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Sample records for aerobic respiration denitrification

  1. Modeling the influence of varying hydraulic conditions on aerobic respiration and denitrification in the hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, N.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Exchange of water and solutes across the stream-sediment interface is an important control for biogeochemical transformations in the hyporheic zone (HZ) with measurable impacts on nutrient cycling and solute attenuation in fluvial systems. Here we investigate the interplay between turbulent stream flow and HZ flow under various hydraulic conditions applied to two cases: a) three-dimensional generic pool-riffle sequences with different morphological properties, and b) a real mid-stream gravel-bar. Stream flow is simulated by the open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM which provides the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed. It is sequentially coupled to the top of the groundwater model code MIN3P, simulating flow, solute transport, aerobic respiration (AR) and denitrification (DN) in the HZ. Flow in the HZ is directly influenced by the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed surface and the ambient groundwater flow. Three reactive transport scenarios are considered: 1) stream water as the primary source of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 2) upwelling groundwater as an additionally source of NO3, and 3) upwelling groundwater as an additional source of DO in various concentrations. Results show an increase in hyporheic exchange flow for increasing stream discharge with a concurrent decrease in residence time. The fraction of circulating stream water through the HZ is in the range of 1x10-5 to 1x10-6 per unit stream length, decreasing with increasing discharge. Ambient groundwater flow in both the up- and downwelling direction diminishes significantly the hyporheic exchange flow and extent. Biogeochemical processes in the HZ are strongly controlled by ambient groundwater flow, even more so than by changes in stream discharge. AR and DN efficiencies of the HZ are significantly reduced by up- and downwelling groundwater and are positively correlated with median residence times. AR occurs in

  2. Influence of Small Scale Permeability Heterogeneity on Aerobic Respiration and Denitrification in the Streambed: A Stochastic Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Gerrit; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Schmidt, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In streams and rivers, streambed permeability heterogeneity is known to increase hyporheic flux and to decrease hyporheic residence time through preferential flow paths. However, the link between permeability and biogeochemical reactions remains poorly understood. Previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions, likely because of the limited number of heterogeneity scenarios considered. In this study we systematically study the influence of permeability heterogeneity on ripple-induced hyporheic exchange, aerobic respiration and denitrification in the streambed. We simulated and evaluated more than 2000 2D-heterogeneity scenarios by means of Gaussian random fields. The conductivity distributions of those Gaussian fields were transformed to either log-normal or binary distributions with varying variance of hydraulic conductivity in order to investigate both continuous and discrete heterogeneities on a large range of intensities. The results indicate that total aerobic respiration in the domain increases with heterogeneity intensity, expressed as the variance of hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, total denitrification in the domain is minimally influenced by the intensity of heterogeneity, because of the competing effect of increasing solute flux and decreasing reaction time. These results represent the general trends among the entire range of scenarios. The total solute transformation of single realizations revealed strong deviations from these trends whenever special spatial permeability distributions such as clogging layers occurred. The permeability distribution in the uppermost layer of the domain, at the interface between surface water and sediment, was found to strongly influence the extent of deviation from the general trends.

  3. Low Probability of Initiating nirS Transcription Explains Observed Gas Kinetics and Growth of Bacteria Switching from Aerobic Respiration to Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Junaid; Bergaust, Linda L.; Wheat, I. David; Bakken, Lars R.

    2014-01-01

    In response to impending anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria sustain respiratory metabolism by producing enzymes for reducing nitrogen oxyanions/-oxides (NOx) to N2 (denitrification). Since denitrifying bacteria are non-fermentative, the initial production of denitrification proteome depends on energy from aerobic respiration. Thus, if a cell fails to synthesise a minimum of denitrification proteome before O2 is completely exhausted, it will be unable to produce it later due to energy-limitation. Such entrapment in anoxia is recently claimed to be a major phenomenon in batch cultures of the model organism Paracoccus denitrificans on the basis of measured e−-flow rates to O2 and NOx. Here we constructed a dynamic model and explicitly simulated actual kinetics of recruitment of the cells to denitrification to directly and more accurately estimate the recruited fraction (). Transcription of nirS is pivotal for denitrification, for it triggers a cascade of events leading to the synthesis of a full-fledged denitrification proteome. The model is based on the hypothesis that nirS has a low probability (, h−1) of initial transcription, but once initiated, the transcription is greatly enhanced through positive feedback by NO, resulting in the recruitment of the transcribing cell to denitrification. We assume that the recruitment is initiated as [O2] falls below a critical threshold and terminates (assuming energy-limitation) as [O2] exhausts. With  = 0.005 h−1, the model robustly simulates observed denitrification kinetics for a range of culture conditions. The resulting (fraction of the cells recruited to denitrification) falls within 0.038–0.161. In contrast, if the recruitment of the entire population is assumed, the simulated denitrification kinetics deviate grossly from those observed. The phenomenon can be understood as a ‘bet-hedging strategy’: switching to denitrification is a gain if anoxic spell lasts long but is a waste of energy if anoxia

  4. A critical role for the cccA gene product, cytochrome c2, in diverting electrons from aerobic respiration to denitrification in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Amanda C; Li, Ying; Cole, Jeffrey A

    2013-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a microaerophile that, when oxygen availability is limited, supplements aerobic respiration with a truncated denitrification pathway, nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide. We demonstrate that the cccA gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain F62 (accession number NG0292) is expressed, but the product, cytochrome c2, accumulates to only low levels. Nevertheless, a cccA mutant reduced nitrite at about half the rate of the parent strain. We previously reported that cytochromes c4 and c5 transfer electrons to cytochrome oxidase cbb3 by two independent pathways and that the CcoP subunit of cytochrome oxidase cbb3 transfers electrons to nitrite. We show that mutants defective in either cytochrome c4 or c5 also reduce nitrite more slowly than the parent. By combining mutations in cccA (Δc2), cycA (Δc4), cycB (Δc5), and ccoP (ccoP-C368A), we demonstrate that cytochrome c2 is required for electron transfer from cytochrome c4 via the third heme group of CcoP to the nitrite reductase, AniA, and that cytochrome c5 transfers electrons to nitrite reductase by an independent pathway. We propose that cytochrome c2 forms a complex with cytochrome oxidase. If so, the redox state of cytochrome c2 might regulate electron transfer to nitrite or oxygen. However, our data are more consistent with a mechanism in which cytochrome c2 and the CcoQ subunit of cytochrome oxidase form alternative complexes that preferentially catalyze nitrite and oxygen reduction, respectively. Comparison with the much simpler electron transfer pathway for nitrite reduction in the meningococcus provides fascinating insights into niche adaptation within the pathogenic neisseriae. PMID:23543713

  5. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  6. Soil and sediment bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J P; Hsaio, Y H; Spiro, S; Richardson, D J

    1995-01-01

    Several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen, although the physiological advantage gained from this process is not entirely clear. The contribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. As a first step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been developed. Twenty-nine such strains have been isolated from three soils and a freshwater sediment and shown to comprise members of three genera (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Moraxella). All of these strains expressed a nitrate reductase with an active site located in the periplasmic compartment. Twenty-two of the strains showed significant rates of nitrate respiration in the presence of oxygen when assayed with physiological electron donors. Also isolated was one member of the gram-positive genus Arthrobacter, which was likewise able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen but appeared to express a different type of nitrate reductase. In the four environments studied, culturable bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration were isolated in significant numbers (10(4) to 10(7) per g of soil or sediment) and in three cases were as abundant as, or more abundant than, culturable bacteria capable of denitrification. Thus, it seems likely that the corespiration of nitrate and oxygen may indeed make a significant contribution to the flux of nitrate to nitrite in the environment. PMID:7487017

  7. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  8. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  9. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  10. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  11. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  12. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  13. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration in Profiles of Polesie Lubelskie Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Anna; Stêpniewska, Zofia

    2014-04-01

    Soil respiration is a very important factor influencing carbon deposition in peat and reflecting the intensity of soil organic matter decomposition, root respiration, and the ease of transporting gases to the surface. Carbon dioxide release from three different peat soil profiles (0-80 cm) of the Polesie Lubelskie Region (Eastern Poland) was analyzed under laboratory conditions. Peat samples were incubated at 5, 10, and 20°C in aerobic and anaerobic environments, and their CO2-evolution was analyzed up to 14 days. The respiration activity was found to be in the range of 0.013-0.497 g CO2 kg-1 DW d-1. The respiratory quotient was estimated to be in the range of 0.51-1.51, and the difference in respiration rates over 10°C ranged between 4.15 and 8.72 in aerobic and from 1.15 to 6.53 in anaerobic conditions. A strong influence of temperature, depth, the degree of peat decomposition, pH, and nitrate content on respiration activity was found. Lack of oxygen at low temperature caused higher respiration activity than under aerobic conditions. These results should be taken into account when the management of Polish peatlands is considered in the context of climate and carbon storage, and physicochemical properties of soil in relation to soil respiration activity are considered.

  14. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  15. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  16. Nitrogen removal capability through simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by Bacillus sp. LY.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; He, Yi Liang; Zhang, Xiao Fan

    2010-04-01

    The heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification capabilities of Bacillus sp. LY were investigated under the aerobic condition. The results indicate that Bacillus sp. LY is not only a heterotrophic nitrifier, but also an aerobic denitrifier. Experiments were carried out in an attempt to determine and quantify the contribution of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification to total N removal. By taking the nitrogen balance under the culture condition of 41.1 mg/L of initial NH(4+)-N at a C/N ratio of 15 in 96 h, 8.0% of the initial NH(4)+-N still remained in the medium in the forms of hydroxylamine, nitrite, nitrate and organic N; 40.5% of NH(4+)-N was converted to biomass and 45.9% of NH(4+)-N was estimated to be finally removed in the formation of N2. This conversion of ammonium to N2 with the intermediate formation of N2O under the aerobic condition was confirmed by gas chromatography. Single step nitrogen removal by simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification has great potential in wastewater treatment. PMID:20450115

  17. Chemotactic Motility of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 under Aerobic and Denitrification Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The sequence of the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of multiple traits relevant for rhizosphere colonization and plant growth promotion. Among these traits are denitrification and chemotactic motility. Besides aerobic growth, F113 is able to grow anaerobically using nitrate and nitrite as final electron acceptors. F113 is able to perform swimming motility under aerobic conditions and under anaerobic conditions when nitrate is used as the electron acceptor. However, nitrite can not support swimming motility. Regulation of swimming motility is similar under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, since mutants that are hypermotile under aerobic conditions, such as gacS, sadB, kinB, algU and wspR, are also hypermotile under anaerobic conditions. However, chemotactic behavior is different under aerobic and denitrification conditions. Unlike most pseudomonads, the F113 genome encode three complete chemotaxis systems, Che1, Che2 and Che3. Mutations in each of the cheA genes of the three Che systems has shown that the three systems are functional and independent. Mutation of the cheA1 gene completely abolished swimming motility both under aerobic and denitrification conditions. Mutation of the cheA2 gene, showed only a decrease in swimming motility under both conditions, indicating that this system is not essential for chemotactic motility but is necessary for optimal motility. Mutation of the cheA3 gene abolished motility under denitrification conditions but only produced a decrease in motility under aerobic conditions. The three Che systems proved to be implicated in competitive rhizosphere colonization, being the cheA1 mutant the most affected. PMID:26161531

  18. Large-scale controls on potential respiration and denitrification in riverine floodplains

    PubMed Central

    Welti, Nina; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Singer, Gabriel; Tritthart, Michael; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Hein, Thomas; Pinay, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Restoration measures of deteriorated river ecosystems generally aim at increasing the spatial heterogeneity and connectivity of these systems in order to increase biodiversity and ecosystem stability. While this is believed to benefit overall ecological integrity, consequences of such restoration projects on biogeochemical processes per se (i.e. ecosystem functioning) in fluvial systems are rarely considered. We address these issues by evaluating the characteristics of surface water connection between side arms and the main river channel in a former braided river section and the role and degree of connectivity (i.e. duration of surface water connection) on the sediment biogeochemistry. We hypothesized that potential respiration and denitrification would be controlled by the degree of hydrological connectivity, which was increased after floodplain restoration. We measured potential microbial respiration (SIR) and denitrification (DEA) and compared a degraded floodplain section of the Danube River with a reconnected and restored floodplain in the same river section. Re-establishing surface water connection altered the controls on sediment microbial respiration and denitrification ultimately impacting potential microbial activities. Meta-variables were created to characterize the effects of hydrology, morphology, and the available carbon and nutrient pools on potential microbial processing. Mantel statistics and path analysis were performed and demonstrate a hierarchy where the effects of hydrology on the available substrates and microbial processing are mediated by the morphology of the floodplain. In addition, these processes are highest in the least connected sites. Surface water connection, mediated by morphology regulates the potential denitrification rate and the ratio of N2O to N2 emissions, demonstrating the effects of restoration in floodplain systems. PMID:23565037

  19. Nitrogen removal by Providencia rettgeri strain YL with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Huang, Yuan-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Providencia rettgeri strain YL shows the capability of nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions. By using isotope ratio mass spectrometry, (15)N-labelled N2O and N2 were detected in aerobic batch cultures containing [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. Strain YL converted [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to produce more N2O than N2 in the presence of [Formula: see text]. An (15)N isotope tracing experiment confirmed that the nitrogen removal pathway of strain YL was heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification. The optimal treatment conditions for nitrogen removal were pH of 8, C/N ratio of 12, temperature of 25°C and shaking speed of 105 rpm. A continuous aerobic bioreactor inoculated with strain YL was developed. With an influent [Formula: see text] concentration of 90-200 mg/L, the [Formula: see text] removal efficiency ranged from 80% to 97% and the total nitrogen removal efficiency ranged from 72% to 95%. The nitrogen balance in the continuous bioreactor revealed that approximately 35-52% of influent [Formula: see text] was denitrified aerobically to form gaseous nitrogen. These findings show that the P. rettgeri strain YL has potential application in wastewater treatment for nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions. PMID:26824874

  20. Stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly permeable municipal drinking water aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, K.; Rudolph, D. L.; Devlin, J. F.; Schillig, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    A preliminary trial of a cross-injection system (CIS) was designed to stimulate in situ denitrification in an aquifer servicing an urban community in southern Ontario. It was hypothesized that this remedial strategy could be used to reduce groundwater nitrate in the aquifer such that it could remain in use as a municipal supply until the beneficial effects of local reduced nutrient loadings lead to long-term water quality improvement at the wellfield. The CIS application involved injecting a carbon source (acetate) into the subsurface using an injection-extraction well pair positioned perpendicular to the regional flow direction, up-gradient of the water supply wells, with the objective of stimulating native denitrifying bacteria. The pilot remedial strategy was targeted in a high nitrate flux zone within an aerobic and heterogeneous section of the glacial sand and gravel aquifer. Acetate injections were performed at intervals ranging from daily to bi-daily. The carbon additions led to general declines in dissolved oxygen concentrations; decreases in nitrate concentration were localized in aquifer layers where velocities were estimated to be less than 0.5 m/day. NO3-15N and NO3-18O isotope data indicated the nitrate losses were due to denitrification. Relatively little nitrate was removed from groundwater in the more permeable strata, where velocities were estimated to be on the order of 18 m/day or greater. Overall, about 11 percent of the nitrate mass passing through the treatment zone was removed. This work demonstrates that stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly conductive aquifer is challenging but achievable. Further work is needed to increase rates of denitrification in the most permeable units of the aquifer.

  1. Analysis of Aerobic Respiration in Intact Skeletal Muscle Tissue by Microplate-Based Respirometry.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Jonathan; Guttridge, Denis C

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is a key component of skeletal muscle health, and its dysfunction has been associated with a wide variety of diseases. Microplate-based respirometry measures aerobic respiration of live cells through extracellular changes in oxygen concentration. Here, we describe a methodology to measure aerobic respiration of intact murine skeletal muscle tissue. The tissues are not cultured, permeabilized, or enzymatically dissociated to single fibers, so there is minimal experimental manipulation affecting the samples prior to acquiring measurements. PMID:27492183

  2. Simultaneous Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification by Chryseobacterium sp. R31 Isolated from Abattoir Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Pradyut; Pramanik, Arnab; Dasgupta, Arpita; Mukherjee, Somnath; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    A heterotrophic carbon utilizing microbe (R31) capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was isolated from wastewater of an Indian slaughterhouse. From an initial COD value of 583.0 mg/L, 95.54% was removed whilst, from a starting NH4+-N concentration of 55.7 mg/L, 95.87% was removed after 48 h contact. The concentrations of the intermediates hydroxylamine, nitrite, and nitrate were low, thus ensuring nitrogen removal. Aerobic denitrification occurring during ammonium removal by R31 was confirmed by utilization of both nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen substrates. Glucose and succinate were superior while acetate and citrate were poor substrates for nitrogen removal. Molecular phylogenetic identification, supported by chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, assigned R31 as a close relative of Chryseobacterium haifense. The NH4+-N utilization rate and growth of strain R31 were found to be higher at C/N = 10 in comparison to those achieved with C/N ratios of 5 and 20. Monod kinetic coefficients, half saturation concentration (Ks), maximum rate of substrate utilization (k), yield coefficient, (Y) and endogenous decay coefficient (Kd) indicated potential application of R31 in large-scale SND process. This is the first report on concomitant carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification in the genus Chryseobacterium and the associated kinetic coefficients. PMID:24991552

  3. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment. PMID:25432342

  4. Effect of selected monoterpenes on methane oxidation, denitrification, and aerobic metabolism by bacteria in pure culture.

    PubMed

    Amaral, J A; Ekins, A; Richards, S R; Knowles, R

    1998-02-01

    Selected monoterpenes inhibited methane oxidation by methanotrophs (Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylobacter luteus), denitrification by environmental isolates, and aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophic pure cultures. Inhibition occurred to various extents and was transient. Complete inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b with 1.1 mM (-)-alpha-pinene lasted for more than 2 days with a culture of optical density of 0.05 before activity resumed. Inhibition was greater under conditions under which particulate methane monooxygenase was expressed. No apparent consumption or conversion of monoterpenes by methanotrophs was detected by gas chromatography, and the reason that transient inhibition occurs is not clear. Aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophs was much less sensitive than methanotrophy was; Escherichia coli (optical density, 0.01), for example, was not affected by up to 7.3 mM (-)-alpha-pinene. The degree of inhibition was monoterpene and species dependent. Denitrification by isolates from a polluted sediment was not inhibited by 3.7 mM (-)-alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene, or beta-myrcene, whereas 50 to 100% inhibition was observed for isolates from a temperate swamp soil. The inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on methane oxidation was greatest with unsaturated, cyclic hydrocarbon forms [e.g., (-)-alpha-pinene, (S)-(-)-limonene, (R)-(+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene]. Lower levels of inhibition occurred with oxide and alcohol derivatives [(R)-(+)-limonene oxide, alpha-pinene oxide, linalool, alpha-terpineol] and a noncyclic hydrocarbon (beta-myrcene). Isomers of pinene inhibited activity to different extents. Given their natural sources, monoterpenes may be significant factors affecting bacterial activities in nature. PMID:9464387

  5. Molecular characterization of a microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification under micro-aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingjing; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Liang; Ju, Xi; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    Methane can be used as an alternative carbon source in biological denitrification because it is nontoxic, widely available and relatively inexpensive. A microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (MOD) was enriched with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors under micro-aerobic conditions. The 16S rRNA gene combined with pmoA phylogeny of methanotrophs and nirK phylogeny of denitrifiers were analysed to reveal the dominant microbial populations and functional microorganisms. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed high numbers of methanotrophs and denitrifiers in the enriched consortium. The 16S rRNA gene clone library revealed that Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae were the dominant populations in the MOD ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses of pmoA gene clone libraries indicated that all methanotrophs belonged to Methylococcaceae, a type I methanotroph employing the ribulose monophosphate pathway for methane oxidation. Methylotrophic denitrifiers of the Methylophilaceae that can utilize organic intermediates (i.e. formaldehyde, citrate and acetate) released from the methanotrophs played a vital role in aerobic denitrification. This study is the first report to confirm micro-aerobic denitrification and to make phylogenetic and functional assignments for some members of the microbial assemblages involved in MOD. PMID:24245852

  6. Activation of accumulated nitrite reduction by immobilized Pseudomonas stutzeri T13 during aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Sun, Yilu; Li, Ang; Zhang, Xuening; Yang, Jixian

    2015-01-01

    The excellent removal efficiency of nitrate by the aerobic denitrifier, Pseudomonas stutzeri T13, was achieved in free cells system. However, poor nitrite reduction prevents efficient aerobic denitrification because of the nitrite accumulation. This problem could be conquered by immobilizing the cells on supports. In this study, strain T13 was immobilized by mycelial pellets (MPs), polyurethane foam cubes (PFCs) and sodium alginate beads (SABs). Higher removal percentages of TN in MP (43.78%), PFC (42.31%) and SAB (57.25%) systems were achieved compared with the free cell system (29.7%). Furthermore, the optimal condition for immobilized cell systems was as follows: 30°C, 100rpm shaking speed and pH 7. The shock-resistance of SAB system was relatively poor, which could collapse under either alkaline (pH=9) or high rotating (200rpm) conditions. The recycling experiments demonstrated that the high steady TN removal rate could be maintained for seven cycles in both MP and PFC systems. PMID:25827250

  7. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Myrold, David D.

    2012-09-01

    The use of smart tracers to study hydrologic systems is becoming more widespread. Smart tracers are compounds that irreversibly react in the presence of a process or condition under investigation. Resazurin (Raz) is a smart tracer that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) in the presence of cellular metabolic activity. We quantified the relationship between the transformation of Raz and aerobic bacterial respiration in pure culture experiments using two obligate aerobes and two facultative anaerobes, and in colonized surface and shallow (<10 cm) hyporheic sediments using reach-scale experiments. We found that the transformation of Raz to Rru was nearly perfectly (minr2 = 0.986), positively correlated with aerobic microbial respiration in all experiments. These results suggest that Raz can be used as a surrogate to measure respiration in situ and in vivoat different spatial scales, thus providing an alternative to investigate mechanistic controls of solute transport and stream metabolism on nutrient processing. Lastly, a comparison of respiration and mass-transfer rates in streams suggests that field-scale respiration is controlled by the slower of respiration and mass transfer, highlighting the need to understand both biogeochemistry and physics in stream ecosystems.

  8. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by EPSs in aerobic granular sludge enhanced nitrogen removal of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lilong; Zhang, Shaoliang; Hao, Guoxin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ren, Yuan; Wen, Yan; Guo, Yihan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In this study, role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in enhancing nitrogen-removal from ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology were analyzed. AGS enabled ammonium oxidation and denitrification to occur simultaneously. Air stripping and simultaneous nitrification-denitrification contributed to total-nitrogen removal. Clone-library analysis revealed that close relatives of Nitrosomonas eutropha and heterotrophic denitrifiers were dominant in the AGS, whereas anammox bacteria were not detected. EPSs adsorption of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate nitrogen results in improved removal of nitrogen in batch experiments. PMID:26706722

  9. Microbiology and potential applications of aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) process: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Qian; Yuan, Mengdong; Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Weixiang; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) is an important link between the global methane and nitrogen cycles. This mini-review updates discoveries regarding aerobic methanotrophs and denitrifiers, as a prelude to spotlight the microbial mechanism and the potential applications of AME-D. Until recently, AME-D was thought to be accomplished by a microbial consortium where denitrifying bacteria utilize carbon intermediates, which are excreted by aerobic methanotrophs, as energy and carbon sources. Potential carbon intermediates include methanol, citrate and acetate. This mini-review presents microbial thermodynamic estimations and postulates that methanol is the ideal electron donor for denitrification, and may serve as a trophic link between methanotrophic bacteria and denitrifiers. More excitingly, new discoveries have revealed that AME-D is not only confined to the conventional synergism between methanotrophic bacteria and denitrifiers. Specifically, an obligate aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas denitrificans FJG1, has been demonstrated to couple partial denitrification with methane oxidation, under hypoxia conditions, releasing nitrous oxide as a terminal product. This finding not only substantially advances the understanding of AME-D mechanism, but also implies an important but unknown role of aerobic methanotrophs in global climate change through their influence on both the methane and nitrogen cycles in ecosystems. Hence, further investigation on AME-D microbiology and mechanism is essential to better understand global climate issues and to develop niche biotechnological solutions. This mini-review also presents traditional microbial techniques, such as pure cultivation and stable isotope probing, and powerful microbial techniques, such as (meta-) genomics and (meta-) transcriptomics, for deciphering linked methane oxidation and denitrification. Although AME-D has immense potential for nitrogen removal from wastewater, drinking

  10. Bioturbation enhances the aerobic respiration of lake sediments in warming lakes

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    While lakes occupy less than 2% of the total surface of the Earth, they play a substantial role in global biogeochemical cycles. For instance, shallow lakes are important sites of carbon metabolism. Aerobic respiration is one of the important drivers of the carbon metabolism in lakes. In this context, bioturbation impacts of benthic animals (biological reworking of sediment matrix and ventilation of the sediment) on sediment aerobic respiration have previously been underestimated. Biological activity is likely to change over the course of a year due to seasonal changes of water temperatures. This study uses microcosm experiments to investigate how the impact of bioturbation (by Diptera, Chironomidae larvae) on lake sediment respiration changes when temperatures increase. While at 5°C, respiration in sediments with and without chironomids did not differ, at 30°C sediment respiration in microcosms with 2000 chironomids per m2 was 4.9 times higher than in uninhabited sediments. Our results indicate that lake water temperature increases could significantly enhance lake sediment respiration, which allows us to better understand seasonal changes in lake respiration and carbon metabolism as well as the potential impacts of global warming. PMID:27484649

  11. Bioturbation enhances the aerobic respiration of lake sediments in warming lakes.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Krause, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    While lakes occupy less than 2% of the total surface of the Earth, they play a substantial role in global biogeochemical cycles. For instance, shallow lakes are important sites of carbon metabolism. Aerobic respiration is one of the important drivers of the carbon metabolism in lakes. In this context, bioturbation impacts of benthic animals (biological reworking of sediment matrix and ventilation of the sediment) on sediment aerobic respiration have previously been underestimated. Biological activity is likely to change over the course of a year due to seasonal changes of water temperatures. This study uses microcosm experiments to investigate how the impact of bioturbation (by Diptera, Chironomidae larvae) on lake sediment respiration changes when temperatures increase. While at 5°C, respiration in sediments with and without chironomids did not differ, at 30°C sediment respiration in microcosms with 2000 chironomids per m(2) was 4.9 times higher than in uninhabited sediments. Our results indicate that lake water temperature increases could significantly enhance lake sediment respiration, which allows us to better understand seasonal changes in lake respiration and carbon metabolism as well as the potential impacts of global warming. PMID:27484649

  12. Mystery of the Toxic Flea Dip: An Interactive Approach to Teaching Aerobic Cellular Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, A. T.; McVey, M.; Rybarczyk, B.; Thompson, J. T.; Wilkins, H. R.

    2004-01-01

    We designed an interrupted case study to teach aerobic cellular respiration to major and nonmajor biology students. The case is based loosely on a real-life incident of rotenone poisoning. It places students in the role of a coroner who must determine the cause of death of the victim. The case is presented to the students in four parts. Each part…

  13. [Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Li, Jin

    2016-02-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strain named y5 was isolated from marine environment by traditional microbial isolation method using seawater as medium. It was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on the morphological, physiological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate; the optimal pH was 7.0; and the optimal C/N was 17. The strain could use NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were77.07%, 64.14% and 100% after 36 hours, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 100% after 36 hours in the coexistence of NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3. The results showed that the strain y5 had independent and efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification activities in high salt wastewater. PMID:27363156

  14. p63 supports aerobic respiration through hexokinase II.

    PubMed

    Viticchiè, Guiditta; Agostini, Massimiliano; Lena, Anna Maria; Mancini, Mara; Zhou, Huiqing; Zolla, Lello; Dinsdale, David; Saintigny, Gaelle; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora

    2015-09-15

    Short p63 isoform, ΔNp63, is crucial for epidermis formation, and it plays a pivotal role in controlling the turnover of basal keratinocytes by regulating the expression of a subset of genes involved in cell cycle and cell adhesion programs. The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) represents the first step of glucose utilization in cells. The family of HKs has four isoforms that differ mainly in their tissue and subcellular distribution. The preferential mitochondrial localization of HK2 at voltage-dependent anion channels provides access to ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation and generates an ADP/ATP recycling mechanism to maintain high respiration rates and low electron leak. Here, we report that ΔNp63 depletion in human keratinocytes impairs mitochondrial basal respiration and increases mitochondrial membrane polarization and intracellular reactive oxygen species. We show ΔNp63-dependent regulation of HK2 expression, and we use ChIP, validated by p63-Chip sequencing genomewide profiling analysis, and luciferase assays to demonstrate the presence of one p63-specific responsive element within the 15th intronic region of the HK2 gene, providing evidence of a direct interaction. Our data support the notion of ΔNp63 as a master regulator in epithelial cells of a combined subset of molecular mechanisms, including cellular energy metabolism and respiration. The ΔNp63-HK2 axis is also present in epithelial cancer cells, suggesting that ΔNp63 could participate in cancer metabolic reprogramming. PMID:26324887

  15. Reducing NO and N₂O emission during aerobic denitrification by newly isolated Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maosheng; He, Da; Ma, Tao; Chen, Qian; Liu, Sitong; Ahmad, Muhammad; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2014-06-01

    As two obligatory intermediates of denitrification, both NO and N2O had harmful environmental and biological impacts. An aerobic denitrifying bacterial strain PCN-1 was newly isolated and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, which was capable of high efficient nitrogen removal under aerobic condition with maximal NO and N2O accumulation as low as 0.003% and 0.33% of removed NO3(-)-N, respectively. Further experiment taking nitrite as denitrifying substrate indicated similar low NO and N2O emission of 0.006% and 0.29% of reduced NO2(-)-N, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the coordinate expression of denitrification gene nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase), cnorB (for NO reductase) and nosZ (for N2O reductase) was the fundamental reason of low NO and N2O accumulation. Activated sludge system bioaugmented by strain PCN-1 demonstrated a significant reduction of NO and N2O emission from wastewater during aerobic denitrification, implied great potential of PCN-1 in practical applications. PMID:24747385

  16. Influence of Partial Denitrification and Mixotrophic Growth of NOB on Microbial Distribution in Aerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mari-K H; Le, Quan H; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-09-15

    In aerobic granular sludge (AGS), the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) can be uncoupled from the nitrite supply of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Besides, unlike for conventional activated sludge, Nitrobacter was found to be the dominant NOB and not Nitrospira. To explain these experimental observations, two possible pathways have been put forward in literature. The first one involves the availability of additional nitrite from partial denitrification (nitrite-loop) and the second one consists of mixotrophic growth of Nitrobacter in the presence of acetate (ping-pong). In this contribution, mathematical models were set up to assess the possibility of these pathways to explain the reported observations. Simulation results revealed that both pathways influenced the nitrifier distribution in the granules. The nitrite-loop pathway led to an elevated NOB/AOB ratio, while mixotrophic growth of Nitrobacter guaranteed their predominance among the NOB population. Besides, mixotrophic growth of Nitrobacter could lead to NO emission from AGS. An increasing temperature and/or a decreasing oxygen concentration led to an elevated NOB/AOB ratio and increased NO emissions. PMID:26248168

  17. p63 supports aerobic respiration through hexokinase II

    PubMed Central

    Viticchiè, Guiditta; Agostini, Massimiliano; Lena, Anna Maria; Mancini, Mara; Zhou, Huiqing; Zolla, Lello; Dinsdale, David; Saintigny, Gaelle; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Short p63 isoform, ΔNp63, is crucial for epidermis formation, and it plays a pivotal role in controlling the turnover of basal keratinocytes by regulating the expression of a subset of genes involved in cell cycle and cell adhesion programs. The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) represents the first step of glucose utilization in cells. The family of HKs has four isoforms that differ mainly in their tissue and subcellular distribution. The preferential mitochondrial localization of HK2 at voltage-dependent anion channels provides access to ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation and generates an ADP/ATP recycling mechanism to maintain high respiration rates and low electron leak. Here, we report that ΔNp63 depletion in human keratinocytes impairs mitochondrial basal respiration and increases mitochondrial membrane polarization and intracellular reactive oxygen species. We show ΔNp63-dependent regulation of HK2 expression, and we use ChIP, validated by p63-Chip sequencing genomewide profiling analysis, and luciferase assays to demonstrate the presence of one p63-specific responsive element within the 15th intronic region of the HK2 gene, providing evidence of a direct interaction. Our data support the notion of ΔNp63 as a master regulator in epithelial cells of a combined subset of molecular mechanisms, including cellular energy metabolism and respiration. The ΔNp63–HK2 axis is also present in epithelial cancer cells, suggesting that ΔNp63 could participate in cancer metabolic reprogramming. PMID:26324887

  18. Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type cytochromes on aerobic and anaerobic respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Barua, Soumitra; Liang, Yili; Wu, Lianming; Dong, Yangyang; Reed, Samantha B.; Chen, Jingrong; Culley, David E.; Kennedy, David W.; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Tiedje, James M.; Romine, Margaret F.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-06-24

    Shewanella are renowned for their ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors (EA) for respiration, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c-type cytochromes. To investigate the involvement of c-type cytochrome proteins in aerobic and anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis Mr -1, 36 in-frame deletion mutants, among possible 41 predicted, c-type cytochrome genes were obtained. The potential involvement of each individual c-type cytochrome in the reduction of a variety of EAs was assessed individually as well as in competition experiments. While results on the wellstudied c-type cytochromes CymA(SO4591) and MtrC(SO1778) were consistent with previous findings, collective observations were very interesting: the responses of S. oneidensis Mr -1 to low and highly toxic metals appeared to be significantly different; CcoO, CcoP and PetC, proteins involved in aerobic respiration in various organisms, played critical roles in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration with highly toxic metals as EA. In addition, these studies also suggested that an uncharacterized c-type cytochrome (SO4047) may be important to both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.

  19. The Lomagundi Event Marks Post-Pasteur Point Evolution of Aerobic Respiration: A Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raub, T. D.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Nash, C. Z.; Raub, T. M.; Kopp, R. E.; Hilburn, I. A.

    2009-05-01

    All published early Earth carbon cycle models assume that aerobic respiration is as ancient as oxygenic photosynthesis. However, aerobic respiration shuts down at oxygen concentrations below the Pasteur Point, (.01 of the present atmospheric level, PAL). As geochemical processes are unable to produce even local oxygen concentrations above .001 PAL, it follows that aerobic respiration could only have evolved after oxygenic photosynthesis, implying a time gap. The evolution of oxygen reductase-utilizing metabolisms presumably would have occupied this interval. During this time the PS-II-generated free oxygen would have been largely unavailable for remineralization of dissolved organic carbon and so would have profoundly shifted the burial ratio of organic/inorganic carbon. We argue that the sequential geological record of the Makganyene (Snowball?) glaciation (2.3-2.22), the exessively aerobic Hekpoort and coeval paleosols, the Lomagundi-Jatuli carbon isotopic excursion (ending 2.056 Ga), and the deposition of concentrated, sedimentary organic carbon (shungite) mark this period of a profoundly unbalanced global carbon cycle. The Kopp et al. (2005) model for oxyatmoversion agrees with phylogenetic evidence for the radiation of cyanobacteria followed closely by the radiation of gram-negative lineages containing magnetotactic bacteria, which depend upon vertical oxygen gradients. These organisms include delta-Proteobacteria from which the mitochondrial ancestor originated. The Precambrian carbon cycle was rebalanced after a series of biological innovations allowed utilization of the high redox potential of free oxygen. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria required the evolution of a unique family of Fe-Cu oxidases, one of many factors contributing to the >210 Myr delay between the Makganyene deglaciation and the end of the Lomagundi-Jatuli event. We speculate that metalliferious fluids associated with the eruption of the Bushveld complex facilitated evolution of these

  20. Characterization of a halophilic heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium and its application on treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinming; Fang, Hongda; Su, Bing; Chen, Jinfang; Lin, Jinmei

    2015-03-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification was isolated from marine sediments and identified as Vibrio diabolicus SF16. It had ability to remove 91.82% of NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) and 99.71% of NO3(-)-N (136.43 mg/L). The nitrogen balance showed that 35.83% of initial NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) was changed to intracellular nitrogen, and 53.98% of the initial NH4(+)-N was converted to gaseous denitrification products. The existence of napA gene further proved the aerobic denitrification ability of strain SF16. The optimum culture conditions were salinity 1-5%, sodium acetate as carbon source, C/N 10, and pH 7.5-9.5. When an aerated biological filter system inoculated with strain SF16 was employed to treat saline wastewater, the average removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N and TN reached 97.14% and 73.92%, respectively, indicating great potential of strain SF16 for future full-scale applications. PMID:25557251

  1. Removal of nitrogen by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification of a phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24.

    PubMed

    Li, Chune; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Xin; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; He, Ruoxue; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-04-01

    Phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24 exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability. Single factor experiments showed that both heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification occurred with sodium citrate as carbon source and lower C/N ratio of 8. High average NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N removal rates of 8.75, 7.51 and 7.73 mg L(-1)h(-1) were achieved. The application of strain YG-24 in wastewater samples resulted in TN, NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N and P removal efficiencies of 85.28%, 88.13%, 86.15%, 70.83% and 51.21%. Sequencing and quantitative amplification by real-time PCR of napA, nirS and ppk showed that nitrogen removal pathway of strain YG-24 was achieved through heterotrophic ammonium nitrification coupled with fast nitrite denitrification (NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N and then to gaseous nitrogen) directly. These results demonstrated the strain as a suitable candidate to simultaneously remove both nitrogen and phosphate in wastewater treatment. PMID:25668754

  2. Simultaneous phosphorus uptake and denitrification by EBPR-r biofilm under aerobic conditions: effect of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pan Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Sutton, David C; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2015-01-01

    A biofilm process, termed enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBPR-r), was recently developed as a post-denitrification approach to facilitate phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater. Although simultaneous P uptake and denitrification was achieved despite substantial intrusion of dissolved oxygen (DO >6 mg/L), to what extent DO affects the process was unclear. Hence, in this study a series of batch experiments was conducted to assess the activity of the biofilm under various DO concentrations. The biofilm was first allowed to store acetate (as internal storage) under anaerobic conditions, and was then subjected to various conditions for P uptake (DO: 0-8 mg/L; nitrate: 10 mg-N/L; phosphate: 8 mg-P/L). The results suggest that even at a saturating DO concentration (8 mg/L), the biofilm could take up P and denitrify efficiently (0.70 mmol e(-)/g total solids*h). However, such aerobic denitrification activity was reduced when the biofilm structure was physically disturbed, suggesting that this phenomenon was a consequence of the presence of oxygen gradient across the biofilm. We conclude that when a biofilm system is used, EBPR-r can be effectively operated as a post-denitrification process, even when oxygen intrusion occurs. PMID:26398030

  3. Intracellular azo decolorization is coupled with aerobic respiration by a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Tian; Hu, Jin-Mei; Wang, Shi; Li, Wen-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Reduction of azo dye methyl red coupled with aerobic respiration by growing cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 was investigated. In liquid media containing dye and 0.6 % glucose in a mineral salts base, 100 mg l(-1) of the dye are completely removed in 3 h under shaking conditions. The dye cannot be aerobically decolorized by strain GS-4-08 without extra carbon sources, indicating a co-metabolism process. Higher initial dye concentration prolonged the lag phase of the cell growth, but final cell concentrations of each batches reached a same level with range from 6.3 to 7.6 mg l(-1) after the dye adaption period. This strain showed stronger dye tolerance and decolorization ability than many reported strains. Furthermore, a new intracellular oxygen-insensitive azoreductase was isolated from this strain, and the specific activity of enzyme was 0.846 and 0.633 U mg(-1) protein in the presence of NADH and NADPH, respectively. N,N dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and anthranilic acid were stoichiometrically released from MR dye, indicating the breakage of azo bonds accounts for the intracellular decolorization. Combining the characteristics of azoreductase, the stoichiometry of EMP, and TCA cycle, the electron transfer chain theory of aerobic respiration, and the possible mechanism of aerobic respiration coupled with azo reduction by K. oxytoca GS-4-08 are proposed. This study is expected to provide a sound theoretical basis for the development of the K. oxytoca strain in aerobic process for azo dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25343980

  4. [Cultivation of Aerobic Granular Sludge with Real Low Concentration Domestic Wastewater and Its Denitrification Performances Under the Continuous Flow].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Zhu, Liao-dong; Xie, Si-jian

    2015-07-01

    The COD, ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiency, as well as the physical properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and its denitrification kinetics were studied in the continuous flow reactor. The experimental results showed that the AGS was successfully cultivated in the continuous flow system within 40 days. The nitrogen and carbon removal efficiencies were gradually improved with the improvement of sludge granulation. In the running stage of 41 - 60 days, the COD, ammonia and TN removal efficiency could reach 85. 54% , 95. 5% and 65. 56%, respectively. And the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen accumulation was not high in the reaction process. Mature AGS had more void structure and a large number of extracellular polymeric substances. It had significant advantages compared with the seed sludge in the aspects of moisture content, wet density, sedimentation rate, mechanical strength, and SVI values. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification efficiency was 81. 69% , the nitrification rate and denitrification rate were 5.78 mg . (L.h) -1 and 4. 90 mg . (L.h) -1, respectively. PMID:26489334

  5. Interaction of Cr(VI) reduction and denitrification by strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Da; Zheng, Maosheng; Ma, Tao; Li, Can; Ni, Jinren

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of efficient denitrification in presence of toxic heavy metals is one of the current problems encountered in municipal wastewater treatment plants. This paper presents how to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and nitrate simultaneously by the novel strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 under aerobic conditions. The capability of strain PCN-2 for Cr(VI) and nitrate reduction was confirmed by PCR analysis of gene ChrR, napA, nirS, cnorB, nosZ, while Cr(VI) reduction was proved via an initial single-electron transfer through Cr(V) detection using electron paramagnetic resonance. Experimental results demonstrated that Cr(VI) and nitrate reduction by strain PCN-2 was much faster at pH 8-9 and higher initial cell concentration. However, increasing Cr(VI) concentration would inhibit aerobic denitrification process and result in an significant delay of nitrate reduction or N2O accumulation, which was attributed to competition between three electron acceptors, i.e., Cr(VI), O2 and nitrate in the electron transport chain. PMID:25795449

  6. Denitrification in human dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-). Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N2) using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions. PMID:20307293

  7. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at low temperature by a newly isolated bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. HA2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuo; Ni, Jinren; Ma, Tao; Li, Can

    2013-07-01

    A psychrotrophic heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium was newly isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp. with phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. The strain possessed excellent tolerance to low temperature with 20°C as its optimum and 4°C as viable. Moreover, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate could be removed efficiently under low-temperature, solely aerobic conditions with little accumulation of intermediates. The average removal rate at 10°C reached as high as 3.03, 2.51 and 1.88 mg NL(-1)h(-1) for ammonium, nitrite and nitrate respectively. N2 was produced through heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification via nitrite but N2O was never detected in the whole process. Nitrogen balance analysis indicated that N2 and intracellular nitrogen were two major fates of the initial ammonium, accounting for 32.4 and 49.2%, respectively. Further aerated batch test demonstrated efficient removal of COD and TN from synthetic wastewater, which implied promising practical application of the present strain. PMID:23644073

  8. Microbial Cells and Aerobic Respiration from Seafloor to Basement in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, S.; Inagaki, F.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Morono, Y.; Pockalny, R. A.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The seafloor is broadly divided into two regions (Emerson et al., 1985): one where sedimentary microbial respiration is high and oxygen (O2) penetrates only millimeters to centimeters into the sediment (Revsbech et al., 1980), and another where sedimentary respiration is low and O2 penetrates much deeper (Murray& Grundmanis, 1980; D'Hondt et al., 2011; Røy et al, 2012; Orcutt et al., 2013). Active anaerobic microbial communities persist for hundreds of meters or more in subseafloor sediment of the high-respiration region. In the low-respiration region, the existence of microbial communities is previously unknown throughout most of the sedimentary sequence (Morita & Zobell, 1955; D'Hondt et al., 2009; Røy et al., 2012). Here we show that microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence (to depths of at least 75 m below seafloor) throughout the vast expanse of the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. This sediment and underlying basalt may be continuously exposed to O2 for its entire history (up to 120 myrs at our sites). Redfield stoichiometry of dissolved O2 and nitrate indicates that net sedimentary O2 reduction is coupled to oxidation of marine organic matter. Oxygen and aerobic communities may occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global ocean. This result has major implications for the nature and distribution of subseafloor life. It may ultimately affect the chemical evolution of Earth's mantle and subduction-related volcanic systems. References D'Hondt, S., et al., 2009. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 11651-11656, doi:10.1073/pnas.0811793106. D'Hondt, S., et al., 2011. Proc. IODP 329, doi:10.2204/ iodp.proc.329.2011. Emerson, S., et al., 1985. Deep-Sea Research 32, 1-21. Morita, R.Y. & Zobell, C.E., 1955. Deep-Sea Research 3, 66-73.Murray, J.W. & Grundmanis, V., 1980. Science 209, 1527-1530. Orcutt, B.N., et al., 2013. Nature Communications 4, 2539, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3539

  9. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of high-strength ammonium in anaerobically digested sludge by Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 which is capable of heterogeneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification, was used to remove high-strength ammonium (approximately 1 g NH4(+)-N/l) from digested sludge, the product of an anaerobic digestion reactor, in which methane was produced from excess municipal sewage sludge. Repeated batch operations were conducted at 20°C and 30°C for 550 h, using a jar fermentor. The removal ratios of high-strength ammonium reached 90-100% within 24 h, and the average ammonium removal rate was 2.9 kg-N/m(3)/day, more than 200 times higher than that in conventional nitrification-denitrification processes. During these operations, the cell density was maintained at 10(8)-10(9) cells of A. faecalis strain No. 4/ml. At 3% NaCl in the digested sludge, strain No. 4 exhibited an ammonium removal rate of 3 kg-N/m(3)/day. PMID:24411668

  10. Respiration and respiratory enzyme activity in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Garfield, P. C.; Martinez, R.

