzoate oxidation) coding for this protein was cloned and sequenced. It coded for a protein of 46 kDa with two amino acid consensus sequences for two [4Fe-4S] centers at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with subunits of ferredoxin-NADP reductase, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and phenol hydroxylase. Upstream of the boxA gene, another gene, boxB, encoding a protein of 55 kDa was found. The boxB gene exhibited homology to open reading frames in various other bacteria which code for components of a putative aerobic phenylacetyl-CoA oxidizing system. The boxB gene product was one of at least five proteins induced when A. evansii

  6. Enzymes and genes involved in aerobic alkane degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes, transport across cell membrane of alkanes, the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation. PMID:23755043

  7. [The aerobic air microflora in airplanes on various international routes].

    PubMed

    Năstoiu, I; Răduică, C; Soitu, V; Gavrilă, I

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic microflora (bacteria, fungi), in the cock pits of the TAROM company (Boeing 707 and Il 62 M) airships flying on various international routes and airports was studied during November 1988-January 1989. 157-8,800 bacteria and 78-1,336 fungi per m3 air were recorded. Except for Staphylococcus aureus (hemolytic and non hemolytic) the greatest part of the isolated microorganisms was nonpathogenic for man: Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sarcina, Aspergillus, Penicillium etc. Several airships on the Asian airports contained a higher amount of bacteria and fungi but not higher than in the living rooms. Likewise, in high altitude flights, the microorganism amount was less than on the ground. The taxonomic spectrum of the bacteria and fungi isolated was almost identical on all the 9 international airports, thus suggesting the homogeneous and international character of saprophyte and pathogenic air microflora by means of the passenger and goods air flights.

  8. Aerobic fitness, psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, S M; Hindelang, R D; Dembroski, T M; Mayerson, S E; Parks, E B; Holland, J C

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relations among aerobic fitness (AF), psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity using 62 men divided into highly fit and less fit groups based on a maximal treadmill exercise test. Several psychological and physiological variables were measured, and subjects' cardiovascular reactivity was assessed during a mental arithmetic task and during a video game task. Highly fit subjects showed a significantly smaller increase in both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) and reported themselves to be less anxious and less angry than less fit subjects. Furthermore, controlling for subjects' scores on a scale assessing angry temperament reduced the relationship between AF and DBP reactivity to nonsignificant levels. These results suggest that degree of dispositional anger, which covaries with increased fitness, may contribute to the apparent relationship between AF and DBP--but not HR--reactivity.

  9. Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2014-08-29

    The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed.

  10. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

  11. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  12. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. METHODS: Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients’ CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. RESULTS: The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P < 0.635) and body mass index (BMI) (25.2 ± 1.1 vs 24.9 ± 0.8; P < 0.810), but the extent of change was not significantly different from that experienced by the control group (body weight: 68.8 ± 4.0 vs 68.8 ± 3.9; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.1 vs 24.4 ± 1.2). However, the exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P < 0.001), cardio-respiratory endurance (120.5 ± 4.5 vs 105.4 ± 2.8; P < 0

  13. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions.

  14. Aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: Environmental selection and diversification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria oxidize reduced inorganic compounds to sulfuric acid. Lithotrophic sulfur oxidizer use the energy obtained from oxidation for microbial growth. Heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers obtain energy from the oxidation of organic compounds. In sulfur-oxidizing mixotrophs energy are derived either from the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are usually located within the sulfide/oxygen interfaces of springs, sediments, soil microenvironments, and the hypolimnion. Colonization of the interface is necessary since sulfide auto-oxidizes and because both oxygen and sulfide are needed for growth. The environmental stresses associated with the colonization of these interfaces resulted in the evolution of morphologically diverse and unique aerobic sulfur oxidizers.

  15. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio O; Dos Anjos, Carlos A S; Covolan, Roberto J M; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D; Magalhães, Fernando H; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  16. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  17. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  18. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater. PMID:15979119

  19. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms. PMID:19234715

  20. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater.