    1983-03-01

    Oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction, respiratory electron transport activity, and nitrate reductase activity were measured in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. The respiratory electron transport activity was closely correlated with oxygen consumption ( r = 0.98) in aerobic cultures and nearly as well correlated with nitrate reductase activity ( r = 0.91) and nitrate reduction ( r = 0.85) in anaerobic cultures. It was also well correlated with biomass in both aerobic ( r = 0.99) and anaerobic ( r = 0.94) cultures supporting the use of tetrazolium reduction as an index of living biomass. Time courses of nitrate and nitrate in the anaerobic cultures demonstrated that at nitrate concentrations above 1 mM, denitrification proceeds stepwise. Time courses of pH in anaerobic cultures revealed a rise from 7 to 8.5 during nitrite reduction indicating net proton utilization. This proton utilization is predicted by the stoichiometry of denitrification. Although the experiments were not under 'simulated in situ' conditions, the results are relevant to studies of denitrification, to bacterial ATP production, and to the respiratory activity of marine plankton in the ocean.

  11. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; Peter Revsbech, Niels

    2014-12-01

    Highly sensitive STOX O2 sensors were used for determination of in situ O2 distribution in the eastern tropical north and south Pacific oxygen minimum zones (ETN/SP OMZs), as well as for laboratory determination of O2 uptake rates of water masses at various depths within these OMZs. Oxygen was generally below the detection limit (few nmol L-1) in the core of both OMZs, suggesting the presence of vast volumes of functionally anoxic waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Oxygen was often not detectable in the deep secondary chlorophyll maximum found at some locations, but other secondary maxima contained up to ~0.4 μmol L-1. Directly measured respiration rates were high in surface and subsurface oxic layers of the coastal waters, reaching values up to 85 nmol L-1 O2 h-1. Substantially lower values were found at the depths of the upper oxycline, where values varied from 2 to 33 nmol L-1 O2 h-1. Where secondary chlorophyll maxima were found the rates were higher than in the oxic water just above. Incubation times longer than 20 h, in the all-glass containers, resulted in highly increased respiration rates. Addition of amino acids to the water from the upper oxycline did not lead to a significant initial rise in respiration rate within the first 20 h, indicating that the measurement of respiration rates in oligotrophic Ocean water may not be severely affected by low levels of organic contamination during sampling. Our measurements indicate that aerobic metabolism proceeds efficiently at extremely low oxygen concentrations with apparent half-saturation concentrations (Km values) ranging from about 10 to about 200 nmol L-1.

  12. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2012-11-01

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl{sub 2} for 15 days along with training. ► Co

  13. Impact resistance of different factors on ammonia removal by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium Aeromonas sp. HN-02.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoxia; Wang, Wenchao; Feng, Ye; Zhu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang; Li, Xudong

    2014-09-01

    To give reference for the application of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria in actual wastewater treatment, the impact resistance of extreme pH, low temperature, heavy metals and high salinity on ammonia removal by a typical heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium Aeromonas sp. HN-02 was investigated. The results showed that HN-02 demonstrated strong acid- and alkali-resistance. In addition, it remained active at 5°C, and the removal rates of ammonia and COD were 0.90 mg L(-1)h(-1) and 22.34 mg L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Under the same extent of immediate temperature drop, the temperature correction coefficients of ammonia, COD removal rates and cell growth rate were close. Moreover, HN-02 could survive in the solution containing 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu(2+) or 8 mg L(-1) Zn(2+), or 0.5 mg L(-1) of equivalent Cu(2+)-Zn(2+). Furthermore, efficient ammonia removal was retained at salinity below 20 g L(-1), thus it could be identified as a halotolerant bacterium. At last, stronger stress resulted in higher ΔCOD/ΔTN ratio. PMID:25006021

  14. The HMGB1 protein induces a metabolic type of tumour cell death by blocking aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Gdynia, Georg; Sauer, Sven W; Kopitz, Jürgen; Fuchs, Dominik; Duglova, Katarina; Ruppert, Thorsten; Miller, Matthias; Pahl, Jens; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Enders, Markus; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Kamiński, Marcin M; Penzel, Roland; Zhang, Christine; Fuller, Jonathan C; Wade, Rebecca C; Benner, Axel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has a central role in immunological antitumour defense. Here we show that natural killer cell-derived HMGB1 directly eliminates cancer cells by triggering metabolic cell death. HMGB1 allosterically inhibits the tetrameric pyruvate kinase isoform M2, thus blocking glucose-driven aerobic respiration. This results in a rapid metabolic shift forcing cells to rely solely on glycolysis for the maintenance of energy production. Cancer cells can acquire resistance to HMGB1 by increasing glycolysis using the dimeric form of PKM2, and employing glutaminolysis. Consistently, we observe an increase in the expression of a key enzyme of glutaminolysis, malic enzyme 1, in advanced colon cancer. Moreover, pharmaceutical inhibition of glutaminolysis sensitizes tumour cells to HMGB1 providing a basis for a therapeutic strategy for treating cancer. PMID:26948869

  15. The HMGB1 protein induces a metabolic type of tumour cell death by blocking aerobic respiration

    PubMed Central

    Gdynia, Georg; Sauer, Sven W.; Kopitz, Jürgen; Fuchs, Dominik; Duglova, Katarina; Ruppert, Thorsten; Miller, Matthias; Pahl, Jens; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Enders, Markus; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Kamiński, Marcin M.; Penzel, Roland; Zhang, Christine; Fuller, Jonathan C.; Wade, Rebecca C.; Benner, Axel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has a central role in immunological antitumour defense. Here we show that natural killer cell-derived HMGB1 directly eliminates cancer cells by triggering metabolic cell death. HMGB1 allosterically inhibits the tetrameric pyruvate kinase isoform M2, thus blocking glucose-driven aerobic respiration. This results in a rapid metabolic shift forcing cells to rely solely on glycolysis for the maintenance of energy production. Cancer cells can acquire resistance to HMGB1 by increasing glycolysis using the dimeric form of PKM2, and employing glutaminolysis. Consistently, we observe an increase in the expression of a key enzyme of glutaminolysis, malic enzyme 1, in advanced colon cancer. Moreover, pharmaceutical inhibition of glutaminolysis sensitizes tumour cells to HMGB1 providing a basis for a therapeutic strategy for treating cancer. PMID:26948869

  16. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Hinchee, R E; Ong, S K

    1992-10-01

    An in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O2) and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O2/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O2 utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO2 production. CO2 produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions. PMID:1418936

  17. [Isolation, Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain y3 Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Xu, Guang-yao; Li, Jin

    2016-03-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification--aerobic denitrification bacterium named y3 was isolated from the sludge of Jiaozhou Bay using the enrichment medium with seawater as the matrix. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological observation, physiological experiments and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate, the optimal pH was 7.0, and the optimal C/N was 13. The strain could use NH₄Cl, NaNO₂ and KNO₃ as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were 98.69%, 78.38% and 72.95% within 20 hours, respectively. There was no nitrate and nitrite accumulation during the heterotrophic nitrification process. Within 20 hours, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 99.56%, 99.75% and 99.41%, respectively, in the mixed system with NO₃⁻-N: NO²⁻-N of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. When the NH₄⁺-N: NO₃⁻-N ratios were 2: 1 , 1: 1 , 1: 2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were all 100% . When the NH₄⁺-N:NO₂⁻-N ratios were 2:1,1:1,1:2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 90.43%, 92.79% and 99.96%, respectively. They were higher than those with single nitrogen source. As a result, strain y3 had good nitrogen removal performance in high saline wastewater treatment. PMID:27337905

  18. Special role of corn flour as an ideal carbon source for aerobic denitrification with minimized nitrous oxide emission.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuangyue; Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2015-06-01

    Much effort has been made for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in wastewater treatment processes. This paper presents an interesting way to minimize N2O in aerobic denitrification by strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1 with help of corn flour as cheaper additional carbon source. Experimental results showed that maximal N2O accumulation by strain PCN-1 was only 0.02% of removed nitrogen if corn flour was used as sole carbon source, which was significantly reduced by 52.07-99.81% comparing with others such as succinate, glucose, acetate and citrate. Sustained release of reducing sugar from starch and continuous expression of nosZ coding for N2O reductase contributed to the special role of corn flour as the ideal carbon source for strain PCN-1. Further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) demonstrated similarly efficient nitrogen removal with much less N2O emission due to synergy of the novel strain and activated sludge, which was then confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis. PMID:25802047

  19. Fungal and bacterial mediated denitrification in wetlands: influence of sediment redox condition.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, R D

    2010-04-01

    Fungal and bacterial denitrification rates were determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, +100, +250 and +400 mV) ranging from strongly reducing to moderately oxidizing conditions. Denitrification was determined using the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition and acetylene inhibition methods. Cycloheximide (C15H23NO4) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C21H39N7O12) as the bacterial inhibitor. At Eh values of +250 mV and +400 mV, denitrification rates by fungi and bacteria were 34.3-35.1% and 1.46-1.59% of total denitrification, respectively, indicating that fungi were responsible for most of the denitrification under aerobic or weakly reducing conditions. On the other hand, at Eh -200 mV, denitrification rates of fungi and bacteria were 17.6% and 64.9% of total denitrification, respectively, indicating that bacteria were responsible for most of the denitrification under strongly reducing conditions. Results show fungal denitrification was dominant under moderately reducing to weakly oxidizing conditions (Eh>+250 mV), whereas bacterial denitrification was dominant under strongly reducing condition (Eh<-100 mV). At Eh values between -100 to +100 mV, denitrification by fungi and bacteria were 37.9-43.2% and 53.0-51.1% of total denitrification, respectively, indicating that both bacteria and fungi contributed significantly to denitrification under these redox conditions. Because N2O is an important gaseous denitrification product in sediment, fungal denitrification could be of greater ecological significance under aerobic or moderately reducing conditions contributing to greenhouse gas emission and global warming potential (GWP). PMID:20122708

  20. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater. PMID:25693403

  1. Deriving time-variant aerobic respiration in the hyporheic zone by combining continuous EC and O2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2013-12-01

    Hyporheic zones (HZ) are typically characterized by steep gradients of dissolved oxygen and nutrients which form a highly reactive biogeochemical zone. Under the complex conditions of natural environments, the existing flow field is difficult to characterize, and temporal changes of the hydrological conditions induce variable flow paths and travel times. We propose a method for using the natural electrical conductivity signal (EC) of the infiltrated stream water as a tracer to reveal transient travel times in the HZ. By combining measured oxygen concentrations with the travel times of infiltrated stream water, this method can also estimate aerobic respiration rates. Our method utilizes optode-based oxygen loggers, and EC, pressure, and temperature loggers for measuring diurnal fluctuations of these vital stream indicators. Streambed adapted probe rods were designed to minimize riverbed and HZ disruption, to facilitate high temporal and spatial precision, and to minimize the impact on streamflow. Time lags between the surface water EC time series and the EC measured in the sediment at 45 cm depth were analyzed by assuming a one dimensional flow path. We used a windowed cross correlation approach with a moving average smoothing filter to obtain a time-resolved advective travel time. The moving average smoothing filter was applied to the input signal to help maximize the correlation coefficient and to indicate potential dispersion. We used the resulting shifts and smooths to model the sediment EC signal. Diverging amplitudes are interpreted as mass loss and determined by adjusting the filter weight for obtaining a recovery rate. The obtained variations in physical transport conditions (advection, dispersion, recovery rate) are then assigned to the oxygen data. Differences between observed and modeled oxygen concentrations in the sediment were attributed to aerobic respiration. Modeled rates of aerobic respiration varied from 2-19 mg/l/d in August/September 2012 (mean

  2. Linkages between denitrification and dissolved organic matter quality, Boulder Creek watershed, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Smith, Richard L.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fuels the majority of in-stream microbial processes, including the removal of nitrate via denitrification. However, little is known about how the chemical composition of DOM influences denitrification rates. Water and sediment samples were collected across an ecosystem gradient, spanning the alpine to plains, in central Colorado to determine whether the chemical composition of DOM was related to denitrification rates. Laboratory bioassays measured denitrification potentials using the acetylene block technique and carbon mineralization via aerobic bioassays, while organic matter characteristics were evaluated using spectroscopic and fractionation methods. Denitrification potentials under ambient and elevated nitrate concentrations were strongly correlated with aerobic respiration rates and the percent mineralized carbon, suggesting that information about the aerobic metabolism of a system can provide valuable insight regarding the ability of the system to additionally reduce nitrate. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) revealed that under elevated nitrate concentrations denitrification potentials were positively related to the presence of protein-like fluorophores and negatively related to more aromatic and oxidized fractions of the DOM pool. Using MLR, the chemical composition of DOM, carbon, and nitrate concentrations explained 70% and 78% of the observed variability in denitrification potential under elevated and ambient nitrate conditions, respectively. Thus, it seems likely that DOM optical properties could help to improve predictions of nitrate removal in the environment. Finally, fluorescence measurements revealed that bacteria used both protein and humic-like organic molecules during denitrification providing further evidence that larger, more aromatic molecules are not necessarily recalcitrant in the environment.

  3. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity between Symbiodinium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Thomas D.; Hagemeyer, Julia C. G.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Marsh, Adam G.; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations). We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1). In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein−1), and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides further evidence

  4. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity between Symbiodinium spp.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Hagemeyer, Julia C G; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Marsh, Adam G; Warner, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations). We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1). In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein(-1)), and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides further evidence

  5. [Comparison of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification system by strain qy37 and its accelerating removal characteristic of NH4+ -N].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-yu; Qu, Yang; Yu, De-shuang; Guo, Sha-sha; Yang, Rui-xia

    2010-08-01

    The characterization in nitrogen removal of a heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria (qy37) was studied. A strain coded as qy37 which had simultaneous heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying ability was screened. In the light of its morphological and physiological characters as well as their sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, strain qy37 was identified as Pseudomonas sp.. In heterotrophic nitrifying system utilized ammonium chloride as nitrogen source, the concentration of NH4+ -N reduced from 138.52 mg/L to 7.88 mg/L and COD reduced from 2408.39 to 1177.49 mg/L by strain qy37 in 32 hours, the maximum accumulation of NH2OH and NO2- -N were 9.42 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L respectively, it was speculated that NH2OH was transformed to N2O and N2 directly by strain qy37. In aerobic denitrifying system utilized sodium nitrite as nitrogen source, the concentration of NO2- -N reduced from 109.25 mg/L to 2.59 mg/L by strain qy37 in 24 hours, and the maximum accumulation of NH2OH was 3.28 mg/L. Compared with heterotrophic nitrifying system, aerobic denitrifying system had a higher bacterial growth whereas the lower removal rate of TN and COD, as well as the accumulation of NH2OH. NO3- -N was also detected in aerobic denitrifying system. It is considered that the upgrowth of bacterium and utilization of energy in aerobic denitrifying system were more efficient than that in heterotrophic nitrifying system. In heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification system, the removal rate of NH4+ -N improved 37.31% in 16 hours than that in heterotrophic nitrifying system, the accumulation of NH2OH was less but N2O was higher than that in both heterotrophic nitrifying system and aerobic denitrifying system. PMID:21090299

  6. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature-pH-salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jesse P; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-09-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  7. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature–pH–salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jesse P.; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  8. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  9. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  10. Lateral Transfer of the Denitrification Pathway Genes among Thermus thermophilus Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; José Gómez, Manuel; Berenguer, José

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate respiration is a common and strain-specific property in Thermus thermophilus encoded by the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE) that can be laterally transferred by conjugation. In contrast, nitrite respiration and further denitrification steps are restricted to a few isolates of this species. These later steps of the denitrification pathway are under the regulatory control of an NCE-encoded transcription factor, but nothing is known about their coding sequences or its putative genetic linkage to the NCE. In this study we examine the genetic linkage between nitrate and nitrite respiration through lateral gene transfer (LGT) assays and describe a cluster of genes encoding the nitrite-nitric oxide respiration in T. thermophilus PRQ25. We show that the whole denitrification pathway can be transferred from the denitrificant strain PRQ25 to an aerobic strain, HB27, and that the genes coding for nitrite and nitric oxide respiration are encoded near the NCE. Sequence data from the draft genome of PRQ25 confirmed these results and allowed us to describe the most compact nor-nir cluster known thus far and to demonstrate the expression and activities of the encoded enzymes in the HB27 denitrificant derivatives obtained by LGT. We conclude that this NCE nor-nir supercluster constitutes a whole denitrification island that can be spread by lateral transfer among Thermus thermophilus strains. PMID:21169443

  11. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH. PMID:27148718

  12. [Analysis of the Microbial Community Structure in Continuous Flow Reactor Enhanced by Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium Burkholderia sp. YX02].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ji-lun; Cao, Gang; Li, Zi-hui; Huang, Zheng-zheng; Luo, Kai; Mo, Ce-hui

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the dynamic succession of microbial community structure along with time in bio-denitrification reactor, a continuous flow reactor containing immobilized heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium Burkholderia sp. YX02 was taken as a model. The microbial community structure in the bioreactor was analyzed by PCR-DCGE, and its correlations with environmental factors such as pH, NH4+ -N, NO2- -N, NO3- -N and COD were simultaneously investigated. The results showed that the microbial community was relatively rich during the early stage of 18 days. The similarity of community structure in different stages was not orderly declining with the operation. In addition, the structural similarity in adjacent stages firstly increased, then decreased, and eventually tended to be stable. Shannon-Wiener index firstly descended significantly, and then ascended with new microbial community emerging at the later stage. UPGMA clustering analysis roughly divided the process into three periods with certain relationship. Principal component analysis showed that during the operation of the bioreactor predominant bacterial community formed steadily and new microbial community dominated by Burkholderia sp. YX02 emerged at the later stage of the operation. Canonical correspondence analysis certificated that the structure of microbial community was most obviously affected by NO2- -N, followed by NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and COD, and pH had the least effect. PMID:27363154

  13. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  14. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  15. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  16. Remediation of nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater using a pilot-scale two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification permeable reactive barrier with spongy iron/pine bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxin; Huang, Yuanying; Hu, Hongyan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Renwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3(-)-N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3(-)-N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2(-)-N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4(+)-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3(-)-N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL(-1) at PV 1 to 9.34mgL(-1) at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification. PMID:25747301

  17. Mechanism of biological denitrification inhibition: procyanidins induce an allosteric transition of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase through membrane alteration.

    PubMed

    Bardon, Clément; Poly, Franck; Piola, Florence; Pancton, Muriel; Comte, Gilles; Meiffren, Guillaume; Haichar, Feth el Zahar

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been shown that procyanidins from Fallopia spp. inhibit bacterial denitrification, a phenomenon called biological denitrification inhibition (BDI). However, the mechanisms involved in such a process remain unknown. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of BDI involving procyanidins, using the model strain Pseudomonas brassicacearum NFM 421. The aerobic and anaerobic (denitrification) respiration, cell permeability and cell viability of P. brassicacearum were determined as a function of procyanidin concentration. The effect of procyanidins on the bacterial membrane was observed using transmission electronic microscopy. Bacterial growth, denitrification, NO3- and NO2-reductase activity, and the expression of subunits of NO3- (encoded by the gene narG) and NO2-reductase (encoded by the gene nirS) under NO3 or NO2 were measured with and without procyanidins. Procyanidins inhibited the denitrification process without affecting aerobic respiration at low concentrations. Procyanidins also disturbed cell membranes without affecting cell viability. They specifically inhibited NO3- but not NO2-reductase.Pseudomonas brassicacearum responded to procyanidins by over-expression of the membrane-bound NO3-reductase subunit (encoded by the gene narG). Our results suggest that procyanidins can specifically inhibit membrane-bound NO3-reductase inducing enzymatic conformational changes through membrane disturbance and that P. brassicacearum responds by over-expressing membrane-bound NO3-reductase. Our results lead the way to a better understanding of BDI. PMID:26906096

  18. [Research advances in aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhong, Wen-hui; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2007-11-01

    This paper reviewed the varieties and characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers, their action mechanisms, and the factors affecting aerobic denitrification. Aerobic denitrifiers mainly include Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus and Bacillus, which are either aerobic or facultative aerobic, and heterotrophic. They can denitrify under aerobic conditions, with the main product being N2O. They can also convert NH4+ -N to gas product. The nitrate reductase which catalyzes the denitrification is periplasmic nitrate reductase rather than membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio are the main factors affecting aerobic denitrification. The main methods for screening aerobic denitrifiers, such as intermittent aeration and selected culture, were also introduced. The research advances in the application of aerobic denitrifiers in aquaculture, waste water processing, and bio-degradation of organic pollutants, as well as the contributions of aerobic denitrifiers to soil nitrogen emission were summarized. PMID:18260473

  19. A Numerical Study of Tidal Impacts on Denitrification and Redox Zonation in Coastal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knights, D. H.; Sawyer, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    In coastal settings, tidally induced surface water-groundwater exchange (tidal pumping) controls nitrate fluxes between sediments and the water column and denitrification rates in shallow sediments. A one-dimensional, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model was used to capture the influence of tidal pumping on redox zonation and nitrate removal in sediments within coastal settings such as tidal rivers, deltas, and marshes. Upwelling groundwater was assumed to be rich in nitrate but low in dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Tidal pumping enhances exchange of DO-rich surface water across the sediment-water interface and creates a deep, oscillating zone of aerobic respiration. Relative to non-tidal conditions, denitrification rates are diminished. As redox conditions shift with spring-neap tides, redox gradients should also shift and drive a change in denitrification rates within aquatic sediments.

  20. Deriving variable travel times and aerobic respiration in the hyporheic zone using electrical conductivity as natural tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, Michael; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Schmidt, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Determining oxygen consumption (respiration) rates is important for characterizing the ecological functioning of a stream. It is known, that respiration is strongly temperature dependent, but the variability over time and the effects of changing hydrologic conditions are still scarce. Existing respiration measuring methods mostly utilize ex situ respiration chambers, which do not necessarily represent the actual conditions in a riverbed. We present an approach of transient in situ measurements, which utilize changes in the natural stream-EC signal as tracer for the advective transport in the streambed and combine these with precise oxygen measurements. LTC Logger and optode based oxygen logger were installed in the stream and at 45cm depth beside an in-stream gravel bar. Streambed adapted probe rods with a screened section of 2 cm ensuring a minimized flow-through volume hold the loggers which were programmed to 5min interval measuring interval. Diurnal changes in the EC signal are considered to be quasi-conservative and were tracked in the subsurface. A windowed cross correlation approach was utilized to derive a time-resolved advective travel-time. Assuming a one dimensional flow-path from the stream into the sediment, the time-shift in the EC signal is interpreted as the peak travel time of a tracer breakthrough curve. Additionally a moving average filter of variable length was applied to the stream EC signal, to account for dispersion and further maximize the correlation. For obtaining an experimental respiration rate, the physical transport conditions are then applied to the oxygen data, assuming a first order decay. The results show that the natural EC signal is applicable as tracer, as long as the measurements show distinctive fluctuations. The cross correlation revealed transient travel times with a range between 1-7h (mean 4h) at the upstream and 8-18h (mean 11h) at the downstream location of the gravel bar. There are strong indications, that the stream

  1. Anaerobic denitrification in fungi from the coastal marine sediments off Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Cathrine, Sumathi J; Raghukumar, Chandralata

    2009-01-01

    Denitrification is a microbial process during which nitrate or nitrite is reduced under anaerobic condition to gaseous nitrogen. The Arabian Sea contains one of the major pelagic denitrification zones and in addition to this, denitrification also takes places along the continental shelf. Prokaryotic microorganisms were considered to be the only players in this process. However recent studies have shown that higher microeukaryotes such as fungi can also adapt to anaerobic mode of respiration and reduce nitrate to harmful green house gases such as NO and N2O. In this study we examined the distribution and biomass of fungi in the sediments of the seasonal anoxic region off Goa from two stations. The sampling was carried out in five different periods from October 2005, when dissolved oxygen levels were near zero in bottom waters to March 2006. We isolated mycelial fungi, thraustochytrids and yeasts. Species of Aspergillus and thraustochytrids were dominant. Fungi were isolated under aerobic, as well as anaerobic conditions from different seasons. Four isolates were examined for their denitrification activity. Two cultures obtained from the anoxic sediments showed better growth under anaerobic condition than the other two cultures that were isolated from oxic sediments. Our preliminary results suggest that several species of fungi can grow under oxygen deficient conditions and participate in denitrification processes. PMID:18834939

  2. Both foliar and residual applications of herbicides that inhibit amino acid biosynthesis induce alternative respiration and aerobic fermentation in pea roots.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz, O; Gil-Monreal, M; Zulet, A; Zabalza, A; Royuela, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this work was to ascertain whether there is a general pattern of carbon allocation and utilisation in plants following herbicide supply, independent of the site of application: sprayed on leaves or supplied to nutrient solution. The herbicides studied were the amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides (ABIH): glyphosate, an inhibitor of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, and imazamox, an inhibitor of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. All treated plants showed impaired carbon metabolism; carbohydrate accumulation was detected in both leaves and roots of the treated plants. The accumulation in roots was due to lack of use of available sugars as growth was arrested, which elicited soluble carbohydrate accumulation in the leaves due to a decrease in sink strength. Under aerobic conditions, ethanol fermentative metabolism was enhanced in roots of the treated plants. This fermentative response was not related to a change in total respiration rates or cytochrome respiratory capacity, but an increase in alternative oxidase capacity was detected. Pyruvate accumulation was detected after most of the herbicide treatments. These results demonstrate that both ABIH induce the less-efficient, ATP-producing pathways, namely fermentation and alternative respiration, by increasing the key metabolite, pyruvate. The plant response was similar not only for the two ABIH but also after foliar or residual application. PMID:26560850

  3. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  4. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  5. Molecular Approaches to Studying Denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Denitrification is carried out by a diverse array of microbes, mainly as an alternative mode of respiration that allows the organisms to respire using oxidized N compounds instead of oxygen. A common approach in biogeochemistry to the study of the regulation of denitrification is to assess activity by mass balance of substrates and products or direct rate measurements and has intrinsically assumed resource regulation of denitrification. Reported rates can vary significantly even among ecosystems characterized by similar environmental conditions, thus indicating that direct control by abiotic factors often is not sufficient to predict denitrification rates accurately in natural environments. Alternatively, a microbiological approach would proceed with the identification of the organisms responsible and an evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on the biochemical pathways involved. Traditional studies have relied on culturing techniques, such as most probable number enrichments, and have failed to assess the role of the predominately uncultivable members of the microbial community. A combination of biogeochemical measurements and the assessment of the microbial community is necessary and becoming increasingly possible with the development and application of molecular techniques. In order to understand how the composition and physiological behavior of the microbial community affects denitrification rates, we use a suite of molecular techniques developed for phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of denitrifying communities. Molecular tools available for quantifying denitrifying bacteria and assessing their diversity and activity are summarized. Their application is illustrated with examples from marine and freshwater environments. Emerging techniques and their application to ground water studies will be discussed.

  6. The contribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiration to intestinal colonization and virulence for Salmonella typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul Andrew; Berchieri, Angelo; Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano de; Lovell, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    The basic mechanism whereby Salmonella serovars colonize the chicken intestine remains poorly understood. Previous studies have indicated that proton-translocating proteins utilizing oxygen as terminal electron acceptor do not appear to be of major importance in the gut of the newly hatched chicken and consequently they would be even less significant during intestinal colonization of more mature chickens where the complex gut microflora would trap most of the oxygen in the lumen. Consequently, alternative electron acceptors may be more significant or, in their absence, substrate-level phosphorylation may also be important to Salmonella serovars in this environment. To investigate this we constructed mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium defective in various aspects of oxidative or substrate-level phosphorylation to assess their role in colonization of the chicken intestine, assessed through faecal shedding, and virulence. Mutations affecting use of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors did not eliminate faecal shedding. By contrast mutations in either pta (phosphotransacetylase) or ackA (acetate kinase) abolished shedding. The pta but not the ackA mutation also abolished systemic virulence for chickens. An additional ldhA (lactate dehydrogenase) mutant also showed poor colonizing ability. We hypothesise that substrate-level phosphorylation may be more important than respiration using oxygen or alternative electron acceptors for colonization of the chicken caeca. PMID:26443064

  7. Complete autotrophic denitrification in a single reactor using nitritation and anammox gel carriers.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Kazuichi; Kimura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Osaka, Toshifumi; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    A novel aerobic denitrification reactor, aerobic denitrification using nitrifying and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria immobilized on gel carriers in a single stage (AIGES), was developed. Two types of gel carriers, a nitritation gel carrier and an anammox gel carrier, were installed in single reactor, and the denitrification performance of simultaneous nitritation and anammox was evaluated. The denitrification performance increased gradually with increased aeration rate, reaching a denitrification rate of 1.4 kg N m(-3) d(-1) 2 weeks after the nitritation and anammox gel carriers were mixed. A high average denitrification efficiency of 82% was confirmed. Stable aerobic denitrification performance was observed for more than half a year. In the startup period of AIGES operation, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to grow on the surface layer of anammox gel cubes. These results indicated that anammox gel carriers promptly adapted to an aerobic environment by altering the microbial ecosystem. PMID:23994309

  8. Denitrification accelerates granular sludge formation in sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Suja, E; Nancharaiah, Y V; Krishna Mohan, T V; Venugopalan, V P

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the role of denitrification on aerobic granular sludge formation in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was investigated. Formation of aerobic granular sludge was faster in SBRs fed with varying concentrations of nitrate or nitrite as compared to control, which received no nitrate or nitrite in the feed. The majority of the fed nitrate or nitrite was denitrified in the anoxic static fill phase, prior to aerobic reaction phase. Sludge characterization showed accumulation of calcium and chemical signature of calcium carbonate in the nitrate-fed SBRs. Feeding of sodium nitroprusside, a known nitric oxide (NO) donor, enhanced aggregation, production of extracellular polymeric substances and formation of aerobic granular sludge. The results support the hypothesis that denitrification facilitates cell aggregation and accelerates aerobic sludge granulation through NO signaling and CaCO3 formation. Nitrate or other intermediates of heterotrophic denitrification, therefore, have a positive effect on aerobic granulation in SBRs. PMID:26218539

  9. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  10. Cocurrent biological nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, M.

    1998-11-01

    Repetitive conditioning of recycle activated sludge (RAS) under strict anaerobic conditions gradually changes the products of ammonia oxidation from nitrite and nitrate to nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}). Nitrite inhibits oxygen respiration of anaerobically conditioned sludge; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is then oxidized by nitrite, which is reduce to N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. When anaerobic RAS conditioning is initially imposed on a nitrifying system, Nitrobacter species continue to oxidize nitrite to nitrate and thus reduce the nitrite available to oxidize BOD. However, Nitrobacter in the mixed liquor gradually tend to wash out because the sole source of Nictrobacter energy, the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, is diminished to the extent that nitrite is reduced. Incorporation of an RAS conditioning zone to the activate-sludge process results in evolution of a nonfilamentous biomass, which affects both cocurrent biological nitrification and denitrification (CBND) and biological phosphorus removal (BPR). The initial feed zone may be either aerobic or anaerobic. A final anoxic denitrification zone is desirable for removal of residual nitrite plus nitrate (NO{sub x}) from aeration effluent. Nitrous oxide, the main reaction product of CBND, promotes both global warming and destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  11. [Research progress in microbial methane oxidation coupled to denitrification].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Meng-Dong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is an essential bond to connect carbon- and nitrogen cycling. To deeply research this process will improve our understanding on the biochemical cycling of global carbon and nitrogen. As an exogenous gaseous carbon source of denitrification, methane can both regulate the balance of atmospheric methane to effectively mitigate the greenhouse effect caused by methane, and reduce the cost of exogenous carbon source input in traditional wastewater denitrification treatment process. As a result, great attention has being paid to the mechanical study of the process. This paper mainly discussed the two types of methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, i. e., aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) and anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (ANME-D), with the focus on the microbiological coupling mechanisms and related affecting factors. The existing problems in the engineering application of methane oxidation coupled to denitrification were pointed out, and the application prospects were approached. PMID:24697087

  12. High-Resolution Denitrification Kinetics in Pasture Soils Link N2O Emissions to pH, and Denitrification to C Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Md Sainur; Bakken, Lars R.; Nadeem, Shahid; Clough, Timothy J.; de Klein, Cecile A. M.; Richards, Karl G.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Morales, Sergio E.

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N2O and N2. It is known that N2O reduction to N2 is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N2O emissions in response to carbon (C) mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand) using a fully automated-high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N2O production index (IN2O) and N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N2O+N2 μmol N/h/vial) were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO2 μmol/h/vial) measured both under oxic (r2 = 0.62, p = 0.0015) and anoxic (r2 = 0.89, p<0.0001) conditions. PMID:26990862

  13. High-Resolution Denitrification Kinetics in Pasture Soils Link N2O Emissions to pH, and Denitrification to C Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Samad, Md Sainur; Bakken, Lars R; Nadeem, Shahid; Clough, Timothy J; de Klein, Cecile A M; Richards, Karl G; Lanigan, Gary J; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N2O and N2. It is known that N2O reduction to N2 is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N2O emissions in response to carbon (C) mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand) using a fully automated-high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N2O production index (IN2O) and N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N2O+N2 μmol N/h/vial) were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO2 μmol/h/vial) measured both under oxic (r2 = 0.62, p = 0.0015) and anoxic (r2 = 0.89, p<0.0001) conditions. PMID:26990862

  14. Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichao; Shukal, Sudha; Mukherjee, Manisha; Cao, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Comamonas is one of the most abundant microorganisms in biofilm communities driving wastewater treatment. Little has been known about the role of this group of organisms and their biofilm mode of life. In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni as a model organism, we demonstrated the involvement of Comamonas biofilms in denitrification under bulk aerobic conditions and elucidated the influence of nitrate respiration on its biofilm lifestyle. Our results showed that C. testosteroni could use nitrate as the sole electron acceptor for anaerobic growth. Under bulk aerobic condition, biofilms of C. testosteroni were capable of reducing nitrate, and intriguingly, nitrate reduction significantly enhanced viability of the biofilm-cells and reduced cell detachment from the biofilms. Nitrate respiration was further shown to play an essential role in maintaining high cell viability in the biofilms. RNA-seq analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a higher level of bis(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) in cells respiring on nitrate than those grown aerobically (1.3 × 10(-4) fmol/cell vs 7.9 × 10(-6) fmol/cell; P < 0.01). C-di-GMP is one universal signaling molecule that regulates the biofilm mode of life, and a higher c-di-GMP concentration reduces cell detachment from biofilms. Taking these factors together, this study reveals that nitrate reduction occurs in mature biofilms of C. testosteroni under bulk aerobic conditions, and the respiratory reduction of nitrate is beneficial to the biofilm lifestyle by providing more metabolic energy to maintain high viability and a higher level of c-di-GMP to reduce cell detachment. PMID:26327221

  15. Physiological levels of nitrate support anoxic growth by denitrification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at growth rates reported in cystic fibrosis lungs and sputum

    PubMed Central

    Line, Laura; Alhede, Morten; Kolpen, Mette; Kühl, Michael; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The infection is characterized by the formation of biofilm surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and strong O2 depletion in the endobronchial mucus. We have reported that O2 is mainly consumed by the activated PMNs, while O2 consumption by aerobic respiration is diminutive and nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced in infected CF sputum. This suggests that the reported growth rates of P. aeruginosa in lungs and sputum may result from anaerobic respiration using denitrification. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa achieved by denitrification at physiological levels (~400 μM) of nitrate (NO−3) is however, not known. Therefore, we have measured growth rates of anoxic cultures of PAO1 and clinical isolates (n = 12) in LB media supplemented with NO−3 and found a significant increase of growth when supplementing PAO1 and clinical isolates with ≥150 μM NO−3 and 100 μM NO−3, respectively. An essential contribution to growth by denitrification was demonstrated by the inability to establish a significantly increased growth rate by a denitrification deficient ΔnirS-N mutant at <1 mM of NO−3. Activation of denitrification could be achieved by supplementation with as little as 62.5 μM of NO−3 according to the significant production of N2O by the nitrous oxide reductase deficient ΔnosZ mutant. Studies of the promoter activity, gene transcripts, and enzyme activity of the four N-oxide reductases in PAO1 (Nar, Nir, Nor, Nos) further verified the engagement of denitrification, showing a transient increase in activation and expression and rapid consumption of NO−3 followed by a transient increase of NO−2. Growth rates obtained by denitrification in this study were comparable to our reported growth rates in the majority of P. aeruginosa cells in CF lungs and sputum. Thus, we have demonstrated that denitrification is required for P

  16. A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON DENITRIFICATION OF WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Nariaki; Nakamichi, Tamihiro; Yagi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kugimiya, Akikazu; Michioku, Kohji

    A laboratory experiment on denitrification was carried out in order to reduce nitrogen load from municipal landfill leachate. Nitrogen was efficiently removed by feeding sludge of the leachate pond into the tanks, which could activate denitrification bacteria. Although inorganic reducing agent such as iron powder was not able to make the whole water mass anoxic, denitrification took place by supplying organic matters such as methanol, hydrogen feeding agent, etc.. It is considered that small amount of anoxic water film produced on surfaces of container and carriers might contribute to denitrification, although the bulk water is kept aerobic. It is found that organic matters contained in the leachate is so insufficient that nitrification liquid circulation does not work well for denitrification.

  17. Denitrification Potential, Root Biomass, and Organic Matter in Degraded and Restored Urban Riparian Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic changes associated with urbanization often lead to lower water tables and drier, more aerobic soils in riparian zones. These changes reduce the potential for denitrification, an anaerobic microbial process that converts nitrate, a common water pollutant, into nitrogen...

  18. Denitrification Potential, Root Biomass and Organic Matter in Degraded and Restored Urban Riparian Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic changes associated with urbanization often lead to lower water tables and drier, more aerobic soils in riparian zones. These changes reduce the potential for denitrification, an anaerobic microbial process that converts nitrate, a common water pollutant, into nitroge...

  19. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:25827248

  20. Genetic basis for denitrification in Ensifer meliloti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Denitrification is defined as the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate or nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), or dinitrogen gas (N2). N2O is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Legume crops might contribute to N2O production by providing nitrogen-rich residues for decomposition or by associating with rhizobia that are able to denitrify under free-living and symbiotic conditions. However, there are limited direct empirical data concerning N2O production by endosymbiotic bacteria associated with legume crops. Analysis of the Ensifer meliloti 1021 genome sequence revealed the presence of the napEFDABC, nirK, norECBQD and nosRZDFYLX denitrification genes. It was recently reported that this bacterium is able to grow using nitrate respiration when cells are incubated with an initial O2 concentration of 2%; however, these cells were unable to use nitrate respiration when initially incubated anoxically. The involvement of the nap, nirK, nor and nos genes in E. meliloti denitrification has not been reported. Results E. meliloti nap, nirK and norC mutant strains exhibited defects in their ability to grow using nitrate as a respiratory substrate. However, E meliloti nosZ was not essential for growth under these conditions. The E. meliloti napA, nirK, norC and nosZ genes encode corresponding nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reductases, respectively. The NorC component of the E. meliloti nitric oxide reductase has been identified as a c-type cytochrome that is 16 kDa in size. Herein, we also show that maximal expression of the E. meliloti napA, nirK, norC and nosZ genes occurred when cells were initially incubated anoxically with nitrate. Conclusion The E. meliloti napA, nirK, norC and nosZ genes are involved in nitrate respiration and in the expression of denitrification enzymes in this bacterium. Our findings expand the short list of rhizobia for which denitrification gene function has been

  1. Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification.

    PubMed Central

    Zumft, W G

    1997-01-01

    Denitrification is a distinct means of energy conservation, making use of N oxides as terminal electron acceptors for cellular bioenergetics under anaerobic, microaerophilic, and occasionally aerobic conditions. The process is an essential branch of the global N cycle, reversing dinitrogen fixation, and is associated with chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, diazotrophic, or organotrophic metabolism but generally not with obligately anaerobic life. Discovered more than a century ago and believed to be exclusively a bacterial trait, denitrification has now been found in halophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea and in the mitochondria of fungi, raising evolutionarily intriguing vistas. Important advances in the biochemical characterization of denitrification and the underlying genetics have been achieved with Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Paracoccus denitrificans, Ralstonia eutropha, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Pseudomonads represent one of the largest assemblies of the denitrifying bacteria within a single genus, favoring their use as model organisms. Around 50 genes are required within a single bacterium to encode the core structures of the denitrification apparatus. Much of the denitrification process of gram-negative bacteria has been found confined to the periplasm, whereas the topology and enzymology of the gram-positive bacteria are less well established. The activation and enzymatic transformation of N oxides is based on the redox chemistry of Fe, Cu, and Mo. Biochemical breakthroughs have included the X-ray structures of the two types of respiratory nitrite reductases and the isolation of the novel enzymes nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, as well as their structural characterization by indirect spectroscopic means. This revealed unexpected relationships among denitrification enzymes and respiratory oxygen reductases. Denitrification is intimately related to fundamental cellular processes that include primary and secondary

  2. Whole-Genome Transcriptional Analysis of Chemolithoautotrophic Thiosulfate Oxidation by Thiobacillus denitrificans Under Aerobic vs. Denitrifying Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H R; Letain, T E; Chakicherla, A; Kane, S R; Legler, T C; Coleman, M A

    2006-04-22

    Thiobacillus denitrificans is one of the few known obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of energetically coupling thiosulfate oxidation to denitrification as well as aerobic respiration. As very little is known about the differential expression of genes associated with ke chemolithoautotrophic functions (such as sulfur-compound oxidation and CO2 fixation) under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions, we conducted whole-genome, cDNA microarray studies to explore this topic systematically. The microarrays identified 277 genes (approximately ten percent of the genome) as differentially expressed using Robust Multi-array Average statistical analysis and a 2-fold cutoff. Genes upregulated (ca. 6- to 150-fold) under aerobic conditions included a cluster of genes associated with iron acquisition (e.g., siderophore-related genes), a cluster of cytochrome cbb3 oxidase genes, cbbL and cbbS (encoding the large and small subunits of form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, or RubisCO), and multiple molecular chaperone genes. Genes upregulated (ca. 4- to 95-fold) under denitrifying conditions included nar, nir, and nor genes (associated respectively with nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitric oxide reductase, which catalyze successive steps of denitrification), cbbM (encoding form II RubisCO), and genes involved with sulfur-compound oxidation (including two physically separated but highly similar copies of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and of dsrC, associated with dissimilatory sulfite reductase). Among genes associated with denitrification, relative expression levels (i.e., degree of upregulation with nitrate) tended to decrease in the order nar > nir > nor > nos. Reverse transcription, quantitative PCR analysis was used to validate these trends.

  3. Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

  4. Identifying functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems by numerical simulations - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; He, W.; Shao, H.; Schueth, C.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater is still one of the common problems in many countries. Because of its high solubility and anionic nature, nitrate can easily leach through soil and persist in groundwater for decades. High nitrate concentration has been suggested as a major cause of accelerated eutrophication, methemoglobinemia and gastric cancer. There are several factors influencing the fate of nitrate in groundwater system, which is e.g. distribution of N- sources to soil and groundwater, distribution and amount of reactive substances maintaining denitrification, rate of nitrate degradation and its kinetics, and geological characteristics of the aquifer. Nitrate transport and redox transformation processes are closely linked to complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interaction, therefore it is difficult to predict and quantify in the field and laboratory experiment. Models can play a key role in elucidation of nitrate reduction pathway in groundwater system and in the design and evaluation of field tests to investigate in situ remediation technologies as well. The goal of the current study is to predict groundwater vulnerability to nitrate, to identify functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems and to describe the uncertainty of the predictions due to scale effects. For this aim, we developed a kinetic model using multi-component mass transport code OpenGeoSys coupling with IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The developed model included sequential aerobic and nitrate-based respiration, multi-Monod kinetics, multi-species biogeochemical reactions, and geological characteristics of the groundwater aquifer. Moreover water-rock interaction such as secondary mineral precipitation was also included in this model. In this presentation, we focused on the general modelling approach and present the simulation results of nitrate transport simulation in a hypothetical aquifer systems based on data from

  5. Comparison of Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification for Three Different Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Khanitchaidecha, W.; Nakaruk, A.; Koshy, P.; Futaba, K.

    2015-01-01

    Discharge of high NH4-N containing wastewater into water bodies has become a critical and serious issue due to its negative impact on water and environmental quality. In this research, the performance of three different reactors was assessed and compared with regard to the removal of NH4-N from wastewater. The highest nitrogen removal efficiency of 98.3% was found when the entrapped sludge reactor (ESR), in which the sludge was entrapped in polyethylene glycol polymer, was used. Under intermittent aeration, nitrification and denitrification occurred simultaneously in the aerobic and anaerobic periods. Moreover, internal carbon was consumed efficiently for denitrification. On the other hand, internal carbon consumption was not found to occur in the suspended sludge reactor (SSR) and the mixed sludge reactor (MSR) and this resulted in nitrogen removal efficiencies of SSR and MSR being 64.7 and 45.1%, respectively. Nitrification and denitrification were the main nitrogen removal processes in the aerobic and anaerobic periods, respectively. However, due to the absence of sufficient organic carbon, denitrification was uncompleted resulting in high NO3-N contents in the effluent. PMID:26380304

  6. Denitrification in anaerobic digesters: A review of recent studies

    SciTech Connect

    Akunna, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    Wastewaters from food processing industries (and domestic activities) are usually treated principally for organic carbon removal. But recent standards have generated interests in nitrogen and phosphorus removal. This has led to the addition of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal units in the existing treatment plants, thus increasing the cost of treatment operations. The need to reduce treatment costs has led to research on ways to carry out many treatment processes in a single system. One of these systems consists of anaerobic and aerobic units in series with effluent recycle. In the anaerobic unit, anaerobic digestion and denitrification take place simultaneously producing methane and nitrogen gas while in the aerobic unit, ammonia oxidation to nitrate (nitrification) takes place. This process configuration appears to give lesser problems associated with operations such as the addition of raw wastewater or external organic carbon to ensure complete denitrification. In this paper a review of the results of recent studies are presented, with special emphasis on the factors affecting treatment efficiencies (i.e., denitrification, ammonia production from nitrate, and methane production efficiencies).

  7. [Research advances in denitrogenation characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Cheng; Zhao, Min; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Li-Yan

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of aerobic denitrifiers is the enrichment and breakthrough of traditional denitrification theory. Owing to their unique superiority in denitrogenation, aerobic denitrifiers have become a hotspot in the study of bio-denitrogenation of waste water. Under aerobic conditions, the aerobic denitrifiers can utilize organic carbon sources for their growth, and produce N2 from nitrate and nitrite. Most of the denitrifiers can also proceed with heterotrophic nitrification simultaneously, transforming NH4(+)-N to gaseous nitrogen. In this paper, the denitrogenation characteristics and action mechanisms of some isolated aerobic denitrifiers were discussed from the aspects of electron theory and denitrifying enzyme system. The effects of the environmental factors DO, carbon sources, and C/N on the denitrogenation process of aerobic denitrifiers were analyzed, and the screening methods as well as the present and potential applications of aerobic denitrifiers in wastewater treatment were described and discussed. PMID:20873638

  8. Searching for hot spots and hot moments of soil denitrification in northern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J. L.; Duran, J.; Morillas, L.; Roales, J.; Bailey, S. W.; McGuire, K. J.; Groffman, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification is a key biogeochemical process that affects nitrogen (N) availability, N losses to aquatic systems, and atmospheric chemistry. In upland forests, denitrification has not been thought to be a major N pathway because it is an anaerobic microbial process that requires nitrate, labile carbon (C), and low oxygen (O2) conditions, which do not occur broadly or consistently throughout forest soils. However, there may be enough spatial and temporal heterogeneity at fine scales to support denitrification rates that are relevant at the landscape scale. To quantify the importance of spatial and temporal variability in soil denitrification in northern hardwood forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF; New Hampshire, USA), we developed two related projects: 1) we sought to identify hot spots of biogeochemical activity, including soil denitrification potential, based on hydropedologic settings and flowpaths in a catchment during the growing season; and 2) we investigated the influence of simulated rainfall events on soil O2 and nitrous oxide concentrations, denitrification rates, and soil respiration during different seasons at HBEF. In the first study, we expected to find that sites dominated by soils with thick Bh horizons (zones of C accumulation) would have the highest denitrification rates. However, despite the variation among soil profiles found in different hydropedologic settings, we did not find significant differences in denitrification potential. Rather, when areal coverage and horizon thickness for the contrasting hydropedologic settings were accounted for, catchment-scale estimates of denitrification potential were about 1/3 higher than conventionally calculated estimates. In the second study, soil O2 in surface horizons only decreased following additions of labile C. Responses of soil respiration and denitrification to simulated rainfall were also influenced by season. While these studies highlight the complex heterogeneity in forest

  9. Extracellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although it has long been known that microbes can generate energy using diverse strategies, only recently has it become clear that a growing number involve electron transfer to or from extracellular substrates. The best-known example of what we will term ‘extracellular respiration’ is electron transfer between microbes and minerals, such as iron and manganese (hydr)oxides. This makes sense, given that these minerals are sparingly soluble. What is perhaps surprising, however, is that a number of substrates that might typically be classified as ‘soluble’ are also respired at the cell surface. There are several reasons why this might be the case: the substrate, in its ecological context, might be associated with a solid surface and thus effectively insoluble; the substrate, while soluble, might simply be too large to transport inside the cell; or the substrate, while benign in one redox state, might become toxic after it is metabolized. In this review, we discuss various examples of extracellular respiration, paying particular attention to what is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. As will become clear, much remains to be learned about the biochemistry, cell biology and regulation of extracellular respiration, making it a rich field of study for molecular microbiologists. PMID:17581115

  10. The possible involvement of copper-containing nitrite reductase (NirK) and flavohemoglobin in denitrification by the fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Wan; Fushinobu, Shinya; Zhou, Shengmin; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of denitrification and nitrate respiration among eukaryotes has been established during the last few decades. However, denitrification-related eukaryotic genes have been isolated from only a few fungi, and eukaryotic denitrification (or nitrate respiration) is still inadequately understood. In this study, we identified genes that were up-regulated under denitrifying conditions in the fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense using the suppression subtraction hybridization technique, and the expression patterns of these genes were characterized by Northern analysis. We identified copper-containing nitrite reductase, cytochrome P450 nitric oxide reductase, flavohemoglobin (Fhb), and formate/nitrite transporter homolog genes as possibly involved in fungal denitrification. Our results concerning the involvement of Fhb and formate/nitrite transporter perhaps provide new insight into the fungal denitrification system. PMID:20622453

  11. Nitrogen isotope fractionation as a tool for determining denitrification in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Søvik, A K; Mørkved, P T

    2007-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) treat municipal wastewater through the retention of nutrients and particles. The retention of nitrogen (N) was studied in the laboratory using columns and meso-scale trenches filled with shellsand and light-weight aggregates (LWA). The objective was to examine whether measuring the natural abundance of delta15N in NO3(-) could be used to estimate the relative contribution of denitrification to the total NO3(-) removal in these treatment systems. In both the columns and the trenches it was seen that denitrification was more efficient in shellsand and LWA collected from on-site treatment systems compared to new LWA. This was due to the high pH value (about 10) of new LWA. The enrichment factors (epsilon) from the column study were in general lower than values found in laboratory tests of isotope discrimination in denitrification, but similar to epsilon values found for denitrification in groundwater systems. No enrichment factors could be found for the trench study due to simultaneous denitrification and nitrification and inhomogeneous N transformation patterns. When NH4+ was partially nitrified in the upper parts of the trench, this diluted the 15N enrichment of NO3(-) due to denitrification. Thus, in systems with high NH4+ concentrations and partial aerobic conditions, the method of natural abundance is not suitable for estimating the relative contribution of denitrification to the total NO3(-) removal. PMID:17802852

  12. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Sobota, Daniel; Dodds, Walter; Findlay, Stuart; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; McDowell, William; O'Brien, Jon; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Johnson, Sherri; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoff; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  13. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O., Jr.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  14. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...

  15. Simultaneous phenol removal, nitrification and denitrification using microbial fuel cell technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunhua; Huang, Liqiao; Yu, Hui; Yi, Xiaoyun; Wei, Chaohai

    2015-06-01

    Here we show that concomitant removal of phenol and nitrogen can be accomplished in a single dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactor, in which the two chambers are separated with an anion-exchange membrane. A series of experiments were performed with ammonium (230 NH4(+)-N mg L(-1)) and phenol (with concentrations varying from 0 to 1400 mg L(-1)) fed to the aerobic cathode chamber of the MFC. Experimental results demonstrated that no apparent inhibitory effect of phenol on the nitrifying reaction was noted even at the phenol concentration up to 600 mg L(-1). For all the experiments, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was achieved in the MFC. In comparison to the traditional aerobic bioreactor (ABR) and the same MFC run under the open-circuit condition, the MFC reactor allowed less inhibition of nitrification to phenol exposure and higher rate of nitrogen removal. The data of bacterial analysis revealed that electrochemically active bacteria and denitrifiers in the anaerobic chamber play a significant role in electricity generation and anaerobic denitrification, respectively, while phenol-degrading bacteria, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the aerobic cathode chamber are responsible for phenol oxidation, aerobic nitrification and aerobic denitrification, respectively. These results imply that the MFC holds potential for simultaneous removal of phenolic compounds and nitrogen contained in some particular industrial wastewaters. PMID:25813490

  16. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

  17. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, I C; Levine, J S

    1986-05-01

    Biogenic emissions of nitric and nitrous oxides have important impacts on the photochemistry and chemistry of the atmosphere. Although biogenic production appears to be the overwhelming source of N(2)O, the magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is very uncertain. In soils, possible sources of NO and N(2)O include nitrification by autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. The availability of oxygen determines to a large extent the relative activities of these various groups of organisms. To better understand this influence, we investigated the effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) on the production of NO and N(2)O by a wide variety of common soil nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The production of NO per cell was highest by autotrophic nitrifiers and was independent of pO(2) in the range tested (0.5 to 10%), whereas N(2)O production was inversely proportional to pO(2). Nitrous oxide production was highest in the denitrifier Pseudomonas fluorescens, but only under anaerobic conditions. The molar ratio of NO/N(2)O produced was usually greater than unity for nitrifiers and much less than unity for denitrifiers. Chemodenitrification was the major source of both the NO and N(2)O produced by the nitrate respirer Serratia marcescens. Chemodenitrification was also a possible source of NO and N(2)O in nitrifier cultures but only when high concentrations of nitrite had accumulated or were added to the medium. Although most of the denitrifiers produced NO and N(2)O only under anaerobic conditions, chemostat cultures of Alcaligenes faecalis continued to emit these gases even when the cultures were sparged with air. Based upon these results, we predict that aerobic soils are primary sources of NO and that N(2)O is produced only when there is sufficient soil moisture to provide the anaerobic microsites

  18. Mechanism and rate of denitrification in an agricultural watershed: Electron and mass balance along groundwater flow paths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Liebscher, H.; Cox, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive agricultural activity in this area has resulted in nitrate concentrations in groundwater often exceeding drinking water standards. Both the extent and rate of denitrification varied depending on the groundwater flow path. While little or no denitrification occurred in much of the upland portions of the aquifer, a gradual redox gradient is observed as aerobic upland groundwater moves deeper in the aquifer. In contrast, a sharp shallow redox gradient is observed adjacent to a third-order stream as aerobic groundwater enters reduced sediments. An essentially complete loss of nitrate concurrent with increases in excess N2 provide evidence that denitrification occurs as groundwater enters this zone. Electron and mass balance calculations suggest that iron sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation is the primary source of electrons for denitrification. Denitrification rate estimates were based on mass balance calculations using nitrate and excess N2 coupled with groundwater travel times. Travel times were determined using a groundwater flow model and were constrained by chlorofluorocarbon-based age dates. Denitrification rates were found to vary considerably between the two areas where denitrification occurs. Denitrification rates in the deep, upland portions of the aquifer were found to range from < 0.01 to 0.14 mM of N per year; rates at the redoxcline along the shallow flow path range from 1.0 to 2.7 mM of N per year. Potential denitrification rates in groundwater adjacent to the stream may be much faster, with rates up to 140 mM per year based on an in situ experiment conducted in this zone.The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive

  19. [Biocatalyst of redox mediators on the denitrification by Paracoccus versutus strain GW1].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Bo; Lian, Jing; Guo, Yan-Kai; Zhao, Li-Jun; Du, Hai-Feng; Yang, Jing-Liang; Guo, Jian-Bo

    2012-07-01

    The quinone respiration process of Paracoccus versutus strain GW1 was characterized and the effects of the four redox mediators on the denitrification process were studied. The experiment results suggested that quinones were utilized by Paracoccus versutus strain GW1 as electron acceptors in the respiratory chain and reduced to hydroquinone. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biocatalyst effect of redox mediators as catalyst on the denitrification process at 35 degrees C. All four redox mediators tested were able to enhance the nitrate removal efficiency and the denitrification efficiency by 1.14-1.63 fold and 1.12-2.02 fold, respectively. The accelerating effect from high to low was AQDS > 1,5-AQDS > AQS > alpha-AQS. In the presence of redox mediators, the stabilized ORP values in the nitrate decomposition process were reduced by 33-75 mV. The pH variations in denitrification with redox mediators showed similar tendency to that of the conventional nitrate removal process. In the concentration range of 0-0.32 mmol x L(-1), AQDS had the best accelerating effect and a linear correlation was found for the denitrification rate K and the AQDS concentration cAQDS. This study indicated that the application of redox mediators significantly improved the denitrification process by enhancing the decomposition rate. PMID:23002627

  20. Denitrification associated with stream periphyton: Chamber estimates from undisrupted communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Triska, F.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Undisrupted periphyton communities from a N-rich (NO3- = 63 ??mol L-1) and pristine (NO3- = 2.9 ??mol L-1) stream were assayed for denitrifying activity (acetylene-blockage technique) in 40-L chambers incubated at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations. Nitrous oxide formation associated with periphyton from the N-rich stream was immediate and linear (52.1 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1) in the dark, anaerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2). In the corresponding light, aerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2), N2O production was inhibited by 82% (9.3 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1). Nitrous oxide formation was not associated with periphyton from the pristine stream incubated in situ, either with or without NO3- amendment. Denitrification estimates made with undisrupted periphyton communities at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations (40-L chambers) were less variable than estimates made with periphyton 'scrapings' in small flasks (room temperature). The calculated diel periphyton-associated denitrification rate based on a 14-h light-10-h dark day was 651 ??mol N2O m-2 d-1. The data suggest denitrification within periphyton mats may contribute toward removal of NO3- from N-rich fluvial environments.

  1. Kinetic analysis of simultaneous denitrification and biomineralization of novel Acinetobacter sp. CN86.

    PubMed

    Su, Jun-Feng; Shi, Jing-Xin; Huang, Ting-Lin; Ma, Fang

    2016-08-15

    A novel aerobic denitrification and biomineralization strain CN86 was isolated from the Qu Jiang artificial lake. Based on phylogenetic characteristics, the isolated strain was identified as Acinetobacter species. Strain CN86 was confirmed to have the ability to perform simultaneous denitrification and biomineralization. Exponential decay equation was used for the matching of kinetic processes on denitrification and biomineralization. A highest nitrate removal rate was achieved at the pH7.0, organic concentration of 1.5g/L and temperature of 30°C. An optimal hardness removal rate was obtained at the pH9.0, organic concentration of 2.0g/L and temperature of 30°C. Strain CN86 is a suitable candidate for the simultaneous removal of nitrate and hardness in groundwater treatment. PMID:27287863

  2. Denitrification and availability of carbon and nitrogen in a well-drained pasture soil amended with particulate organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Bryan A; Schipper, Louis A; McGill, Alexandra; Clark, Dave

    2011-01-01

    A well-drained soil in N-fertilized dairy pasture was amended with particulate organic carbon (POC), either sawdust or coarse woody mulch, and sampled every 4 wk for a year to test the hypothesis that the addition of POC would increase denitrification activity by increasing the number of microsites where denitrification occurred. Overall mean denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), on a gravimetric basis, was 100% greater for the woody mulch treatment and 50% greater for the sawdust treatment compared with controls, indicating the denitrifying potential of the soil was enhanced. Despite differences in DEA, no difference in denitrification rate, as measured by the acetylene block technique, was detected among treatments, with an average annual N loss of ∼22 kg N ha yr Soil water content overall was driving denitrification in this well-drained soil as regression of the natural log of volumetric soil water content (VWC) against denitrification rate was highly significant ( = 0.74, < 0.001). Addition of the amendments, however, had significant effects on the availability of both C and N. An additional 20 to 40 kg N ha was stored in POC-amended treatments as a result of increases in the microbial biomass. Basal respiration, as a measure of available C, was 400% greater than controls in the sawdust treatment and 250% greater than controls in the mulch. Net N mineralization, however, was significantly lower in the sawdust treatment, resulting in significantly lower nitrate N levels than in the control. We attribute the lack of measured response in denitrification rate to the high temporal variability in denitrification and suggest that diffusion of nitrate may ultimately have limited denitrification in the amended treatments. Our data indicate that manipulation of denitrification by addition of POC may be possible, particularly when nitrate levels are high, but quantifying differences in the rate of denitrification is difficult because of the temporal nature of the process

  3. Sediment, water column, and open-channel denitrification in rivers measured using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, Alexander J.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Hoellein, Timothy J.; Hall, Robert O.

    2016-05-01

    Riverine biogeochemical processes are understudied relative to headwaters, and reach-scale processes in rivers reflect both the water column and sediment. Denitrification in streams is difficult to measure, and is often assumed to occur only in sediment, but the water column is potentially important in rivers. Dissolved nitrogen (N) gas flux (as dinitrogen (N2)) and open-channel N2 exchange methods avoid many of the artificial conditions and expenses of common denitrification methods like acetylene block and 15N-tracer techniques. We used membrane-inlet mass spectrometry and microcosm incubations to quantify net N2 and oxygen flux from the sediment and water column of five Midwestern rivers spanning a land use gradient. Sediment and water column denitrification ranged from below detection to 1.8 mg N m-2 h-1 and from below detection to 4.9 mg N m-2 h-1, respectively. Water column activity was variable across rivers, accounting for 0-85% of combined microcosm denitrification and 39-85% of combined microcosm respiration. Finally, we estimated reach-scale denitrification at one Midwestern river using a diel, open-channel N2 exchange approach based on reach-scale metabolism methods, providing an integrative estimate of riverine denitrification. Reach-scale denitrification was 8.8 mg N m-2 h-1 (95% credible interval: 7.8-9.7 mg N m-2 h-1), higher than combined sediment and water column microcosm estimates from the same river (4.3 mg N m-2 h-1) and other estimates of reach-scale denitrification from streams. Our denitrification estimates, which span habitats and spatial scales, suggest that rivers can remove N via denitrification at equivalent or higher rates than headwater streams.

  4. Nitrous oxide production by Alcaligenes faecalis under transient and dynamic aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, S.; Grobben, N.G.; Robertson, L.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Nitrous oxide production contributes to both greenhouse effect and ozone depletion in the stratosphere. A significant part of the global N2O emission can be attributed to microbial processes, especially nitrification and denitrification, used in biological wastewater treatment systems. This study looks at the efficiency of denitrification and the enzymes involved, with the emphasis on N2O production during the transient phase from aerobic to anaerobic conditions and vice versa. The effect of repetitive changing aerobic-anaerobic conditions on N2O was also studied. Alcaligenes faecalis was used as the model denitrofing organism. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The enzymes associated with denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the reduction of nitrogenous oxides are thought to be intermediates in denitrification processes. This review examines the roles of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductases, nitric oxide reductase, mechanisms of N-N bond formation, and nitrous oxide reductases.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1362 SAIC. Demonstration Bulletin: Biological Denitrification Process, Ecomat, Inc.. 2001. EPA/540/MR-01/501. 03/15/2001 EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, CA has developed a two-stage ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification process. The process is a fixed film bioremedia...

  7. Inhibition of denitrification activity but not of mRNA induction in Paracoccus denitrificans by nitrite at a suboptimal pH.

    PubMed

    Baumann, B; van der Meer, J R; Snozzi, M; Zehnder, A J

    1997-10-01

    The influence of pH on the denitrification activity of a continuous culture of Paracoccus denitrificans was studied in relation to the presence of nitrite. After a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions at the suboptimal pH of 6.8, P. denitrificans was not able to build up a functional denitrification pathway. Nitrite accumulated in the medium as the predominant denitrification product. Although the nitrite reductase gene was induced properly, the enzyme could not be detected at sufficient amounts in the culture. These observations was somehow inhibited, or once synthesized nitrite reductase was inactivated, possibly by the high concentrations of nitrous acid (HNO2). Interestingly, when a P. denitrificans culture which was grown to steady-state under anaerobic conditions was then exposed to suboptimal pHs, cells exhibited a reduced overall denitrification activity, but neither nitrite nor any other denitrification intermediate accumulated. PMID:9403103

  8. Nosepiece respiration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, A. L.; Long, L. E.; Rice, N. E.

    1968-01-01

    Comfortable, inexpensive nosepiece respiration monitor produces rapid response signals to most conventional high impedance medical signal conditioners. The monitor measures respiration in a manner that produces a large signal with minimum delay.

  9. Diverse electron sources support denitrification under hypoxia in the obligate methanotroph Methylomicrobium album strain BG8

    PubMed Central

    Kits, K. Dimitri; Campbell, Dustin J.; Rosana, Albert R.; Stein, Lisa Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are a diverse group of microorganisms that are ubiquitous in natural environments. Along with anaerobic MOB and archaea, aerobic methanotrophs are critical for attenuating emission of methane to the atmosphere. Clearly, nitrogen availability in the form of ammonium and nitrite have strong effects on methanotrophic activity and their natural community structures. Previous findings show that nitrite amendment inhibits the activity of some cultivated methanotrophs; however, the physiological pathways that allow some strains to transform nitrite, expression of gene inventories, as well as the electron sources that support this activity remain largely uncharacterized. Here we show that Methylomicrobium album strain BG8 utilizes methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate, ethane, ethanol, and ammonia to support denitrification activity under hypoxia only in the presence of nitrite. We also demonstrate that transcript abundance of putative denitrification genes, nirS and one of two norB genes, increased in response to nitrite. Furthermore, we found that transcript abundance of pxmA, encoding the alpha subunit of a putative copper-containing monooxygenase, increased in response to both nitrite and hypoxia. Our results suggest that expression of denitrification genes, found widely within genomes of aerobic methanotrophs, allow the coupling of substrate oxidation to the reduction of nitrogen oxide terminal electron acceptors under oxygen limitation. The present study expands current knowledge of the metabolic flexibility of methanotrophs by revealing that a diverse array of electron donors support nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide under hypoxia. PMID:26500622

  10. Denitrification potential in stormwater control structures and natural riparian zones in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Bettez, Neil D; Groffman, Peter M

    2012-10-16

    Humans have significantly altered urban landscapes, creating impervious surfaces, and changing drainage patterns that increase volume and velocity as well as frequency and timing of runoff following precipitation events. These changes in runoff have impaired streams and riparian areas that previously reduced watershed nitrogen (N) flux through uptake and denitrification. Stormwater control measures (SCM) are used most frequently to mitigate these hydrologic impacts. While SCM control runoff, their ability to remove N compared to natural riparian areas is not well-known. In this study we compared potential denitrification [as denitrification enzyme activity (DEA)] in five types of SCM (wet ponds, dry detention ponds, dry extended detention, infiltration basin, and filtering practices) and forested and herbaceous riparian areas in Baltimore, MD. DEA was higher in SCM (1.2 mg N kg(-1) hr(-1)) than in riparian areas (0.4 mg N kg(-1) hr(-1)). While DEA was highly correlated with soil moisture, organic matter, microbial biomass, and soil respiration areas across sites, it was always higher in SCM at equivalent levels of these variables. SCM appear to function as denitrification hotspots and, despite having similar microbial biomass, have higher potential denitrification than natural riparian areas. PMID:22963127

  11. Denitrification in the Antarctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Rapid loss of ozone over Antarctica in spring requires that the abundance of gaseous nitric acid be very low. Precipitation of particulate nitric acid has been assumed to occur in association with large ice crystals, requiring significant removal of H2O and temperatures well below the frost point. However, stratospheric clouds exhibit a bimodal size distribution in the Antarctic atmosphere, with most of the nitrate concentrated in particles with radii of 1 micron or greater. It is argued here that the bimodal size distribution sets the stage for efficient denitrification, with nitrate particles either falling on their own or serving as nuclei for the condensation of ice. Denitrification can therefore occur without significant dehydration, and it is unnecessary for temperatures to drop significantly below the frost point.

  12. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions. PMID:26573667

  13. Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

  14. Identification of key nitrous oxide production pathways in aerobic partial nitrifying granules.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Song, Yanjun; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Tumendelger, Azzaya; Satoh, Hisashi; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The identification of the key nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways is important to establish a strategy to mitigate N2O emission. In this study, we combined real-time gas-monitoring analysis, (15)N stable isotope analysis, denitrification functional gene transcriptome analysis and microscale N2O concentration measurements to identify the main N2O producers in a partial nitrification (PN) aerobic granule reactor, which was fed with ammonium and acetate. Our results suggest that heterotrophic denitrification was the main contributor to N2O production in our PN aerobic granule reactor. The heterotrophic denitrifiers were probably related to Rhodocyclales bacteria, although different types of bacteria were active in the initial and latter stages of the PN reaction cycles, most likely in response to the presence of acetate. Hydroxylamine oxidation and nitrifier denitrification occurred, but their contribution to N2O emission was relatively small (20-30%) compared with heterotrophic denitrification. Our approach can be useful to quantitatively examine the relative contributions of the three pathways (hydroxylamine oxidation, nitrifier denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification) to N2O emission in mixed microbial populations. PMID:24650173

  15. Genome Sequences for Six Rhodanobacter Strains, Isolated from Soils and the Terrestrial Subsurface, with Variable Denitrification Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan J.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Prakash, Om; Katz, Lee S.; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Jordan, I. King; Munk, Christine; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Watson, David B.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first genome sequences for six strains of Rhodanobacter species isolated from a variety of soil and subsurface environments. Three of these strains are capable of complete denitrification and three others are not. However, all six strains contain most of the genes required for the respiration of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen. The nondenitrifying members of the genus lack only the gene for nitrate reduction, the first step in the full denitrification pathway. The data suggest that the environmental role of bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter should be reevaluated. PMID:22843592

  16. Genome sequences for six Rhodanobacter strains isolated from soils and the terrestrial subsurface with variable denitrification capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kostka, Joel; Green, Stefan; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Prakash, Om; Katz, Lee; Marino-Ramirez, Leonardo; Jordan, King; Munk, Christine; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Watson, David B; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Brooks, Scott C

    2012-01-01

    We report the first genome sequences for six strains of Rhodanobacter species isolated from a variety of soil and subsurface environments. Three of these strains are capable of complete denitrification and three others are not. However, all six strains contain most of the genes required for the respiration of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen. The nondenitrifying members of the genus lack only the gene for nitrate reduction, the first step in the full denitrification pathway. The data suggest that the environmental role of bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter should be reevaluated.

  17. Topographic effects on denitrification in drained agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification is affected by soil moisture, while soil moisture can be affected by topography. Therefore, denitrification can be spatially correlated to topographic gradients. Three prior converted fields on the Delmarva Peninsula were sampled spatially for denitrification enzyme activity. The up...

  18. Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Yan; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial strain F6 was isolated from a biological aerated filter that is used for purifying recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system and was identified as Marinobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain F6 showed efficient aerobic denitrifying ability. One hundred percent of nitrates and 73.10% of nitrites were removed, and the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates reached 50.08% and 33.03% under a high nitrate and nitrite concentration in the medium, respectively. N(2)O and (15)N(2), as revealed by GC-MS and GC-IRMS, were the products of aerobic denitrification. Factors affecting the growth and aerobic denitrifying performance of strain F6 were investigated. The results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain F6 were the presence of sodium succinate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 15, salinity ranging from 32-35 g/L of NaCl, incubation temperature of 30°C, an initial pH of 7.5, and rotation speed of 150 rpm [dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.75 mg/L]. In addition, strain F6 was confirmed to be a heterotrophic nitrifier through its NO(2)(-) generation and 25.96% TN removal when NH(4)(+) was used as the sole N source. Therefore, strain F6, the first reported member of genus Marinobacter with aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying ability, is an excellent candidate for facilitating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in industry and aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22578593

  19. Temperature response of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation rates and microbial community structure in Arctic fjord sediments.

    PubMed

    Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A; Kostka, Joel E; Huettel, Markus; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-10-01

    The temperature dependency of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) rates from Arctic fjord sediments was investigated in a temperature gradient block incubator for temperatures ranging from -1 to 40°C. Community structure in intact sediments and slurry incubations was determined using Illumina SSU rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal temperature (Topt ) for denitrification was 25-27°C, whereas anammox rates were optimal at 12-17°C. Both denitrification and anammox exhibited temperature responses consistent with a psychrophilic community, but anammox bacteria may be more specialized for psychrophilic activity. Long-term (1-2 months) warming experiments indicated that temperature increases of 5-10°C above in situ had little effect on the microbial community structure or the temperature response of denitrification and anammox. Increases of 25°C shifted denitrification temperature responses to mesophilic with concurrent community shifts, and anammox activity was eliminated above 25°C. Additions of low molecular weight organic substrates (acetate and lactate) caused increases in denitrification rates, corroborating the hypothesis that the supply of organic substrates is a more dominant control of respiration rates than low temperature. These results suggest that climate-related changes in sinking particulate flux will likely alter rates of N removal more rapidly than warming. PMID:25115991

  20. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers. [Pseudomonas fluorescens; Serratia marcescens; Alcaligenes faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Levine, J.S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO/sub 2/) on the production of NO and N/sub 2/O by a wide variety of common soil nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The production of NO per cell was highest by autotrophic nitrifiers and was independent of pO/sub 2/ in the range tested (0.5 to 10%), whereas N/sub 2/O production was inversely proportional to pO/sub 2/. Nitrous oxide production was highest in the denitrifier Pseudomonas fluorescens, but only under anaerobic conditions. The molar ratio of NO/N/sub 2/O produced was usually greater than unity for nitrifiers and much less than unity for denitrifiers. Chemodenitrification was the major source of both the NO and N/sub 2/O produced by the nitrate respirer Serratia marcescens. Chemodenitrification was also a possible source of NO and N/sub 2/O produced by the nitrate respirer Serratia marcescens. Chemodenitrification was also a possible source of No and N/sub 2/O in nitrifier cultures but only when high concentrations of nitrite had accumulated or were added to the medium. Although most of the denitrifiers produced NO and N/sub 2/O only under anaerobic conditions, chemostat cultures of Alcaligenes faecalis continued to emit these gases even when the cultures were sprayed with air. Based upon these results, we predict that aerobic soils are primary sources of NO and that N/sub 2/O is produced only when there is sufficient soil moisture to provide the anaerobic microsites necessary for denitrification by either denitrifiers or nitrifiers.

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. PMID:27134021

  2. Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Integrated control and Modelling at various scales (DASIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Well, Reinhard; Böttcher, Jürgen; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael; Deppe, Marianna; Dittert, Klaus; Dörsch, Peter; Horn, Marcus; Ippisch, Olaf; Mikutta, Robert; Senbayram, Mehmet; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Müller, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    The new research unit DASIM brings together the expertise of 11 working groups to study the process of denitrification at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Based on state-of-the art analytical techniques our aim is to develop improved denitrification models ranging from the microscale to the field/plot scale. Denitrification, the process of nitrate reduction allowing microbes to sustain respiration under anaerobic conditions, is the key process returning reactive nitrogen as N2to the atmosphere. Actively denitrifying communities in soil show distinct regulatory phenotypes (DRP) with characteristic controls on the single reaction steps and end-products. It is unresolved whether DRPs are anchored in the taxonomic composition of denitrifier communities and how environmental conditions shape them. Despite being intensively studied for more than 100 years, denitrification rates and emissions of its gaseous products can still not be satisfactorily predicted. While the impact of single environmental parameters is well understood, the complexity of the process itself with its intricate cellular regulation in response to highly variable factors in the soil matrix prevents robust prediction of gaseous emissions. Key parameters in soil are pO2, organic matter content and quality, pH and the microbial community structure, which in turn are affected by the soil structure, chemistry and soil-plant interactions. In the DASIM research unit, we aim at the quantitative prediction of denitrification rates as a function of microscale soil structure, organic matter quality, DRPs and atmospheric boundary conditions via a combination of state-of-the-art experimental and analytical tools (X-ray μCT, 15N tracing, NanoSIMS, microsensors, advanced flux detection, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular methods including next generation sequencing of functional gene transcripts). We actively seek collaboration with researchers working in the field of denitrification.

  3. Chemoautotrophic production and respiration in the hyporheic zone of a sonoran desert stream

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.B. Jr.; Holmes, R.M.; Fisher, S.G.; Grimm, N.B.

    1994-12-31

    Chemoautotrophic production and respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) were examined along flowpaths in three subsystems in Sycamore Creek, Arizona. Chemoautotrophic production was highest where surface waters enter parafluvial sediments (64 to 76 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}) and lowest in anoxic bank sediments (14 to 16 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}). Aerobic respiration was considerable greater than chemoautotrophy in oxygenated hyporheic and parafluvial zones (2,400 to 4,900 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}). In anoxic bank sediments, respiration was also much greater than chemoautotrophy, but was entirely anaerobic (i.e., methane production; 3,500 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}). Weighting subsystems by areal extent, the largest proportion of aerobic respiration and chemoautotrophic production occurred in parafluvial sediments (64 to 76%), whereas anoxic bank sediments were most important for anaerobic respiration (94% of total anaerobic respiration). Overall, chemoautotrophic production was only 1.0 to 1.3% of respiration and methane production was only 5% of total sediment respiration.

  4. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  5. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  6. Marinobacter strain NNA5, a newly isolated and highly efficient aerobic denitrifier with zero N2O emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient aerobic denitrification bacterium, strain NNA5, was isolated and identified as Marinobacter sp. NNA5. NNA5 did not perform heterotrophic nitrification. GC/IRMS analysis revealed that (15)N2 was produced from Na(15)NO2 and K(15)NO3. GC/MS and quantitative analyses showed that no N2O emission occurred when nitrite or nitrate was used as substrate. Single factor experiments indicated that optimal conditions for aerobic denitrification were: sodium succinate or sodium pyruvate as carbon source, temperature 35 °C, NaCl concentration 2-4%, C/N ratio 6-8, pH 7.5, rotation speed 150 rpm (giving dissolved oxygen concentration 6.08 mg/L), NO3(-)-N concentration ranging from 140 to 700 mg/L. NNA5 displayed highly efficient aerobic denitrifying ability, with maximal NO3(-)-N removal rate 112.8 mg/L/d. In view of its ability to perform aerobic denitrification with zero N2O emission, NNA5 has great potential for future application in aerobic denitrification processes in industrial and aquaculture wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26836845

  7. Stream denitrification across biomes and its response to anthropogenic nitrate loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Helton, A.M.; Poole, G.C.; Hall, R.O., Jr.; Hamilton, S.K.; Peterson, B.J.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Gregory, S.V.; Grimm, N. B.; Johnson, S.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Meyer, J.L.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; O'Brien, J. M.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Sobota, D.J.; Thomas, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic addition of bioavailable nitrogen to the biosphere is increasing and terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated, causing more bioavailable nitrogen to enter groundwater and surface waters. Large-scale nitrogen budgets show that an average of about 20-25 per cent of the nitrogen added to the biosphere is exported from rivers to the ocean or inland basins, indicating that substantial sinks for nitrogen must exist in the landscape. Streams and rivers may themselves be important sinks for bioavailable nitrogen owing to their hydrological connections with terrestrial systems, high rates of biological activity, and streambed sediment environments that favour microbial denitrification. Here we present data from nitrogen stable isotope tracer experiments across 72 streams and 8 regions representing several biomes. We show that total biotic uptake and denitrification of nitrate increase with stream nitrate concentration, but that the efficiency of biotic uptake and denitrification declines as concentration increases, reducing the proportion of in-stream nitrate that is removed from transport. Our data suggest that the total uptake of nitrate is related to ecosystem photosynthesis and that denitrification is related to ecosystem respiration. In addition, we use a stream network model to demonstrate that excess nitrate in streams elicits a disproportionate increase in the fraction of nitrate that is exported to receiving waters and reduces the relative role of small versus large streams as nitrate sinks. ??2008 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Temporal variability of denitrification in estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, C. S.; Rees, A. P.; Owens, N. J. P.

    1991-07-01

    Sediment denitrification rates and fluxes of nitrous oxide, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were determined at two intertidal sites in the Tamar estuary (S.W. England). High sediment nitrate uptake rates were recorded throughout the year, whereas the nitrite and ammonium fluxes were positive (from sediment to water column), with the former resulting from nitrification. Nitrous oxide flux was also positive, being largely attributable to denitrification with some contribution from nitrification or nitrification-denitrification coupling. No relationship was apparent between denitrification rate and nitrate concentration in the overlying water, invalidating the notion that denitrification automatically regulates nitrate during periods of elevated ambient concentration. However, denitrification exhibited a strong covariance with the degree of sediment bioturbation ( Nereis diversicolor), which was considered to be attributable to increased transport and supply of nitrate via Nereis burrows. Denitrification accounted for 8·5% of the annual total nitrate loading to the Tamar estuary, although a maximum of 100% was observed in summer when the phytoplankton nutrient requirement would also be highest.

  9. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is <1000 m thick. Ground water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  10. The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Victor; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2013-04-01

    Permeable sediments comprise the majority of shelf sediments, yet the rates of denitrification remain highly uncertain in these environments. Computational models are increasingly being used to understand the dynamics of denitrification in permeable sediments, which are complex environments to study experimentally. The realistic implementation of such models requires reliable experimentally derived data on the kinetics of denitrification. Here we undertook measurements of denitrification kinetics as a function of nitrate concentration and in the presence and absence of oxygen, in carefully controlled flow through reactor experiments on sediments taken from six shallow coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The results showed that denitrification commenced rapidly (within 30 min) after the onset of anoxia and the kinetics could be well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with half saturation constants (apparent Km) ranging between 1.5 and 19.8 μM, and maximum denitrification rate (Vmax) were in the range of 0.9-7.5 nmol mL-1 h-1. The production of N2 through anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) was generally found to be less than 10% that of denitrification. Vmax were in the same range as previously reported in cohesive sediments despite organic carbon contents one order of magnitude lower for the sediments studied here. The ratio of sediment O2 consumption to Vmax was in the range of 0.02-0.09, and was on average much lower than the theoretical ratio of 0.8. The most likely explanation for this is that the microbial community is not able to instantaneously shift or optimally use a particular electron acceptor in the highly dynamic redox environment experienced in permeable sediments. Consistent with this explanation, subsequent longer-term experiments over 5 days showed that denitrification rates increased by a factor of 10 within 3 days of the permanent onset of anoxia. In contrast to previous studies, we did not observe any significant

  11. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification of highly saline aquaculture wastewater using hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, C; Phong, D D; Jegatheesan, V

    2008-06-01

    A hydrogenotrophic denitrification system with a hollow fiber membrane was evaluated for treating and recycling synthetic aquaculture wastewater. Hollow fibers ensured bubble-less diffusion of hydrogen and subsequent removal of nitrate from the first bioreactor. The second aerobic reactor was used for biomass filtration and removal of organic matter. Nitrate and organic matter expressed as dissolved organic carbon were 50 mgl(-1) and 20 mgl(-1), respectively, in the inlet. Acclimatization of hydrogenotrophic bacteria to 10, 20 and 30 ppt of salinity was also observed. Optimum hydraulic retention time and denitrification rate corresponding to these salinities were 3, 5 and 6 h and 366.8, 226.2 and 193.2 gm(-3) day(-1), respectively. PMID:18702296

  12. Oscillations of nitric oxide concentration in the perturbed denitrification pathway of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Kucera, I

    1992-01-01

    The metabolism of nitric oxide in Paracoccus denitrificans has been studied using a Clark-type electrode. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and the SH reagent N-ethylmaleimide, both of which released nitric oxide from cells respiring nitrite, were found to be efficient inhibitors of nitric oxide reductase activity. Control experiments with another uncoupler, pentachlorophenol, showed that the inhibitory effect of CCCP was not the result of a decrease in membrane potential. The denitrification pathway in cells with partly inhibited nitric oxide reductase, or in a reconstituted system containing purified nitric reductase and membrane vesicles, exhibited marked sustained oscillations of nitric oxide concentration. The occurrence of the oscillations was strictly dependent on the initial concentration of nitrite. The observed oscillatory kinetics is considered to reflect two regulatory signals destabilizing the denitrification pathway, namely the inhibition of nitric oxide reductase by nitric oxide and/or by nitrite. PMID:1325776

  13. [Denitrification performance of PBS as a solid carbon source of denitrification].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Cao, Rong; Li, Yuan-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Poly-butylenes succinate (PBS) was used as solid denitrification carbon source and biofilm carrier, to investigate the denitrification performance and the influence of adding inert carrier. The experimental results showed that PBS could serve as solid carbon source for denitrification of low C/N ratio wastewater, but the startup time was longer, about 33 d. There was no accumulation of nitrite nitrogen in the process of denitrification, but it produced less than 0.8 mg x L(-1) ammonia nitrogen. Increasing the amount of biofilm in PBS supported denitrification system by adding the inert carrier could improve the denitrification rate. The denitrification rates of PBS, PBS + 30 g gravel, PBS + 60 g gravel and PBS +90 g gravel systems were 5.33, 7.04, 10.05 and 6.93 mg x (L x h)(-1), respectively, and all reactions were zero order. During the denitrification process (0-9 h), DOC increased before it was reduced. At the end of the denitrification reaction (24 h), DOC of the denitrification system with inert carrier 60 g gravel and 90 g gravel was 16.34 mg x L(-1) and 19.22 mg x L(-1), respectively, higher than that without gravel of 13.48 mg x L(-1). The pH of all denitrification systems were lower than the initial value, which was the result of comprehensive function of acidic substances and alkalinity produced in the process of degradation of solid carbon source and denitrification, respectively. PMID:25244849

  14. Air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor for realized simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiyi; Wang, Lu; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui

    2013-05-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was realized by means of a novel air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor, in which aeration was set in middle of the reactor. During operation, the aeration was adjusted to get appropriate dissolve oxygen (DO) in bulk solution and let aerobic and anoxic zone coexist in one reactor. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, corresponding to DO of 5.8 and 2.5 mg/L in bulk solution, ammonia nitrogen removal percentage reached about 80 and 90 %, but total nitrogen removal percentage was lower than 25 %. While the aeration was reduced to 0.1 L/min, aerobic and anoxic zones existed simultaneously in one reactor to get 75 % of ammonia nitrogen and 50 % of total nitrogen removal percentage. Biofilms were, respectively, taken from aerobic and anoxic zone to verify their function of nitrification and denitrification in two flasks, in which ammonia nitrogen was transferred into nitrate completely by aerobic biofilm, and nitrate was removed more than 80 % by anoxic biofilm. Microelectrode was used to measure the DO distribution inside biofilms in anoxic zone corresponding to different aerations. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, DO inside biofilm was more than 1.5 mg/L, but the DO inside biofilm decreased to anoxic status with depth of biofilm increasing corresponding to aeration of 0.1 L/min. The experimental results indicated that SND could be realized because of simultaneous existence of aerobic and anoxic biofilms in one reactor. PMID:23001679

  15. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal. PMID:27155411

  16. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  17. Enhanced Global Marine Denitrification Records the Initiation of the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altabet, M. A.; Higginson, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    . Since the process of denitrification is accelerated by low oxygen conditions, it is sensitive to both remote ventilation rates at the source of intermediate water and in situ respiration rates during the sinking of organic matter. We note that the timing of increased denitrification during deglaciation is earliest in the ETSP, followed by a peak in the ETNP, with maximum δ 15N recorded in the Arabian Sea approximately 2.9 Kyr later. The ventilation of intermediate water originates in the Southern Ocean and is advected simultaneously to the denitrification regions. Therefore, regional processes such as export production must primarily determine denitrification rates, modulated by preconditioning of intermediate water masses. We conclude that although the initial trigger for deglaciation may lie with SST and ice-cover changes in the Southern Ocean, its progress to interglacial conditions was determined by regional effects such as rates of upwelling driven by low-latitude Walker/Hadley Circulation and the monsoon at each location.

  18. Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit

    2013-08-01

    A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day. PMID:24520693

  19. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  20. Meiofauna increases bacterial denitrification in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bonaglia, S.; Nascimento, F. J. A; Bartoli, M.; Klawonn, I.; Brüchert, V.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification is a critical process that can alleviate the effects of excessive nitrogen availability in aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication. An important part of denitrification occurs in benthic systems where bioturbation by meiofauna (invertebrates <1 mm) and its effect on element cycling are still not well understood. Here we study the quantitative impact of meiofauna populations of different abundance and diversity, in the presence and absence of macrofauna, on nitrate reduction, carbon mineralization and methane fluxes. In sediments with abundant and diverse meiofauna, denitrification is double that in sediments with low meiofauna, suggesting that meiofauna bioturbation has a stimulating effect on nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. However, high meiofauna densities in the presence of bivalves do not stimulate denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium rate and methane efflux are significantly enhanced. We demonstrate that the ecological interactions between meio-, macrofauna and bacteria are important in regulating nitrogen cycling in soft-sediment ecosystems. PMID:25318852

  1. Meiofauna increases bacterial denitrification in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Bonaglia, S; Nascimento, F J A; Bartoli, M; Klawonn, I; Brüchert, V

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification is a critical process that can alleviate the effects of excessive nitrogen availability in aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication. An important part of denitrification occurs in benthic systems where bioturbation by meiofauna (invertebrates <1 mm) and its effect on element cycling are still not well understood. Here we study the quantitative impact of meiofauna populations of different abundance and diversity, in the presence and absence of macrofauna, on nitrate reduction, carbon mineralization and methane fluxes. In sediments with abundant and diverse meiofauna, denitrification is double that in sediments with low meiofauna, suggesting that meiofauna bioturbation has a stimulating effect on nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. However, high meiofauna densities in the presence of bivalves do not stimulate denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium rate and methane efflux are significantly enhanced. We demonstrate that the ecological interactions between meio-, macrofauna and bacteria are important in regulating nitrogen cycling in soft-sediment ecosystems. PMID:25318852

  2. Transferable Denitrification Capability of Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; Blesa, Alba; Hidalgo, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory-adapted strains of Thermus spp. have been shown to require oxygen for growth, including the model strains T. thermophilus HB27 and HB8. In contrast, many isolates of this species that have not been intensively grown under laboratory conditions keep the capability to grow anaerobically with one or more electron acceptors. The use of nitrogen oxides, especially nitrate, as electron acceptors is one of the most widespread capabilities among these facultative strains. In this process, nitrate is reduced to nitrite by a reductase (Nar) that also functions as electron transporter toward nitrite and nitric oxide reductases when nitrate is scarce, effectively replacing respiratory complex III. In many T. thermophilus denitrificant strains, most electrons for Nar are provided by a new class of NADH dehydrogenase (Nrc). The ability to reduce nitrite to NO and subsequently to N2O by the corresponding Nir and Nor reductases is also strain specific. The genes encoding the capabilities for nitrate (nar) and nitrite (nir and nor) respiration are easily transferred between T. thermophilus strains by natural competence or by a conjugation-like process and may be easily lost upon continuous growth under aerobic conditions. The reason for this instability is apparently related to the fact that these metabolic capabilities are encoded in gene cluster islands, which are delimited by insertion sequences and integrated within highly variable regions of easily transferable extrachromosomal elements. Together with the chromosomal genes, these plasmid-associated genetic islands constitute the extended pangenome of T. thermophilus that provides this species with an enhanced capability to adapt to changing environments. PMID:24141123

  3. Influence of porewater advection on denitrification in carbonate sands: Evidence from repacked sediment column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2012-11-01

    Porewater flow enhances mineralization rates in organic-poor permeable sands. Here, a series of sediment column experiments were undertaken to assess the potential effect of advective porewater transport on denitrification in permeable carbonate sands collected from Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef). Experimental conditions (flow path length, advection rate, and temperature) were manipulated to represent conditions similar to near shore tropical environments. HgCl2-poisoned controls were used to assess whether reactions were microbially mediated. Overall, significant correlations were found between oxygen consumption and N2 production. The N:O2 slope of 0.114 implied that about 75% of all the nitrogen mineralized was denitrified. A 4-fold increase in sediment column length (from 10 to 40 cm) resulted in an overall increase in oxygen consumption (1.6-fold), TCO2 production (1.8-fold), and denitrification (1.9-fold). Oxic respiration increased quickly until advection reached 80 L m-2 h-1 and then plateaued at higher advection rates. Interestingly, denitrification peaked (up to 336 μmol N2 m-2 h-1) at intermediate advection rates (30-80 L m-2 h-1). We speculate that intermediate advection rates enhance the development of microniches (i.e., steep oxygen gradients) within porous carbonate sands, perhaps providing optimum conditions for denitrification. The denitrification peak fell within the broad range of advection rates (often on scales of 1-100 L m-2 h-1) typically found on continental shelves implying that carbonate sands may play a major, but as yet unquantified, role in oceanic nitrogen budgets.