  1. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  2. Aerobic glycolysis tunes YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Enzo, Elena; Santinon, Giulia; Pocaterra, Arianna; Aragona, Mariaceleste; Bresolin, Silvia; Forcato, Mattia; Grifoni, Daniela; Pession, Annalisa; Zanconato, Francesca; Guzzo, Giulia; Bicciato, Silvio; Dupont, Sirio

    2015-01-01

    Increased glucose metabolism and reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis are a hallmark of cancer cells, meeting their metabolic needs for sustained cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming is usually considered as a downstream consequence of tumor development and oncogene activation; growing evidence indicates, however, that metabolism on its turn can support oncogenic signaling to foster tumor malignancy. Here, we explored how glucose metabolism regulates gene transcription and found an unexpected link with YAP/TAZ, key transcription factors regulating organ growth, tumor cell proliferation and aggressiveness. When cells actively incorporate glucose and route it through glycolysis, YAP/TAZ are fully active; when glucose metabolism is blocked, or glycolysis is reduced, YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity is decreased. Accordingly, glycolysis is required to sustain YAP/TAZ pro-tumorigenic functions, and YAP/TAZ are required for the full deployment of glucose growth-promoting activity. Mechanistically we found that phosphofructokinase (PFK1), the enzyme regulating the first committed step of glycolysis, binds the YAP/TAZ transcriptional cofactors TEADs and promotes their functional and biochemical cooperation with YAP/TAZ. Strikingly, this regulation is conserved in Drosophila, where phosphofructokinase is required for tissue overgrowth promoted by Yki, the fly homologue of YAP. Moreover, gene expression regulated by glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells is strongly associated in a large dataset of primary human mammary tumors with YAP/TAZ activation and with the progression toward more advanced and malignant stages. These findings suggest that aerobic glycolysis endows cancer cells with particular metabolic properties and at the same time sustains transcription factors with potent pro-tumorigenic activities such as YAP/TAZ. PMID:25796446

  3. Optimizing aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, P.J.; Bothast, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    Chemical oxidation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) leads to acrylic acid, an industrially important polymerizable monomer currently derived from petroleum. As the availability of petroleum declines, 3-HPA may become attractive as a product to be obtained through fermentation of glycerol, a renewable resource. When cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B-199 (ATCC 8724) were grown aerobically on a rich glycerol medium and then suspended in buffer supplemented with semicarbazide and glycerol, aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) ensued. Depending on conditions, 0.38 to 0.67 g of 3-HPA were formed per gram of glycerol consumed. This means that up to 83.8% of the carbon invested as glycerol could potentially be recovered as the target product, 3-HPA. Production of 3-HPA was sensitive to the age of cells harvested for resuspension and was nonexistent if cells were cultivated on glucose instead of glycerol as the sole carbon source. Compared with 24- and 72-h cells, 48-h cells produced 3-HPA at the highest rate and with the greatest yield. The cell biomass concentration present during the fermentation was never particularly critical to the 3-HPA yield, but initial fermentation rates and 3-HPA accumulation displayed a linear dependence on biomass concentration that faded when biomass exceeded 3 g/liter. Fermentation performance was a function of temperature, and an optimum initial specific 3-HPA productivity occurred at 32/sup 0/C, although the overall 3-HPA yield increased continuously within the 25 to 37/sup 0/C range studied. The pH optimum based on fermentation rate was different from that based on overall yield; 8 versus 7, respectively. Initial glycerol concentrations in the 20 to 50 g/liter range optimized initial 3-HPA productivity and yield.

  4. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Flávio O.; dos Anjos, Carlos A. S.; Covolan, Roberto J. M.; Pinheiro, Fabiano A.; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D.; Magalhães, Fernando H.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  5. Molecular evolution of aerobic energy metabolism in primates.

    PubMed

    Grossman, L I; Schmidt, T R; Wildman, D E; Goodman, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of our goal to reconstruct human evolution at the DNA level, we have been examining changes in the biochemical machinery for aerobic energy metabolism. We find that protein subunits of two of the electron transfer complexes, complex III and complex IV, and cytochrome c, the protein carrier that connects them, have all undergone a period of rapid protein evolution in the anthropoid lineage that ultimately led to humans. Indeed, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; complex IV) provides one of the best examples of positively selected changes of any protein studied. The rate of subunit IV evolution accelerated in our catarrhine ancestors in the period between 40 to 18 million years ago and then decelerated in the descendant hominid lineages, a pattern of rate changes indicative of positive selection of adaptive changes followed by purifying selection acting against further changes. Besides clear evidence that adaptive evolution occurred for cytochrome c and subunits of complexes III (e.g., cytochrome c(1)) and IV (e.g., COX2 and COX4), modest rate accelerations in the lineage that led to humans are seen for other subunits of both complexes. In addition the contractile muscle-specific isoform of COX subunit VIII became a pseudogene in an anthropoid ancestor of humans but appears to be a functional gene in the nonanthropoid primates. These changes in the aerobic energy complexes coincide with the expansion of the energy-dependent neocortex during the emergence of the higher primates. Discovering the biochemical adaptations suggested by molecular evolutionary analysis will be an exciting challenge.