  4. Barometric process separation: New method for quantifying nitrification, denitrification, and nitrous oxide sources in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ingwersen, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Gasche, R.; Papen, H.; Richter, O.

    1999-01-01

    A method, Barometric Process Separation (BaPS), was developed for the quantification of gross nitrification rates and denitrification rates in oxic soil using intact soil cores incubated in an isothermal gas tight system. Gross nitrification rates and denitrification rates are derived from measurements of changes (i) in air pressure within the closed system, which are primarily the result of the activities of nitrification, denitrification, and respiration, and (2) of O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations in the system. Besides these biological processes, the contribution of physicochemical dissolution of produced CO{sub 2} in soil water to the pressure changes observed is to be considered. The method allows collection of additional information about the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N{sub 2}O emission from soil, provided simultaneous measurements of N{sub 2}O emission are performed. Furthermore, BaPS can be used to quantify the percentage of N{sub 2}O lost from nitrification. The advantage of BaPS is that disturbance of the soil system is minimized compared with other methods such as the use of gaseous inhibitors (e.g., acetylene) or application of {sup 15}N compounds to the soil. The authors present the theoretical considerations of BaPS, results for nitrification rates, denitrification rates, and identification of soil N{sub 2}O sources in a well-aerated coniferous forest soil using BaPS. The suitability of BaPS as a method for determination of gross nitrification is demonstrated by validation experiments using the {sup 15}N-pool dilution technique.

  5. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality. PMID:25638338

  6. Validating soil denitrification models based on laboratory N_{2} and N_{2}O fluxes and underlying processes derived by stable isotope approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Böttcher, Jürgen; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael; Deppe, Marianna; Dittert, Klaus; Dörsch, Peter; Horn, Marcus; Ippisch, Olaf; Mikutta, Robert; Müller, Carsten; Müller, Christoph; Senbayram, Mehmet; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Robust denitrification data suitable to validate soil N2 fluxes in denitrification models are scarce due to methodical limitations and the extreme spatio-temporal heterogeneity of denitrification in soils. Numerical models have become essential tools to predict denitrification at different scales. Model performance could either be tested for total gaseous flux (NO + N2O + N2), individual denitrification products (e.g. N2O and/or NO) or for the effect of denitrification factors (e.g. C-availability, respiration, diffusivity, anaerobic volume, etc.). While there are numerous examples for validating N2O fluxes, there are neither robust field data of N2 fluxes nor sufficiently resolved measurements of control factors used as state variables in the models. To the best of our knowledge there has been only one published validation of modelled soil N2 flux by now, using a laboratory data set to validate an ecosystem model. Hence there is a need for validation data at both, the mesocosm and the field scale including validation of individual denitrification controls. Here we present the concept for collecting model validation data which is be part of the DFG-research unit "Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Integrated Control and Modelling at Various Scales (DASIM)" starting this year. We will use novel approaches including analysis of stable isotopes, microbial communities, pores structure and organic matter fractions to provide denitrification data sets comprising as much detail on activity and regulation as possible as a basis to validate existing and calibrate new denitrification models that are applied and/or developed by DASIM subprojects. The basic idea is to simulate "field-like" conditions as far as possible in an automated mesocosm system without plants in order to mimic processes in the soil parts not significantly influenced by the rhizosphere (rhizosphere soils are studied by other DASIM projects). Hence, to allow model testing in a wide range of conditions

  7. Resazurin as a Proxy for Estimating Stream Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Pinzon, R. A.; Haggerty, R.; Argerich, A.; Briggs, M.; Lautz, L. K.; Lemke, D.; Hare, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrologic retention in stream ecosystems favors the reactions of solutes and nutrients in metabolically active transient storage (MATS) zones. These zones are hot spots where metabolic activity is expected to contribute significantly to ecosystem respiration. We compare the results of a series of coinjections of resazurin (Raz) as a redox sensitive tracer, and NaCl as a conservative tracer to investigate the function of MATS zones. Raz is a dye that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) when exposed to aerobic respiration. To characterize the transformation of Raz we measured the BTC of the tracers at the boundary conditions, and during plateau concentrations we sampled the longitudinal profile of surface water. We also used the two-station diel technique to quantify gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR) within the reaches. Injections have been performed in streams with different morphology, streambed composition, and riparian vegetation in Oregon-USA (WS 1 and WS 3 in the HJ Andrews Forest LTER, and Drift Creek), Spain (Riera de Santa Fe del Montseny, Catalonia) and Wyoming-USA (Cherry Creek). The results support the idea that under different ranges of community respiration, the transformation of Raz to Rru is a proxy for quantifying MATS, characterizing spatial heterogeneity in respiration rates, and ultimately, could be used to estimate ecosystem respiration in environments where direct measurement is challenging.

  8. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  9. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patrick G; Matheny, Terry A; Ro, Kyoung S; Stone, Kenneth C; Vanotti, Matias B

    2008-07-15

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales. PMID:18569323

  10. Denitrification mechanism in combustion of biocoal briquettes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoon; Li, Tianji

    2005-02-15

    Pulp black liquor (PBL), an industrial waste from paper production, has been previously shown to be an effective binder and denitrification agent for coal briquettes. This study investigated the denitrification mechanism of PBL in both the volatile combustion and char combustion stages of coal briquettes. X-ray diffraction and ion chromatography were used to analyze the residual ashes of combustion. The exhaust gas was analyzed by a flue gas analysis system and a Q-mass spectrometry system. The denitrification mechanism of PBL in the volatile combustion stage was found to result from the emission of NH3. The denitrification of PBL in the char combustion stage was associated with the NaOH contained in PBL. The direct reaction of NaOH with NO gas was examined, and some interesting phenomena were observed. Pure carbon or pure NaOH showed only limited reaction with NO. However, the mixture of NaOH and carbon (NaOH + C) significantly enhanced the reaction. This mixture increased the NO removal up to 100%. Subsequently, denitrification lasted for a long time period, with about 25% of NO removal. The pyrolysis characteristic of NaNO3, a compound resulting from denitrification, was also affected by the presence of carbon. In the presence of carbon, the NOx emission resulting from the pyrolysis of NaNO3 was reduced by a factor of 6. Since the denitrification phenomena appeared only in the absence of oxygen, a model of oxygen distribution in a burning coal briquette was employed to explain the reactions occurring in real combustion of coal briquettes. PMID:15773493

  11. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. PMID:21051843

  12. Inhibition of denitrification by ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.

    It has been shown that UV-A (λ = 320- 400 nm) and UV-B (λ = 280 - 320 nm) inhibit photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and nitrification. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects, if any, on denitrification in a microbial community inhabiting the intertidal. The community studied is the microbial mat consisting primarily of Lyngbya that inhabits the Pacific marine intertidal, Baja California, Mexico. Rates of denitrification were determined using the acetylene blockage technique. Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC # 17400) was used as a control organism, and treated similarly to the mat samples. Samples were incubated either beneath a PAR transparent, UV opaque screen (OP3), or a mylar screen to block UV-B, or a UV transparent screen (UVT) for 2 to 3 hours. Sets of samples were also treated with nitrapyrin to inhibit nitrification, or DCMU to inhibit photosynthesis and treated similarly. Denitrification rates were greater in the UV protected samples than in the UV exposed samples the mat samples as well as for the Ps. fluorescens cultures. Killed controls exhibited no activity. In the DCMU and nitrapyrin treated samples denitrification rates were the same as in the untreated samples. These data indicate that denitrification is directly inhibited by UV radiation.

  13. Inhibition of denitrification by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, R L; White, M R

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that UV-A (lambda=320-400 nm) and UV-B (lambda=280-320 nm) inhibit photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and nitrification. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects, if any, on denitrification in a microbial community inhabiting the intertidal. The community studied is the microbial mat consisting primarily of Lyngbya that inhabits the Pacific marine intertidal, Baja California, Mexico. Rates of denitrification were determined using the acetylene blockage technique. Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC #17400) was used as a control organism, and treated similarly to the mat samples. Samples were incubated either beneath a PAR transparent, UV opaque screen (OP3), or a mylar screen to block UV-B, or a UV transparent screen (UVT) for 2 to 3 hours. Sets of samples were also treated with nitrapyrin to inhibit nitrification, or DCMU to inhibit photosynthesis and treated similarly. Denitrification rates were greater in the UV protected samples than in the UV exposed samples the mat samples as well as for the Ps fluorescens cultures. Killed controls exhibited no activity. In the DCMU and nitrapyrin treated samples denitrification rates were the same as in the untreated samples. These data indicate that denitrification is directly inhibited by UV radiation. PMID:12038490

  14. Using soil isotopes as an indicator of denitrification in weetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denitrification is an important ecosystem service provided by wetlands, which results in removal of excess nitrogen that can threaten aquatic systems. Unfortunately, direct measurement of denitrification has traditionally been expensive, time intensive, and difficult. However, ...

  15. Fungal denitrification: Bipolaris sorokiniana exclusively denitrifies inorganic nitrogen in the presence and absence of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca; Grelet, Gwen; McMillan, Andrew; Song, Bongkeun; Weir, Bevan; Palmada, Thilak; Tobias, Craig

    2016-02-01

    Fungi may play an important role in the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Bipolaris sorokiniana is a ubiquitous saprobe found in soils worldwide, yet denitrification by this fungal strain has not previously been reported. We aimed to test if B. sorokiniana would produce N2O and CO2 in the presence of organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen (N) under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. Nitrogen source (organic-N, inorganic-N, no-N control) significantly affected N2O and CO2 production both in the presence and absence of oxygen, which contrasts with bacterial denitrification. Inorganic N addition increased denitrification of N2O (from 0 to 0.3 μg N20-N h(-1) g(-1) biomass) and reduced respiration of CO2 (from 0.1 to 0.02 mg CO2 h(-1) g(-1) biomass). Isotope analyses indicated that nitrite, rather than ammonium or glutamine, was transformed to N2O. Results suggest the source of N may play a larger role in fungal N2O production than oxygen status. PMID:26764425

  16. Impact of Aeration and Heme-Activated Respiration on Lactococcus lactis Gene Expression: Identification of a Heme-Responsive Operon▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Martin Bastian; Garrigues, Christel; Tuphile, Karine; Brun, Célia; Vido, Karin; Bennedsen, Mads; Møllgaard, Henrik; Gaudu, Philippe; Gruss, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a widely used food bacterium mainly characterized for its fermentation metabolism. However, this species undergoes a metabolic shift to respiration when heme is added to an aerobic medium. Respiration results in markedly improved biomass and survival compared to fermentation. Whole-genome microarrays were used to assess changes in L. lactis expression under aerobic and respiratory conditions compared to static growth, i.e., nonaerated. We observed the following. (i) Stress response genes were affected mainly by aerobic fermentation. This result underscores the differences between aerobic fermentation and respiration environments and confirms that respiration growth alleviates oxidative stress. (ii) Functions essential for respiratory metabolism, e.g., genes encoding cytochrome bd oxidase, menaquinone biosynthesis, and heme uptake, are similarly expressed under the three conditions. This indicates that cells are prepared for respiration once O2 and heme become available. (iii) Expression of only 11 genes distinguishes respiration from both aerobic and static fermentation cultures. Among them, the genes comprising the putative ygfCBA operon are strongly induced by heme regardless of respiration, thus identifying the first heme-responsive operon in lactococci. We give experimental evidence that the ygfCBA genes are involved in heme homeostasis. PMID:18487342

  17. Suppression of N2O and NO from denitrification by biochar: the role of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Denitrification reduces NO3- to N2 and returns excess nitrogen to the atmosphere. NO and N2O are gaseous intermediates of denitrification which, once escaped to the atmosphere, have adverse effects on chemistry and radiative forcing in the atmosphere. We studied the effect of biochar on denitrification and its gaseous intermediates in two acidic soils and tried to distinguish between the alkalizing effect of biochars on soil pH, and other, unknown effects of biochar on denitrification. Anoxic soil slurries were incubated with untreated biochars or biochars from which part of the alkalinity had been removed by water- and acid leaching. Soils amended with NaOH and uncharred cacao shell were used as controls. Biochar addition stimulated overall denitrification depending on biochar and soil type. This stimulation was not strictly coupled to pH increase, suggesting that biochar fueled respiration processes by contributing microbially available C. High resolution gas kinetics of NO, N2O and N2 showed that biochar amended soils induced denitrification enzymes earlier and with higher activity, resulting in less NO and N2O accumulation relative to N2 production. The extent to which biochar suppressed NO and N2O was dose-dependent and clearly related to the effective pH increase during incubation. Acid leaching of BC reduced or eliminated its ability to suppress N2O and NO net production. Comparison of BC with NaOH-amended soils showed that the reduction of N2O and NO net production was mainly an effect of increase in soil pH. Even though other factors supporting N2O reductase activity could not be excluded, our results indicate that soil pH increase might be an important driver behind the often-reported suppression of N2O emissions after biochar addition.

  18. Transient Accumulation of NO2 - and N2O during Denitrification Explained by Assuming Cell Diversification by Stochastic Transcription of Denitrification Genes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhi; Bergaust, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    Denitrifying bacteria accumulate NO2−, NO, and N2O, the amounts depending on transcriptional regulation of core denitrification genes in response to O2-limiting conditions. The genes include nar, nir, nor and nosZ, encoding NO3−-, NO2−-, NO- and N2O reductase, respectively. We previously constructed a dynamic model to simulate growth and respiration in batch cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans. The observed denitrification kinetics were adequately simulated by assuming a stochastic initiation of nir-transcription in each cell with an extremely low probability (0.5% h-1), leading to product- and substrate-induced transcription of nir and nor, respectively, via NO. Thus, the model predicted cell diversification: after O2 depletion, only a small fraction was able to grow by reducing NO2−. Here we have extended the model to simulate batch cultivation with NO3−, i.e., NO2−, NO, N2O, and N2 kinetics, measured in a novel experiment including frequent measurements of NO2−. Pa. denitrificans reduced practically all NO3− to NO2− before initiating gas production. The NO2− production is adequately simulated by assuming stochastic nar-transcription, as that for nirS, but with a higher probability (0.035 h-1) and initiating at a higher O2 concentration. Our model assumes that all cells express nosZ, thus predicting that a majority of cells have only N2O-reductase (A), while a minority (B) has NO2−-, NO- and N2O-reductase. Population B has a higher cell-specific respiration rate than A because the latter can only use N2O produced by B. Thus, the ratio BA is low immediately after O2 depletion, but increases throughout the anoxic phase because B grows faster than A. As a result, the model predicts initially low but gradually increasing N2O concentration throughout the anoxic phase, as observed. The modelled cell diversification neatly explains the observed denitrification kinetics and transient intermediate accumulations. The result has major implications for

  19. Transient Accumulation of NO2- and N2O during Denitrification Explained by Assuming Cell Diversification by Stochastic Transcription of Denitrification Genes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Junaid; Qu, Zhi; Bergaust, Linda L; Bakken, Lars R

    2016-01-01

    Denitrifying bacteria accumulate [Formula: see text], NO, and N2O, the amounts depending on transcriptional regulation of core denitrification genes in response to O2-limiting conditions. The genes include nar, nir, nor and nosZ, encoding [Formula: see text]-, [Formula: see text]-, NO- and N2O reductase, respectively. We previously constructed a dynamic model to simulate growth and respiration in batch cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans. The observed denitrification kinetics were adequately simulated by assuming a stochastic initiation of nir-transcription in each cell with an extremely low probability (0.5% h-1), leading to product- and substrate-induced transcription of nir and nor, respectively, via NO. Thus, the model predicted cell diversification: after O2 depletion, only a small fraction was able to grow by reducing [Formula: see text]. Here we have extended the model to simulate batch cultivation with [Formula: see text], i.e., [Formula: see text], NO, N2O, and N2 kinetics, measured in a novel experiment including frequent measurements of [Formula: see text]. Pa. denitrificans reduced practically all [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] before initiating gas production. The [Formula: see text] production is adequately simulated by assuming stochastic nar-transcription, as that for nirS, but with a higher probability (0.035 h-1) and initiating at a higher O2 concentration. Our model assumes that all cells express nosZ, thus predicting that a majority of cells have only N2O-reductase (A), while a minority (B) has [Formula: see text]-, NO- and N2O-reductase. Population B has a higher cell-specific respiration rate than A because the latter can only use N2O produced by B. Thus, the ratio [Formula: see text] is low immediately after O2 depletion, but increases throughout the anoxic phase because B grows faster than A. As a result, the model predicts initially low but gradually increasing N2O concentration throughout the anoxic phase, as observed. The

  20. Stratospheric Polar Freezing Belt Causes Denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Toon, O. B.; Drdla, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Trajectory cloud model calculations are presented to show that homogeneous freezing of nitric acid hydrates can produce a polar freezing belt in both hemispheres that can cause denitrification. While hydrate cloud microphysical properties are similar over both poles, the shorter persistence of clouds in the Arctic prevents the depth of the denitrified layers from growing beyond a few kilometers. The 1999-2000 Arctic winter is unique in showing a distinct denitrification profile with a depth of approx. 4.5 km that is nearly half as deep as that computed for a typical Antarctic winter.

  1. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  2. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  3. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration of minerals. Final technical report, March 1, 1985--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1996-08-01

    The goals of this project were to continue the identification, separation, and characterization of the cellular components necessary for aerobic respiration on iron, and to initiate an investigation of the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble inorganic substrates. Progress is described.

  4. Physicochemical properties influencing denitrification rate and microbial activity in denitrification bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The use of N-based fertilizer will need to increase to meet future demands, yet existing applications have been implicated as the main source of coastal eutrophication and hypoxic zones. Producing sufficient crops to feed a growing planet will require efficient production in combination with sustainable treatment solutions. The long-term success of denitrification bioreactors to effectively remove nitrate (NO¬3), indicates this technology is a feasible treatment option. Assessing and quantifying the media properties that affect NO¬3 removal rate and microbial activity can improve predictions on bioreactor performance. It was hypothesized that denitrification rates and microbial biomass would be correlated with total C, NO¬3 concentration, metrics of organic matter quality, media surface area and laboratory measures of potential denitrification rate. NO¬3 removal rates and microbial biomass were evaluated in mesocosms filled with different wood treatments and the unique influence of these predictor variables was determined using a multiple linear regression analysis. NO3 reduction rates were independent of NO¬3 concentration indicating zero order reaction kinetics. Temperature was strongly correlated with denitrification rate (r2=0.87; Q10=4.7), indicating the variability of bioreactor performance in differing climates. Fiber quality, and media surface area were strong (R>0.50), unique predictors of rates and microbial biomass, although C:N ratio and potential denitrification rate did not predict actual denitrification rate or microbial biomass. Utilizing a stepwise multiple linear regression, indicates that the denitrification rate can be effectively (r2=0.56;p<0.0001) predicted if the groundwater temperature, neutral detergent fiber and surface area alone are quantified. These results will assist with the widespread implementation of denitrification bioreactors to achieve significant N load reductions in large watersheds. The nitrate reduction rate as a

  5. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  6. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  7. Denitrification in frozen agricultural soil. A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) in agricultural fertilizers is denitrified by soil bacteria when oxygen is limited, which effectively removes plant-available N from the soil to the atmosphere. Reported denitrification rates range from 0 to 239 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and may reduce the amount of N available for crop growth by...

  8. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  9. Denitrification in San Francisco Bay intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Umberger, Cindy; Culbertson, Charles W.; Smith, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The acetylene block technique was employed to study denitrification in intertidal estuarine sediments. Addition of nitrate to sediment slurries stimulated denitrification. During the dry season, sediment-slurry denitrification rates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations (≤26 μM) were below the apparent Km (50 μM) for nitrate. During the rainy season, when ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations were higher (37 to 89 μM), an accurate estimate of the Km could not be obtained. Endogenous denitrification activity was confined to the upper 3 cm of the sediment column. However, the addition of nitrate to deeper sediments demonstrated immediate N2O production, and potential activity existed at all depths sampled (the deepest was 15 cm). Loss of N2O in the presence of C2H2 was sometimes observed during these short-term sediment incubations. Experiments with sediment slurries and washed cell suspensions of a marine pseudomonad confirmed that this N2O loss was caused by incomplete blockage of N2O reductase by C2H2 at low nitrate concentrations. Areal estimates of denitrification (in the absence of added nitrate) ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for undisturbed sediments) to 17 to 280 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for shaken sediment slurries).

  10. A novel stoichiometries methodology to quantify functional microorganisms in simultaneous (partial) nitrification-endogenous denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNEDPR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Shuying; Zhao, Ji; Dai, Xian; Li, Baikun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-05-15

    Although efficient removal of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from wastewater with low C/N ratio was achieved in anaerobic/aerobic simultaneous nitrification-endogenous denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNEDPR) systems, the removal pathways and metabolic transformations in this complex system are unclear. This work targeted at developing the stoichiometric models for denitrifying glycogen organisms (DGAOs) via nitrite and nitrate (DGAONi and DGAONa), and demonstrating a novel methodology to quantify diverse functional microorganisms (e.g. ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, aerobic phosphorus accumulating organisms (APAOs), denitrifying PAOs (DPAOs) and aerobic GAOs (AGAOs)) for the removal of C, N and P. The results showed that the anaerobic intracellular carbon storage (CODintra) was mainly accomplished by GAOs, and PAOs were only responsible for about 40% of CODintra through a stable P release. At the aerobic stage, 84.9% of P was removed by APAOs with 15.1% left by DPAOs, while 64.6% of N was removed by DGAOs (45.8% by DGAONi and 18.8% by DGAONa) with 18.1% by DPAOs and 17.3% by bacterial growth. High proportion of N removal via nitrite (partial nitrification-endogenous denitrification) (71%) saved 7.3% aeration and 38% intracellular carbon demand. However, AGAOs still activated well at the aerobic intercellular carbon consumption, which limited the further improvement of N removal efficiency. By elucidating the nutrient removal pathways among diverse functional microorganisms, the methodology developed in this study could accelerate the nutrient removal in the SNEDPR process. PMID:27016642

  11. Autoxidation and acetylene-accelerated oxidation of NO in a 2-phase system; implications for the expression of denitrification in ex situ experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Dörsch, Peter; Bakken, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Denitrification allows microorganisms to sustain respiration under anoxic conditions. The typical niche for denitrification is an environment with fluctuating oxygen concentrations such as soils and borders between anoxic and oxic zones of biofilms and sediments. In such environments, the organisms need adequate regulation of denitrification in response to changing oxygen availability to tackle both oxic and anoxic spells. The regulation of denitrification in soils has environmental implications, since it affects the proportions of N2, N2O and NO emitted to the atmosphere. The expression of denitrification enzymes is regulated by a complex regulatory network involving one or several positive feedback loops via the intermediate nitrogen oxides. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to induce denitrification in model organisms, but the quantitative effect of NO and its concentration dependency has not been assessed for denitrification in soils. NO is chemically unstable in the presence of oxygen due to autoxidation, and the oxidation of NO is accelerated by acetylene (C2H2) which is commonly used as an inhibitor of N2O reductase in denitrification studies. As a first step to a better understanding of NO's role in soil denitrification, we investigated NO oxidation kinetics for a closed "two phase" system (i.e. liquid phase + headspace) typically used for denitrification experiments with soil slurries, with and without acetylene present. Models were developed to adequately predict autoxidation and acetylene-accelerated oxidation. The minimum oxygen concentration in the headspace ([O2]min, mL L-1) for acetylene-accelerated NO oxidation was found to increase linearly with the NO concentration ([NO], mL L-1); [O2]min= 0.192 + [NO]*0.1 (r2=0.978). The models for NO oxidation were then used to assess NO-oxidation rates in denitrification experiments with batches of bacterial cells extracted from soil. The batches were exposed to low initial oxygen concentrations in gas tight serum

  12. Performance of sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion applied to municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Rita, Sara; Mininni, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    A promising alternative to conventional single phase processing, the use of sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion, was extensively investigated on municipal sewage sludge from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate sequential digestion performance by testing the characteristics of the digested sludge in terms of volatile solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and nitrogen reduction, biogas production, dewaterability and the content of proteins and polysaccharides. VS removal efficiencies of 32% in the anaerobic phase and 17% in the aerobic one were obtained, and similar COD removal efficiencies (29% anaerobic and 21% aerobic) were also observed. The aerobic stage was also efficient in nitrogen removal providing a decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant attributable to nitrification and simultaneous denitrification. Moreover, in the aerobic phase an additional marked removal of proteins and polysaccharides produced in the anaerobic phase was achieved. The sludge dewaterability was evaluated by determining the Optimal Polymer Dose (OPD) and the Capillary Suction Time (CST) and a significant positive effect due to the aerobic stage was observed. Biogas production was close to the upper limit of the range of values reported in the literature in spite of the low anaerobic sludge retention time of 15 days. From a preliminary analysis it was found that the energy demand of the aerobic phase was significantly lower than the recovered energy in the anaerobic phase and the associated additional cost was negligible in comparison to the saving derived from the reduced amount of sludge to be disposed. PMID:21477916

  13. Dissolved gas and isotopic tracers of denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; McNab, W W; Carle, S F; Cey, B D

    2008-02-28

    We present results from field studies in California (USA) where tritium-helium age dating is used in conjunction with major gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}), noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), and stable isotopes ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) in order to document nitrate loading and denitrification associated with confined animal agricultural operations and septic systems. Preliminary results show that in-field extraction of the full suite of dissolved gases will be possible using a new Gas Extraction System under development to augment the current Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry and Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry techniques. Ascribing observed groundwater nitrate levels to specific current and past land use practices is often complicated by uncertainty in groundwater age and the degree and locus of dentrification. Groundwater age dating at dairy field sites using the {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He method indicates that the highest nitrate concentrations (150-260 mg/L-NO3) occur in waters with apparent ages of <5 yrs, whereas older waters contain excess N{sub 2} from saturated zone denitrification [1]. At a residential septic system site in Livermore, CA, waters with young apparent ages (<1 yr) proximal to leach line drainage have lower nitrate concentrations and elevated nitrate {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O values consistent with denitrification, but little evidence for excess N{sub 2}, indicating that denitrification is occurring in the unsaturated zone. Degassing of groundwater can complicate efforts to calculate travel times [2] and to quantify denitrification. Degassed groundwater underlying dairy operations is formed by two distinct mechanisms: (1) recharge of manure lagoon water affected by biogenic gas ebullition [3] and (2) saturated zone denitrification producing N{sub 2} gas above solubility in groundwater. Gas loss due to both mechanisms is evident in the concentrations of noble gases and major gases in dairy groundwater samples.

  14. Relative Magnitude and Controls of in Situ N2 and N2O Fluxes due to Denitrification in Natural and Seminatural Terrestrial Ecosystems Using (15)N Tracers.

    PubMed

    Sgouridis, Fotis; Ullah, Sami

    2015-12-15

    Denitrification is the most uncertain component of the nitrogen (N) cycle, hampering our ability to assess its contribution to reactive N (Nr) removal. This uncertainty emanates from the difficulty in measuring in situ soil N2 production and from the high spatiotemporal variability of the process itself. In situ denitrification was measured monthly between April 2013 and October 2014 in natural (organic and forest) and seminatural ecosystems (semi-improved and improved grasslands) in two UK catchments. Using the (15)N-gas flux method with low additions of (15)NO3(-) tracer, a minimum detectable flux rate of 4 μg N m(-2) h(-1) and 0.2 ng N m(-2) h(-1) for N2 and N2O, respectively, was achieved. Denitrification rates were lower in organic and forest (8 and 10 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively) than in semi-improved and improved grassland soils (13 and 25 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively). The ratio of N2O/N2 + N2O was low and ranged from <1% to 7% across the sites. Variation in denitrification was driven by differences in soil respiration, nitrate, C:N ratio, bulk density, moisture, and pH across the sites. Overall, the contribution of denitrification to Nr removal in natural ecosystems was ~50% of the annual atmospheric Nr deposition, making these ecosystems vulnerable to chronic N saturation. PMID:26509488

  15. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  16. Direct contribution of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to benthic fluxes, nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in a farmed sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, David T.; Nizzoli, Daniele; Fano, Elisa A.; Viaroli, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) on N-cycle processes, and oxygen and nutrient fluxes in a farmed sediment was investigated using a multiple core incubation approach and parallel incubations of individual clams. Clam population/biomass density varied ∼8-fold between cores and all sediment-water column solute (O2. N2, N2O, NH4+, NOX and DIN) fluxes and benthic process (N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification) rates were strongly and significantly correlated with clam density/biomass. Isolated clams exhibited high rates of respiration, N-excretion, nitrification and denitrification of 2050 ± 70, 395 ± 49, 201 ± 42 and 235 ± 40 nmol individual-1 h-1, respectively. The direct contribution of the clams and their associated microbiota to benthic processes was estimated by multiplying the per individual rates by the number of clams in each incubated core. The clams on average directly accounted for 64-133% of total rates of sediment oxygen demand, N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification, indicating that they regulated processes primarily through their own metabolic activity and that of bacteria that colonise them. Clams and the farmed sediments were significant sources of the greenhouse gas N2O, but this was primarily due to their high nitrification and denitrification rates, rather than high specific N2O yields, as N2O emissions represented <1% of total N2O + N2 production. The clam-farmed sediments had a high denitrification efficiency of 67 ± 10%, but this ecosystem service came at the environmental cost of increased N-regeneration and N2O emission rates. The measured N2O emissions indicate that bivalve aquaculture may be a significant source of N2O. It is therefore recommended that N2O emissions should be included in the impact assessments of current and future bivalve-farming projects.

  17. Denitrification mechanisms in the polar stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, R. P.; Hamill, P.

    1990-01-01

    Microphysical simulations suggest that the time required for nitric acid particles to sediment from the stratosphere is comparable to the time required for falling ice particles to incorporate nitric acid vapor from the vapor phase. Since nitric acid particles form earlier in the winter than ice particles, these simulations favor denitrification being a separate process from dehydration, with denitrification being due to nitric acid particles and dehydration due to ice particles. In the simulations, the column abundance of nitric acid is only depleted if temperatures low enough for nitric acid particles to exist extend to the altitude above which the column is measured. Such low temperatures are infrequent in the Arctic lower stratosphere, which may be the main reason that the Arctic stratospheric column shows little loss of nitric acid during winter, while the colder Antarctic stratospheric column shows a substantial loss of nitric acid.

  18. Impact of Aquifer Heterogeneities on Autotrophic Denitrification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, A.; Roques, C.; Selker, J. S.; Istok, J. D.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a big challenge that will need to be addressed by hydrogeologists throughout the world. With a drinking water standard of 10mg/L of NO3-, innovative techniques will need to be pursued to ensure a decrease in drinking water nitrate concentration. At the pumping site scale, the influence and relationship between heterogeneous flow, mixing, and reactivity is not well understood. The purpose of this project is to incorporate both physical and chemical modeling techniques to better understand the effect of aquifer heterogeneities on autotrophic denitrification. We will investigate the link between heterogeneous hydraulic properties, transport, and the rate of autotrophic denitrification. Data collected in previous studies in laboratory experiments and pumping site scale experiments will be used to validate the models. The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a model in which such coupled processes are better understood resulting in best management practices of groundwater.

  19. Denitrification using a membrane-immobilized biofilm

    SciTech Connect

    McCleaf, P.R. ); Schroeder, E.D. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    Immobilized bacterial cell technology was applied, on a bench scale, to the selective removal of nitrate from contaminated water, together with the segregation of denitrifying bacteria and the carbon energy source from the treated water. The two-chambered reactor, with a microporous membrane for bacterial cell immobilization, performed at an average denitrification rate of 5,800 mg nitrate-nitrogen (NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  20. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  1. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  2. Saturated Zone Denitrification at California Dairies

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M J; Esser, B K; Moran, J E; McNab, W W; Beller, H R

    2006-02-27

    Denitrification can effectively mitigate the problem of high nitrate concentrations in groundwater under dairy operations by reducing nitrate to N{sub 2} gas, at sites where biogeochemical conditions are favorable. We present results from field studies at central California dairies that document the occurrence of saturated-zone denitrification in shallow groundwater using biomolecular indicators, stable isotope compositions of nitrate, and measurements of dissolved excess N{sub 2} gas. Excess N{sub 2} concentrations provide a measure of the extent to which nitrate in groundwater has been partially or completely denitrified. Abundant excess N{sub 2} and young {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He apparent groundwater ages indicate high denitrification rates near manure lagoons where multiple lines of evidence indicate seepage of lagoon water into the groundwater system. Natural tracers of lagoon water include high chloride and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, distinctive trace organic compounds, and high groundwater {delta}{sup 18}O values (relative to other recharge sources). Proximal to the lagoons, NH{sub 4}{sup +} may be present in groundwater, but is strongly adsorbed on to sediment particles. Bubble formation in the lagoons causes the exsolution of other gases (N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne, He, etc.), which partition into the gas phase and strip the lagoon water of its dissolved gas load, providing a unique tracer of lagoon seepage in groundwater.

  3. Floodplain denitrification within contrasting hydrologic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.; Harvey, J. W.; Noe, G. B.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Forested wetlands are an important ecosystem across the southern US. During high-water, the adjacent river actively exchanges dissolved and particulate materials including nutrients (e.g., nitrogen) and suspended sediment with extensive floodplains that are inundated at any time of year during significant storms. Here, we examined the fate of nitrate during active inundation of the floodplain to determine denitrification rates and variation in those rates caused by the influence of hydrologic fluxes across the water-sediment interface. A ^{15}NO_{3}^{-} and Br^{-} addition experiment was carried out during the recession limb of the flood within two adjacent floodplain sloughs that were similar in size and connectivity with the river but differed in their ground surface elevation. Relative elevation of floodplain sloughs influenced the extent to which water flowed into floodplain sediment (i.e. recharge) or flowed out of sediment (discharge). Hydrologic measurements confirmed that the 2 sloughs were distinct - the higher elevation slough was actively recharging, versus in the second slough where exchange across the sediment water interface was absent. Measured rates of denitrification were higher in the recharging slough, and nitrification was only detected in this slough. Collectively, our results suggest that denitrification was important throughout the floodplain of this southeastern U.S. river, however recharging zones on the floodplain have greater nitrogen transformation rates and ultimately higher net nitrogen removal.

  4. Modeling nitrogen removal for a denitrification biofilter.

    PubMed

    Samie, Guillaume; Bernier, Jean; Rocher, Vincent; Lessard, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major greenhouse gas, heavily contributing to global warming. N2O is emitted from various sources such as wastewater treatment plants, during the nitrification and denitrification steps. ASM models, which are commonly used in wastewater treatment, usually consider denitrification as a one-step process (NO3- directly reduced to N2) and are as such unable to provide values for intermediate products of the reaction like N2O. In this study, a slightly modified ASM1 model was implemented in the GPS-X software to simulate the concentration of such intermediate products (NO2-, NO and N2O) and to estimate the amounts of gaseous N2O emitted by the denitrification stage (12 biofilters) of the Seine-Centre WWTP (SIAAP, Paris). Simulations running on a 1-year period have shown good agreements with measured effluent data for nitrate and nitrite. The calculated mean value for emitted N2O is 4.95 kgN-N2O/day, which stands in the typical range of estimated experimental values of 4-31 kgN-N2O/day. Nitrous oxide emissions are usually not measured on WWTPs and so, as obtained results show, there is a certain potential for using models that quantify those emissions using traditionally measured influent data. PMID:21340676

  5. Icehouse-greenhouse variations in marine denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, T. J.; Meyers, P. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Rowe, H.; Jiang, G. Q.

    2014-02-01

    Long-term secular variation in the isotopic composition of seawater fixed nitrogen (N) is poorly known. Here, we document variation in the N-isotopic composition of marine sediments (δ15Nsed) since 660 Ma (million years ago) in order to understand major changes in the marine N cycle through time and their relationship to first-order climate variation. During the Phanerozoic, greenhouse climate modes were characterized by low δ15Nsed (˜-2 to +2‰) and icehouse climate modes by high δ15Nsed (˜+4 to +8‰). Shifts toward higher δ15Nsed occurred rapidly during the early stages of icehouse modes, prior to the development of major continental glaciation, suggesting a potentially important role for the marine N cycle in long-term climate change. Reservoir box modeling of the marine N cycle demonstrates that secular variation in δ15Nsed was likely due to changes in the dominant locus of denitrification, with a shift in favor of sedimentary denitrification during greenhouse modes owing to higher eustatic (global sea-level) elevations and greater on-shelf burial of organic matter, and a shift in favor of water-column denitrification during icehouse modes owing to lower eustatic elevations, enhanced organic carbon sinking fluxes, and expanded oceanic oxygen-minimum zones. The results of this study provide new insights into operation of the marine N cycle, its relationship to the global carbon cycle, and its potential role in modulating climate change at multimillion-year timescales.

  6. Presence of oxygen and aerobic communities from sea floor to basement in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Steven; Inagaki, Fumio; Zarikian, Carlos Alvarez; Abrams, Lewis J.; Dubois, Nathalie; Engelhardt, Tim; Evans, Helen; Ferdelman, Timothy; Gribsholt, Britta; Harris, Robert N.; Hoppie, Bryce W.; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kim, Jinwook; Lynch, Jill E.; McKinley, Claire C.; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Morono, Yuki; Murray, Richard W.; Pockalny, Robert; Sauvage, Justine; Shimono, Takaya; Shiraishi, Fumito; Smith, David C.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Steinsbu, Bjorn Olav; Suzuki, Yohey; Szpak, Michal; Toffin, Laurent; Uramoto, Goichiro; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ziebis, Wiebke

    2015-04-01

    The depth of oxygen penetration into marine sediments differs considerably from one region to another. In areas with high rates of microbial respiration, O2 penetrates only millimetres to centimetres into the sediments, but active anaerobic microbial communities are present in sediments hundreds of metres or more below the sea floor. In areas with low sedimentary respiration, O2 penetrates much deeper but the depth to which microbial communities persist was previously unknown. The sediments underlying the South Pacific Gyre exhibit extremely low areal rates of respiration. Here we show that, in this region, microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence to depths of at least 75 metres below sea floor. Based on the Redfield stoichiometry of dissolved O2 and nitrate, we suggest that net aerobic respiration in these sediments is coupled to oxidation of marine organic matter. We identify a relationship of O2 penetration depth to sedimentation rate and sediment thickness. Extrapolating this relationship, we suggest that oxygen and aerobic communities may occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global sea floor. Subduction of the sediment and basalt from these regions is a source of oxidized material to the mantle.

  7. Growth and energy metabolism in aerobic fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Simulation and model verification

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, H.T.B.; Larsson, G.; Enfors, S.O.

    1998-11-20

    Some yeast species are classified as being glucose sensitive, which means that they may produce ethanol also under aerobic conditions when the sugar concentration is high. A kinetic model of overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for simulation of aerobic fed-batch cultivations. An inhibitory effect of ethanol on the maximum respiration of the yeast was observed in the experiments and included in the model. The model predicts respiration, biomass, and ethanol formation and the subsequent ethanol consumption, and was experimentally validated in fed-batch cultivations. Oscillating sugar feed with resulting oscillating carbon dioxide production did not influence the maximum respiration rate, which indicates that the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is not involved as a bottleneck causing aerobic ethanol formation.

  8. Bioirrigation impacts on sediment respiration and microbial metabolic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. A.; Lewandowski, J.; Romeijn, P.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some bioturbators build tubes in the sediment and pump water through their burrows (ventilation). Oxygen is transferred through the burrow walls in the adjacent sediment (bioirrigation). Bioirrigation is playing a pivotal role in the mediation of biogeochemical processes in lake sediments and has the potential to enhance nutrient cycling. The present study investigates the impact of bioirrigation on lake sediment metabolism, respiration rates and in particular, the biogeochemical impacts of bioirrigation intensity as a function of organism density. We therefore apply the bioreactive Resazurin/Resorufin smart tracer system for quantifying the impact of different densities of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae (0-2112 larvae/m2) on lake sediment respiration in a microcosm experiment. Tracer decay has been found to be proportional to the amount of the aerobic respiration at the sediment-water interface. Tracer transformation was in good agreement with Chironomidae density (correlation, r=0.9). Tracer transformation rates (and sediment respiration) were found to be correlated to Chironomidae density, with highest transformation rates observed in the microcosms with highest density of 2112 larvae/m2. This relationship was not linear though, with sediment respiration rates at the highest larvae densities declining from the linear trend predicted from lower and intermediate larvae density-respiration relationships. We interpret this effect as a density dependent suppression of the Chironomid's metabolic activity. The observations of this study have implications for eutrophied lakes with high densities of bioirrigators. Despite high density of bioirrigirrigating benthos, mineralization of the organic matter in such habitats would likely be lower than in lakes with intermediate densities of the bioturbators.

  9. Carbon limitation of denitrification rates in an anaerobic groundwater system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Fernandez, M., Jr.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Rates of potential denitrification were determined for anaerobic aquifer sediments collected at a site where groundwater NO3 concentrations ranged from 0.7 ??M to 8.6 mM. A significant relation (p = 0.046) was observed between denitrification rates and the in situ concentration of NO3, but NO3 concentration only accounted for approximately 34% (r2) of the variation in activity. The highly significant relation (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.80) between potential denitrification and sediment total organic content and the enhanced activity of sediments amended with glucose indicated that denitrification rates in this aquifer system were carbon limited. No significant relation was observed between denitrification and the in situ groundwater pH, but short-term variations in pH influenced both the magnitude and the end products of denitrification. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  10. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  11. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  12. Managing for Improved Aerobic Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic deterioration or spoilage of silage is the result of aerobic microorganisms metabolizing components of the silage using oxygen. In the almost 40 years over which these silage conferences have been held, we have come to recognize the typical pattern of aerobic microbial development by which s...

  13. Iron respiration by Acidiphilium cryptum at pH 5.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Azize Azra; Silverstein, JoAnn; Jenkins, Joy D

    2004-07-01

    The growth of acidophilic iron respiring bacteria at pH > 4.5 may be a key to the transition from acidic to circumneutral conditions that would occur during restoration of acid mine drainage sites. Flasks containing Acidiphilium cryptum ATCC 33463 were incubated initially under aerobic conditions in liquid medium containing Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) and glucose at an initial pH of 5. Significant iron respiration was observed after flasks were sealed to prevent oxygenation; at the same time, medium pH increased from 4.5 to 6. No soluble Fe(III) was detected throughout the experiments, consistent with pH conditions, indicating that bacteria were able to respire using precipitated ferric iron species. In addition, the concentration of soluble Fe(2+) reached a plateau, even though iron respiration appeared to continue, possibly due to precipitation of mixed Fe (II)/Fe(III)-oxide as magnetite. Results suggest that A. cryptum has a wide range of pH tolerance, which may enable it to play a role in controlling acid generation by means of establishing growth conditions favorable to neutrophilic bacteria such as sulfate reduction. PMID:19712391

  14. Quantifying Denitrification and Its Effect on Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Santee, M. L.; Danilin, M. Y.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Newman, P. A.; Hamill, P. J.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observations indicate that extensive denitrification, without significant dehydration, currently occurs only in the Antarctic during mid to late June. The fact that denitrification occurs in a relatively warm month in the Antarctic raises concern about the likelihood of its occurrence, and associated effects on ozone recovery, in a future colder and possibly more humid Arctic lower stratosphere. Polar stratospheric cloud lifetimes required for Arctic denitrification to occur in the future are presented and contrasted against the current Antarctic cloud lifetimes. Model calculations show widespread severe denitrification could enhance future Arctic ozone loss by up to 30%.

  15. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  16. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  17. Potential importance of physiologically diverse benthic foraminifera in sedimentary nitrate storage and respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Joan M.; Casciotti, Karen L.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Beaudoin, David J.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.

    2012-09-01

    Until recently, the process of denitrification (conversion of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous products) was thought to be performed exclusively by prokaryotes and fungi. The finding that foraminifera perform complete denitrification could impact our understanding of nitrate removal in sediments as well as our understanding of eukaryotic respiration, especially if it is widespread. However, details of this process and the subcellular location of these reactions in foraminifera remain uncertain. For example, prokaryotic endobionts, rather than the foraminifer proper, could perform denitrification, as has been shown recently in an allogromiid foraminifer. Here, intracellular nitrate concentrations and isotope ratios (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) were measured to assess the nitrate dynamics in four benthic foraminiferal species (Bolivina argentea, Buliminella tenuata, Fursenkoina cornuta, Nonionella stella) with differing cellular architecture and associations with microbial endobionts, recovered from Santa Barbara Basin, California. Cellular nitrate concentrations were high (12-217 mM) in each species, and intracellular nitrate often had elevated δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values. Experiments including suboxic and anoxic incubations of B. argentea revealed a decrease in intracellular nitrate concentration and an increase in δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3over time, indicating nitrate respiration and/or denitrification within the foraminifera. Results illustrate that nitrate reduction occurs in a range of foraminiferal species, including some possessing endobionts (including a chloroplast-sequestering species) and others lacking endobionts, implying that microbial associates may not solely be responsible for this process in foraminifera. Furthermore, we show that benthic foraminifera may represent important reservoirs of nitrate storage in sediments, as well as mediators of its removal.

  18. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-04-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 μM) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in

  19. CROSS-STREAM COMPARISON OF SUBSTRATE-SPECIFIC DENITRIFICATION POTENTIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Stuart; Mulholland, Patrick J; Hamilton, Stephen; Tank, Jennifer; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Grimm, Nancy; McDowell, William; Potter, Jody; Sobota, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Headwater streams have a demonstrated ability to denitrify a portion of their nitrate (NO(3) (-)) load but there has not been an extensive consideration of where in a stream this process is occurring and how various habitats contribute to total denitrification capability. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II (LINX II) we measured denitrification potential in 65 streams spanning eight regions of the US and draining three land-use types. In each stream, potential denitrification rates were measured in common substrate types found across many streams as well as locations unique to particular streams. Overall, habitats from streams draining urban and agricultural land-uses showed higher potential rates of denitrification than reference streams draining native vegetation. This difference among streams was probably driven by higher ambient nitrate concentrations found in urban or agricultural streams. Within streams, sandy habitats and accumulations of fine benthic organic matter contributed more than half of the total denitrification capacity (mg N removed m(-2) h(-1)). A particular rate of potential denitrification per unit area could be achieved either by high activity per unit organic matter or lower activities associated with larger standing stocks of organic matter. We found that both small patches with high rates (hot spots) or more widespread but less active areas (cool matrix) contributed significantly to whole stream denitrification capacity. Denitrification estimated from scaled-up denitrification enzyme assay (DEA) potentials were not always dramatically higher than in situ rates of denitrification measured as (15)N gas generation following 24-h (15)N-NO(3) tracer additions. In general, headwater streams draining varying land-use types have significant potential to remove nitrate via denitrification and some appear to be functioning near their maximal capacity.

  20. Denitrification Genes Regulate Brucella Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Splitter, Gary A.; Shapleigh, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Genome sequencing of B. suis and B. melitensis revealed that both are complete denitrifiers. To learn more about the role of denitrification in these animal pathogens, a study of the role of denitrification in the closely related B. neotomae was undertaken. In contrast to B. suis and B. melitensis, it was found that B. neotomae is a partial denitrifier that can reduce nitrate to nitrite but no further. Examination of the B. neotomae genome showed that a deletion in the denitrification gene cluster resulted in complete loss of nirV and the partial deletion of nirK and nnrA. Even though the nor operon is intact, a norC-lacZ promoter fusion was not expressed in B. neotomae. However, the norC-lacZ fusion was expressed in the related denitrifier Agrobacterium tumefaciens, suggesting that the lack of expression in B. neotomae is due to inactivation of NnrA. A narK-lacZ promoter fusion was found to exhibit nitrate-dependent expression consistent with the partial denitrifier phenotype. Complementation of the deleted region in B. neotomae by using nirK, nirV, and nnrA from B. melitensis restored the ability of B. neotomae to reduce nitrite. There was a significant difference in the death of IRF-1−/− mice when infected with B. neotomae containing nirK, nirV, and nnrA and those infected with wild-type B. neotomae. The wild-type strain killed all the infected mice, whereas most of the mice infected with B. neotomae containing nirK, nirV, and nnrA survived. PMID:15342571

  1. Effect of low dissolved oxygen on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a membrane bioreactor treating black water.

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, S Murat; Insel, G; Cokgor, E Ubay; Orhon, D

    2011-03-01

    Effect of low dissolved oxygen on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was evaluated in a membrane bioreactor treating black water. A fully aerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at a sludge age of 60 days under three low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels below 0.5mg/L. It sustained effective simultaneous nitrification/denitrification for the entire observation period. Nitrification was incomplete due to adverse effects of a number of factors such as low DO level, SMPs inhibition, alkalinity limitation, etc. DO impact was more significant on denitrification: Nitrate was fully removed at low DO level but the removal was gradually reduced as DO was increased to 0.5mg/L. Nitrogen removal remained optimal within the DO range of 0.15-0.35 mg/L. Experimental results were calibrated and simulated by model evaluation with the same model coefficients. The model defined improved mass transfer with lower affinity coefficients for oxygen and nitrate as compared to conventional activated sludge. PMID:21239168

  2. Simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) in a full-scale water reclamation plant located in warm climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Shen, Nan; Lee, Zarraz M-P; Xu, Guangjing; Cao, Yeshi; Kwok, Beehong; Lay, Winson; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) provides a more efficient and economically viable option for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater compared to conventional two-step nitrification-denitrification. This study analyzed the nutrients (N and P) profiles in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) located in the tropical region, in which more than 90% of nitrogen was removed. Interestingly, average SND efficiency in aerobic zones was found to be up to 50%, whereas phosphorus profile displayed a clear cyclic release and uptake pattern with a phosphorus removal efficiency of up to 76%. The capability of sludge to perform SND and EBPR was further confirmed through a series of batch experiments. Microbial analysis revealed the presence of Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera phosphate accumulating organisms in the plant, while few glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) was observed. This study showed the significant occurrence of combined SND and EBPR, known as simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR), in the studied WRP under warm climate. The possible causes behind the observed SNDPR were also discussed. PMID:27438250

  3. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B. A.; Childress, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log PO2/PCO2) suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (oxygen) to products (carbon dioxide) according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here, we demonstrate further that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = -686 kcal mol-1), carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503), where ΔG = 0. Thus, a Respiration Index of -503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached, either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover, cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, but its use leads to incorrect and misleading predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological framework that identifies oxygen thresholds and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  4. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B. A.; Childress, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log[PO2]/[PCO2]) suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (R, oxygen) and products (P, carbon dioxide) according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here we demonstrate that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = -686 kcal mol-1), carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503), where ΔG = 0. Thus a respiration index of -503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, its use leads to incorrect and dangerous predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological model that identifies oxygen thresholds, and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  5. Thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration efficiency and protein phosphorylation in the clam Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, P N; Marsh, A G

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondria of intertidal invertebrates continue to function when organisms are exposed to rapid substantial shifts in temperature. To test if mitochondrial physiology of the clam Mercenaria mercenaria is compromised under elevated temperatures, we measured mitochondrial respiration efficiency at 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C, and 21 degrees C using a novel, high-throughput, microplate respirometry methodology developed for this study. Though phosphorylating (state 3) and resting (state 4) respiration rates were unaffected over this temperature range, respiratory control ratios (RCRs: ratio of state 3 to state 4 respiration rates) decreased significantly above 18 degrees C (p < 0.05). The drop in RCR was not associated with reduction of phosphorylation efficiency, suggesting that, while aerobic scope of mitochondrial respiration is limited at elevated temperatures, mitochondria continue to efficiently produce adenosine triphosphate. We further investigated the response of clam mitochondria to elevated temperatures by monitoring phosphorylation of mitochondrial protein. Three proteins clearly demonstrated significant time- and temperature-specific phosphorylation patterns. The protein-specific patterns of phosphorylation may suggest that a suite of protein kinases and phosphatases regulate mitochondrial physiology in response to temperature. Thus, while aerobic scope of clam mitochondrial respiration is reduced at moderate temperatures, specific protein phosphorylation responses reflect large shifts in function that are initiated within the organelle at higher temperatures. PMID:19194752

  6. Respiration signals from photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena M

    2013-10-01

    respiratory modulation of the pulse oximeter waveform and has been shown to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients including infants. The pleth variability index value depends on the size of the tidal volume and on positive end-expiratory pressure. In conclusion, the respiration modulation of the PPG signal can be used to monitor respiratory rate. It is probable that improvements in neural network technology will increase sensitivity and specificity for detecting both central and obstructive apnea. The size of the PPG respiration variation can predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:23449854

  7. Treating low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) wastewater in simultaneous nitrification-endogenous denitrification and phosphorous removal (SNDPR) systems by strengthening anaerobic intracellular carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Shuying; Xue, Tonglai; Li, Baikun; Dai, Xian; Peng, Yongzhen

    2015-06-15

    A novel simultaneous nitrification denitrification and phosphorous removal-sequencing batch reactor (SNDPR-SBR) enriched with PAOs (phosphorus accumulating organisms), DPAOs (denitrifying PAOs), and GAOs (glycogen accumulating organisms) at the ratio of 2:1:1 was developed to achieve the simultaneous nutrient and carbon removal treating domestic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio (≤3.5). The SNDPR system was operated for 120 days at extended anaerobic stage (3 h) and short aerobic stage at low oxygen concentration (2.5 h) with short sludge retention time (SRT) of 10.9 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14.6 h. The results showed that at the stable operating stage, the average effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PO4(3-)-P concentrations were 47.2 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 77.7%, and the SND efficiency reached 49.3%. Extended anaerobic stage strengthened the intracellular carbon (mainly poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB) storage, efficiently utilized the organic substances in wastewater, and provided sufficient carbon sources for denitrification and phosphorus uptake without external carbon addition. Short aerobic stage at low oxygen concentration (dissolved oxygen (DO): 1 ± 0.3 mg L(-1)) achieved a concurrence of nitrification, endogenous denitrification, denitrifying and aerobic phosphorus uptake, and saved about 65% energy consumption for aeration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that P removal was mainly performed by aerobic PAOs while N removal was mainly carried out by denitrifying GAOs (DGAOs), even though DPAOs were also participated in both N and P removal. PMID:25875928

  8. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well. PMID:26820263

  9. Denitrification as a Model Chemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grguric, Gordan

    2002-02-01

    Bacterial denitrification in seawater facilities such as aquaria and mariculture systems is a process particularly well suited for illustrating important concepts in chemistry to undergraduates. Students can gain firsthand experience related to these concepts, for example by (i) analyzing and quantifying chemical reactions based on empirical data, (ii) employing stoichiometry and mass balance to determine the amounts of reactants required and products produced in a chemical reaction, and (iii) using acid-base speciation diagrams and other information to quantify the changes in pH and carbonic acid speciation in an aqueous medium. At the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, we have utilized actual data from several seawater systems to discuss topics such as stoichiometry, mass and charge balance, and limiting reagents. This paper describes denitrification in closed seawater systems and how the process can be used to enhance undergraduate chemistry education. A number of possible student exercises are described that can be used as practical tools to enhance the students' quantitative understanding of chemical reactions.

  10. Modeling enhanced in situ denitrification in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killingstad, M.W.; Widdowson, M.A.; Smith, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical solute transport model was developed for simulating an enhanced in situ denitrification experiment performed in a nitrate-contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. In this experiment, formate (HCOO-) was injected for a period of 26 days into the carbon-limited aquifer to stimulate denitrification. Calibration of the vertical-profile site model was demonstrated through error analysis and comparison with formate, nitrate, and nitrite concentration data monitored along a transect of three multilevel groundwater sampling wells for 75 days after initial injection. Formate utilization rates were approximately 142 and 38 ??M/day for nitrate and nitrite reduction, respectively. Nitrate and nitrite utilization rates were approximately 29 and 8 ??M/day, respectively. Nitrate utilization rates under enhanced conditions were 1 order of magnitude greater than previously reported naturally occurring rates. The nitrite production rate was approximately 29 ??M/day. Persistence of nitrite was attributed to a combination of factors, including electron donor (formate) limitation late in the experiment, preferential utilization of nitrate as an electron acceptor, and greater nitrite production relative to nitrite utilization.

  11. Denitrification in USB reactor with granulated biomass.

    PubMed

    Pagácová, P; Galbová, K; Drtil, M; Jonatová, I

    2010-01-01

    Denitrification of low concentrations of NO(3)-N (20 mg L(-1)), with methanol as an organic carbon source (COD:NO(3)-N=6) in laboratory upflow sludge bed reactor (USB), was tested as a possibility for wastewater post-treatment. By gradual increase of volumetric loading (Bv) and hydraulic loading (gamma), anoxic biomass spontaneously granulated out even from flocculate activated sludge and from anaerobic granulated sludge as well. Anaerobic granulated biomass derived from high-rate anaerobic IC reactor was a far better inoculum for anoxic granulation and for denitrification in the USB reactor. The maximum level of Bv and gamma was remarkably higher with the use of anaerobic granulated inoculum, (19-22 kg COD m(-3)d(-1); 3.2-3.7 kg NO(3)-Nm(-3)d(-1); 2.8-3.2m(3)m(-2)h(-1); SVI=15 mL g(-1)) in comparison to inoculum from flocculate activated sludge (4.2-8.1 kg CO Dm(-3)d(-1); 0.7-1.4 kg NO(3)-Nm(-3)d(-1); 0.7-1.15m(3)m(-2)h(-1); SVI=40-95 mL g(-1)). PMID:19716692

  12. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  13. Characteristics of Biological Nitrogen Removal in a Multiple Anoxic and Aerobic Biological Nutrient Removal Process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Li, Li; Wu, Guangxue

    2015-01-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors, one with the conventional anoxic and aerobic (AO) process and the other with the multiple AO process, were operated to examine characteristics of biological nitrogen removal, especially of the multiple AO process. The long-term operation showed that the total nitrogen removal percentage of the multiple AO reactor was 38.7% higher than that of the AO reactor. In the multiple AO reactor, at the initial SBR cycle stage, due to the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, no nitrite and/or nitrate were accumulated. In the multiple AO reactor, activities of nitrite oxidizing bacteria were inhibited due to the multiple AO operating mode applied, resulting in the partial nitrification. Denitrifiers in the multiple AO reactor mainly utilized internal organic carbon for denitrification, and their activities were lower than those of denitrifiers in the AO reactor utilizing external organic carbon. PMID:26491676

  14. 78 FR 18601 - Respirator Certification Fees; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Respirator Certification Fees; Public Meeting... stakeholders to present information the impact of an increase on respirator fees on individual respirator... in respirator certification and approval fees on individual respirator manufacturers, the...

  15. Small sewage treatment system with an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Jun, H B; Hong, S P; Kwon, J C

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system that could improve nitrogen and BOD5 removal efficiency as well as generate less solid using an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic biofiltration system. Wastewater temperature was in the range of 14-25 degrees C, and hydraulic residual times were 12 h for each reactor. The upflow anaerobic digester equipped with anoxic filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the aerobic filter to induce denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. In the subsequent aerobic filter, residual organic carbon and ammonia might be oxidized and finally nitrate formed. In the anaerobic reactor, about 71% of influent TCOD was removed by sedimentation of the un-filterable COD at the recycle ratio of 300%. Another 20% of influent TCOD was removed in the anoxic filter by denitrification of the recycled nitrate. After 100 days operation, solid reduction and nitrification efficiency were about 30% and 95%, respectively. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (T-N) were above 94% and 70% at the recycle ratio of 300%, respectively. Total wasted solid from the system after 100 days operation was about 316 g, which was only 44% of the solid generated from a controlled activated sludge system operated at sludge retention time of 8 days. PMID:14753539

  16. Comparison of aerobic denitrifying activity among three cultural species with various carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Otani, Y; Hasegawa, K; Hanaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Abilities of three aerobic denitrifiers such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Microvirgula aerodenitrificans and Paracoccus pantotrophus were compared from the viewpoints of nitrate removal efficiency and organic matter utilization. First, the effect of carbon source was investigated. Although nitrate reduction was observed in all strains under aerobic conditions, a change of carbon source considerably affected the denitrification ability. In the case of P. pantotrophus, nitrate and nitrite were completely removed in three days under sodium acetate or leucine as a carbon source. In the case of A. faecalis, sufficient nitrate removal was observed only when sodium acetate or ethanol was added. P. pantotrophus and A. faecalis showed a higher ability of nitrate removal than that of M. aerodenitrificans. Therefore, P. pantotrophus was selected in order to investigate the effects of concentration and repetitive addition of carbon. Sodium acetate was used as a sole carbon source. Nitrate was not reduced when the carbon concentration was below 500 mgC/L. However, when carbon source was added repeatedly, nitrate was reduced under 100 mgC/L after the optical density of the bacterium reached above 1.0. This result indicated that a high enough level of bacterial density was necessary to express aerobic denitrification activity. PMID:15566182

  17. Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Cornwell, J. C.; Stoecker, D. K.; Owens, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5) that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA). Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to ammonia (NH3). In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, nutrient pore water diffusion and flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), nitrate (NO3-), nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. pH elevation enhanced the desorption of exchangeable NH4+ because of NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the release of SRP and total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3) into pore water. At elevated pH, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction in nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification-denitrification with limited NO3- supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may be responsible for the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

  18. Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Cornwell, J. C.; Stoecker, D. K.; Owens, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5) that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA). Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to ammonia (NH3). In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, pore water diffusion and the flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate (NO3-), nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. Elevated pH enhanced desorption of exchangeable NH4+ through NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the mobility of SRP and the release of total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3) into the pore water. At elevated pH levels, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction of nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification-denitrification with limited NO3- supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may enhance the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

  19. Summer nitrate uptake and denitrification in an upper Mississippi River backwater lake: The role of rooted aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiling, Rebecca M.; Richardson, W.B.; Cavanaugh, J.C.; Bartsch, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In-stream nitrogen processing in the Mississippi River has been suggested as one mechanism to reduce coastal eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic macrophytes in river channels and flood plain lakes have the potential to temporarily remove large quantities of nitrogen through assimilation both by themselves and by the attached epiphyton. In addition, rooted macrophytes act as oxygen pumps, creating aerobic microsites around their roots where coupled nitrification-denitrification can occur. We used in situ 15N-NO3- tracer mesocosm experiments to measure nitrate assimilation rates for macrophytes, epiphyton, and microbial fauna in the sediment in Third Lake, a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River during June and July 2005. We measured assimilation over a range of nitrate concentrations and estimated a nitrate mass balance for Third Lake. Macrophytes assimilated the most nitrate (29.5 mg N m-2 d-1) followed by sediment microbes (14.4 mg N m-2 d-1) and epiphytes (5.7 mg N m-2d-1. Assimilation accounted for 6.8% in June and 18.6% in July of total nitrate loss in the control chambers. However, denitrification (292.4 mg N m-2 d-1) is estimated to account for the majority (82%) of the nitrate loss. Assimilation and denitrification rates generally increased with increasing nitrate concentration but denitrification rates plateaued at about 5 mg N L-1. This suggests that backwaters have the potential to remove a relatively high amount of nitrate but will likely become saturated if the load becomes too large. ?? 2010 US Government.

  20. Impact of intermittent aerations on leachate quality and greenhouse gas reduction in the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    PubMed

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei

    2016-09-01

    The aerobic-anaerobic landfill method (AALM) is a novel approach in solid waste management that could shorten the landfill post-closure period and minimize the environmental loads. In this study, the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method was evaluated by using intermittent aeration. In addition, the nitrification-denitrification process was assessed as a means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and improving the leachate quality during the degradation of the organic solid waste. The leachate quality and the gas composition in each of the reactors were measured during the experimental period (408days). The aeration process entailed the injection of air into plexiglass cylinders (200cm height×10 cm diameter), filled with fresh organic solid waste collected from a composting plant. Different aeration routines were applied, namely, continuous aeration (aerobic reactor A), aeration for three days/week (aerobic-anaerobic reactor B), aeration for 6h/day (aerobic-anaerobic reactor C), and no aeration (non-aerated reactor D). It was found that aerobic reactor A produced the best results in terms of reduction of GHGs and improvement of the leachate quality. The aerobic-anaerobic reactor C was found to be more effective than reactor B in respect of both the emission of GHGs and the leachate quality; moreover, compared with aerobic reactor A, energy costs were reduced by operating this reactor. The transition period phenomenon was investigated during an intensive seven-day experiment conducted on the discharged leachate obtained from aerobic-anaerobic reactors B and C. The experiment concerned the differences in the composition of the gas during the aeration and the non-aeration periods. It was found that the transition period between the aeration and non-aeration cycles, which followed the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification had a considerable effect on the leachate quality of both the reactors. The results indicated that AALM has the potential to reduce

  1. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  2. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  4. The environmental controls that govern the end product of bacterial nitrate respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, Beate; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.; Sharma, Ritin; Klotz, Martin G.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hettich, Robert L.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Strous, Marc

    2014-08-08

    In the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, microbial respiration processes compete for nitrate as an electron acceptor. Denitrification converts nitrate into nitrogenous gas and thus removes fixed nitrogen from the biosphere, whereas ammonification converts nitrate into ammonium, which is directly reusable by primary producers. In this paper, we combined multiple parallel long-term incubations of marine microbial nitrate-respiring communities with isotope labeling and metagenomics to unravel how specific environmental conditions select for either process. Microbial generation time, supply of nitrite relative to nitrate, and the carbon/nitrogen ratio were identified as key environmental controls that determine whether nitrite will be reduced to nitrogenous gas or ammonium. Finally, our results define the microbial ecophysiology of a biogeochemical feedback loop that is key to global change, eutrophication, and wastewater treatment.

  5. The environmental controls that govern the end product of bacterial nitrate respiration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kraft, Beate; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.; Sharma, Ritin; Klotz, Martin G.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hettich, Robert L.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Strous, Marc

    2014-08-08

    In the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, microbial respiration processes compete for nitrate as an electron acceptor. Denitrification converts nitrate into nitrogenous gas and thus removes fixed nitrogen from the biosphere, whereas ammonification converts nitrate into ammonium, which is directly reusable by primary producers. In this paper, we combined multiple parallel long-term incubations of marine microbial nitrate-respiring communities with isotope labeling and metagenomics to unravel how specific environmental conditions select for either process. Microbial generation time, supply of nitrite relative to nitrate, and the carbon/nitrogen ratio were identified as key environmental controls that determine whether nitrite will be reduced to nitrogenous gasmore » or ammonium. Finally, our results define the microbial ecophysiology of a biogeochemical feedback loop that is key to global change, eutrophication, and wastewater treatment.« less

  6. Comparing Denitrification Rates and Carbon Sources in Commercial Scale Upflow Denitrification Biological Filters in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable leve...

  7. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated surface water using sulfur and limestone autotrophic denitrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flere, J.M.; Zhang, T.C.

    1997-12-31

    The feasibility of using the sulfur/limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) process as an in situ method for remediation of nitrate-contaminated surface water was investigated. Four bench-scale pond systems with working volumes of 21.4 liters each and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days were operated under mixed conditions. Under mixed (aerobic) conditions, with the addition of alkalinity to raise pH, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N removal in the SLAD ponds was 85--100%, while the control reactor showed negative removal. Sulfate production under mixed conditions was between 1,000--2,500 mg/l SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, which shows that 40--60 mg/l of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is produced for every 1 mg/l of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N reduced. Although the system is very efficient in removing nitrates under simulated surface water conditions, the sulfate production makes the process questionable for use under aerobic conditions. However, batch experiments under anaerobic conditions demonstrate that system maybe very efficient in removing nitrate while not producing insufferable amounts of sulfates.

  8. Linking Denitrification to Channel Geomorphology in Agricultural Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opdyke, M. R.; David, M. B.; Rhoads, B. L.

    2005-05-01

    Agricultural streams in east-central Illinois have elevated nitrate concentrations (10 to 20 mg N L-1) contributing to greater denitrification rates in sediments. However, reduced retention times and extensive stream channelization limit the effectiveness of denitrification as a removal mechanism for water column nitrate. In this study, we compared geomorphic controls of denitrification in six channel reaches varying in geomorphology, organic matter, and nitrate concentration. Denitrification rates were measured monthly between June 2003 and February 2005 using the acetylene inhibition procedure (chloramphenicol was added to control for denitrifier growth). We found in meandering and channelized reaches of greater nitrate concentrations and fine substrate, denitrification rates averaged 19 mg N m-2 h-1. In areas of lesser nitrate concentrations and coarse substrates, denitrification rates were comparably lower at 3.0 mg N m-2 h-1 in meandering reaches and 0.80 mg N m-2 h-1 in channelized reaches. Our study concluded that denitrification rates were strongly linked to geomorphic variability, organic matter, substrate composition, and nitrate concentration. A strong geomorphic connection appeared with substrate composition showing that greater nitrogen removal in channel conditions of fine substrate are more effective.

  9. Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group

    PubMed Central

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

  10. Ammonium adsorption in aerobic granular sludge, activated sludge and anammox granules.

    PubMed

    Bassin, J P; Pronk, M; Kraan, R; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-10-15

    The ammonium adsorption properties of aerobic granular sludge, activated sludge and anammox granules have been investigated. During operation of a pilot-scale aerobic granular sludge reactor, a positive relation between the influent ammonium concentration and the ammonium adsorbed was observed. Aerobic granular sludge exhibited much higher adsorption capacity compared to activated sludge and anammox granules. At an equilibrium ammonium concentration of 30 mg N/L, adsorption obtained with activated sludge and anammox granules was around 0.2 mg NH4-N/g VSS, while aerobic granular sludge from lab- and pilot-scale exhibited an adsorption of 1.7 and 0.9 mg NH4-N/g VSS, respectively. No difference in the ammonium adsorption was observed in lab-scale reactors operated at different temperatures (20 and 30 °C). In a lab-scale reactor fed with saline wastewater, we observed that the amount of ammonium adsorbed considerably decreased when the salt concentration increased. The results indicate that adsorption or better ion exchange of ammonium should be incorporated into models for nitrification/denitrification, certainly when aerobic granular sludge is used. PMID:21840028

  11. Integrated anaerobic-aerobic fixed-film reactor for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, R; Diez, V

    2005-03-01

    An integrated anaerobic-aerobic fixed-film pilot-scale reactor with arranged media was fed during 166 days with slaughterhouse wastewater. Operation temperature was 25 degrees C and the anaerobic-aerobic volume ratio was decreased from 4:1 to 3:2 and finally to 2:3. Overall organic matter removal efficiencies of 93% were achieved for an average organic loading rate of 0.77 kg COD/m3 d, and nitrogen removal efficiencies of 67% were achieved for nitrogen loading rates of 0.084 kg N/m3 d. The high internal recirculation associated to the air-lift effect linked to the aeration of a part of the reactor section caused high mixing between the anaerobic and aerobic zones, so that most organic matter was removed aerobically. The nitrification process achieved an efficiency of 91% for nitrogen loads of 0.15 kg N/m3 d when the anaerobic-aerobic volume ratio was 2:3 and was limited by dissolved oxygen concentration below 3 mg/l. The influence of the heterotrophic biomass growing in the outer biofilm was checked. Denitrification only implied the 12-34% of the total nitrogen removal and was limited by dissolved oxygen concentration in the anaerobic zone above 0.5 mg/l caused by the mixing regime. Most removed nitrogen was employed in synthesis of heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:15766966

  12. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  13. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  14. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  15. [Effective nitrogen removal in low C/N wastewater with combined aerobic-low DO biofilm treatment process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Rong; Ai, Qi-Feng; Xu, Wen-Lu; Wu, Min-Lin

    2011-10-01

    The municipal wastewater in China is characterized by low ratio of carbon to nitrogen, which is the key restrictive factor for effective biological removal of nitrogen. In this study, the aerobic-low DO biofilm process was used for the nitrogen removal of municipal wastewater. By means of adjusting inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and inflow ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), the performances of nitrification in aerobic biofilm section and denitrification in low-DO section could be improved, the good performance of nitrogen removal was achieved. In order to insure the good effluent quality, especially for ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen indexes, the nitrification and denitrification could be made up in aerobic and low-DO biofilm section respectively due to the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic zone in biofilm. There were 3 stages for the research process. In the first stage, the original C/N, inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section were chosen as 3:1 and 1:1 respectively, then the effects of various HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) values such as (10 + 5) h, (8 + 4) h, (6 + 3) h, (4 + 2) h to nitrogen removal were analyzed. According to the conclusion in the first stage, the original C/N was kept at 3:1, HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h. Then, the effects of various inflow ratios to nitrogen removal were studied in the second stage. In the third stage, when HRT(aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h and inflow ratio was 1:1, the original C/N were adjusted from 2:1, 3:1, 5:1 to 10:1. To conclude, the optimal parameters for nitrogen removal in the biofilm system were as follows: original C/N = 5:1, inflow ratio of aerobic to low-DO section = 1:1, HRT of aerobic and low-DO sections were 10 h and 5 h respectively. As a result, COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could be removed from 254 mg/L to 48 mg/L, 37.2 mg/L to 9.3 mg/L and 48.2 mg/L to 14.8 mg

  16. Batch culture enrichment of ANAMMOX populations from anaerobic and aerobic seed cultures.

    PubMed

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2011-01-01

    Discharge of nitrate and ammonia rich wastewaters into the natural waters encourage eutrophication, and contribute to aquatic toxicity. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation process (ANAMMOX) is a novel biological nitrogen removal alternative to nitrification-denitrification, that removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor. The feasibility of enriching the ANAMMOX bacteria from the anaerobic digester sludge of a biomethanation plant treating vegetable waste and aerobic sludge from an activated sludge process treating domestic sewage is reported in this paper. ANAMMOX bacterial activity was monitored and established in terms of nitrogen transformations to ammonia, nitrite and nitrate along with formation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. PMID:20729077

  17. Intermittent feeding of wastewater in combination with alternating aeration for complete denitrification and control of filaments.

    PubMed

    Kantartzi, Styliani; Melidis, Paraschos; Aivasidis, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a laboratory scale system, consisting of a primary settling tank, a continuous stirred tank reactor and a clarifier were constructed and operated, using wastewater from the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Xanthi, Greece. The system operated under intermittent aeration in aerobic/anoxic conditions and feeding of the wastewater once in every cycle. The unit was inoculated with sludge, which originated from the recirculation stream of the local wastewater treatment plant. The wastewater was processed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h, in which various experimental states were studied regarding the combination of aerobic and anoxic intervals. The wastewater was fed in limited time once in every cycle of aerobic/anoxic conditions at the beginning of the anoxic period. The two states that exhibited highest performance in nitrification and total nitrogen removal were, then, repeated with HRT of 10 h. The results show that, regarding the nitrification stage and the organic load removal, the intermittent system achieved optimum efficiency, with an overall removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and ammonium nitrogen in the range of 93-96% and 91-95% respectively. As far as the total nitrogen removal is concerned, and if the stage of the denitrification is taken into account, the performance of the intermittent system surpassed other methods, as it is shown by the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiency of 85-87%. These operating conditions suppressed the growth of filamentous organisms, a fact reflected at the SVI values, which were lower than 150 ml/g. PMID:20418622

  18. Predicting soil respiration from peatlands.

    PubMed

    Rowson, J G; Worrall, F; Evans, M G; Dixon, S D

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the relative performance of six different models to predict soil respiration from upland peat. Predicting soil respiration is important for global carbon budgets and gap filling measured data from eddy covariance and closed chamber measurements. Further to models previously published new models are presented using two sub-soil zones and season. Models are tested using data from the Bleaklow plateau, southern Pennines, UK. Presented literature models include ANOVA using logged environmental data, the Arrhenius equation, modified versions of the Arrhenius equation to include soil respiration activation energy and water table depth. New models are proposed including the introduction of two soil zones in the peat profile, and season. The first new model proposes a zone of high CO(2) productivity related to increased soil microbial CO(2) production due to the supply of labile carbon from plant root exudates and root respiration. The second zone is a deeper zone where CO(2) production is lower with less labile carbon. A final model allows the zone of high CO(2) production to become dormant during winter months when plants will senesce and will vary depending upon vegetation type within a fixed location. The final model accounted for, on average, 31.9% of variance in net ecosystem respiration within 11 different restoration sites whilst, using the same data set, the best fitting literature equation only accounted for 18.7% of the total variance. Our results demonstrate that soil respiration models can be improved by explicitly accounting for seasonality and the vertically stratified nature of soil processes. These improved models provide an enhanced basis for calculating the peatland carbon budgets which are essential in understanding the role of peatlands in the global C cycle. PMID:23178842

  19. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:22509578

  20. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  1. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...

  2. Denitrification, anammox, and N₂ production in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Devol, Allan H

    2015-01-01

    Fixed nitrogen limits primary productivity in many parts of the global ocean, and it consequently plays a role in controlling the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. The concentration of fixed nitrogen is determined by the balance between two processes: the fixation of nitrogen gas into organic forms by diazotrophs, and the reconversion of fixed nitrogen to nitrogen gas by denitrifying organisms. However, current sedimentary denitrification rates are poorly constrained, especially in permeable sediments, which cover the majority of the continental margin. Also, anammox has recently been shown to be an additional pathway for the loss of fixed nitrogen in sediments. This article briefly reviews sedimentary fixed nitrogen loss by sedimentary denitrification and anammox, including in sediments in contact with oxygen-deficient zones. A simple extrapolation of existing rate measurements to the global sedimentary denitrification rate yields a value smaller than many existing measurement-based estimates but still larger than the rate of water column denitrification. PMID:25560607

  3. Evidence of anoxic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification.

    PubMed

    Islas-Lima, S; Thalasso, F; Gómez-Hernandez, J

    2004-01-01

    Denitrification using methane as sole electron donor under anoxic condition was investigated. Sludge produced by a denitrifying reactor using acetate as electron donor was put in contact with methane at partial pressures from 1.8 to 35.7kPa. Nitrate depletion and gaseous nitrogen production were measured. The denitrification rate was independent of the methane partial pressure when superior or equal to 8.8kPa. The nitrate depletion was asymptotic. A denitrification rate of 0.25g NO(3)(-)-Ng(-1) VSSd(-1) was observed at the onset of culturing, followed by a slower and lineal denitrification rate of 4.9x10(-3)g NO(3)(-)-Ng(-1) VSSd(-1). Abiotic nitrate removal or the availability of another carbon source were discarded from control experiments made in the absence of methane or using sterilized inoculum. PMID:14630098

  4. Denitrification, Anammox, and N2 Production in Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devol, Allan H.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed nitrogen limits primary productivity in many parts of the global ocean, and it consequently plays a role in controlling the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. The concentration of fixed nitrogen is determined by the balance between two processes: the fixation of nitrogen gas into organic forms by diazotrophs, and the reconversion of fixed nitrogen to nitrogen gas by denitrifying organisms. However, current sedimentary denitrification rates are poorly constrained, especially in permeable sediments, which cover the majority of the continental margin. Also, anammox has recently been shown to be an additional pathway for the loss of fixed nitrogen in sediments. This article briefly reviews sedimentary fixed nitrogen loss by sedimentary denitrification and anammox, including in sediments in contact with oxygen-deficient zones. A simple extrapolation of existing rate measurements to the global sedimentary denitrification rate yields a value smaller than many existing measurement-based estimates but still larger than the rate of water column denitrification.

  5. Denitrification in Gram-positive bacteria: an underexplored trait.

    PubMed

    Verbaendert, Ines; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Denitrifying organisms are essential in removing fixed nitrogen pollutants from ecosystems (e.g. sewage sludge). They can be detrimental (e.g. for agricultural soil) and can also produce the greenhouse gas N2O (nitrous oxide). Therefore a more comprehensive understanding of this process has become increasingly important regarding its global environmental impact. Even though bacterial genome sequencing projects may reveal new data, to date the denitrification abilities and features in Gram-positive bacteria are still poorly studied and understood. The present review evaluates current knowledge on the denitrification trait in Gram-positive bacteria and addresses the likely existence of unknown denitrification genes. In addition, current molecular tools to study denitrification gene diversity in pure cultures and environmental samples seem to be highly biased, and additional novel approaches for the detection of denitrifying (Gram-positive) bacteria appear to be crucial in re-assessing the real diversity of denitrifiers. PMID:21265783

  6. [Dark respiration of terrestrial vegetations: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Wei; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2013-06-01

    The source and sink effect of terrestrial plants is one of the hotspots in terrestrial ecosystem research under the background of global change. Dark respiration of terrestrial plants accounts for a large fraction of total net carbon balance, playing an important role in the research of carbon cycle under global climate change. However, there is little study on plant dark respiration. This paper summarized the physiological processes of plant dark respiration, measurement methods of the dark respiration, and the effects of plant biology and environmental factors on the dark respiration. The uncertainty of the dark respiration estimation was analyzed, and the future hotspots of related researches were pointed out. PMID:24066565

  7. Denitrification and a nitrogen budget of created riparian wetlands.

    PubMed

    Batson, Jacqulyn A; Mander, Ulo; Mitsch, William J

    2012-01-01

    Riparian wetland creation and restoration have been proposed to mediate nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) pollution from nonpoint agricultural runoff. Denitrification by anaerobic microbial communities in wetland soils is believed to be one of the main sinks for NO-N as it flows through wetlands. Denitrification rates were quantified using an in situ acetylene inhibition technique at 12 locations in three wetland/riverine sites at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, Columbus, Ohio for 1 yr. Sites included two created flow-through experimental wetlands and one bottomland forest/river-edge site. Points were spatially distributed at inflows, center, and outflows of the two wetlands to include permanently flooded open water, intermittently flooded transitions, and upland. Annual denitrification rates (median [mean]) were significantly higher ( < 0.001) in permanently flooded zones of the wetlands (266 [415] μg NO-N m h) than in shallower transition zones (58 [37.5] μg NO-N m h). Median wetland transition zone denitrification rates did not differ significantly ( ≥ 0.05) from riverside or upland sites. Denitrification rates peaked in spring; for the months of April through June, median denitrification rates ranged from 240 to 1010 μg NO-N m h in the permanently flooded zones. A N mass balance analysis showed that surface water flux of N was reduced by 57% as water flowed through the wetland, but only about 3.5% of the N inflow was permanently removed through denitrification. Most N was probably lost through groundwater seepage. Comparison with denitrification rates measured previously in these wetlands suggests that these rates have remained steady over the past 4 to 5 yr. PMID:23128759

  8. Evaluation of the denitrification rate of terraced paddy fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Takeo; Nakamura, Kimihito; Horino, Haruhiko; Adachi, Toru; Mitsuno, Toru

    2012-05-01

    SummaryRice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. Lowland paddy fields are well known for functioning as denitrification areas, but few studies have been conducted of paddy fields situated on hill slopes (terraced paddy fields). These terraced paddy fields have a characteristic artificial stepped shape, and this unique shape and periodic ponding from rice production may configure unique hydrological properties that might be different from lowland paddy fields. The shape and hydrological properties may also affect transport of nutrients such as nitrogen. This study is particularly focused on the denitrification rate in terraced paddy fields. To understand the hydrological properties of terraced paddy fields, a detailed water budget including the subsurface flow components was calculated. Combining the water budget components and chemical measurements of surface and subsurface water, a nitrogen budget was calculated. The results showed that about 10% of the total nitrogen input, mainly from fertilizers, was lost, suggesting the occurrence of denitrification in the area. The average denitrification rate of the study site was estimated at about 0.53-0.67 g N m-2 year-1. Spatial variations in the measured groundwater nitrate concentration suggest that denitrification is important in both the plough layer and the sloping area. The denitrification rate in the sloping area was estimated at 0.67-0.78 g N m-2 year-1, which is slightly higher than the estimates of denitrification rate in paddy lots, i.e., 0.56-0.61 g N m-2 year-1. The result indicates the importance of sloping areas for denitrification in terraced paddy fields.

  9. Integrated biological (anaerobic-aerobic) and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, B

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from simulated (on the basis of cultivation medium from the first separation process) general effluent of baker's yeast production (the average organic loading rates varied from 8.1 to 16 g COD/l/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it suffered from COD-deficiency to fulfil denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass (approximately 10%) of anaerobically untreated general effluent should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic-anoxic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high. PMID:16459801

  10. Heterotrophic ammonium removal characteristics of an aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium, Providencia rettgeri YL.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shauna M; He, Yiliang; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Jue

    2009-01-01

    Bacterium Providencia rettgeri YL was found to exhibit an unusual ability to heterotrophically nitrify and aerobically denitrify various concentrations of ammonium (NH4+-N). In order to further understand its removal ability, several experiments were conducted to identify the growth and ammonium removal response at different carbon to nitrogen (C/N) mass ratios, shaking speeds, temperatures, ammonium concentrations and to qualitatively verify the production of nitrogen gas using gas chromatography techniques. Results showed that under optimum conditions (C/N 10, 30 degrees C, 120 r/min), YL can significantly remove low and high concentrations of ammonium within 12 to 48 h of growth, respectively. The nitrification products hydroxylamine (NH2OH), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) as well as the denitrification product, nitrogen gas (N2), were detected under completely aerobic conditions. PMID:19999986

  11. The contribution of exopolysaccharides induced struvites accumulation to ammonium adsorption in aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y M; Bassin, J P; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-03-15

    Aerobic granular sludge from a lab-scale reactor with simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes exhibited significant amount of ammonium adsorption (1.5 mg NH4+-N/g TSS at an ammonium concentration of 30 mg N/L). Potassium release accompanied ammonium adsorption, indicating an ion exchange process. The existence of potassium magnesium phosphate (K-struvite) as one of potassium sources in the granular sludge was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Artificially prepared K-struvite was indeed shown to adsorb ammonium. Alginate-like exopolysaccharides were isolated and their inducement for struvite formation was investigated as well. Potassium magnesium phosphate proved to be a major factor for ammonium adsorption on the granular sludge. Struvites (potassium/ammonium magnesium phosphate) accumulate in aerobic granular sludge due to inducing of precipitation by alginate-like exopolysaccharides. PMID:22209260

  12. A network biology approach to denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Arat, Seda; Bullerjahn, George S.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2015-02-23

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a metabolically flexible member of the Gammaproteobacteria. Under anaerobic conditions and the presence of nitrate, P. aeruginosa can perform (complete) denitrification, a respiratory process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrogen gas via nitrite (NO₂), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N₂O). This study focuses on understanding the influence of environmental conditions on bacterial denitrification performance, using a mathematical model of a metabolic network in P. aeruginosa. To our knowledge, this is the first mathematical model of denitrification for this bacterium. Analysis of the long-term behavior of the network under changing concentration levels of oxygen (O₂), nitrate (NO₃),more » and phosphate (PO₄) suggests that PO₄ concentration strongly affects denitrification performance. The model provides three predictions on denitrification activity of P. aeruginosa under various environmental conditions, and these predictions are either experimentally validated or supported by pertinent biological literature. One motivation for this study is to capture the effect of PO₄ on a denitrification metabolic network of P. aeruginosa in order to shed light on mechanisms for greenhouse gas N₂O accumulation during seasonal oxygen depletion in aquatic environments such as Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes, USA). Simulating the microbial production of greenhouse gases in anaerobic aquatic systems such as Lake Erie allows a deeper understanding of the contributing environmental effects that will inform studies on, and remediation strategies for, other hypoxic sites worldwide.« less

  13. A Network Biology Approach to Denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Arat, Seda; Bullerjahn, George S.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a metabolically flexible member of the Gammaproteobacteria. Under anaerobic conditions and the presence of nitrate, P. aeruginosa can perform (complete) denitrification, a respiratory process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrogen gas via nitrite (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This study focuses on understanding the influence of environmental conditions on bacterial denitrification performance, using a mathematical model of a metabolic network in P. aeruginosa. To our knowledge, this is the first mathematical model of denitrification for this bacterium. Analysis of the long-term behavior of the network under changing concentration levels of oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) suggests that PO4 concentration strongly affects denitrification performance. The model provides three predictions on denitrification activity of P. aeruginosa under various environmental conditions, and these predictions are either experimentally validated or supported by pertinent biological literature. One motivation for this study is to capture the effect of PO4 on a denitrification metabolic network of P. aeruginosa in order to shed light on mechanisms for greenhouse gas N2O accumulation during seasonal oxygen depletion in aquatic environments such as Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes, USA). Simulating the microbial production of greenhouse gases in anaerobic aquatic systems such as Lake Erie allows a deeper understanding of the contributing environmental effects that will inform studies on, and remediation strategies for, other hypoxic sites worldwide. PMID:25706405

  14. Denitrification in marl and peat sediments in the Florida everglades.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A S; Cooper, W J; Scheidt, D J

    1986-11-01

    The potential for denitrification in marl and peat sediments in the Shark River Slough in the Everglades National Park was determined by the acetylene blockage assay. The influence of nitrate concentration on denitrification rate and N(2)O yield from added nitrate was examined. The effects of added glucose and phosphate and of temperature on the denitrification potential were determined. The sediments readily denitrified added nitrate. N(2)O was released from the sediments both with and without added acetylene. The marl sediments had higher rates than the peat on every date sampled. Denitrification was nitrate limited; however, the yields of N(2)O amounted to only 10 to 34% of the added nitrate when 100 muM nitrate was added. On the basis of measured increases in ammonium concentration, it appears that the balance of added nitrate may be converted to ammonium in the marl sediment. The sediment temperature at the time of sampling greatly influenced the denitrification potential (15-fold rate change) at the marl site, indicating that either the number or the specific activity of the denitrifiers changed in response to temperature fluctuations (9 to 25 degrees C) in the sediment. It is apparent from this study that denitrification in Everglades sediments is not an effective means of removing excess nitrogen which may be introduced as nitrate into the ecosystem with supply water from the South Florida watershed and that sporadic addition of nitrate-rich water may lead to nitrous oxide release from these wetlands. PMID:16347228

  15. A network biology approach to denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Arat, Seda; Bullerjahn, George S; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a metabolically flexible member of the Gammaproteobacteria. Under anaerobic conditions and the presence of nitrate, P. aeruginosa can perform (complete) denitrification, a respiratory process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrogen gas via nitrite (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This study focuses on understanding the influence of environmental conditions on bacterial denitrification performance, using a mathematical model of a metabolic network in P. aeruginosa. To our knowledge, this is the first mathematical model of denitrification for this bacterium. Analysis of the long-term behavior of the network under changing concentration levels of oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) suggests that PO4 concentration strongly affects denitrification performance. The model provides three predictions on denitrification activity of P. aeruginosa under various environmental conditions, and these predictions are either experimentally validated or supported by pertinent biological literature. One motivation for this study is to capture the effect of PO4 on a denitrification metabolic network of P. aeruginosa in order to shed light on mechanisms for greenhouse gas N2O accumulation during seasonal oxygen depletion in aquatic environments such as Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes, USA). Simulating the microbial production of greenhouse gases in anaerobic aquatic systems such as Lake Erie allows a deeper understanding of the contributing environmental effects that will inform studies on, and remediation strategies for, other hypoxic sites worldwide. PMID:25706405

  16. Partitioning Belowground Respiration in a Northern Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, H. E.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T.