  6. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils.

  7. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Contribute to Prediction of Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Sather, Tom M.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Alford, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Several investigations have suggested that orthostatic tolerance may be inversely related to aerobic fitness (VO (sub 2max)). To test this hypothesis, 18 males (age 29 to 51 yr) underwent both treadmill VO(sub 2max) determination and graded lower body negative pressures (LBNP) exposure to tolerance. VO(2max) was measured during the last minute of a Bruce treadmill protocol. LBNP was terminated based on pre-syncopal symptoms and LBNP tolerance (peak LBNP) was expressed as the cumulative product of LBNP and time (torr-min). Changes in heart rate, stroke volume cardiac output, blood pressure and impedance rheographic indices of mid-thigh-leg initial accumulation were measured at rest and during the final minute of LBNP. For all 18 subjects, mean (plus or minus SE) fluid accumulation index and leg venous compliance index at peak LBNP were 139 plus or minus 3.9 plus or minus 0.4 ml-torr-min(exp -2) x 10(exp 3), respectively. Pearson product-moment correlations and step-wise linear regression were used to investigate relationships with peak LBNP. Variables associated with endurance training, such as VO(sub 2max) and percent body fat were not found to correlate significantly (P is less than 0.05) with peak LBNP and did not add sufficiently to the prediction of peak LBNP to be included in the step-wise regression model. The step-wise regression model included only fluid accumulation index leg venous compliance index, and blood volume and resulted in a squared multiple correlation coefficient of 0.978. These data do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance as measured by LBNP is lower in individuals with high aerobic fitness.

  8. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  9. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  10. Acute Hypotensive Response to Continuous and Accumulated Isocaloric Aerobic Bouts.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F; Midgley, A W; Pescatello, L; Soares, P P; Farinatti, P

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic reductions in blood pressure (BP) due to aerobic exercise depend on the ability to induce post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after each training bout. The purpose of this study was to investigate PEH after isocaloric bouts of continuous and accumulated running. 10 healthy pre-hypertensive men (aged 27.6±3.5 years) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) A continuous bout (CONT) expending a total of 400 kcal; and b) An accumulated bout split into 2×200 kcal (INTER1 and INTER2) to total 400 kcal at 75% of oxygen uptake reserve. BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate variability were monitored 10 min before and 60 min after control and all exercise conditions. The decrease in MAP over time after continuous (400 kcal) and accumulated (2×200 kcal) bouts of exercise was more pronounced than during control (mean diff between 1.6 and 5.4 mmHg, P≤0.01), although the magnitude of change was similar between continuous and accumulated bouts (mean diff=0.1 mmHg, P=0.79). Concomitant to the PEH, sympathovagal balance was inversely related to changes in MAP after isocaloric bouts performed continuously and cumulatively (r=- 0.72 and-0.85, P=0.019 and 0.002, respectively). In conclusion, BP decreased to similar levels after continuous and accumulated acute aerobic exercise matched for total energy expenditure. Our findings also indicate that the recovery pattern of cardiac autonomic activity may have an important role in eliciting PEH. PMID:27551937

  11. Aerobic profile of climbers during maximal arm test.

    PubMed

    Pires, F O; Lima-Silva, A E; Hammond, J; Franchini, E; Dal' Molin Kiss, M A P; Bertuzzi, R

    2011-02-01

    This study compared measurements of upper body aerobic fitness in elite (EC; n=7) and intermediate rock climbers (IC; n=7), and a control group (C; n=7). Subjects underwent an upper limb incremental test on hand cycle ergometer, with increments of 23 W · min(-1), until exhaustion. Ventilation (VE) data were smoothed to 10 s averages and plotted against time for the visual determination of the first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds. Peak power output was not different among groups [EC=130.9 (±11.8) W; IC=122.1 (±28.4) W; C=115.4 (±15.1) W], but time to exhaustion was significantly higher in EC than IC and C. VO(2 PEAK) was significantly higher in EC [36.8 (±5.7) mL.kg(-1).min(-1)] and IC [35.5 (±5.2) mL.kg(-1).min(-1)] than C [28.8 (±5.0) mL.kg(-1).min(-1)], but there was no difference between EC and IC. VT1 was significantly higher in EC than C [EC=69.0 (±9.4) W; IC=62.4 (±13.0) W; C=52.1 (±11.8) W], but no significant difference was observed in VT2 [EC=103.5 (±18.8) W; IC=92.0 (±22.0) W; C=85.6 (±19.7) W]. These results show that elite indoor rock climbers elicit higher aerobic fitness profile than control subjects when measured with an upper body test.