    2004-05-01

    Although they cover only 3% of the land surface, northern peatlands store up to one-third of the global soil carbon pool, deeming them a significant carbon sink. However, changes in peatland soil respiration could lead to peatlands becoming carbon sources with consequent feedbacks to climate change. In order to understand the global carbon balance we need to understand respiration processes, but compared to photosynthesis we know very little about respiration, especially belowground. Within soils there are three compartments among which carbon is transferred and respired: roots, rhizosphere and root-free soil. In order to further the understanding of respiration processes of northern peatlands, the relative importance of each type of belowground respiration was determined at two locations at Mer Bleue, a northern peatland located near Ottawa, Ontario. Weekly CO2 flux measurements, using dark chambers and a portable IRGA, were made throughout the growing season of 2003. At both areas there are reference plots to determine total respiration where the vegetation remained in tact. Treatment plots were also installed at both areas where foliage was removed in order to determine SOM (shrub-free) respiration. The shrub foliage was replaced with nylon `foliage' in an attempt to maintain soil temperature and moisture conditions. Root respiration was determined by incubating root segments on-site, taking air samples over a one hour period. Rhizosphere respiration was estimated by subtracting SOM, root and aboveground respiration from total respiration, and aboveground respiration was removed from the equation using a calculation from a peatland carbon model.

  17. A Function for Representing the Biological Challenge to Respiration Posed by Ocean Acidification and the Geochemical Consequences Inferred

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2008-12-01

    Increasing levels of dissolved total CO2 in the ocean from the invasion of fossil fuel CO2 via the atmosphere are widely believed to pose challenges to marine life on several fronts. This is most often expressed as a concern from the resulting lower pH, and the impact of this on calcification in marine organisms (coral reefs, calcareous phytoplankton etc.). These concerns are real, but calcification is by no means the only process affected, nor is the fossil fuel CO2 signal the only geochemical driver of the rapidly emerging deep-sea biological stress. Physical climate change is reducing deep-sea ventilation rates, and thereby leading to increasing oxygen deficits and concomitant increased respiratory CO2. We seek to understand the combined effects of the downward penetration of the fossil fuel signal, and the emergence of the depleted O2/increased respiratory CO2 signal at depth. As a first step, we seek to provide a simple function to capture the changing oceanic state. The most basic thermodynamic equation for the functioning of marine animals can be written as Corg + O2 → CO2 , and this results in the simple Gibbs free energy equation: ΔG° = - RT * ln [fCO2]/[Corg]*[fO2], in which the ratio of pO2 to pCO2 emerges as the dominant factor. From this we construct a simple Respiration Index: RI = log10 (pO2/pCO2), which is linear in energy and map this function for key oceanic regions illustrating the expansion of oceanic dead zones. The formal thermodynamic limit for aerobic life is RI = 0; in practice field data shows that at RI ~ 0.7 microbes turn to electron acceptors other than O2, and denitrification begins to occur. This likely represents the lowest limit for the long-term functioning of higher animals, and the zone RI = 0.7 to 1 appears to present challenges to basic functioning of many marine species. In addition, there are large regions of the ocean where denitrification already occurs, and these zones will expand greatly in size as the combined

  18. The Swi3 protein plays a unique role in regulating respiration in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lal, Sneha; Alam, Md Maksudul; Hooda, Jagmohan; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M; Xuan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental evidence increasingly shows that the dysregulation of cellular bioenergetics is associated with a wide array of common human diseases, including cancer, neurological diseases and diabetes. Respiration provides a vital source of cellular energy for most eukaryotic cells, particularly high energy demanding cells. However, the understanding of how respiration is globally regulated is very limited. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that Swi3 is an important regulator of respiration genes in yeast. In this report, we performed an array of biochemical and genetic experiments and computational analysis to directly evaluate the function of Swi3 and its human homologues in regulating respiration. First, we showed, by computational analysis and measurements of oxygen consumption and promoter activities, that Swi3, not Swi2, regulates genes encoding functions involved in respiration and oxygen consumption. Biochemical analysis showed that the levels of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes were substantially increased in Δswi3 cells, compared with the parent cells. Additionally, our data showed that Swi3 strongly affects haem/oxygen-dependent activation of respiration gene promoters whereas Swi2 affects only the basal, haem-independent activities of these promoters. We found that increased expression of aerobic expression genes is correlated with increased oxygen consumption and growth rates in Δswi3 cells in air. Furthermore, using computational analysis and RNAi knockdown, we showed that the mammalian Swi3 BAF155 and BAF170 regulate respiration in HeLa cells. Together, these experimental and computational data demonstrated that Swi3 and its mammalian homologues are key regulators in regulating respiration. PMID:27190130

  19. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exceeding 1.0 WL, miners shall wear respirators approved by NIOSH for radon daughters prior to July 10, 1995 or under the equivalent section of 42 CFR part 84 and such respirator use shall be in compliance...

  20. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exceeding 1.0 WL, miners shall wear respirators approved by NIOSH for radon daughters prior to July 10, 1995 or under the equivalent section of 42 CFR part 84 and such respirator use shall be in compliance...

  1. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exceeding 1.0 WL, miners shall wear respirators approved by NIOSH for radon daughters prior to July 10, 1995 or under the equivalent section of 42 CFR part 84 and such respirator use shall be in compliance...

  2. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exceeding 1.0 WL, miners shall wear respirators approved by NIOSH for radon daughters prior to July 10, 1995 or under the equivalent section of 42 CFR part 84 and such respirator use shall be in compliance...

  3. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceeding 1.0 WL, miners shall wear respirators approved by NIOSH for radon daughters prior to July 10, 1995 or under the equivalent section of 42 CFR part 84 and such respirator use shall be in compliance...

  4. Sulfur-based denitrification: Effect of biofilm development on denitrification fluxes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Bott, Charles; Nerenberg, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Elemental sulfur (S(o)) can serve as an electron donor for denitrification. However, the mechanisms and rates of S(o)-based denitrification, which depend on a biofilm development on a solid S(o) surface, are not well understood. We used completely-mixed reactors packed with S(o) chips to systematically explore the behavior of S(o)-based denitrification as a function of the bulk nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration and biofilm development. High-purity (99.5%) and agricultural-grade (90% purity) S(o) chips were tested to explore differences in performance. NO3(-) fluxes followed a Monod-type relationship with the bulk NO3(-) concentration. For high-purity S(o), the maximum NO3(-) flux increased from 0.4 gN/m(2)-d at 21 days to 0.9 g N/m(2)-d at around 100 days, but then decreased to 0.65 gN/m(2)-d at 161 days. The apparent (extant) half-saturation constant for NO3(-) KSapp, based on the bulk NO3(-) concentration and NO3(-) fluxes into the biofilm, increased from 0.1 mgN/L at 21 days to 0.8 mgN/L at 161 days, reflecting the increasing mass transfer resistance as the biofilm thickness increased. Nitrite (NO2(-)) accumulation became significant at bulk NO3(-) concentration above 0.2 mgN/L. The behavior of the agricultural-grade S(o) was very similar to the high-purity S(o). The kinetic behavior of S(o)-based denitrification was consistent with substrate counter-diffusion, where the soluble sulfur species diffuse from the S(o) particle into the base of the biofilm, while NO3(-) diffuses into the biofilm from the bulk. Initially, the fluxes were low due to biomass limitation (thin biofilms). As the biofilm thickness increased with time, the fluxes first increased, stabilized, and then decreased. The decrease was probably due to increasing diffusional resistance in the thick biofilm. Results suggest that fluxes comparable to heterotrophic biofilm processes can be achieved, but careful management of biofilm accumulation is important to maintain high fluxes. PMID:27187050

  5. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  6. Controls on Mixing-Dependent Denitrification in Hyporheic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, E. T.; Young, K. I.; Widdowson, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Interaction of surface water and groundwater in hyporheic sediments of river systems is known to create unique biogeochemical conditions that can attenuate contaminants flowing downstream. Oxygen, carbon, and the contaminants themselves (e.g., excess nitrate) often advect together through the hyporheic zone from sources in surface water. However, the ability of the hyporheic zone to attenuate contaminants in upwelling groundwater plumes as they exit to rivers is less known. Such reactions may be more dependent on mixing of carbon and oxygen sources from surface water with contaminants from deeper groundwater. We simulated hyporheic flow cells and upwelling groundwater together with mixing-dependent denitrification of an upwelling nitrate plume in shallow riverbed sediments using MODFLOW and SEAM3D. For our first set of model scenarios, we set biogeochemical boundary conditions to be consistent with situations where only mixing-dependent denitrification occurred within the model domain. This occurred where dissolved organic carbon (DOC) advecting from surface water through hyporheic flow cells meets nitrate upwelling from deeper groundwater. This would be common where groundwater is affected by septic systems which contribute nitrate that upwells into streams that do not have significant nitrate sources from upstream. We conducted a sensitivity analysis that showed that mixing-dependent denitrification increased with parameters that increase mixing itself, such as the degree of heterogeneity of sediment hydraulic conductivity (K). Mixing-dependent denitrification also increased with certain biogeochemical boundary concentrations such as increasing DOC or decreasing dissolved oxygen (DO) advecting from surface water. For our second set of model scenarios, we set biogeochemical boundary conditions to be consistent with common situations where non-mixing-dependent denitrification also occurred within the model domain. For example, when nitrate concentrations are

  7. Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Alper; Tilahun, Ebrahim; Calli, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an autotrophic denitrification process for desulfurization of biogas produced from a chicken manure digester. A laboratory scale upflow fixed bed reactor (UFBR) was operated for 105 days and fed with sodium sulfide or H2S scrubbed from the biogas and nitrate as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The S/N ratio (2.5 mol/mol) of the feed solution was kept constant throughout the study. When the UFBR was fed with sodium sulfide solution with an influent pH of 7.7, about 95 % sulfide and 90 % nitrate removal efficiencies were achieved. However, the inlet of the UFBR was clogged several times due to the accumulation of biologically produced elemental sulfur particles and the clogging resulted in operational problems. When the UFBR was fed with the H2S absorbed from the biogas and operated with an influent pH of 8-9, around 98 % sulfide and 97 % nitrate removal efficiencies were obtained. In this way, above 95 % of the H2S in the biogas was removed as elemental sulfur and the reactor effluent was reused as scrubbing liquid without any clogging problem. PMID:26428238

  8. Soil Respiration in Response to Landscape Position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variations in soil type, due to landscape position, may influence soil respiration. This study was conducted to determine how landscape position (summit, side-slope, and depression) influences heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration. Soil respiration was determined at three landscape positio...

  9. Alternate anoxic/aerobic operation for nitrogen removal in a membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, G; Andreottola, G

    2011-01-01

    A large pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a conventional denitrification/nitrification scheme for municipal wastewater treatment has been run for one year under two different aeration strategies in the oxidation/nitrification compartment. During the first five months air supply was provided according to the dissolved-oxygen set-point and the system run as a conventional predenitrification MBR; then, an intermittent aeration strategy based on effluent ammonia nitrogen was adopted in the aerobic compartment in order to assess the impact on process performances in terms of N and P removal, energy consumption and sludge reduction. The experimental inferences show a significant improvement of the effluent quality as COD and total nitrogen, both due to a better utilization of the denitrification potential which is a function of the available electron donor (biodegradable COD) and electron acceptor (nitric nitrogen); particularly, nitrogen removal increased from 67% to 75%. At the same time, a more effective biological phosphorus removal was observed as a consequence of better selection of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (dPAO). The longer duration of anoxic phases also reflected in a lower excess sludge production (12% decrease) compared with the standard pre-denitrification operation and in a decrease of energy consumption for oxygen supply (about 50%). PMID:22335118

  10. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except... contamination of respirators which are not removed, and to prevent damage to respirators during transit....

  11. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except... contamination of respirators which are not removed, and to prevent damage to respirators during transit....

  12. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except... contamination of respirators which are not removed, and to prevent damage to respirators during transit....

  13. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except... contamination of respirators which are not removed, and to prevent damage to respirators during transit....

  14. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except... contamination of respirators which are not removed, and to prevent damage to respirators during transit....

  15. Nitrogen removal in a SBR operated with and without pre-denitrification: effect of the carbon:nitrogen ratio and the cycle time.

    PubMed

    Mees, Juliana Bortoli Rodrigues; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Gomes, Benedito Martins; Boas, Márcio Antonio Vilas

    2014-01-01

    The effects of cycle time (CT) (8, 12 and 16h) and C/N ratio (3, 6 and 9) on nitrogen removal efficiencies in a bench top sequencing batch reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater were investigated under different operating conditions: in condition 1, the reaction comprises an aerobic/anoxic phase and in condition II, the reaction comprises anoxic I/aerobic/anoxic II phases (with pre-denitrification). The greatest percentages of nitrogen removal were obtained in the CT range from 12 to 16 h and C/N ratios from 3 to 6, with mean efficiency values of 80.76% and 85.57% in condition I and 90.99% and 91.09% in condition II. Although condition II gave a higher removal of total inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ - N + NO2- - N + NO3- - N) than condition I, only condition I showed statistically significant and predictive regression for all the steps of nitrogen removal. PMID:24600848

  16. Cr(VI) reduction under aerobic and denitrifying conditions by an aquifer-derived Pseudomonad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, H. R.; Han, R.; Geller, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Chromium contamination of groundwater is widespread within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. For example, at DOE’s Hanford 100 Area in Washington state, the volume of Cr-contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 1.5 billion gallons. Bioremediation (in situ reductive immobilization) studies involving injection of a lactate-containing polymer have been conducted in the Hanford 100H area, where we have observed sequential use of the dissolved electron acceptors present in groundwater, namely, oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate. As part of an effort to explore Cr(VI) reduction under relevant electron-accepting conditions and with relevant bacteria, we have conducted studies with strain RCH2, a denitrifying bacterium similar to Pseudomonas stutzeri that was isolated from the Hanford 100H aquifer. Cell suspension studies with lactate demonstrated that Cr(VI) reduction could occur under either denitrifying or aerobic conditions (at comparable rates), and that reduction was much more rapid when the terminal electron acceptor (i.e., nitrate or O2) was present. It appears that, under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions, the chromate reductase gene(s) are not inducible by Cr; this conclusion is based on the fact that these cell suspension studies were conducted with cells grown in the absence of Cr and resuspended in a buffer that included chloramphenicol, which inhibits protein synthesis. As our studies indicate that anaerobic Cr(VI) reduction by strain RCH2 is much more rapid in the presence of nitrate (i.e., during denitrification) than in its absence, we explored molecular methods that could readily assess in situ denitrification. Specifically, we investigated whether the gene and transcript copy number of diagnostic denitrification genes (nirS and narG) in groundwater could be used to estimate in situ denitrification rates. Continuous culture (chemostat) studies showed strong correlations (r2 values > 0.93) between denitrification rate and either nirS or nar

  17. Energetics of Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hards, Kiel; Vilchèze, Catherine; Hartman, Travis; Berney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria inhabit a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Many of these environments are highly dynamic and therefore mycobacteria are faced with the constant challenge of redirecting their metabolic activity to be commensurate with either replicative growth or a non-replicative quiescence. A fundamental feature in this adaptation is the ability of mycobacteria to respire, regenerate reducing equivalents and generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Mycobacteria harbor multiple primary dehydrogenases to fuel the electron transport chain and two terminal respiratory oxidases, an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase, are present for dioxygen reduction coupled to the generation of a protonmotive force. Hypoxia leads to the downregulation of key respiratory complexes, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this expression are unknown. Despite being obligate aerobes, mycobacteria have the ability to metabolize in the absence of oxygen and a number of reductases are present to facilitate the turnover of reducing equivalents under these conditions (e.g. nitrate reductase, succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase). Hydrogenases and ferredoxins are also present in the genomes of mycobacteria suggesting the ability of these bacteria to adapt to an anaerobic-type of metabolism in the absence of oxygen. ATP synthesis by the membrane-bound F1FO-ATP synthase is essential for growing and non-growing mycobacteria and the enzyme is able to function over a wide range of protonmotive force values (aerobic to hypoxic). The discovery of lead compounds that target respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the importance of this area for the generation of new front line drugs to combat tuberculosis. PMID:25346874

  18. Comparative investigation on microbial community and electricity generation in aerobic and anaerobic enriched MFCs.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Quan, Yan-ping; Tao, Kun; Jiang, Xiao-man

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in microbial community and power generation capacity of air-cathode MFCs enriched under anode aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results showed that MFCs successfully started with continuous air inputting to anode chamber. The aerobic enriched MFC produced comparable and even more electricity with the fuels of acetate, glucose and ethanol compared to the anaerobic MFC when returning to anaerobic condition. The two MFCs showed a slightly different microbial community for anode biofilms (a similarity of 77%), but a highly similar microbial community (a similarity of 97%) for anolyte microbes. The anode biofilm of aerobic enriched MFC showed the presence of some specific bacteria closely related to Clostridium sticklandii, Leucobacter komagatae and Microbacterium laevaniformans. The anaerobic enriched MFC found the presence of a large number of yeast Trichosporon sp. This research demonstrates that it is possible to enrich oxygen-tolerant anode respiring bacteria through purposely aeration in anode chamber. PMID:23196248

  19. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R.; Cook, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD+/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments. PMID:25049411

  20. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD(+)/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments. PMID:25049411

  1. Impact of Anodic Respiration on Biopolymer Production and Consequent Membrane Fouling.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Terada, Kotaro; Miyake, Hiroshi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently been integrated with membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment and energy recovery. However, the impact of integration of the two reactors on membrane fouling of MBR has not been reported yet. In this study, MFCs equipped with different external resistances (1-10 000 ohm) were operated, and membrane-fouling potentials of the MFC anode effluents were directly measured to study the impact of anodic respiration by exoelectrogens on membrane fouling. It was found that although the COD removal efficiency was comparable, the fouling potential was significantly reduced due to less production of biopolymer (a major foulant) in MFCs equipped with lower external resistance (i.e., with higher current generation) as compared with aerobic respiration. Furthermore, it was confirmed that Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA, a dominant exoelectrogen in anode biofilms of MFCs in this study, produced less biopolymer under anodic respiration condition than fumarate (anaerobic) respiration condition, resulting in lower membrane-fouling potential. Taken together, anodic respiration can mitigate membrane fouling of MBR due to lower biopolymer production, suggesting that development of an electrode-assisted MBR (e-MBR) without aeration is feasible. PMID:27427998

  2. The Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Promotes Sulfide-resistant Bacterial Respiration and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Elena; Borisov, Vitaliy B.; Falabella, Micol; Colaço, Henrique G.; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Poole, Robert K.; Vicente, João B.; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) impairs mitochondrial respiration by potently inhibiting the heme-copper cytochrome c oxidase. Since many prokaryotes, including Escherichia (E.) coli, generate H2S and encounter high H2S levels particularly in the human gut, herein we tested whether bacteria can sustain sulfide-resistant O2-dependent respiration. E. coli has three respiratory oxidases, the cyanide-sensitive heme-copper bo3 enzyme and two bd oxidases much less sensitive to cyanide. Working on the isolated enzymes, we found that, whereas the bo3 oxidase is inhibited by sulfide with half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM, under identical experimental conditions both bd oxidases are insensitive to sulfide up to 58 μM. In E. coli respiratory mutants, both O2-consumption and aerobic growth proved to be severely impaired by sulfide when respiration was sustained by the bo3 oxidase alone, but unaffected by ≤200 μM sulfide when either bd enzyme acted as the only terminal oxidase. Accordingly, wild-type E. coli showed sulfide-insensitive respiration and growth under conditions favouring the expression of bd oxidases. In all tested conditions, cyanide mimicked the functional effect of sulfide on bacterial respiration. We conclude that bd oxidases promote sulfide-resistant O2-consumption and growth in E. coli and possibly other bacteria. The impact of this discovery is discussed. PMID:27030302

  3. Structural basis for organohalide respiration.

    PubMed

    Bommer, Martin; Kunze, Cindy; Fesseler, Jochen; Schubert, Torsten; Diekert, Gabriele; Dobbek, Holger

    2014-10-24

    Organohalide-respiring microorganisms can use a variety of persistent pollutants, including trichloroethene (TCE), as terminal electron acceptors. The final two-electron transfer step in organohalide respiration is catalyzed by reductive dehalogenases. Here we report the x-ray crystal structure of PceA, an archetypal dehalogenase from Sulfurospirillum multivorans, as well as structures of PceA in complex with TCE and product analogs. The active site harbors a deeply buried norpseudo-B12 cofactor within a nitroreductase fold, also found in a mammalian B12 chaperone. The structures of PceA reveal how a cobalamin supports a reductive haloelimination exploiting a conserved B12-binding scaffold capped by a highly variable substrate-capturing region. PMID:25278505

  4. Inhibition of existing denitrification enzyme activity by chloramphenicol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Smith, R.L.; Macalady, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chloramphenicol completely inhibited the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in acetylene-block incubations with (i) sediments from a nitrate-contaminated aquifer and (ii) a continuous culture of denitrifying groundwater bacteria. Control flasks with no antibiotic produced significant amounts of nitrous oxide in the same time period. Amendment with chloramphenicol after nitrous oxide production had begun resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of nitrous oxide production. Chloramphenicol also decreased (>50%) the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in pure cultures of Pseudomonas denitrificans that were harvested during log- phase growth and maintained for 2 weeks in a starvation medium lacking electron donor. Short-term time courses of nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide production in the presence of acetylene with P. denitrificans undergoing carbon starvation were performed under optimal conditions designed to mimic denitrification enzyme activity assays used with soils. Time courses were linear for both chloramphenicol and control flasks, and rate estimates for the two treatments were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Complete or partial inhibition of existing enzyme activity is not consistent with the current understanding of the mode of action of chloramphenicol or current practice, in which the compound is frequently employed to inhibit de novo protein synthesis during the course of microbial activity assays. The results of this study demonstrate that chloramphenicol amendment can inhibit the activity of existing denitrification enzymes and suggest that caution is needed in the design and interpretation of denitrification activity assays in which chloramphenicol is used to prevent new protein synthesis.

  5. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  6. Denitrification by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Under Simulated Engineered Martain Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. D.; Currier, P. A.; Thomas, D. J.

    The growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in denitrifying medium was observed for 14 days in the presence of a martian soil analog (JSC Mars-1) and elevated CO2 levels. A four-way test was conducted comparing growth of experimental samples to growth in the presence of inert silica (“Earth soil”) and normal terrestrial atmosphere. The combination of 50 mL of fluorescence-denitrification medium and 10 grams of soil additive simulated an aquatic environment, which was contained in sealed culture bottles. Nitrite assays of the media (to test for consumption during denitrification), gas sampling from the bottles to observe nitrogen production, and colony counts to quantify growth rate were all performed at 0, 7 and 14 days after inoculation. Supplemental tests performed included nitrate assays (to confirm the occurrence of denitrification) and culture fluorescence (as a non-invasive growth test). Growth and denitrification took place under all conditions, and no significant differ- ences were observed between samples. These data indicate that the presence of simulated martian regolith and elevated CO2 have little or no effect on the growth of or denitrification by P. aeruginosa at the concentrations used.

  7. [Rapid Start-up of Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Coupled Phosphorus Removal Process and Its Performing Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Leng, Lu; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Tang, Ya-nan; Wan, Li-hua; Guo, Jun-yuan; Cheng, Qing-feng

    2015-11-01

    In this study, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) coupled Phosphorus removal process through gradually decreasing DO concentration was investigated by treating wastewater with a low COD/TN ratio (C/N = 3 : 1-4: 1) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Successful SND coupled Phosphorus phenomenon occurred after 20d at the DO concentration of 0.50-1.0 mg x L(-1). In the following 40 days, the average removal rates of COD, NH4(+) -N, TN and TP were 84.84% , 93.51%, 77.06% and 85.69%, and the NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N average accumulations in the effluent were only 4.01 mg x L(-1) and 3.17 mg x L(-1), respectively. The AGS had complete forms and good settling performances, and the sludge volume index (SVI) was about 55.22 mL x g(-1) at the end of starting-up stage. The results of different nitrogen sources showed that the removal rate of TN was in the order of NH4(+) -N > NO2(-) -N > NO3(-) -N, and the removal rate of TP was in the order of NO3(-) -N > NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal of wastewater were mainly realized by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal, respectively. PMID:26911007

  8. Advanced phosphorus recovery using a novel SBR system with granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-Ze; Wang, Hou-Feng; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a novel process for phosphorus (P) recovery without excess sludge production from granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and P removal (SNDPR) system is presented. Aerobic microbial granules were successfully cultivated in an alternating aerobic-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for removing P and nitrogen (N). Dense and stable granular sludge was created, and the SBR system showed good performance in terms of P and N removal. The removal efficiency was approximately 65.22 % for N, and P was completely removed under stable operating conditions. Afterward, new operating conditions were applied in order to enhance P recovering without excess sludge production. The initial SBR system was equipped with a batch reactor and a non-woven cloth filter, and 1.37 g of CH3COONa·3H2O was added to the batch reactor after mixing it with 1 L of sludge derived from the SBR reactor to enhance P release in the liquid fraction, this comprises the new system configuration. Under the new operating conditions, 93.19 % of the P contained in wastewater was released in the liquid fraction as concentrated orthophosphate from part of granular sludge. This amount of P could be efficiently recovered in the form of struvite. Meanwhile, a deterioration of the denitrification efficiency was observed and the granules were disintegrated into smaller particles. The biomass concentration in the system increased firstly and then maintained at 4.0 ± 0.15 gVSS/L afterward. These results indicate that this P recovery operating (PRO) mode is a promising method to recover P in a SNDPR system with granular sludge. In addition, new insights into the granule transformation when confronted with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) load were provided. PMID:26728017

  9. Succinate dehydrogenase is the regulator of respiration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Travis; Weinrick, Brian; Vilchèze, Catherine; Berney, Michael; Tufariello, Joanne; Cook, Gregory M; Jacobs, William R

    2014-11-01

    In chronic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are thought to enter a metabolic program that provides sufficient energy for maintenance of the protonmotive force, but is insufficient to meet the demands of cellular growth. We sought to understand this metabolic downshift genetically by targeting succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme which couples the growth processes controlled by the TCA cycle with the energy production resulting from the electron transport chain. M. tuberculosis contains two operons which are predicted to encode succinate dehydrogenase enzymes (sdh-1 and sdh-2); we found that deletion of Sdh1 contributes to an inability to survive long term stationary phase. Stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry revealed that Sdh1 functions as a succinate dehydrogenase during aerobic growth, and that Sdh2 is dispensable for this catalysis, but partially overlapping activities ensure that the loss of one enzyme can incompletely compensate for loss of the other. Deletion of Sdh1 disturbs the rate of respiration via the mycobacterial electron transport chain, resulting in an increased proportion of reduced electron carrier (menaquinol) which leads to increased oxygen consumption. The loss of respiratory control leads to an inability to recover from stationary phase. We propose a model in which succinate dehydrogenase is a governor of cellular respiration in the adaptation to low oxygen environments. PMID:25412183

  10. Permafrost collapse alters soil carbon stocks, respiration, CH4 , and N2O in upland tundra.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Benjamin W; Jones, Jeremy B

    2015-12-01

    Release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is potentially the largest terrestrial feedback to climate change and one of the most likely to occur; however, estimates of its strength vary by a factor of thirty. Some of this uncertainty stems from abrupt thaw processes known as thermokarst (permafrost collapse due to ground ice melt), which alter controls on carbon and nitrogen cycling and expose organic matter from meters below the surface. Thermokarst may affect 20-50% of tundra uplands by the end of the century; however, little is known about the effect of different thermokarst morphologies on carbon and nitrogen release. We measured soil organic matter displacement, ecosystem respiration, and soil gas concentrations at 26 upland thermokarst features on the North Slope of Alaska. Features included the three most common upland thermokarst morphologies: active-layer detachment slides, thermo-erosion gullies, and retrogressive thaw slumps. We found that thermokarst morphology interacted with landscape parameters to determine both the initial displacement of organic matter and subsequent carbon and nitrogen cycling. The large proportion of ecosystem carbon exported off-site by slumps and slides resulted in decreased ecosystem respiration postfailure, while gullies removed a smaller portion of ecosystem carbon but strongly increased respiration and N2 O concentration. Elevated N2 O in gully soils persisted through most of the growing season, indicating sustained nitrification and denitrification in disturbed soils, representing a potential noncarbon permafrost climate feedback. While upland thermokarst formation did not substantially alter redox conditions within features, it redistributed organic matter into both oxic and anoxic environments. Across morphologies, residual organic matter cover, and predisturbance respiration explained 83% of the variation in respiration response. Consistent differences between upland thermokarst types may contribute to the

  11. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  12. Determining the nitrogen and oxygen isotope effects of microbial denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philp, C.; Martin, T. S.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The nitrogen cycle describes how nitrogen, a critical nutrient for life, moves throughout the ground, oceans, and atmosphere. An essential component of the nitrogen cycle is denitrification, in which bioavailable nitrogen is transformed into nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas and can no longer be harnessed by most organisms. We can further understand the importance of this nitrogen cycle process by examining the N and O isotope effects of microbial denitrification. We have cultured four denitrifying bacteria: P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. aureofaciens, and P. aeruginosa. After providing them with an initial amount of nitrite we tracked the rate at which each type of bacteria consumed the nitrite through a time series experiment. We then measured the N and O isotope ratios of the nitrite at each time point using a gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The subsequent isotope effects calculated using the Rayleigh equation provide an important tool for modeling denitrification in the environment.

  13. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  14. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Nakita A; Bushey, Joseph T; Tobias, Craig R; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-05-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl(-) concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L(-1) for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using (15)N-NO3(-), while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited denitrification in forested wetlands at a Cl(-) dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L(-1), but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl(-). The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl(-) were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl(-). The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl(-) use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on N removal

  15. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  16. Groundwater denitrification and denitrifer gene abundances at varying hydrogeological settings in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M.; Barrett, M.; Johnston, P.; O'Flaherty, V.; Khalil, M. I.; Richards, K.

    2010-12-01

    Biological denitrification is an important mechanism for the reduction of nitrate in the terrestrial and aquatic environments and contributing to the global nitrogen balance. This study focuses on the abundance of denitrifier functional genes and dissolved gases (N2O and denitrified N2, called excess N2) in groundwater. Multilevel piezometers (36) installed to target three groundwater zones were: subsoil (5 m bgl, below ground level); bedrock interface (10 m bgl) and bedrock (20 m bgl) at three agricultural sites (Johnstown Castle, Solohead, Oak Park) and in bedrock at a further site (Dairy Gold). Low flow sampling procedures were used to collect groundwater monthly from February 2009 and January 2010. Dissolved N2 and Ar, measured using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry, were used to estimate excess N2. Dissolved N2O was extracted using a helium headspace method. Ten litres groundwater were sampled from each well in May 2010 and DNA was concentrated by vacuum filter in 0.2 µm filter paper. Functional gene abundances were quantified using real-time PCR assays targeting the nitrite reductase (nir) and nitrous oxide reductase (nos) genes. Mean water table (WT) depth varied seasonally and was the shallowest in November and the deepest in June across all sites. Groundwater properties varied across sites and depths, with ranges of dissolved oxygen (DO) from 1.0-9.0 mg L-1, redox potential (Eh) -0.80-191, and aquifer permeability (Ksat) from 0.003-1.04 m d-1. Dissolved organic C (DOC), decreased with increasing depth ranged from 1.0-4.0, 0.9-2.4 and 0.8-2.4 respectively in subsoil, interface and bedrock, lowest in Oak Park and highest in Johnstown Castle. Total bacterial abundances were higher in subsoil (2.9 x 104 genes L-1) than in interface (6.7 x 104 genes L-1). The most abundant denitrifying functional genes were nirS, ranged from 1.4 x 103 genes L-1 in subsoil to 2.0 x 104 genes L-1 in bedrock followed by nosZ, varied from 2.56 x 102 genes L-1 in bedrock to 1.9 x

  17. Key respiratory genes elucidate bacterial community respiration in a seasonally anoxic estuary.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Erin M; Lee, Dong Y; Owens, Michael S; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Crump, Byron C; Hewson, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Intense annual spring phytoplankton blooms and thermohaline stratification lead to anoxia in Chesapeake Bay bottom waters. Once oxygen becomes depleted in the system, microbial communities use energetically favourable alternative electron acceptors for respiration. The extent to which changes in respiration are reflected in community gene expression have only recently been investigated. Metatranscriptomes prepared from near-bottom water plankton over a 4-month time series in central Chesapeake Bay demonstrated changes consistent with terminal electron acceptor availability. The frequency of respiration-related genes in metatranscriptomes was examined by BLASTx against curated databases of genes intimately and exclusively involved in specific electron acceptor utilization pathways. The relative expression of genes involved in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were coincident with changes in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations. Dissimilatory iron and manganese reduction transcript ratios increase during anoxic conditions and corresponded with the highest soluble reactive phosphate and manganese concentrations. The sulfide concentration peaked in late July and early August and also matched dissimilatory sulfate reduction transcript ratios. We show that rather than abrupt transitions between terminal electron acceptors, there is substantial overlap in time and space of these various anaerobic respiratory processes in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:25470994

  18. Effect of Rocking Movements on Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Ximena; Crivelli, Francesco; Heinicke, Lorenz; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Achermann, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, rocking has been used to promote sleep in babies or toddlers. Recent research suggested that relaxation could play a role in facilitating the transition from waking to sleep during rocking. Breathing techniques are often used to promote relaxation. However, studies investigating head motions and body rotations showed that vestibular stimulation might elicit a vestibulo-respiratory response, leading to an increase in respiration frequency. An increase in respiration frequency would not be considered to promote relaxation in the first place. On the other hand, a coordination of respiration to rhythmic vestibular stimulation has been observed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different movement frequencies and amplitudes on respiration frequency. Furthermore, we tested whether subjects adapt their respiration to movement frequencies below their spontaneous respiration frequency at rest, which could be beneficial for relaxation. Twenty-one healthy subjects (24–42 years, 12 males) were investigated using an actuated bed, moving along a lateral translation. Following movement frequencies were applied: +30%, +15%, -15%, and -30% of subjects’ rest respiration frequency during baseline (no movement). Furthermore, two different movement amplitudes were tested (Amplitudes: 15 cm, 7.5 cm; movement frequency: 0.3 Hz). In addition, five subjects (25–28 years, 2 males) were stimulated with their individual rest respiration frequency. Rocking movements along a lateral translation caused a vestibulo-respiratory adaptation leading to an increase in respiration frequency. The increase was independent of the applied movement frequencies or amplitudes but did not occur when stimulating with subjects’ rest respiration frequency. Furthermore, no synchronization of the respiration frequency to the movement frequency was observed. In particular, subjects did not lower their respiration frequency below their resting frequency. Hence, it was not

  19. Denitrification by a marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica strain 617.

    PubMed

    Bonin, P; Gilewicz, M; Bertrand, J C

    1987-01-01

    A bacterial strain was isolated from a marine sediment highly contaminated by hydrocarbons. From taxonomic tests, it was identified as Pseudomonas nautica. This marine strain was able to grow on nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. The terminal product from the denitrification was dinitrogen. Thus, P. nautica was a denitrifier. The kinetics of each step of denitrification was examined in resting cell suspensions. The relative rates of nitrate and nitrite reduction and of nitrite reduction and nitrous oxide production explain, respectively, the presence of accumulated nitrite and that of compound intermediate between nitrite and nitrous oxide. PMID:3620203

  20. Observations of denitrification and dehydration in the winter polar stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Kawa, S. R.; Tuck, A. F.; Loewenstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that denitrification of the Arctic stratosphere can be explained by the selective growth and sedimentation of aerosol particles rich in nitric acid. Because reactive nitrogen species moderate the destruction of ozone by chlorine-catalyzed reactions by sequestering chlorine in reservoir species such as ClONO2, the possibility of the removal of reactive nitrogen without dehydration should be allowed for in attempts to model ozone depletion in the Arctic. Indeed, denitrification along with elevated concentrations of reactive chlorine observed in 1989 indicate that the Arctic was chemically primed for ozone destruction without an extended period of temperatures below the frost point, as is characteristic of the Antarctic.

  1. Estimating streambed travel times and respiration rates based on temperature and oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen consumption is a common proxy for aerobic respiration and novel in situ measurement techniques with high spatial resolution enable an accurate determination of the oxygen distribution in the streambed. The oxygen concentration at a certain location in the streambed depends on the input concentration, the respiration rate, temperature, and the travel time of the infiltrating flowpath. While oxygen concentrations and temperature can directly be measured, respiration rate and travel time must be estimated from the data. We investigated the interplay of these factors using a 6 month long, 5-min resolution dataset collected in a 3rdorder gravel-bed stream. Our objective was twofold, to determine transient rates of hyporheic respiration and to estimate travel times in the streambed based solely on oxygen and temperature measurements. Our results show that temperature and travel time explains ~70% of the variation in oxygen concentration in the streambed. Independent travel times were obtained using natural variations in the electrical conductivity (EC) of the stream water as tracer (µ=4.1 h; σ=2.3 h). By combining these travel times with the oxygen consumption, we calculated a first order respiration rate (µ=9.7 d-1; σ=6.1 d-1). Variations in the calculated respiration rate are largely explained by variations in streambed temperature. An empirical relationship between our respiration rate and temperature agrees with the theoretical Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation. With this relationship, a temperature-based respiration rate can be estimated and used to re-estimate subsurface travel times. The resulting travel times distinctively resemble the EC-derived travel times (R20.47; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.32). Both calculations of travel time are correlated to stream water levels and increase during discharge events, enhancing the oxygen consumption for these periods. No other physical factors besides temperature were significantly correlated with the respiration

  2. Excessive use of nitrogen in Chinese agriculture results in high N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio of denitrification, primarily due to acidification of the soils

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhi; Wang, Jingguo; Almøy, Trygve; Bakken, Lars R

    2014-01-01

    China is the world's largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N, and decades of overuse has caused nitrate leaching and possibly soil acidification. We hypothesized that this would enhance the soils' propensity to emit N2O from denitrification by reducing the expression of the enzyme N2O reductase. We investigated this by standardized oxic/anoxic incubations of soils from five long-term fertilization experiments in different regions of China. After adjusting the nitrate concentration to 2 mM, we measured oxic respiration (R), potential denitrification (D), substrate-induced denitrification, and the denitrification product stoichiometry (NO, N2O, N2). Soils with a history of high fertilizer N levels had high N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios, but only in those field experiments where soil pH had been lowered by N fertilization. By comparing all soils, we found a strong negative correlation between pH and the N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio (r2 = 0.759, P < 0.001). In contrast, the potential denitrification (D) was found to be a linear function of oxic respiration (R), and the ratio D/R was largely unaffected by soil pH. The immediate effect of liming acidified soils was lowered N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios. The results provide evidence that soil pH has a marginal direct effect on potential denitrification, but that it is the master variable controlling the percentage of denitrified N emitted as N2O. It has been known for long that low pH may result in high N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratios of denitrification, but our documentation of a pervasive pH-control of this ratio across soil types and management practices is new. The results are in good agreement with new understanding of how pH may interfere with the expression of N2O reductase. We argue that the management of soil pH should be high on the agenda for mitigating N2O emissions in the future, particularly for countries where ongoing intensification of plant production is likely to acidify the soils. PMID:24249526

  3. Greenhouse gas emission and microbial community dynamics during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Niu, Peng-Fei; Miao, Ming-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates greenhouse gas emission and the microbial community dynamics during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. Based on CO2 equivalents, the SND reactor released 4.28g of greenhouse gases each cycle. 2.91% of the incoming nitrogen load was emitted as N2O. The CO2 and N2O emissions mainly occurred in the aerobic stage and CH4 emissions were consistently near zero. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) contents in activated sludge increased during start-up the SND process. High-throughput sequencing showed increases in bacterial species richness, leading to changes in EPS content and composition observed using 3D-EEM fluorescence spectra. For denitrifying bacteria, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas significantly increased during the SND process, while Paracoccus decreased significantly. For phosphorus-accumulating bacteria, the relative abundance of Rhodocyclaceae also significantly increased. The relative abundance of other functional microbes, such as Nitrosomonadaceae (ammonia oxidizer), Nitrospirales (nitrite oxidizer) and Planctomyces (anammox) decreased significantly during the SND process. PMID:26935325

  4. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by novel heterotrophs in remediation of fish processing effluent.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saurabh S; Markande, Anoop R; Keluskar, Radhika P; Karunasagar, Indrani; Nayak, Binaya B

    2015-06-01

    Three isolates viz. Lysinibacillus sp. HT13, Alcaligenes sp. HT15 and Proteus sp. HT37 isolated from fish processing effluent and having a C/N ratio of 2, removed 218, 169, and 400 µg cell(-1) day(-1) NH4(+)-N, respectively without subsequent build up of nitrite or nitrate. Ability of the selected isolates in removing NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, and NO3(-)-N was checked in the presence of four commonly reported and tested effluent carbon sources viz. pyruvate, glycerol, methanol, and acetate. Further, when supplemented to fish processing wastewater containing 234 ppm total Kjeldahl's nitrogen, Lysinibacillus sp. HT13, Alcaligenes sp. HT15, and Proteus sp. HT37 could remediate 95.74, 86.17, and 76.6% nitrogen, respectively in 48 h. This is the first report of a Lysinibacillus sp. carrying out aerobically the process of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The results demonstrate the potential of the isolates for use in treatment of fish processing effluents and demonstrating the efficient removal of ammonia. PMID:25801104

  5. [Modeling formation of aerobic granule and influence of hydrodynamic shear forces on granule diameter].

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimension aerobic granule mathematical model was established, basing on mathematical biofilm model and activated sludge model. The model was used to simulate simple aerobic granule process such as nutrients removal, granule diameter evolution, cycle performance as well as depth profiles of DO and biomass. The effluent NH4(+) -N concentration decreased as the modeling processed. The simulation effluent NO3(-)-N concentration decreased to 3 mg x L(-1) as the granules grew. While the granule diameter increased from 1.1 mm on day 30 to 2.5 mm on day 100, the TN removal efficiency increased from less than 10% to 91%. The denitrification capacity was believed to enhance because the anoxic zone would be enlarged with the increasing granule diameter. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred inside the big aerobic granules. The oxygen permeating depth increased with the consumption of substrate. It was about 100-200 microm at the beginning of the aeration phase, and it turned to near 800 microm at the end of reaction. The autotrophs (AOB and NOB) were mostly located at the out layer where the DO concentration was high. The heterotrophic bacteria were distributed through the whole granule. As hydrodynamic shear coefficient k(de) increased from 0.25 (m x d)(-1) to 5 (m x d)(-1), the granule diameter under steady state decreased form 3.5 mm to 1.8 mm. The granule size under the dynamic steady-state decreased with the increasing hydrodynamic shear force. The granule size could be controlled by adjusting aeration intensity. PMID:22452208

  6. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Jiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor. During the operating period, it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly. Unlike the existing hypothesis, the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions. When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L, low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments. When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone, where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate, they underwent denitrification. However, when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions, denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation. Hence, in order to avoid filamentous bulking, the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L, or alternatively, the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO(3-)-N/g SS. PMID:24520715

  7. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  8. Missing aerobic-phase nitrogen: The potential for heterotrophic reduction of autotrophically generated nitrous oxide in a sequencing batch reactor wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Shiskowskii, D M; Mavinic, D S

    2005-08-01

    Several biochemical pathways can induce nitrogen loss from aerated, aerobic wastewater treatment bioreactors. These pathways include "traditional" simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) (i.e. autotrophic nitrification - heterotrophic denitrification), autotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation. An oxygen limitation, often expressed in terms of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, is a common element of these pathways. The presented research investigated the effect of mixed liquor DO concentration and biomass slowly degradable carbon (SDC) utilization rate on the heterotrophic nitrous oxide (N2O) reduction rate, for biomass cultured in an anoxic/aerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Biomass oxygen and SDC availability-limitation, expressed in terms of DO concentration and SDC ultilization rate, respectively, were found to significantly impact the observed heterotrophic N2O reduction rate. The findings support the hypothesis that nitrogen lost from the mixed liquor of an aerobic bioreactor could result from simultaneous autotrophic N2O generation (i.e. autotrophic denitrification) and heterotrophic N2O reduction. The results also support the idea that autotrophic N2O generation could be occurring in a bioreactor, although N2O may not be measurable in the reactor off-gas. Therefore, this autotrophic N2O generation - heterotrophic N2O reduction mechanism provides an alternative explanation to nitrogen loss, when compared to "conventional" SND, where heterotrophic organisms are assumed to reduce autotrophically generated nitrite and nitrate to dinitrogen (N2). In addition, nitrogen loss speculatively attributed to N2 formation via anaerobic ammonia oxidation in oxygen-limited environments, again because of the absence of measurable N2O, may in fact be due to the autotrophic N2O generation - heterotrophic N2O reduction mechanism. PMID:16128383

  9. Temperature response of denitrification and anammox reveals the adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments that span 50° in latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canion, A.; Kostka, J. E.; Gihring, T. M.; Huettel, M.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.; Gao, H.; Lavik, G.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2013-09-01

    Despite decades of research on the physiology and biochemistry of nitrate/nitrite-respiring microorganisms, little is known regarding their metabolic response to temperature, especially under in situ conditions. The temperature regulation of microbial communities that mediate anammox and denitrification was investigated in near shore permeable sediments at polar, temperate, and subtropical sites with annual mean temperatures ranging from -5 to 23 °C. Total N2 production rates were determined using the isotope pairing technique in intact core incubations under diffusive and simulated advection conditions and ranged from 2 to 359 μmol N m-2 d-1. For the majority of sites studied, N2 removal was 2 to 7 times more rapid under advective flow conditions. Anammox comprised 6 to 14% of total N2 production at temperate and polar sites and was not detected at the subtropical site. Potential rates of denitrification and anammox were determined in anaerobic slurries in a temperature gradient block incubator across a temperature range of -1 to 42 °C. The highest optimum temperature (Topt) for denitrification was 36 °C and was observed in subtropical sediments, while the lowest Topt of 21 °C was observed at the polar site. Seasonal variation in the Topt was observed at the temperate site with values of 26 and 34 °C in winter and summer, respectively. The Topt values for anammox were 9 and 26 °C at the polar and temperate sites, respectively. The results demonstrate adaptation of denitrifying communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments across a wide range of temperatures, whereas marine anammox bacteria may be predominately psychrophilic to psychrotolerant. To our knowledge, we provide the first rates of denitrification and anammox from permeable sediments of a polar permanently cold ecosystem. The adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures suggests that the relationship between temperature and rates of N removal is highly dependent

  10. An evaluation of respirator maintenance requirements.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, L M; Traubel, K

    1997-03-01

    A telephone survey was developed as part of a pilot study to evaluate the inspection, cleaning, maintenance, and storage aspects of respirator protection programs (RPP). Regulations and consensus standards such as those published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) require or recommend that RPP contain elements that ensure that the respirators provide proper protection. A great deal of research has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of new respirators; however, little research has been conducted to evaluate how respirators behave over time in real industrial settings Respirator inspection, cleaning, maintenance, and storage are significant factors in determining how well a respirator continues to perform. The telephone survey was developed by reviewing the requirements and recommendations of CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2-1980. Approximately 30 companies were selected based on their use of negative air-purifying respirators. Most of the companies represented the hardgoods manufacturing or service industries. Although the majority of companies were meeting requirements, responses indicated that the following improvements in RPP were necessary: (1) inspection of all respirator parts should be carried out before and after each use, (2) replacement parts should be made readily available on site, (3) regular cleaning should be performed, and (4) more hands-on practice with respirators and their maintenance should be incorporated into training sessions. PMID:9075316

  11. Respirator selection for clandestine methamphetamine laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gary O; Bronder, Gregory D; Larson, Scott A; Parker, Jay A; Metzler, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    First responders to illicit drug labs may not always have SCBA protection available. Air-purifying respirators using organic vapor cartridges with P-100 filters may not be sufficient. It would be better to use a NIOSH-approved CBRN respirator with its required multi-purpose cartridge system, which includes a P-100 filter. This would remove all the primary drug lab contaminants—organic vapors, acid gases, ammonia, phosphine, iodine, and airborne meth particulates. To assure the proper selection and use of a respirator, it is recommended that the contaminants present be identified and quantified and the OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 respirator protection program requirements followed. PMID:22571884

  12. The negligible effect of bed form migration on denitrification in hyporheic zones of permeable sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2015-03-01

    Bed form celerity, the migration rate of ripples along a sediment bed, has previously been shown to have dramatic effects on oxygen distribution and transport within the hyporheic zone of permeable sediments. This has the potential to influence denitrification rates—in particular by increasing the coupling of nitrification and denitrification. To further understand this, we numerically modeled nitrogen cycling under migrating ripples. While the simulated oxygen profiles match with expected behavior, almost no effect on denitrification or coupled nitrification-denitrification was observed with increasing celerity. Instead, denitrification rates were dominantly controlled by the flow velocity of water overlying the sediment.

  13. "Aerobic" Writing: A Writing Practice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Sally Chandler

    "Aerobic writing" is a writing center strategy designed to keep students in writing "shape." Like aerobic exercise, aerobic writing is sustained for a certain length of time and done on a regular basis at prescribed time intervals. The program requires students to write at least two times a week for approximately an hour each time. Students write,…

  14. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  15. Herbicide and antibiotic removal by woodchip denitrification filters: Sorption processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batch sorption and desorption experiments to evaluate the retention of the agrichemicals onto wood chips from an in situ wood chip denitrification wall were conducted for atrazine, enrofloxacin, monensin and sulfamethazine. Estimated Freundlich distribution coefficients (Kf) showed that the order of...

  16. Denitrification and the denitrifier community in coastal microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J

    2015-03-01

    Denitrification was measured in three structurally different coastal microbial mats by using the stable isotope technique. The composition of the denitrifying community was determined by analyzing the nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) genes using clone libraries and the GeoChip. The highest potential rate of denitrification (7.0 ± 1.0 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) was observed during summer at station 1 (supra-littoral). The rates of denitrification were much lower in the stations 2 (marine) and 3 (intermediate) (respectively 0.1 ± 0.05 and 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) and showed less seasonality when compared to station 1. The denitrifying community at station 1 was also more diverse than that at station 2 and 3, which were more similar to each other than either of these stations to station 1. In all three stations, the diversity of both nirS and nirK denitrifiers was higher in summer when compared to winter. The location along the tidal gradient seems to determine the composition, diversity and activity of the denitrifier community, which may be driven by salinity, nitrate/nitrite and organic carbon. Both nirS and nirK denitrifiers are equally present and therefore they are likely to play a role in the denitrification of the microbial mats studied. PMID:25764561

  17. N₂O accumulation from denitrification under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Poh, Leong Soon; Jiang, Xie; Zhang, Zhongbo; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during denitrification and denitritation were investigated. Batch experiments were performed to measure N2O accumulation at 25 and 35 °C. More N2O accumulation was observed during denitritation at the higher temperature as compared with full denitrification and low temperature tests. The highest nitrite concentration tested in this study (25 mg/L NO2 (-)N and pH 8.0) did not show inhibitory effect on N2O reduction. It was found that the major cause of more N2O accumulation during denitrification at higher temperature was due to higher N2O production rate and lower N2O solubility. Specific nitrate, nitrite, and N2O reduction rates increased 62, 61, and 41 %, respectively, when temperature rose from 25 to 35 °C. The decrease of N2O solubility in mixed liquor at 35 °C (when compared to 25 °C) resulted in faster diffusing rate of N2O from liquid to gas phase. It was also more difficult for gas phase N2O to be re-dissolved. The diffused N2O was then accumulated in the headspace, which was not available for denitrification by denitrifiers. The results of this study suggest higher temperature may worsen N2O emission from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PMID:26129949

  18. Denitrification in Wood Chip Bioreactors at Different Water Flows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drainage in agricultural watersheds exports a large quantity of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and concentrations frequently exceed 10 mg L-1. A laboratory column study was conducted to investigate the ability of a wood chip biofilter to promote denitrification under mean water flow rates of 2....

  19. Denitrification in Alluvial Wetlands in an Urban Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wetlands have been shown to be particularly effective “sinks” for nitrate-N (NO3-), minimizing the downstream export of nitrogen (N) to streams and coastal water bodies. However, the vast majority of riparian denitrification research has been in agricultural and forested...

  20. Herbicide and antibiotic removal by woodchip denitrification filters: Sorption processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batch sorption and desorption experiments to evaluate the retention of the agrichemicals onto wood chips from an in situ wood chip denitrification wall were conducted for atrazine, enrofloxacin, monensin, and sulfamethazine. Estimated Freundlich distribution coefficients (Kf) showed that the order o...

  1. Denitrification Rates in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, nitrogen has increased substantially in the Nation’s aquatic ecosystems mainly due to the increased use of fertilizers and land use practices. Denitrification is a process that can potentially mitigate this increased influx of fixed nitrate. Coastal wetlands are ...

  2. Microbial denitrification dominates nitrate losses from forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yunting; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Chieko; Zhu, Weixing; Hayashi, Takahiro; Hokari, Azusa A; Urakawa, Rieko; Bai, Edith; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Xi, Dan; Zhang, Shasha; Matsushita, Kayo; Tu, Ying; Liu, Dongwei; Zhu, Feifei; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Guoyi; Chen, Dexiang; Makita, Tomoko; Toda, Hiroto; Liu, Xueyan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Deqiang; Li, Yide; Yoh, Muneoki

    2015-02-01

    Denitrification removes fixed nitrogen (N) from the biosphere, thereby restricting the availability of this key limiting nutrient for terrestrial plant productivity. This microbially driven process has been exceedingly difficult to measure, however, given the large background of nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere and vexing scaling issues associated with heterogeneous soil systems. Here, we use natural abundance of N and oxygen isotopes in nitrate (NO3 (-)) to examine dentrification rates across six forest sites in southern China and central Japan, which span temperate to tropical climates, as well as various stand ages and N deposition regimes. Our multiple stable isotope approach across soil to watershed scales shows that traditional techniques underestimate terrestrial denitrification fluxes by up to 98%, with annual losses of 5.6-30.1 kg of N per hectare via this gaseous pathway. These N export fluxes are up to sixfold higher than NO3 (-) leaching, pointing to widespread dominance of denitrification in removing NO3 (-) from forest ecosystems across a range of conditions. Further, we report that the loss of NO3 (-) to denitrification decreased in comparison to leaching pathways in sites with the highest rates of anthropogenic N deposition. PMID:25605898

  3. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

  4. Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loading to river networks is a potentially important source of N2O via microbial denitrification which converts N to N2O and dinitrog...

  5. Sediment nitrification and denitrification rates in a Lake Superior estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbially-mediated nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic sediments has been recognized as an ecosystem service due to mitigation of N-transport to receiving waters. In 2011 and 2012, we compared nitrification (NIT), unamended (DeNIT) and amended (DEA) denitrification rates among spat...

  6. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...

  7. Microbial denitrification dominates nitrate losses from forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yunting; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Chieko; Zhu, Weixing; Hayashi, Takahiro; Hokari, Azusa A.; Urakawa, Rieko; Bai, Edith; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Xi, Dan; Zhang, Shasha; Matsushita, Kayo; Tu, Ying; Liu, Dongwei; Zhu, Feifei; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Guoyi; Chen, Dexiang; Makita, Tomoko; Toda, Hiroto; Liu, Xueyan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Deqiang; Li, Yide; Yoh, Muneoki

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification removes fixed nitrogen (N) from the biosphere, thereby restricting the availability of this key limiting nutrient for terrestrial plant productivity. This microbially driven process has been exceedingly difficult to measure, however, given the large background of nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere and vexing scaling issues associated with heterogeneous soil systems. Here, we use natural abundance of N and oxygen isotopes in nitrate (NO3−) to examine dentrification rates across six forest sites in southern China and central Japan, which span temperate to tropical climates, as well as various stand ages and N deposition regimes. Our multiple stable isotope approach across soil to watershed scales shows that traditional techniques underestimate terrestrial denitrification fluxes by up to 98%, with annual losses of 5.6–30.1 kg of N per hectare via this gaseous pathway. These N export fluxes are up to sixfold higher than NO3− leaching, pointing to widespread dominance of denitrification in removing NO3− from forest ecosystems across a range of conditions. Further, we report that the loss of NO3− to denitrification decreased in comparison to leaching pathways in sites with the highest rates of anthropogenic N deposition. PMID:25605898

  8. Uncoupling Mitochondrial Respiration for Diabesity.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W; Larrick, Jasmine W; Mendelsohn, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Until recently, the mechanism of adaptive thermogenesis was ascribed to the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown and beige adipocytes. UCP1 is known to catalyze a proton leak of the inner mitochondrial membrane, resulting in uncoupled oxidative metabolism with no production of adenosine triphosphate and increased energy expenditure. Thus increasing brown and beige adipose tissue with augmented UCP1 expression is a viable target for obesity-related disorders. Recent work demonstrates an UCP1-independent pathway to uncouple mitochondrial respiration. A secreted enzyme, PM20D1, enriched in UCP1+ adipocytes, exhibits catalytic and hydrolytic activity to reversibly form N-acyl amino acids. N-acyl amino acids act as endogenous uncouplers of mitochondrial respiration at physiological concentrations. Administration of PM20D1 or its products, N-acyl amino acids, to diet-induced obese mice improves glucose tolerance by increasing energy expenditure. In short-term studies, treated animals exhibit no toxicity while experiencing 10% weight loss primarily of adipose tissue. Further study of this metabolic pathway may identify novel therapies for diabesity, the disease state associated with diabetes and obesity. PMID:27378359

  9. Elucidation of denitrification mechanism in karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijikawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in public water supplies have risen above acceptable levels in many areas of the world including Japan, largely as a result of contamination by human and animal waste and overuse of fertilizers. A previous study has characterized nitrate concentrations in groundwater in this area is a higher than the upper value (44mgL-1) of environmental quality criteria on one hands. On the other hand, there exists points where the concentration of nitric acid is not detected, which suggests the possibility of denitrification. During early 2000, a new analytical procedure for nitrate isotopic measurement, termed the "denitrifier method", was established. With the development of the nitrate isotope tracer method, much research has been reported detailing sources of groundwater nitrate and denitrification mechanisms. This study presents a pilot case study (in the southern part of Okinawa Main Island, Japan, where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed) using the combined stable isotope ratios of major elements (C, N and S) as net recorders of the biogeochemical reactions with the aim of elucidation of denitrification mechanism in Ryukyu limestone aquifer. As a result, significant decreases in nitrate concentrations due to denitrification were observed in groundwater at some locations, which induced increases in isotope ratios up to 59.7‰ for δ15NNO3. These points of groundwater were located above the cutoff wall of the underground dam and near the fault. It is considered that the residence time of the groundwater is longer than the other points at these denitrification points, and that reduction condition tends to be formed in the groundwater. However, the rapid rise of the groundwater level due to rainfall is likely to occur in the Ryukyu limestone aquifer, where the ground water was found to have changed dynamically from the reduction condition to the oxidation condition which a denitrification (has not occured)does not occur. Moreover, the

  10. Influence of biochar on soil pore structure and denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhout, Peter; Sleutel, Steven; Ameloot, Nele; De Neve, Stefaan

    2014-05-01

    Incorporation of biochar into soils has frequently been found to reduce soil emission of the greenhouse gas N2O, formed as an intermediate during microbial denitrification. The exact mechanism that regulates N2O emission reduction after biochar incorporation is still unknown and diverse hypotheses on either chemical, physical or biological controls over soil denitrification exist. The porous structure of biochar may directly and indirectly influence the soil pore structure upon its incorporation. Firstly biochar may increase soil aeration and thereby reduce denitrification which requires an anaerobic atmosphere to continue. In order to investigate this hypothesis we incorporated 4 biochar types in a sandy loam soil and collected undisturbed soil cores after 8 months of field incorporation. We then crushed half of the soil cores and replaced them. We followed N2O emissions from undisturbed and disturbed biochar amended soil cores by GC headspace analysis. From the disturbed soil cores no emission reduction was expected because soil pore structure was severely disrupted. However, both disturbed and undisturbed soil cores showed emission reductions when compared to the soil cores without biochar amendment. This allowed us to reject the hypothesis that biochar would affect soil denitrification through increased soil aeration. We moved to investigate a second hypothesis, viz. 'Through the retention of water in its finer pores, biochar could create local anaerobic 'denitrification hot spots' in soils. It could be hypothesized that the final further reduction of N2O into N2 is stimulated. We tested this hypothesis by comparing N2+N2O (acetylene inhibition) and N2O emissions from undisturbed soil cores with or without biochar amended, at 70 and 90 % WFPS. At 70% WFPS we expected higher N2 emissions in biochar amended soils compared to the unamended control cores, through the action of anaerobic hot spots in biochar. In contrast, at 90% WFPS anaerobicity would be general in

  11. O 2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Puckett, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    O 2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero-and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O 2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 ??mol L -1 yr -1 to more than 140 ??mol L -1 yr -1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr -1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 ??mol N L -1 yr -1; 0.06-0.30 yr -1) were observed in most areas with O 2 concentrations below 60 mol L -1, while higher rates (>100 mol N L -1 yr -1; >0.36 yr -1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O 2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O 2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O 2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation. copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. O2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Puckett, Larry J.

    2011-12-01

    O2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero- and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 μmol L-1 yr-1 to more than 140 μmol L-1 yr-1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr-1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; 0.06-0.30 yr-1) were observed in most areas with O2 concentrations below 60 μmol L-1, while higher rates (>100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; >0.36 yr-1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation.

  13. Denitrification and nitrous oxide in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, C. S.; Owens, N. J. P.

    In situ sediment denitrification rates were determined in the major areas of deposition of the North Sea, using the acetylene block technique. In addition, nitrous oxide profiles of the water column were determined. Nitrous oxide production generally occurred in the photic zone possibly due to nitrification; and throughout the water column in the German Bight region. Consumption at depth was possibly due to reduction in the anoxic microzones of faecal pellets, concentrated at the thermocline. Saturation of surface waters was 102.2% compared to 130.3% in the German Bight region. Calculated flux of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere was 9.5 × 10 6 kg yr -1, over half of which was produced in the German Bight. Sediment denitrification rates varied through three orders of magnitude; the highest value of 150 μmol m -2 d -1 was recorded in the Norwegian Trench. Nitrous oxide production by the sediments was low (1.1 μmol m -2 d -1 max.), and was undetectable at half of the sites. Sediment nutrient profiles exhibited porewater nitrate concentrations exceeding that of the overlying water suggesting that denitrification was fuelled by nitrification, which, in turn was related to other environmental variables. A significant positive relationship existed between in situ denitrification rate and the nitrate content of the upper sediment. Extrapolation of the rate to the total area of deposition in the North Sea suggests that denitrification is responsible for a minimum loss of 7.5-12% of the total annual nitrogen contaminant input.

  14. Denitrification gene expression in clay-soil bacterial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorelli, R.; Landi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Our contribution in the Italian research project SOILSINK was focused on microbial denitrification gene expression in Mediterranean agricultural soils. In ecosystems with high inputs of nitrogen, such as agricultural soils, denitrification causes a net loss of nitrogen since nitrate is reduced to gaseous forms, which are released into the atmosphere. Moreover, incomplete denitrification can lead to emission of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming and destruction of ozone layer. A critical role in denitrification is played by microorganisms and the ability to denitrify is widespread among a variety of phylogenetically unrelated organisms. Data reported here are referred to wheat cultivation in a clay-rich soil under different environmental impact management (Agugliano, AN, Italy). We analysed the RNA directly extracted from soil to provide information on in situ activities of specific populations. The expression of genes coding for two nitrate reductases (narG and napA), two nitrite reductases (nirS and nirK), two nitric oxide reductases (cnorB and qnorB) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR. Only napA, nirS, nirK, qnorB and nosZ were detected and fragments sequenced showed high similarity with the corresponding gene sequences deposited in GenBank database. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples and they offered us the possibility to perform the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyzes for denitrification genes.. Earlier conclusions showed nirK gene is more widely distributed in soil environment than nirS gene. The results concerning the nosZ expression indicated that microbial activity was clearly present only in no-tilled and no-fertilized soils.

  15. Regional oxygen reduction and denitrification rates, San Joaquin Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, C. T.; Jurgens, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Starn, J. J.; Visser, A.; Singleton, M. J.; Esser, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Rates of oxygen and nitrate reduction are key factors in determining the chemical evolution of groundwater. Little is known about how these rates vary in regional groundwater settings, as few studies have focused on regional datasets with multiple tracers and methods of analysis that account for effects of mixed residence times on apparent reaction rates. This study provides insight into residence times and rates of O2 reduction and denitrification using a novel approach of multi-model residence time distributions (RTDs) applied to a data set of atmospheric tracers of groundwater age and geochemical data from 141 well samples in the Central Eastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. The residence time distribution approach accounts for mixtures of residence times in a single sample to provide estimates of in-situ rates. Tracers included SF6, CFCs, 3H, He from 3H, 14C, and terrigenic He. Parameter estimation and multi-model averaging were used to establish RTDs with lower error variance than produced by individual RTD models. The set of multi-model RTDs was used in combination with NO3- and dissolved gas data to estimate zero order and first order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification. Results indicated that these rates followed approximately log-normal distributions. Rates of O2 reduction and denitrification were correlated and, on an electron milliequivalent basis, denitrification rates tended to exceed O2 reduction rates. Results indicate that the multi-model approach can improve estimation of age distributions, and that, because of the correlations, relatively easily measured O2 rates can provide information about trends in denitrification rates, which are more difficult to measure.

  16. Catalyzing denitrification of Paracoccus versutus by immobilized 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Guo, Jianbo; Qu, Jiuhui; Lian, Jing; Jefferson, William; Yang, Jingliang; Li, Haibo

    2012-06-01

    The accelerating effect of non-dissolved redox mediator (1,5-dichloroanthraquinone) on the biological denitrification was investigated in this paper using 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone immobilized by calcium alginate (CA) and a heterotrophic denitrification bacterium of Paracoccus versutus (GU111570). The results suggested that the denitrification rate was enhanced 2.1 fold by 25 mmol l(-1) 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone of this study, and a positive correlation was found for the denitrification rate and 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone concentrations from 0 to 25 mmol l(-1). According to the change characteristic of NO(3) (-) and NO(2) (-) during the denitrification process, the tentative accelerating mechanism of the denitrification by redox mediators was put forward, and redox mediator might play the role of reduced cofactors like NADH, N(A)DH and SDH, or the similar ubiquinol/ubiquinone (Q/QH(2)) role during the denitrification process. PMID:22086549

  17. Effects of wetland plants on denitrification rates: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alldred, Mary; Baines, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is accelerating changes in biotic communities worldwide. Predicting impacts of these changes on ecosystem services such as denitrification, a process that mitigates the consequences of nitrogen pollution, remains one of the most important challenges facing ecologists. Wetlands especially are valued as important sites of denitrification, and wetland plants are expected to have differing effects on denitrification. We present the results of a meta-analysis, conducted on 419 published estimates of denitrification in wetlands dominated by different plant species. Plants increased denitrification rates by 55% on average. This effect varied significantly among communities as defined by the dominant plant species, but surprisingly did not differ substantially among methods for measuring denitrification or among types of wetlands. We conclude that mechanistically linking functional plant traits to denitrification will be key to predicting the role of wetlands in nitrogen mitigation in a changing world. PMID:27411242

  18. Effects of substrate induced respiration on the stability of bottom ash in landfill cover environment.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Lovat, E; Persson, K M

    2014-12-01

    The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being increasingly used to construct landfill covers in Sweden. In post-closure, owing to increased cover infiltration, the percolating water can add external organic matter to bottom ash. The addition and subsequent degradation of this external organic matter can affect metal mobility through complexation and change in redox conditions. However, the impacts of such external organic matter addition on bottom ash stability have not been fully evaluated yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external organic matter on bottom ash respiration and metal leaching. The samples of weathered bottom ash were mixed with oven dried and digested wastewater sludge (1%-5% by weight). The aerobic respiration activity (AT4), as well as the leaching of metals, was tested with the help of respiration and batch leaching tests. The respiration and heavy metal leaching increased linearly with the external organic matter addition. Based on the results, it was concluded that the external organic matter addition would negatively affect the quality of landfill cover drainage. PMID:25395160

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification rates: A blueprint for smart management and remediation of agricultural landscapes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasek, A.; Hondzo, M.; Kozarek, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle, especially in the agriculturally dominated Midwest, with severe consequences on human and aquatic health. Complete microbial denitrification can be viewed as a nitrogen sink, converting soluble nitrate into inert nitrogen gas. This research aims to quantify and correlate the driving parameters in microbial denitrification and explore the relationship to the abundance of denitrifying genes and the microbial communities at these sites. Denitrifying genes for each step in the denitrification process have been quantified. Data from a field site in Southern Minnesota has been collected throughout the season for two years enabling investigation into the temporal variability of denitrification. Data was collected at two cross-sections across the channel to determine the effect of bank location and moisture content on denitrification. Data were collected in an experimental basin in the summer of 2015 to determine the effect of flooding and benthic organic matter content and quality on microbial denitrification and nitrous oxide production. Four sediment types were investigated in three different flood regimes. After each raising or lowering of the water level, soil cores were taken to determine soil characteristics, the potential denitrification using the denitrification enzyme activity method, nitrous oxide production using a static core method, and the denitrifying gene abundance. Chambers were also deployed over each soil amendment in each flood regime to determine the nitrous oxide production over time. Results from these studies will convey a more complete explanation of denitrification and nitrous oxide production under varying environmental conditions. By determining the driving parameters for microbial denitrification, denitrification hot spots and hot moments can be created and enhanced. One potential consequence of increased denitrification is the possibility of incomplete denitrification

  20. Denitrification capacity and greenhouse gas emissions of soils in channelized and restored reaches along an Alpine river corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Samaritani, Emanuela; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water and air quality, the biogeochemical functions of channelized and restored river reaches have to be quantified. The objective of this study was to compare denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions of functional processing zones (FPZ) in a channelized and a recently restored reach of the alpine river Thur in north-eastern Switzerland. The study was part of the project cluster RECORD of the ETH domain, Switzerland, which was initiated to increase the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The denitrification potential represents an important aspect of the soil filter function related to water quality. Besides, it also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Extensively used pasture growing on a sandy loam is the characteristic FPZ of the channelized section. The restored section encompasses five FPZ: (i) bare gravel bars sparsely colonized by plants, (ii) gravel bars densely colonized by grass (mainly canary reed grass with up to 80 cm sandy deposits), (iii) mixed forest dominated by ash and maple, (iv) riparian forest dominated by willow (Salix alba), (v) older overbank sediments stabilized during restoration with young willows separating the forests from the river-gravel bar system (willow bush). The FPZ were sampled in January, April, August and October 2009. In addition, in June and July 2009 two flood events were monitored in the restored section with more frequent samplings. At each date, topsoil samples were collected in each FPZ (four replicates per samples) and analyzed for denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA). In addition, gas samples were taken in-situ using the closed chamber technique to measure soil respiration as well as N2O and CH4 fluxes. In all FPZ, the denitrification potential was mainly governed by soil moisture. It was highest in the willow forest exhibiting low spatial variability. The DEA in pasture, grass zone

  1. Evaluation of respiration in compost landfill biocovers intended for methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedicone, Alessio; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A low-cost alternative approach to reduce landfill gas (LFG) emissions is to integrate compost into the landfill cover design in order to establish a biocover that is optimized for biological oxidation of methane (CH(4)). A laboratory and field investigation was performed to quantify respiration in an experimental compost biocover in terms of oxygen (O(2)) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) production and emission rates. O(2) consumption and CO(2) production rates were measured in batch and column experiments containing compost sampled from a landfill biowindow at Fakse landfill in Denmark. Column gas concentration profiles were compared to field measurements. Column studies simulating compost respiration in the biowindow showed average CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates of 107 ± 14 gm(-2)d(-1) and 63 ± 12 gm(-2)d(-1), respectively. Gas profiles from the columns showed elevated CO(2) concentrations throughout the compost layer, and CO(2) concentrations exceeded 20% at a depth of 40 cm below the surface of the biowindow. Overall, the results showed that respiration of compost material placed in biowindows might generate significant CO(2) emissions. In landfill compost covers, methanotrophs carrying out CH(4) oxidation will compete for O(2) with other aerobic microorganisms. If the compost is not mature, a significant portion of the O(2) diffusing into the compost layer will be consumed by non-methanotrophs, thereby limiting CH(4) oxidation. The results of this study however also suggest that the consumption of O(2) in the compost due to aerobic respiration might increase over time as a result of the accumulation of biomass in the compost after prolonged exposure to CH(4). PMID:21292472

  2. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    PubMed

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment. PMID:19135363

  3. Combined biologic (anaerobic-aerobic) and chemical treatment of starch industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, Vladimir; Epov, Andrey; Gladchenko, Marina; Danilovich, Dmitrii; Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    A combined biologic and chemical treatment of high-strength (total chemical oxygen demand [CODtot] up to 20 g/L), strong nitrogenous (total N up to 1 g/L), and phosphoric (total P up to 0.4 g/L) starch industry wastewater was investigated at laboratory-scale level. As a principal step for COD elimination, upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor performance was investigated at 30 degrees C. Under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of about 1 d, when the organic loading rates were higher than 15 g of COD/(L.d), the CODtot removal varied between 77 and 93%, giving effluents with a COD/N ratio of 4-5:1, approaching the requirements of subsequent denitrification. The activated sludge reactor operating in aerobic-anoxic regime (HRT of about 4 d, duration of aerobic and anoxic phases of 30 min each) was able to remove up to 90% of total nitrogen and up to 64% of COD tot from the anaerobic effluents under 17-20 degrees C. The coagulation experiments with Fe(III) showed that 1.4 mg of resting hardly biodegradable COD and 0.5 mg of phosphate (as P) could be removed from the aerobic effluents by each milligram of iron added. PMID:12794298

  4. Development and characterization of the partial nitrification aerobic granules in a sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjun; Ishii, Satoshi; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    In this study, partial nitrifying (PN) aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch airlift reactor by controlling the airflow rate and NH4(+) loading rate. The PN reactor produced an effluent with a NO2(-)/NH4(+) ratio of approximately one and with an NH4(+) conversion rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3)day(-1). More than 95% of the total organic carbon was removed during the process. On the basis of clone library analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) closely related to Nitrosomonas eutropha and putative heterotrophic denitrifiers were mainly present near the surface of the PN aerobic granules. Microelectrode measurements revealed that both NH4(+) and NO2(-) were consumed near the surface (<200 μm), whereas no nitrate (NO3(-)) accumulation was observed throughout the granules. These results indicate that PN by AOB and nitrite denitrification by heterotrophs, but not nitrite oxidation, simultaneously occurred near the surface of the PN aerobic granules. PMID:23665689

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Respiration in Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliwise, Donald L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Associations between depression and impaired respiration in sleep are frequently noted clinically. This relationship was documented psychometrically with the Geriatric Depression Scale, a self-report measure of nonsomatic depressive symptoms. Mean values and effect size suggest that impaired respiration in sleep was associated with only relatively…

  6. Direct reading of electrocardiograms and respiration rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, J. P.

    1969-01-01

    Technique for reading heart and respiration rates is more accurate and direct than the previous method. Index of a plastic calibrated card is aligned with a point on the electrocardiogram. Complexes are counted as indicated on the card and heart or respiration rate is read directly from the appropriate scale.

  7. Photosynthesis and Respiration in a Jar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity that reduces the biosphere to a water-filled jar to simulate the relationship between cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and energy. Allows students in high school biology and related courses to explore quantitatively cellular respiration and photosynthesis in almost any laboratory setting. (ASK)

  8. Heterotrophic denitrification plays an important role in N₂O production from nitritation reactors treating anaerobic sludge digestion liquor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from nitritation reactors receiving real anaerobic sludge digestion liquor have been reported to be substantially higher than those from reactors receiving synthetic digestion liquor. This study aims to identify the causes for the difference, and to develop strategies to reduce N2O emissions from reactors treating real digestion liquor. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) performing nitritation, fed with real (SBR-R) and synthetic (SBR-S) digestion liquors, respectively, were employed. The N2O emission factors for SBR-R and SBR-S were determined to be 3.12% and 0.80% of the NH4(+)-N oxidized, respectively. Heterotrophic denitrification supported by the organic carbon present in the real digestion liquor was found to be the key contributor to the higher N2O emission from SBR-R. Heterotrophic nitrite reduction likely stopped at N2O (rather than N2), with a hypothesised cause being free nitrous acid inhibition. This implies that all nitrite reduced by heterotrophic bacteria was converted to and emitted as N2O. Increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L, or above, decreased aerobic N2O production from 2.0% to 0.5% in SBR-R, whereas aerobic N2O production in SBR-S remained almost unchanged (at approximately 0.5%). We hypothesised that DO at 1 mg/L or above suppressed heterotrophic nitrite reduction thus reduced aerobic heterotrophic N2O production. We recommend that DO in a nitritation system receiving anaerobic sludge digestion liquor should be maintained at approximately 1 mg/L to minimise N2O emission. PMID:24956602

  9. Artificial Respiration and Artificial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Joseph; Brook, Morris H.; Lopez, Jose F.

    1965-01-01

    A training program in the newer methods of treatment of acute cardiopulmonary emergencies which was developed at the University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, is reported. Artificial respiration by the chance rescuer, primary and secondary resuscitation, and post-resuscitation measures involving the use of special drugs and equipment by trained personnel are described. Figures and tables designed for wall-mounting and ready reference in an emergency situation are presented. Firstaid ventilatory adjuncts for use by trained personnel are classified and critically appraised, and the propriety of their use is emphasized. A plea is made to the medical profession and allied agencies to assume the responsibility of spreading knowledge of the new techniques more widely. Unless effective treatment is instituted early enough to prevent death or permanent anoxic damage to heart and brain, follow-through therapy will often be fruitless. PMID:14339303

  10. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep

  11. Modelling Soil respiration in agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valerie; Mordelet, Patrick; Buysse, Pauline; Aubinet, Marc; Pattey, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    A soil respiration model was developed to simulate soil respiration in crops on a daily time step. The soil heterotrophic respiration component was derived from Century (Parton et al., 1987). Soil organic carbon is divided into three major components including active, slow and passive soil carbon. Each pool has its own decomposition rate coefficient. Carbon flows between these pools are controlled by carbon inputs (crop residues), decomposition rate and microbial respiration loss parameters, both of which are a function of soil texture, soil temperature and soil water content. The model assumes that all C decompositions flows are associated with microbial activity and that microbial respiration occurs for each of these flows. Heterotrophic soil respiration is the sum of all these microbial respiration processes. To model the soil autotrophic respiration component, maintenance respiration is calculated from the nitrogen content and assuming an exponential relationship to account for temperature dependence (Ryan et al., 1991). Growth respiration is calculated assuming a dependence on both growth rate and construction cost of the considered organ (MacCree et al., 1982) A database, made of four different soil and climate conditions in mid-latitude was used to study the two components of the soil respiration model in wheat fields. Soil respiration were measured in three winter wheat fields at Lamasquère (43°49'N, 01°23'E, 2007) and Auradé (43°54'N, 01°10'E, 2008), South-West France and Lonzée (50°33'N, 4°44'E, 2007), Belgium, and in a spring wheat field at Ottawa (45°22'N, 75°43'W, 2007, 2011), Ontario, Canada. Manual closed chambers were used in the French sites. The Belgium and Canadian sites were equipped with automated closed chamber systems, which continuously collected 30-min soil respiration exchanges. All the sites were also equipped with eddy flux towers. When eddy flux data were collected over bare soil, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was equal to

  12. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  13. Isotopologue fractionation during N(2)O production by fungal denitrification.

    PubMed

    Sutka, Robin L; Adams, Gerard C; Ostrom, Nathaniel E; Ostrom, Peggy H

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the importance of fungi to nitrous oxide (N2O) production requires a non-intrusive method for differentiating between fungal and bacterial N2O production such as natural abundance stable isotopes. We compare the isotopologue composition of N2O produced during nitrite reduction by the fungal denitrifiers Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon tonkinense with published data for N2O production during bacterial nitrification and denitrification. The fractionation factors for bulk nitrogen isotope values for fungal denitrification were in the range -74.7 to -6.6 per thousand. There was an inverse relationship between the absolute value of the fractionation factors and the reaction rate constant. We interpret this in terms of variation in the relative importance of the rate constants for diffusion and enzymatic reduction in controlling the net isotope effect for N2O production during fungal denitrification. Over the course of nitrite reduction, the delta(18)O values for N2O remained constant and did not exhibit a relationship with the concentration characteristic of an isotope effect. This probably reflects isotopic exchange with water. Similar to the delta(18)O data, the site preference (SP; the difference in delta(15)N between the central and outer N atoms in N2O) was unrelated to concentration during nitrite reduction and, therefore, has the potential to act as a conservative tracer of production from fungal denitrification. The SP values of N2O produced by F. oxysporum and C. tonkinense were 37.1 +/- 2.5 per thousand and 36.9 +/- 2.8 per thousand, respectively. These SP values are similar to those obtained in pure culture studies of bacterial nitrification but quite distinct from SP values for bacterial denitrification. The large magnitude of the bulk nitrogen isotope fractionation and the delta(18)O values associated with fungal denitrification are distinct from bacterial production pathways; thus multiple isotopologue data holds much promise for

  14. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  15. Hydrologic connectivity increases denitrification in the hyporheic zone and restored floodplains of an agricultural stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roley, Sarah S.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Williams, Maureen A.

    2012-09-01

    Stream ecotones, specifically the lateral floodplain and subsurface hyporheic zone, can be important sites for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification, but their role in streams with constructed floodplains has not been examined. We studied denitrification in the hyporheic zone and floodplains of an agriculturally influenced headwater stream in Indiana, USA, that had floodplains added as part of a "two-stage ditch" restoration project. To examine the potential for N removal in the hyporheic zone, we seasonally measured denitrification rates and nitrate concentrations by depth into the stream sediments. We found that nitrate concentration and denitrification rates declined with depth into the hyporheic zone, but denitrification was still measureable to a depth of at least 20 cm. We also measured denitrification rates on the restored floodplains over the course of a flood (pre, during, and post-inundation), and also compared denitrification rates between vegetated and non-vegetated areas of the floodplain. We found that floodplain denitrification rates increased over the course of a floodplain inundation event, and that the presence of surface water increased denitrification rates when vegetation was present. Stream ecotones in midwestern, agriculturally influenced streams have substantial potential for N removal via denitrification, particularly when they are hydrologically connected with high-nitrate surface water.

  16. Sulfide-inhibition of mitochondrial respiration at very low oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Matallo, J; Vogt, J; McCook, O; Wachter, U; Tillmans, F; Groeger, M; Szabo, C; Georgieff, M; Radermacher, P; Calzia, E

    2014-09-15

    Our aim was to study the ability of an immortalized cell line (AMJ2-C11) to sustain aerobic cell respiration at decreasing oxygen concentrations under continuous sulfide exposure. We assumed that the rate of elimination of sulfide through the pathway linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain and therefore operating under aerobic conditions, should decrease with limiting oxygen concentrations. Thus, sulfide's inhibition of cellular respiration would occur faster under continuous sulfide exposure when the oxygen concentration is in the very low range. The experiments were performed with an O2K-oxygraph (Oroboros Instruments) by suspending 0.5-1×10(6) cells in 2 ml of continuously stirred respiration medium at 37 °C and calculating the oxygen flux (JO2) as the negative derivative of the oxygen concentration in the medium. The cells were studied in two different metabolic states, namely under normal physiologic respiration (1) and after uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration (2). Oxygen concentration was controlled by means of a titration-injection pump, resulting in average concentration values of 0.73±0.05 μM, 3.1±0.2 μM, and 6.2±0.2 μM. Simultaneously we injected a 2 mM Na2S solution at a continuous rate of 10 μl/s in order to quantify the titration-time required to reduce the JO2 to 50% of the initial respiratory activity. Under the lowest oxygen concentration this effect was achieved after 3.5 [0.3;3.5] and 11.7 [6.2;21.2]min in the uncoupled and coupled state, respectively. This time was statistically significantly shorter when compared to the intermediate and the highest O2 concentrations tested, which yielded values of 24.6 [15.5;28.1]min (coupled) and 35.9 [27.4;59.2]min (uncoupled), as well as 42.4 [27.5;42.4]min (coupled) and 51.5 [46.4;51.7]min (uncoupled). All data are medians [25%, and 75% percentiles]. Our results confirm that the onset of inhibition of cell respiration by sulfide occurs earlier under a continuous exposure when approaching

  17. Redox Fluctuations Increase the Contribution of Lignin to Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Timokhin, V.; Hammel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin mineralization represents a critical flux in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet little is known about mechanisms and environmental factors controlling lignin breakdown in mineral soils. Hypoxia has long been thought to suppress lignin decomposition, yet variation in oxygen (O2) availability in surface soils accompanying moisture fluctuations could potentially stimulate this process by generating reactive oxygen species via coupled biotic and abiotic iron (Fe) redox cycling. Here, we tested the impact of redox fluctuations on lignin breakdown in humid tropical forest soils during ten-week laboratory incubations. We used synthetic lignins labeled with 13C in either of two positions (aromatic methoxyl and propyl Cβ) to provide highly sensitive and specific measures of lignin mineralization not previously employed in soils. Four-day redox fluctuations increased the percent contribution of methoxyl C to soil respiration, and cumulative methoxyl C mineralization was equivalent under static aerobic and fluctuating redox conditions despite lower total C mineralization in the latter treatment. Contributions of the highly stable Cβ to mineralization were also equivalent in static aerobic and fluctuating redox treatments during periods of O2 exposure, and nearly doubled in the fluctuating treatment after normalizing to cumulative O2 exposure. Oxygen fluctuations drove substantial net Fe reduction and oxidation, implying that reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic Fe oxidation likely contributed to the elevated contribution of lignin to C mineralization. Iron redox cycling provides a mechanism for lignin breakdown in soils that experience conditions unfavorable for canonical lignin-degrading organisms, and provides a potential mechanism for lignin depletion in soil organic matter during late-stage decomposition. Thus, close couplings between soil moisture, redox fluctuations, and lignin breakdown provide potential a link between climate variability and

  18. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  19. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ2H and δ18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (δ15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and δ18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme

  20. Effect of anoxic/aerobic phase fraction on N2O emission in a sequencing batch reactor under low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Li, Shanping; Wang, Jinhe; Zhang, Tingting

    2011-05-01

    Laboratory scale anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor (A/O SBR) was operated around 15°C to evaluate the effect of anoxic/aerobic phase fraction (PF) on N(2)O emission. The ammonia removal exhibited a decrease trend with the increase of PF, while the highest total nitrogen removal was achieved at PF=0.5. Almost all the N(2)O was emitted during the aerobic phase, despite of the PF value. However, the net emission of N(2)O was affected by PF. Under the premise of completely aerobic nitrification, the lowest N(2)O emission was achieved at PF=0.5, with a N(2)O-N conversion rate of 9.8%. At lower PF (PF=0.2), N(2)O emission was stimulated by residual nitrite caused by uncompleted denitrification during the anoxic phase. On the other hand, the exhaustion of the easily degradable carbon was the major cause for the high N(2)O emission at higher PF (PF=0.5). The N(2)O emission increased with the decreasing temperature. The time-weighted N(2)O emission quantity at 15°C was 2.9 times higher than that at 25°C. PMID:21035326

  1. Assessing carbon and nitrogen removal in a novel anoxic-aerobic cyanobacterial-bacterial photobioreactor configuration with enhanced biomass sedimentation.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Vargas, V A; Guzmán, H O; Soto, R; García, B; García, P A; Muñoz, R

    2014-09-15

    The carbon and nitrogen removal potential of an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration operated with both internal and external recyclings was evaluated under different cyanobacterial-bacterial sludge residence times (9-31 days) during the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratios. Under optimal operating conditions, the two-stage photobioreactor was capable of providing organic carbon and nitrogen removals over 95% and 90%, respectively. The continuous biomass recycling from the settler resulted in the enrichment and predominance of rapidly-settling cyanobacterial-bacterial flocs and effluent suspended solid concentrations lower than 35 mg VSS L(-1). These flocs exhibited sedimentation rates of 0.28-0.42 m h(-1) but sludge volumetric indexes of 333-430 ml/g. The decoupling between the hydraulic retention time and sludge retention time mediated by the external recycling also avoided the washout of nitrifying bacteria and supported process operation at biomass concentrations of 1000-1500 mg VSS L(-1). The addition of additional NaHCO3 to the process overcame the CO2 limitation resulting from the intense competition for inorganic carbon between cyanobacteria and nitrifying bacteria in the photobioreactor, which supported the successful implementation of a nitrification-denitrification process. Unexpectedly, this nitrification-denitrification process occurred both simultaneously in the photobioreactor alone (as a result of the negligible dissolved oxygen concentrations) and sequentially in the two-stage anoxic-aerobic configuration with internal NO3(-)/NO2(-) recycling. PMID:24880959

  2. Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Hall, Robert O.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Peterson, Bruce J.; Ashkenas, Linda R.; Cooper, Lee W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Dodds, Walter K.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Johnson, Sherri L.; McDowell, William H.; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Valett, H. Maurice; Arango, Clay P.; Bernot, Melody J.; Burgin, Amy J.; Crenshaw, Chelsea L.; Helton, Ashley M.; Johnson, Laura T.; O'Brien, Jonathan M.; Potter, Jody D.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Sobota, Daniel J.; Thomas, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loading to river networks is a potentially important source of N2O via microbial denitrification that converts N to N2O and dinitrogen (N2). The fraction of denitrified N that escapes as N2O rather than N2 (i.e., the N2O yield) is an important determinant of how much N2O is produced by river networks, but little is known about the N2O yield in flowing waters. Here, we present the results of whole-stream 15N-tracer additions conducted in 72 headwater streams draining multiple land-use types across the United States. We found that stream denitrification produces N2O at rates that increase with stream water nitrate (NO3−) concentrations, but that <1% of denitrified N is converted to N2O. Unlike some previous studies, we found no relationship between the N2O yield and stream water NO3−. We suggest that increased stream NO3− loading stimulates denitrification and concomitant N2O production, but does not increase the N2O yield. In our study, most streams were sources of N2O to the atmosphere and the highest emission rates were observed in streams draining urban basins. Using a global river network model, we estimate that microbial N transformations (e.g., denitrification and nitrification) convert at least 0.68 Tg·y−1 of anthropogenic N inputs to N2O in river networks, equivalent to 10% of the global anthropogenic N2O emission rate. This estimate of stream and river N2O emissions is three times greater than estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. PMID:21173258

  3. Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaulieu, J.J.; Tank, J.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Wollheim, W.M.; Hall, R.O., Jr.; Mulholland, P.J.; Peterson, B.J.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Dodds, W.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Johnson, S.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Poole, G.C.; Maurice, Valett H.; Arango, C.P.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; O'Brien, J. M.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Sobota, D.J.; Thomas, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loading to river networks is a potentially important source of N 2O via microbial denitrification that converts N to N2O and dinitrogen (N2). The fraction of denitrified N that escapes as N2O rather than N2 (i.e., the N2O yield) is an important determinant of how much N2O is produced by river networks, but little is known about the N2O yield in flowing waters. Here, we present the results of whole-stream 15N-tracer additions conducted in 72 headwater streams draining multiple land-use types across the United States. We found that stream denitrification produces N2O at rates that increase with stream water nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, but that <1% of denitrified N is converted to N2O. Unlike some previous studies, we found no relationship between the N2O yield and stream water NO3-. We suggest that increased stream NO3- loading stimulates denitrification and concomitant N2O production, but does not increase the N2O yield. In our study, most streams were sources of N2O to the atmosphere and the highest emission rates were observed in streams draining urban basins. Using a global river network model, we estimate that microbial N transformations (e.g., denitrification and nitrification) convert at least 0.68 Tg??y -1 of anthropogenic N inputs to N2O in river networks, equivalent to 10% of the global anthropogenic N2O emission rate. This estimate of stream and river N2O emissions is three times greater than estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  4. Biological Denitrification Treatment of Wastewater Using Wood Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Tadaaki; Koremura, Nao; Sato, Aya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    A novel method for removing nitrate in waste water which uses wood chips as a reduction agent and growth support mechanism for denitrification bacteria is studied in this report. A higher denitrification rate was obtained when a portion of the wood chips packed in a column were exposed to air than when all of the wood chips were entirely immersed in solution. Cherry tree chips were more effective than cedar chips, as almost a 100% denitirification rate was maintained for at least 69 days at an inlet concentration of 20mg-N/L and HRT of 20 hr. The denitrification rate decreased significantly when the initial nitrate concentration was increased from 21mg-N/L to 46 mg-N/L. It was possible to use wood chips exclusively as a supply source of organic compounds. An excess amount of organic compounds which is discharged from the reactor can be reduced by passing the solution through a column packed with activated carbon. Cedar chips prepared from a fresh log shortly after cutting were used as a supporting material for denitirification bacteria. A satisfactorily high degree of denitirifation was obtained at HRT of 0.76 hr by adding ethanol as a reduction agent for nitrate.