  12. Aerobic fitness, maturation, and training experience in youth basketball.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14-16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23-3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37-0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46-1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11-16% of explained variance) and training experience (7-11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.

  13. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albini, A.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  14. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  15. Pim-2 Modulates Aerobic Glycolysis and Energy Production during the Development of Colorectal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-hui; Yu, Hong-liang; Wang, Fu-jing; Han, Yong-long; Yang, Wei-liang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells have higher rates of glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis to meet energy demands for proliferation and metastasis. The characteristics of increased glucose uptake, accompanied with aerobic glycolysis, has been exploited for the diagnosis of cancers. Although much progress has been made, the mechanisms regulating tumor aerobic glycolysis and energy production are still not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Pim-2 is required for glycolysis and energy production in colorectal tumor cells. Our results show that Pim-2 is highly expressed in colorectal tumor cells, and may be induced by nutrient stimulation. Activation of Pim-2 in colorectal cells led to increase glucose utilization and aerobic glycolysis, as well as energy production. While knockdown of Pim-2 decreased energy production in colorectal tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of Pim-2 kinase on aerobic glycolysis seem to be partly dependent on mTORC1 signaling, because inhibition of mTORC1 activity reversed the aerobic glycolysis mediated by Pim-2. Our findings suggest that Pim-2-mediated aerobic glycolysis is critical for monitoring Warburg effect in colorectal tumor cells, highlighting Pim-2 as a potential metabolic target for colorectal tumor therapy. PMID:26078709

  16. Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group

    PubMed Central

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

  17. Influence of an aniline supplement on the stability of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yajie; Jiang, Yixin; Su, Haijia

    2015-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stability of aerobic granules in a toxic environment, this study discussed the influence of an aniline supplement on the properties and microbial community of aerobic granules. In the early stages of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation, an aniline supplement slightly affected the properties of the aerobic granules (strength, growth rate, SVI and so on). This effect was thereafter removed because of a change in the microbial community and the structure of aerobic granules: with the present of aniline, microbes with biodegradation ability appeared and gathered in the aerobic granules and the aerobic granules densified and settled faster as their SVI decreased to 35 mL/g and settling velocity increased to 41.56 m/h. When a synthetic waste water containing acetate as carbon source was used as influent, aniline (10-500 mg/L) could be degraded in 6 h, at a rate as high as 37.5 mg aniline/(L·h), with a removal rate in excess of 90%, while the effluent COD fell below 100 mg/L from the initial about 2000 mg/L. The aerobic granules cultured by acetate were compact, stable and resistant to aniline.

  18. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  19. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  20. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  1. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  2. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  3. Olefin Metathesis Reaction in Water and in Air Improved by Supramolecular Additives.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Jasmine; Seßler, Miriam; Gröger, Harald; Schatz, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A range of water-immiscible commercially available Grubbs-type precatalysts can be used in ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction in high yields. The synthetic transformation is possible in pure water under ambient conditions. Sulfocalixarenes can help to boost the reactivity of the metathesis reaction by catalyst activation, improved mass transfer, and solubility of reactants in the aqueous reaction media. Additionally, the use of supramolecular additives allows lower catalyst loadings, but still high activity in pure water under aerobic conditions. PMID:26506329

  4. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  5. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures.

  6. Treatment of HMX-production wastewater in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Min-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Meng

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic granules were applied to the treatment of HMX-production wastewater using a gradual domestication method in a SBR. During the process, the granules showed a good settling ability, a high biomass retention rate, and high biological activity. After 40 days of stable operation, aerobic granular sludge performed very effectively in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds from HMX-production wastewater. Organic matter removal rates up to 97.57% and nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 80% were achieved during the process. Researchers conclude that using aerobic granules to treat explosive wastewater has good prospects for success.

  7. Resistance VS aerobic exercise--is the later a better choice?

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Tapas; Adhikari, Prakash

    2006-03-01

    Pulse pressures of two groups of young (18-35 yrs) normotensive non smoker men were compared. One group used to do regular resistance exercise in gymnasium & anther group used to practice aerobic exercise (playing football basketball etc.) regularly. Duration of exercise for both the group was same. Higher pulse pressure was noted in the group taking strength training than that of the persons taking aerobic exercise. Higher pulse pressure is an indication of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. It promotes vascular damage and atherosclerosis. It seems that, practice of regular aerobic exercise is preferable for maintaining physical fitness, normal blood pressure and endothelial health.

  8. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness to Reduce Risk of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Wessel, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 plus or minus 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 plus or minus 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  9. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness To Reduce Risk Of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Wessel, James H., III

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). METHODS: Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 +/- 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 +/- 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. RESULTS: An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  10. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  11. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  12. A model-driven quantitative metabolomics analysis of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in E. coli K-12 MG1655 that is biochemically and thermodynamically consistent.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A; King, Zachary A; Naviaux, Robert K; Barshop, Bruce A; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2014-04-01

    The advent of model-enabled workflows in systems biology allows for the integration of experimental data types with genome-scale models to discover new features of biology. This work demonstrates such a workflow, aimed at establishing a metabolomics platform applied to study the differences in metabolomes between anaerobic and aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Constraint-based modeling was utilized to deduce a target list of compounds for downstream method development. An analytical and experimental methodology was developed and tailored to the compound chemistry and growth conditions of interest. This included the construction of a rapid sampling apparatus for use with anaerobic cultures. The resulting genome-scale data sets for anaerobic and aerobic growth were validated by comparison to previous small-scale studies comparing growth of E. coli under the same conditions. The metabolomics data were then integrated with the E. coli genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) via a sensitivity analysis that utilized reaction thermodynamics to reconcile simulated growth rates and reaction directionalities. This analysis highlighted several optimal network usage inconsistencies, including the incorrect use of the beta-oxidation pathway for synthesis of fatty acids. This analysis also identified enzyme promiscuity for the pykA gene, that is critical for anaerobic growth, and which has not been previously incorporated into metabolic models of E coli.

  13. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  14. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level. PMID:27297837

  15. Waste degradation and gas production with enzymatic enhancement in anaerobic and aerobic landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, J P A; Jayasinghe, P A; Bartholameuz, E M; Kumar, S

    2014-05-01

    The presence of lignin is the limiting factor at later stages of biodegradation of municipal solid waste under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Supplying enzymes into the system could facilitate lignin degradation, thereby aiding anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation processes. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments were conducted under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using enzymes in accelerating lignin-rich waste degradation. After 30 days of anaerobic operation, MnP and LiP enzyme treated reactors produced 36 and 23 times higher cumulative methane (CH4), respectively, compared to that of the control reactor devoid of enzyme treatments. The carbon dioxide (CO2) yield of MnP enhanced aerobic reactor showed more than two-fold increase.

  16. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  17. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    PubMed

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  18. A study on macronutrient self-selection after acute aerobic exercise in college females

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Min-Jeong; Cho, Ik-Rae; Won, Yu-Mi; Han, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Kon-Nym; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hee; Chin, Ji-Hyoung; Roh, Jae-Hun; Min, Seung-Hi; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Hyo-Joo; Jang, Kwon; Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kang, Suh-Jung; Shin, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hu-Nyun; Hong, Jae-Seung; Choi, Eun-Hi; An, Nam-Il; Kim, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Mi-Suk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine whether acute aerobic exercise (climbing) is associated with changes in the dietary intake pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Food intake and physical activity data for 15 female college students were sampled for 3 days and categorized according to routine activity or high-intensity activity such as hiking. Nutrient intake based on the data was analyzed using a nutrition program. [Results] Carbohydrate and protein intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before acute aerobic exercise, but lipid intake showed no significant difference. Calorie intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before exercise; however, calorie consumption was significantly increased after exercise. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise causes a decrease in total calories by inducing reduction in carbohydrate and protein intake. Therefore, aerobic exercise is very important for weight (body fat) control since it causes positive changes in the food intake pattern in female students. PMID:27799693

  19. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed.

  20. Waste degradation and gas production with enzymatic enhancement in anaerobic and aerobic landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, J P A; Jayasinghe, P A; Bartholameuz, E M; Kumar, S

    2014-05-01

    The presence of lignin is the limiting factor at later stages of biodegradation of municipal solid waste under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Supplying enzymes into the system could facilitate lignin degradation, thereby aiding anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation processes. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments were conducted under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using enzymes in accelerating lignin-rich waste degradation. After 30 days of anaerobic operation, MnP and LiP enzyme treated reactors produced 36 and 23 times higher cumulative methane (CH4), respectively, compared to that of the control reactor devoid of enzyme treatments. The carbon dioxide (CO2) yield of MnP enhanced aerobic reactor showed more than two-fold increase. PMID:24684817