  5. Effect of tourmaline on denitrification characteristics of hydrogenotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Jiang, Hongyan; Zhu, Guangquan; Song, Xueying; Liu, Xingyu; Qiao, Ya

    2016-03-01

    To improve the denitrification characteristics of anaerobic denitrifying bacteria and obviate the disadvantage of use of explosive hydrogen gas, tourmaline, a polar mineral, was added to the hydrogenotrophic denitrification system in this study. Microbial reduction of nitrate in the presence of tourmaline was evaluated to assess the promotion effect of tourmaline on nitrate biodegradation. The experiment results demonstrated that tourmaline speeded up the cultivation process of bacteria from 65 to 36 days. After domestication of the bacteria, nitrate (50 mg NO3 (-)-N L(-1)) was completely removed within 3 days in the combined tourmaline-bacteria system, and the generated nitrite was also removed within 8 days. The reduction rate in this system is higher relative to that in the bacteria system alone. Efficient removal of nitrate by tourmaline-supported anaerobic bacteria (without external hydrogen input) indicated that tourmaline might act as the sole hydrogen donor to sustain autotrophic denitrification. Besides the production of hydrogen, the promoted activity of anaerobic denitrifying bacteria might be caused by the change of water properties, e.g., the pH of aqueous solutions was altered to about 8.0 and the oxidation-reduction potential decreased by 62 % in the tourmaline system. The distinctive effects of tourmaline on bacteria were related to its electric properties. PMID:26545889

  6. Design of fluidized-bed, biological denitrification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, B.D.; Hancher, C.W.; Pitt, W.W.; Walker, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Many commercial processes yield nitrate-containing wastewaters that are being discharged to the environment because traditional recovery or disposal methods are economically unacceptable. The anticipated discharge limits (i.e., 10 to 20 g (NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/) being considered by many states will not allow continued release of these wastewaters. The new discharge standards can be met economically by use of the fluidizied-bed, biological denitrification process. Research and development studies were conducted with 0.05-, 0.10-, 0.20-, and 0.50-m-diam fluidized-bed bioreactor systems. Feed nitrate concentrations were in the 0 to 10,000 g (NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ range. Using the data from these studies, rate expressions were developed for the destruction of nitrate as a function of nitrate concentration. Methods were also developed for sizing bioreactors and biomass control systems. The sizing methods for fluidized-bed denitrification systems are described, and support systems such as sampling and analysis, instrumentation and controls, utilities, and bacteria storage are discussed. Operation of the process is also briefly discussed to aid the designer. Using the methods presented in this report, fluidized-bed, biological denitrification systems can be designed to treat nitrate wastewater streams.

  7. Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbie, Diana R.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Laughlin, Ronald J.; di, Hong J.; Moir, James L.; Cameron, Keith C.; Clough, Tim J.; Watson, Catherine J.; Grant, James; Somers, Cathal; Richards, Karl G.

    2015-11-01

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high 15N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of 15N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m-2 (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m-2) was emitted as N2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m-2), compared to only 1.1 g N m-2 (0.4 to 2.8 g m-2) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems.

  8. Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland

    PubMed Central

    Selbie, Diana R.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Laughlin, Ronald J.; Di, Hong J.; Moir, James L.; Cameron, Keith C.; Clough, Tim J.; Watson, Catherine J.; Grant, James; Somers, Cathal; Richards, Karl G.

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high 15N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of 15N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m−2 (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m−2) was emitted as N2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m−2), compared to only 1.1 g N m−2 (0.4 to 2.8 g m−2) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems. PMID:26615911

  9. Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland.

    PubMed

    Selbie, Diana R; Lanigan, Gary J; Laughlin, Ronald J; Di, Hong J; Moir, James L; Cameron, Keith C; Clough, Tim J; Watson, Catherine J; Grant, James; Somers, Cathal; Richards, Karl G

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high (15)N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of (15)N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m(-2) (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m(-2)) was emitted as N2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m(-2)), compared to only 1.1 g N m(-2) (0.4 to 2.8 g m(-2)) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems. PMID:26615911

  10. Evaluating simultaneous chromate and nitrate reduction during microbial denitrification processes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lai; Liu, Yiwen; Gao, Shu-Hong; Chen, Xueming; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-02-01

    Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification have been demonstrated to be promising technological processes for simultaneous removal of nitrate NO3(-) and chromate (Cr (VI)), two common contaminants in surface and ground waters. In this work, a mathematical model was developed to describe and evaluate the microbial and substrate interactions among sulfur oxidizing denitrifying organism, methanol-based heterotrophic denitrifiers and chromate reducing bacteria in the biofilm systems for simultaneous nitrate and chromate removal. The concomitant multiple chromate reduction pathways by these microbes were taken into account in this model. The validity of the model was tested using experimental data from three independent biofilm reactors under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. The model sufficiently described the nitrate, chromate, methanol, and sulfate dynamics under varying conditions. The modeling results demonstrated the coexistence of sulfur-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria in the biofilm under mixotrophic conditions, with chromate reducing bacteria being outcompeted. The sulfur-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria substantially contributed to both nitrate and chromate reductions although heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria dominated in the biofilm. The mixotrophic denitrification could improve the tolerance of autotrophic denitrifying bacteria to Cr (VI) toxicity. Furthermore, HRT would play an important role in affecting the microbial distribution and system performance, with HRT of higher than 0.15 day being critical for a high level removal of nitrate and chromate (over 90%). PMID:26619398

  11. Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

    1981-03-01

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO/sub 3//sup -//K/sub s/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m/sup 3/-min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m/sup 3/ for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued.

  12. Transport zonation limits coupled nitrification-denitrification in permeable sediments.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Adam J; Glud, Ronnie N; Cardenas, M Bayani; Cook, Perran L M

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of biogeochemical processes in permeable sediments (including the hyporheic zone) is difficult because of complex multidimensional advective transport. This is especially the case for nitrogen cycling, which involves several coupled redox-sensitive reactions. To provide detailed insight into the coupling between ammonification, nitrification and denitrification in stationary sand ripples, we combined the diffusion equilibrium thin layer (DET) gel technique with a computational reactive transport biogeochemical model. The former approach provided high-resolution two-dimensional distributions of NO3(-) and (15)N-N2 gas. The measured two-dimensional profiles correlate with computational model simulations, showing a deep pool of N2 gas forming, and being advected to the surface below ripple peaks. Further isotope pairing calculations on these data indicate that coupled nitrification-denitrification is severely limited in permeable sediments because the flow and transport field limits interaction between oxic and anoxic pore water. The approach allowed for new detailed insight into subsurface denitrification zones in complex permeable sediments. PMID:24224741

  13. BOREAS TE-5 Soil Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Soil respiration data were collected from 26-May-94 to 07-Sep-94 in the BOREAS NSA and SSA to compare the soil respiration rates in different forest sites using a LI-COR 6200 soil respiration chamber (model 6299). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. Evaluation of methyl fluoride and dimethyl ether as inhibitors of aerobic methane oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Methyl fluoride (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) were effective inhibitors of aerobic methanotrophy in a variety of soils. MF and DME blocked consumption of CH4 as well as the oxidation of 14CH4 to 14CO2, but neither MF nor DME affected the oxidation of [14C]methanol or [14C]formate to 14CO2. Cooxidation of ethane and propane by methane-oxidizing soils was also inhibited by MF. Nitrification (ammonia oxidation) in soils was inhibited by both MF and DME. Production of N2O via nitrification was inhibited by MF; however, MF did not affect N2O production associated with denitrification. Methanogenesis was partially inhibited by MF but not by DME. Methane oxidation was ~100-fold more sensitive to MF than was methanogenesis, indicating that an optimum concentration could be employed to selectively block methanotrophy. MF inhibited methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; however, DME was a much less effective inhibitor.

  15. Sulfide-based mixotrophic denitrification for treatment of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Xiao, Liang; Lei, Liu; Jianguo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater contaminated by sulfur, nitrogen and carbon compounds was treated by sulfide-based denitrification process in an expanded granular sludge bed packed with porous sponge. In influent, nitrate and nitrite served as electron acceptors, while sulfide and organic carbon served as electron donors. Both sulfide-based autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification were found in the bioreactor. The percentage of heterotrophic denitrification was 36.5%, and the removal rates of sulfide, nitrate, nitrite and organic carbon were 99%, 99%, 95.5% and 80% respectively, which actualized the simultaneous mixotrophic denitrification and desulfurization. The effect factors such as organic carbon category, organic carbon loading rate and nitrite loading rate were also investigated. The 50 mg Cl(-1)d(-1) of glucose and 25 mg Cl(-1) d(-1) acetate sodium were found good for sulfide-based denitrification, while the suitable loading rate of nitrite was 50 mg Nl(-1)d(-1). PMID:26387356

  16. Evaluation of wastewater treatment in a novel anoxic-aerobic algal-bacterial photobioreactor with biomass recycling through carbon and nitrogen mass balances.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cynthia; Domínguez, Jesús M; García, Dimas; Blanco, Saúl; Pérez, Rebeca; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiosis, implemented in an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration with biomass recycling, supported an efficient removal of total organic carbon (86-90%), inorganic carbon (57-98%) and total nitrogen (68-79%) during synthetic wastewater treatment at a hydraulic and sludge retention times of 2 days and 20 days, respectively. The availability of inorganic carbon in the photobioreactor, determined by its supply in the wastewater and microalgae activity, governed the extent of nitrogen removal by assimilation or nitrification-denitrification. Unexpectedly, nitrate production was negligible despite the high dissolved oxygen concentrations, denitrification being only based on nitrite reduction. Biomass recycling resulted in the enrichment of rapidly settling algal flocs, which supported effluent total suspended solid concentrations below the European Union maximum discharge limits. Finally, the maximum nitrous oxide emissions recorded were far below the emission factors reported for wastewater treatment plants, confirming the environmental sustainability of this innovative photobioreactor in terms of global warming impact. PMID:25989093

  17. The effect of subject characteristics and respirator features on respirator fit.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Ann, Roland Berry

    2005-12-01

    A recent study was conducted to compare five fit test methods for screening out poor-fitting N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. Eighteen models of NIOSH-certified, N95 filtering-facepiece respirators were used to assess the fit test methods by using a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF) test. The purpose of this companion study was to investigate the effect of subject characteristics (gender and face dimensions) and respirator features on respirator fit. The respirator features studied were design style (folding and cup style) and number of sizes available (one size fits all, two sizes, and three sizes). Thirty-three subjects participated in this study. Each was measured for 12 face dimensions using traditional calipers and tape. From this group, 25 subjects with face size categories 1 to 10 tested each respirator. The SWPF test protocol entailed using the PortaCount Plus to determine a SWPF based on total penetration (face-seal leakage plus filter penetration) while the subject performed six simulated workplace movements. Six tests were conducted for each subject/respirator model combination with redonning between tests. The respirator design style (folding style and cup style) did not have a significant effect on respirator fit in this study. The number of respirator sizes available for a model had significant impact on respirator fit on the panel for cup-style respirators with one and two sizes available. There was no significant difference in the geometric mean fit factor between male and female subjects for 16 of the 18 respirator models. Subsets of one to six face dimensions were found to be significantly correlated with SWPFs (p < 0.05) in 16 of the 33 respirator model/respirator size combinations. Bigonial breadth, face width, face length, and nose protrusion appeared the most in subsets (five or six) of face dimensions and their multiple linear regression coefficients were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05). Lip length was found in

  18. Using sludge fermentation liquid to improve wastewater short-cut nitrification-denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-12-01

    Wastewater biological nutrient removal (BNR) by short-cut nitrification-denitrification (SCND) and denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite (DPRN) has several advantages, such as organic carbon source saving. In this paper, a new method, i.e., by using waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as BNR carbon source, for simultaneously improving SCND and DPRN was reported. First, the performance of SCND and DPRN with sludge fermentation liquid as carbon source was compared with acetic acid, which was commonly used in literatures. Sludge fermentation liquid showed much higher nitrite accumulation during aerobic nitrification than acetic acid (81.8% versus 40.9%), and the former had significant anoxic denitrification and phosphorus uptake. The soluble phosphorus and total nitrogen removal efficiencies with sludge fermentation liquid were much higher than with acetic acid (97.6% against 73.4% and 98.7% versus 79.2%). Then the mechanisms for sludge fermentation liquid showed higher SCND and DPRN than acetic acid were investigated from the aspects of wastewater composition, microorganisms assayed by 16S rRNA gene clone library, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. More NO(2)(-)-N accumulated by the use of sludge fermentation liquid was attributed to be more humic acids in the influent, which inhibited nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) more serious than ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and more AOB but less NOB were observed in the BNR system. The reasons for sludge fermentation liquid BNR system exhibiting greater short-cut denitrifying phosphorus removal were that there were less glycogen accumulating organisms and more phosphorus accumulating organisms and anoxic denitrifying phosphorus removal bacteria with higher nitrite reductase activity. PMID:21053972

  19. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration on minerals. Final technical report, August 4, 1994--August 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1996-12-31

    The scope of work outlined in the original proposal contained two specific aims. Highlights of the results obtained and published on each specific aim during the grant period in question are summarized. The first aim continued the identification, separation, and characterization of the cellular components necessary for aerobic respiration on iron. An electrochemical apparatus for the large scale cultivation of chemolithotrophic bacteria that respire aerobically on ferrous ions was perfected. The kinetic properties of an acid-stable iron:rusticyanin oxidoreductase from T. ferrooxidans were determined. The overall tertiary structure of rusticyanin in solution was elucidated from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear {sup 15}N-edited NMR spectra. An artificial gene for rusticyanin was designed, synthesized, and successfully expressed in E. coli. The X-ray crystallographic structure of rusticyanin was solved to a resolution of 1.9 {angstrom} by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing. The second aim initiated an investigation of the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble inorganic substrates. The electrophoretic mobility of T. ferrooxidans with and without its insoluble substrates was determined by laser Doppler velocimetry under physiological conditions. The adherence of T. ferrooxidans to the surface of pyrite was observed directly in a video-enhanced light microscope.

  20. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m{sup 3}/min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 {micro}g/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented.

  1. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  2. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Yang; Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  3. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yanjie; Ji Min; Li Ruying; Qin Feifei

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  4. [Removal efficiency of nitrogen in aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Wang, Hao-Yun; Song, Ni; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2011-01-01

    In order to adjust the dissolved oxygen in the traditional subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) and increase the purification efficiency of sewage water, the traditional SFCWs were divided into different sections with enhanced functions. Different kinds of aerobic/anaerobic SFCWs were designed to study the influence of ratio and location of aerobic/anaerobic, artificial aeration and other factors on the nitrogen in effluent. The purification efficiency of the water in this study was compared with that in traditional SFCWs. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and TN in traditional SFCWs were 18.4% and 40.6% but 99.7% and 50.7% in aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic SFCWs with aeration (O-A-O SFCWs with aeration) treatment. Aeration in the front and in the rear, and anaerobic treatment in the middle was used in this treatment. Removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N in O-A-O SFCWs with aeration treatment was 100%, while that of O-A-O SFCWs without aeration was about 50%. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+) -N in new SFCWs with aeration in the front and in the rear were increased by 82.81% and 17.91% but 73.16% in the middle. It shows that aeration can significantly improve the removal efficiency of nitrogen, especially NH4(+)-N. Aeration in the front and back can greatly improve the removal efficiency NH4(+)-N and TN. But aeration resulting to oxygen-rich environment is not conducive to the denitrification, which will be an important factor of limiting the TN removal efficiency. PMID:21404680

  5. Denitrification 'hot spots' in soil following surface residue application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Marianne; Morley, Nicholas J.; Hallett, Paul D.; Watson, Christine; Baggs, Elizabeth M.

    2015-04-01

    The availability of organic C is an important driver for the production and reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) during denitrification. Denitrification as a response to plant residue amendments to soil surfaces has been extensively researched. However, the nature of hotspot sites of N2O production and reduction within the soil profile, especially in relation to the location of applied residues, is unknown. In a laboratory experiment we investigated the relationship between denitrifier N2O surface fluxes and N2O production and reduction sites. Probes which equilibrate with the soil gas phase by diffusion were developed to quantify denitrification products and product ratios at 1-2 cm, 4.5-5.5 cm or 8-9 cm from the surface. 13C labelled barley straw was incorporated at rates of 0, 2 and 4 t ha-1 into the top 3 cm of soil and subsequently amended with 14NH415NO3. In a three week experiment the soil gas phase at the three depths was analysed for 15N-N2O, 15N-N2, 13C-CO2 and O2 concentrations. Additionally, cores were destructively sampled for mineral 15N as well as microbial C and dissolved C in the respective depths. 15N-N2O and CO2 surface fluxes peaked one day after N application, with residue application resulting in significantly higher 15N-N2O emission rates compared to the non-amended control. The timing of the 15N-N2O surface flux on day 1 was related to maximum 15N-N2O concentrations of 36.6 μg 15N L-1 within the pore space at 5 cm depth. Three days after fertilizer application 15N-N2O pore space concentrations had significantly increased to 193 μg 15N L-1 at 9 cm depth indicating denitrifier activity at greater depth. Denitrification below the soil surface could be explained by increased microbial activity, oxygen depletion with increasing depth and progressive downwards diffusion of fertilizer NO3-. However, C availability appeared to only affect denitrification in the surface layer in which the residue was incorporated. Our results provide

  6. Linking hydrology and denitrification kinetics in treatment wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellin, J.; Wörman, A.; Hallin, S.

    2007-12-01

    A number of factors control the kinetics of denitrification in natural environments, particularly, in treatment wetlands. In order to understand and, in some sense, optimize nitrogen removal in wetlands we must link hydrological and geochemical processes. Based on a two-dimensional flow model we found that topography and vegetation distribution as well as density of vegetation are crucial reproducing the residence time distribution from a tracer test experiment. The tracer test used simultaneous injection of three labelled isotopes; H2O-3, PO4- 32 and NO3-15. Not only are the reactions constrained by the circulation patterns and water residence time, but there are essential links between vegetation as friction causing objects for the water flow and vegetation as host medium for biofilms in which denitrification can occur. This study has illuminated the importance for the treatment efficiency of the various time-scales involved in the denitrification occurring in wetlands used for treating municipal wastewater. Sampling of bed sediments in Ekeby Wetland, Eskilstuna, Sweden, were used as a basis for laboratory measurements of potential denitrification activity (PDA), evaluation of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and denaturing gel electrophoreses (DGGE) patterns of nosZ genes, which represent the denitrifying bacterial community structure in various locations. A most essential contribution of the study is to translate such basic microbiological entities into a system response model that considers both water flow and mixing as well as microbiological reactions. The behaviour of this system model was also compared with the tracer test bfreakthrough curves. The structure and placement of vegetation is found to be of utmost importance for the contact between biofilms and nitrate-polluted wastewater and, thus, for the treatment efficiency. Erroneously placed vegetation can cause flow channelling with little utilisation of the entire wetland volume and little availability of

  7. Community N and O isotope fractionation by sulfide-dependent denitrification and anammox in a stratified lacustrine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Christine B.; Zopfi, Jakob; Blees, Jan; Veronesi, Mauro; Niemann, Helge; Lehmann, Moritz F.

    2014-01-01

    we do not yet understand the exact controls on the observed N (and O) isotope fractionation in the Lake Lugano north basin, our study implies that caution is advised when assuming canonical (i.e., high) N isotope effects for NO3- reduction and NH4+ oxidation in natural environments. In Lake Lugano, the community N (and O) isotope effects by sulfide-dependent denitrification and anammox in a natural ecosystem appear to be significantly lower than for organotrophic denitrification and aerobic ammonium oxidation.

  8. Respiration gated radiotherapy treatment: a technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hideo D.; Hill, Bruce C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimize external-beam conformal radiotherapy, patient movement during treatment must be minimized. For treatment on the upper torso, the target organs are known to move substantially due to patient respiration. This paper deals with the technical aspects of gating the radiotherapy beam synchronously with respiration: the optimal respiration monitoring system, measurements of organ displacement and linear accelerator gating. Several respiration sensors including a thermistor, a thermocouple, a strain gauge and a pneumotachograph were examined to find the optimal sensor. The magnitude of breast, chest wall and lung motion were determined using playback of fluoroscopic x-ray images recorded on a VCR during routine radiotherapy simulation. Total dose, beam symmetry and beam uniformity were examined to determine any effects on the Varian 2100C linear accelerator due to gating.

  9. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  10. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P < 0.05), which could explain 35%-75% variability of soil respiration using exponential function equation. However, there was no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. Root respiration accounted for 45.13%-56.86% of the proportion of soil respiratio n with the mean value 51.72% during the summer corn growing season under different tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon. PMID:26387335

  11. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur isotopic change during heterotrophic (Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and autotrophic (Thiobacillus denitrificans) denitrification reactions.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Lin, In-Tian; Shimada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    In batch culture experiments, we examined the isotopic change of nitrogen in nitrate (δ(15)NNO3), carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)CDIC), and sulfur in sulfate (δ(34)SSO4) during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification of two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Thiobacillus denitrificans). Heterotrophic denitrification (HD) experiments were conducted with trisodium citrate as electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification (AD) experiments were carried out with iron disulfide (FeS2) as electron donor. For heterotrophic denitrification experiments, a complete nitrate reduction was accomplished, however bacterial denitrification with T. denitrificans is a slow process in which, after seventy days nitrate was reduced to 40% of the initial concentration by denitrification. In the HD experiment, systematic change of δ(13)CDIC (from -7.7‰ to -12.2‰) with increase of DIC was observed during denitrification (enrichment factor εN was -4.7‰), suggesting the contribution of C of trisodium citrate (δ(13)C=-12.4‰). No SO4(2-) and δ(34)SSO4 changes were observed. In the AD experiment, clear fractionation of δ(13)CDIC during DIC consumption (εC=-7.8‰) and δ(34)SSO4 during sulfur use of FeS2-S (around 2‰), were confirmed through denitrification (εN=-12.5‰). Different pattern in isotopic change between HD and AD obtained on laboratory-scale are useful to recognize the type of denitrification occurring in the field. PMID:26529303

  12. Denitrification and inference of nitrogen sources in the karstic Floridan Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heffernan, J.B.; Albertin, A.R.; Fork, M.L.; Katz, B.G.; Cohen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquifer denitrification is among the most poorly constrained fluxes in global and regional nitrogen budgets. The few direct measurements of denitrification in groundwaters provide limited information about its spatial and temporal variability, particularly at the scale of whole aquifers. Uncertainty in estimates of denitrification may also lead to underestimates of its effect on isotopic signatures of inorganic N, and thereby confound the inference of N source from these data. In this study, our objectives are to quantify the magnitude and variability of denitrification in the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) and evaluate its effect on N isotopic signatures at the regional scale. Using dual noble gas tracers (Ne, Ar) to generate physical predictions of N2 gas concentrations for 112 observations from 61 UFA springs, we show that excess (i.e. denitrification-derived) N2 is highly variable in space and inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen (O2). Negative relationship between O2 and ??15NNO 3 across a larger dataset of 113 springs, well-constrained isotopic fractionation coefficients, and strong 15N: 18O covariation further support inferences of denitrification in this uniquely organic-matter-poor system. Despite relatively low average rates, denitrification accounted for 32% of estimated aquifer N inputs across all sampled UFA springs. Back-calculations of source ??15NNO 3 based on denitrification progression suggest that isotopically-enriched nitrate (NO3-) in many springs of the UFA reflects groundwater denitrification rather than urban- or animal-derived inputs. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  13. Denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere - Implications of SAM II cloud formation temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Toon, O. B.

    1990-01-01

    The SAM II extinction profiles and the associated temperature profiles are used to determine the amount of denitrification of the winter polar stratospheres. Clear evidence of the denitrification process in the Antarctic data is seen. There are indications in the Arctic data that denitrification mechanisms may be at work there also. At the latitudes observed by the SAM II satellite system, denitrification begins before the formation of extensive ice clouds and may be due to sedimentation of nitric acid particles. However, the possibility of dinitrification by type II PSCs at latitudes not observed by SAM II cannot be excluded.

  14. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur isotopic change during heterotrophic (Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and autotrophic (Thiobacillus denitrificans) denitrification reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Lin, In-Tian; Shimada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    In batch culture experiments, we examined the isotopic change of nitrogen in nitrate (δ15NNO3), carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC), and sulfur in sulfate (δ34SSO4) during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification of two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Thiobacillus denitrificans). Heterotrophic denitrification (HD) experiments were conducted with trisodium citrate as electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification (AD) experiments were carried out with iron disulfide (FeS2) as electron donor. For heterotrophic denitrification experiments, a complete nitrate reduction was accomplished, however bacterial denitrification with T. denitrificans is a slow process in which, after seventy days nitrate was reduced to 40% of the initial concentration by denitrification. In the HD experiment, systematic change of δ13CDIC (from - 7.7‰ to - 12.2‰) with increase of DIC was observed during denitrification (enrichment factor εN was - 4.7‰), suggesting the contribution of C of trisodium citrate (δ13C = - 12.4‰). No SO42 - and δ34SSO4 changes were observed. In the AD experiment, clear fractionation of δ13CDIC during DIC consumption (εC = - 7.8‰) and δ34SSO4 during sulfur use of FeS2-S (around 2‰), were confirmed through denitrification (εN = - 12.5‰). Different pattern in isotopic change between HD and AD obtained on laboratory-scale are useful to recognize the type of denitrification occurring in the field.

  15. Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is the dominant methane sink in a deep lake

    PubMed Central

    Deutzmann, Joerg S.; Stief, Peter; Brandes, Josephin; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, also known as “nitrate/nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation” (n-damo), was discovered in 2006. Since then, only a few studies have identified this process and the associated microorganisms in natural environments. In aquatic sediments, the close proximity of oxygen- and nitrate-consumption zones can mask n-damo as aerobic methane oxidation. We therefore investigated the vertical distribution and the abundance of denitrifying methanotrophs related to Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera with cultivation-independent molecular techniques in the sediments of Lake Constance. Additionally, the vertical distribution of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption zones was inferred from high-resolution microsensor profiles in undisturbed sediment cores. M. oxyfera-like bacteria were virtually absent at shallow-water sites (littoral sediment) and were very abundant at deep-water sites (profundal sediment). In profundal sediment, the vertical distribution of M. oxyfera-like bacteria showed a distinct peak in anoxic layers that coincided with the zone of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption, a strong indication for n-damo carried out by M. oxyfera-like bacteria. Both potential n-damo rates calculated from cell densities (660–4,890 µmol CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1) and actual rates calculated from microsensor profiles (31–437 µmol CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1) were sufficiently high to prevent methane release from profundal sediment solely by this process. Additionally, when nitrate was added to sediment cores exposed to anoxic conditions, the n-damo zone reestablished well below the sediment surface, completely preventing methane release from the sediment. We conclude that the previously overlooked n-damo process can be the major methane sink in stable freshwater environments if nitrate is available in anoxic zones. PMID:25472842

  16. Organohalide respiration: microbes breathing chlorinated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Leys, David; Adrian, Lorenz; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial respiration has taken advantage of almost every redox couple present in the environment. The reduction of organohalide compounds to release the reduced halide ion drives energy production in organohalide respiring bacteria. This process is centred around the reductive dehalogenases, an iron–sulfur and corrinoid containing family of enzymes. These enzymes, transcriptional regulators and the bacteria themselves have potential to contribute to future bioremediation solutions that address the pollution of the environment by halogenated organic compounds. PMID:23479746

  17. Real-time electrocatalytic sensing of cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Yip, Nga-Chi; Rawson, Frankie J; Tsang, Chi Wai; Mendes, Paula M

    2014-07-15

    In the present work we develop a real-time electrochemical mediator assay to enable the assessment of cell numbers and chemical toxicity. This allowed us to monitor metabolism down to a single cell in a low cost easy to use rapid assay which is not possible with current technology. The developed assay was based on the determination of oxygen. This was made possible via the use of electrochemical mediator ferrocene carboxylic acid (FcA). The FcA showed distinctive catalytic properties in interacting with reactive oxygen species generated from oxygen when compared to ferrocene methanol (FcMeOH). A deeper insight into the chemistry controlling this behaviour is provided. The behaviour is then taken advantage of to develop a cellular aerobic respiration assay. We describe the properties of the FcA system to detect, in real-time, the oxygen consumption of Escherichia coli DH5-α (E. coli). We demonstrated that the FcA-based oxygen assay is highly sensitive, and using a population of cells, oxygen consumption rates could be calculated down to a single cell level. More importantly, the results can be accomplished in minutes, considerably outperforming current commercially available biooxygen demand assays. The developed assay is expected to have a significant impact in diverse fields and industries, ranging from environmental toxicology through to pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. PMID:24607581

  18. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  19. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  20. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  1. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  2. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  3. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  4. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  5. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  6. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  7. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  8. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  9. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  10. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  11. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  12. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  13. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  14. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Hyporheic Respiration Under Variable Discharge Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, M. J.; Schmidt, C.; Knapp, J.; Romeijn, P.; Blaen, P.; Klaar, M. J.; Keller, T.; Krause, S.; Ward, A. S.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Larned, S.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Martí Roca, E.; Datry, T.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is the site of intensive biogeochemical cycling in streams. However, the controls on spatio-temporal variability in hyporheic processing, and the impact of this hyporheic processing on reach-scale processing, are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate spatial variability in hyporheic respiration along an upland river over the course of a flood event using the reactive tracer resazurin (Raz). Raz, a weakly fluorescent dye, irreversibly transforms to resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, providing a proxy for aerobic respiration in the hyporheic zone. Eight conductivity loggers and in-situ fluorometers, measuring in-stream concentrations of Raz, Rru, fluorescein, and turbidity, were evenly spaced along a 1km reach of the Selke River, a gravelly, third-order river in north-central Germany. Sub-reaches between fluorometers differed in the number of streambed structures (ex. pool-riffle sequences and gravel bars) hypothesized to impact hyporheic exchange, residence time distributions, and the development of biogeochemical hotspots. Discharge over the 5 days of the experiment in the Selke River ranged from baseflow conditions of 0.3 m3/s to peak flows of 2.6 m3/s. Seven in-stream slug injections of Raz, NaCl and the conservative tracer fluorescein were conducted at discharge conditions of 0.3, 0.8, 2.5, 2.1, 1.3, 1.0, and 0.9 m3/s. Aerobic respiration rates and residence time distributions in the reach and sub-reaches are evaluated relative to the changing discharge conditions. Preliminary results indicate that although reach-scale tracer travel times decrease with increasing discharge, the reach-scale transformation of Raz to Rru is lowest at intermediate discharge and highest at during baseflow and peak flow conditions. This suggests that the highest transformation rates occur during high discharge.

  15. Temperature response of denitrification and anammox reveals the adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments that span 50° in latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canion, A.; Kostka, J. E.; Gihring, T. M.; Huettel, M.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.; Gao, H.; Lavik, G.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the physiology and biochemistry of nitrate/nitrite-respiring microorganisms, little is known regarding their metabolic response to temperature, especially under in situ conditions. The temperature regulation of microbial communities that mediate anammox and denitrification was investigated in near shore permeable sediments at polar, temperate, and subtropical sites with annual mean temperatures ranging from -5 to 23 °C. Total N2 production rates were determined using the isotope pairing technique in intact core incubations under diffusive and simulated advection conditions and ranged from 2 to 359 μmol N m-2 d-1. For the majority of sites studied, N2 removal was 2-7 times more rapid under simulated advective flow conditions. Anammox comprised 6-14% of total N2 production at temperate and polar sites and was not detected at the subtropical site. Potential rates of denitrification and anammox were determined in anaerobic slurries in a temperature gradient block incubator across a temperature range of -1 °C to 42 °C. The highest optimum temperature (Topt) for denitrification was 36 °C and was observed in subtropical sediments, while the lowest Topt of 21 °C was observed at the polar site. Seasonal variation in the Topt was observed at the temperate site with values of 26 and 34 °C in winter and summer, respectively. The Topt values for anammox were 9 and 26 °C at the polar and temperate sites, respectively. The results demonstrate adaptation of denitrifying communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments across a wide range of temperatures, whereas marine anammox bacteria may be predominately psychrophilic to psychrotolerant. The adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures suggests that the relationship between temperature and rates of N removal is highly dependent on community structure.

  16. Use of a fluorescent redox probe for direct visualization of actively respiring bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, G G; Phipps, D; Ishiguro, K; Ridgway, H F

    1992-01-01

    The redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) was employed for direct epifluorescent microscopic enumeration of respiring bacteria in environmental samples. Oxidized CTC is nearly colorless and is nonfluorescent; however, the compound is readily reduced via electron transport activity to fluorescent, insoluble CTC-formazan, which accumulates intracellularly. Bacteria containing CTC-formazan were visualized by epifluorescence microscopy in wet-mount preparations, on polycarbonate membrane filter surfaces, or in biofilms associated with optically opaque surfaces. Counterstaining of CTC-treated samples with the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole allowed enumeration of active and total bacterial subpopulations within the same preparation. Municipal wastewater, groundwater, and seawater samples supplied with exogenous nutrients yielded CTC counts that were generally lower than total 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole counts but typically equal to or greater than standard heterotrophic (aerobic) plate counts. In unsupplemented water samples, CTC counts were typically lower than those obtained with the heterotrophic plate count method. Reduction of CTC by planktonic or biofilm-associated bacteria was suppressed by formaldehyde, presumably because of inhibition of electron transport activity and other metabolic processes. Because of their bright red fluorescence (emission maximum, 602 nm), actively respiring bacteria were readily distinguishable from abiotic particles and other background substances, which typically fluoresced at shorter wavelengths. The use of CTC greatly facilitated microscopic detection and enumeration of metabolically active (i.e., respiring) bacteria in environmental samples. Images PMID:1622256

  17. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  18. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  19. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  20. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  1. [Hydrogenotrophic denitrification for the removal of nitrate in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Lu, Cai-Xia; Gu, Ping

    2008-03-01

    Autotrophic denitrification with hydrogen as the electron donor for the removal of nitrate in drinking water was investigated by using a bench-scale sequencing batch reactor in an attached growth system. Gas permeable membrane was employed as the hydrogen diffuser to improve the hydrogen mass transfer and decrease the explosion risk. The results showed that nitrate could be removed efficiently with this technology. The removal rates of NO3(-)-N and TN could achieve 6.45 mg/(L h) and 4.89 mg/(L h) respectively, with the highest accumulation of NO2(-)-N 11.58 mg/L. pH increased to 10.56 and DOC increased 0.91 mg/L. A zero order kinetic model was proposed for NO3(-) and NO2(-) reduction, with the kinetic coefficients in the ranges of 0.33 - 0.60 g/(g d) and 0.37 - 0.45 g/(g d) respectively, The removal rates of NO3(-)-N and TN were not affected with the hydrogen pressure higher than 40 kPa, with the values (5.97 +/- 0.08) mg/(L h) and (4.25 +/- 0.04) mg/(L h) respectively, while decreased remarkably when the hydrogen pressure was 25 kPa. The denitrification reaction was inhibited at pH 6 with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N 1.83 mg/( L h); pH higher than 8 was the favorable condition for denitrification with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N 3.13 mg/(L h). PMID:18649526

  2. Optimized aeration strategies for nitrogen and phosphorus removal with aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2013-10-15

    Biological wastewater treatment by aerobic granular sludge biofilms offers the possibility to combine carbon (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal in a single reactor. Since denitrification can be affected by suboptimal dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and limited availability of COD, different aeration strategies and COD loads were tested to improve N- and P-removal in granular sludge systems. Aeration strategies promoting alternating nitrification and denitrification (AND) were studied to improve reactor efficiencies in comparison with more classical simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) strategies. With nutrient loading rates of 1.6 gCOD L(-1) d(-1), 0.2 gN L(-1) d(-1), and 0.08 gP L(-1) d(-1), and SND aeration strategies, N-removal was limited to 62.3 ± 3.4%. Higher COD loads markedly improved N-removal showing that denitrification was limited by COD. AND strategies were more efficient than SND strategies. Alternating high and low DO phases during the aeration phase increased N-removal to 71.2 ± 5.6% with a COD loading rate of 1.6 gCOD L(-1) d(-1). Periods of low DO were presumably favorable to denitrifying P-removal saving COD necessary for heterotrophic N-removal. Intermittent aeration with anoxic periods without mixing between the aeration pulses was even more favorable to N-removal, resulting in 78.3 ± 2.9% N-removal with the lowest COD loading rate tested. P-removal was under all tested conditions between 88 and 98%, and was negatively correlated with the concentration of nitrite and nitrate in the effluent (r = -0.74, p < 0.01). With low COD loading rates, important emissions of undesired N2O gas were observed and a total of 7-9% of N left the reactor as N2O. However, N2O emissions significantly decreased with higher COD loads under AND conditions. PMID:23948562

  3. The occurrence of denitrification in extremely halophilic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of Halobacterium vallismortis, Halobacterium mediterranei and Halobacterium marismortui (Ginzburg strain) to grow anaerobically and denitrify was determined. Each organism grew anaerobically only in the presence of nitrate. H. marismortui produced nitrite and dinitrogen from nitrate during exponential growth. However, as the culture entered stationary phase, dinitrogen production ceased and nitrous oxide was detected. H. vallismortis produced nitrous oxide and dinitrogen during exponential growth, with dinitrogen production ceasing at the onset of stationary phase. H. mediterranei produced dinitrogen during exponential growth and did not produce nitrous oxide. These results confirm the occurrence of denitrification in the halobacteria.

  4. A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Solomon, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    The pairwise correlation of NO(y) and N2O data from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres is presented. Both data sets show a linear correlation region, defined as a reference state, and regions of denitrification where the correlation breaks down. Using two-dimensional photochemical model simulations of the atmosphere, a similar linear correlation is found between NO(y) and N2O, thereby establishing a theoretical framework for the reference state. This general approach, which can be extended to other pairs of molecules, should prove to be powerful in further comparisons of aircraft data with numerical models.

  5. Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, Jake; Tank, Jennifer; Hamilton, Stephen; Wollheim, Wilfred; Hall, Robert; Mulholland, Patrick J; Peterson, Bruce; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Dodds, Walter; Grimm, Nancy; Johnson, Sherri; McDowell, William; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Valett, H. Maurice; Arango, Clay; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; O'Brien, Jon; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Sobota, Daniel; Thomas, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loading to river networks is a potentially important source of N{sub 2}O via microbial denitrification that converts N to N{sub 2}O and dinitrogen (N{sub 2}). The fraction of denitrified N that escapes as N{sub 2}O rather than N{sub 2} (i.e., the N{sub 2}O yield) is an important determinant of how much N{sub 2}O is produced by river networks, but little is known about the N{sub 2}O yield in flowing waters. Here, we present the results of whole-stream {sup 15}N-tracer additions conducted in 72 headwater streams draining multiple land-use types across the United States. We found that stream denitrification produces N{sub 2}O at rates that increase with stream water nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations, but that <1% of denitrified N is converted to N{sub 2}O. Unlike some previous studies, we found no relationship between the N{sub 2}O yield and stream water NO{sub 3}{sup -}. We suggest that increased stream NO{sub 3}{sup -} loading stimulates denitrification and concomitant N{sub 2}O production, but does not increase the N{sub 2}O yield. In our study, most streams were sources of N{sub 2}O to the atmosphere and the highest emission rates were observed in streams draining urban basins. Using a global river network model, we estimate that microbial N transformations (e.g., denitrification and nitrification) convert at least 0.68 Tg {center_dot} y{sup -1} of anthropogenic N inputs to N{sub 2}O in river networks, equivalent to 10% of the global anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission rate. This estimate of stream and river N{sub 2}O emissions is three times greater than estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  6. Denitrification and N20 emissions from Carolina Bays receiving poultry runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the southeastern Coastal Plain, there are depressional wetlands known as Carolina Bays that may receive runoff from agricultural land. Little is known about denitrification and gas emission within these isolated wetlands. Three forested Carolina Bays were selected to observe denitrification enzym...

  7. Large differences in potential denitrification and sediment microbial communities across the Laurentian great lakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lakes can be important sites for removal of reactive nitrogen (N) through denitrification, but spatial heterogeneity in denitrification rates can be high, and our understanding of factors controlling the capacity of lakes to remove excess N is incomplete. In oligotrophic Lake Superior, a century-lon...

  8. Modeling Denitrification in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems at Regional Scalles. Ecological Applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying where, when, and how much denitrification occurs on the basis of measurements alone remains particularly vexing at virtually all spatial scales. As a result, models have become essential tools for integrating current understanding of the processes that control denitrification with measur...

  9. Modeling denitrification in a tile-drained, corn and soybean agroecosystem of Illinois, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification is known as an important pathway for nitrate loss in agroecosystems. It is important to estimate denitrification fluxes to close field and watershed N mass balances, determine greenhouse gas emissions (N2O), and help constrain estimates of other major N fluxes (e.g., nitrate leaching...

  10. Denitrification gene density across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffers are a best management practice used extensively to protect water bodies from agriculturally-generated nitrate pollution. In particular, the biological process of denitrification has been shown to be a sink for this nitrate. Denitrification results in the reduction of nitrate under a...

  11. Significance of dredging on sediment denitrification in Meiliang Bay, China: A year long simulation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhong, Jicheng; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lu; Edward, Hall; Ding, Shiming; Li, Bao; Liu, Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    An experiment for studying the effects of sediment dredging on denitrification in sediments was carried out through a one-year incubation of undredged (control) and dredged cores in laboratory. Dredging the upper 30 cm of sediment can significantly affect physico-chemical characteristics of sediments. Less degradation of organic matter in the dredged sediments was found during the experiment. Denitrification rates in the sediments were estimated by the acetylene blockage technique, and ranged from 21.6 to 102.7 nmol N2/(g dry weight (dw) x hr) for the undredged sediment and from 6.9 to 26.9 nmol N2/(g dw x hr) for dredged sediments. The denitrification rates in the undredged sediments were markedly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the dredged sediments throughout the incubation, with the exception of February 2006. The importance of various environmental factors on denitrification was assessed, which indicated that denitrification was regulated by temperature. Nitrate was probably the key factor limiting denitrification in both undredged and dredged sediments. Organic carbon played some role in determining the denitrification rates in the dredged sediments, but not in the undredged sediments. Sediment dredging influenced the mineralization of organic matter and denitrification in the sediment; and therefore changed the pattern of inherent cycling of nitrogen.

  12. Denitrification in the Upper Mississippi River: Rates, controls, and contribution to nitrate flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.; Strauss, E.A.; Bartsch, L.A.; Monroe, E.M.; Cavanaugh, J.C.; Vingum, L.; Soballe, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated patterns of denitrification and factors effecting denitrification in the upper Mississippi River. Measurements were taken over 2 years, during which river discharge ranged from record flooding to base flow conditions. Over the period of study, average denitrification enzyme activity was highest in backwater lakes and lowest in the main channel. Throughout the study reach, highest denitrification enzyme activity occurred during fall and lowest occurred in winter. Rates during spring floods (2001) were only slightly higher than during the preceding winter. Mean unamended denitrification rates ranged from 0.02 (fall 2001 in backwaters) to 0.40 ??g N??cm -2??h-1 (spring 2001 in backwaters). Laboratory experiments showed that denitrification rates increased significantly with addition of NO3- regardless of sediment C content, while rates increased little with addition of labile C (glucose). Denitrification in this reach of the upper Mississippi River appears to be NO3- limited throughout the growing season and the delivery of NO 3- is strongly controlled by river discharge and hydrologie connectivity across the floodplain. We estimate that denitrification removes 6939 t N??year-1 or 6.9% of the total annual NO 3- input to the reach. Hydrologic connectivity and resultant NO3- delivery to high-C sediments is a critical determinant of reach-scale processing of N in this floodplain system.

  13. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  14. Environmental metabolomics reveal geographic variation in aerobic metabolism and metabolic substrates in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yao-Long; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Wei; Fu, He-Ping; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have a large-scale distribution in northern China. Geographic physiological variations which related to energy and water metabolism are critical to animals' local adaptation and distribution. However, the underlying biochemical mechanism of such variation and its role in adaptation remains largely unknown. We used GC-MS metabolomics approach to investigate the biochemical adaptation of Mongolian gerbils from xeric (desert), transition (desert steppe) and mesic (typical steppe) environments. Gerbils in desert population had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) than mesic population. Serum metabolomics revealed that concentrations of five tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citrate, cis-aconitate, α-ketoglutarate, fumarate and malate) were lower in desert population than mesic population. Gastrocnemius metabolomics and citrate synthase activity analysis showed a lower concentration of citrate and lower citrate synthase activity in desert population. These findings suggest that desert dwelling gerbils decrease RMR and TEWL via down-regulation of aerobic respiration. Gastrocnemius metabolomics also revealed that there were higher concentrations of glucose and glycolytic intermediates, but lower concentrations of lipids, amino acids and urea in desert population than mesic population. This geographic variation in metabolic substrates may enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule for desert population while constraining aerobic respiration to reduce RMR and TEWL. PMID:25817427

  15. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion for enhanced sludge stabilization: comparison of the process performance for mixed and waste sludge [corrected].

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Carozza, Nicola Antonello

    2015-05-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated as a promising alternative for enhanced sludge stabilization. In this paper, a feasibility study of the sequential digestion applied to real waste activated sludge (WAS) and mixed sludge is presented. Process performance is evaluated in terms of total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) removal, biogas production, and dewaterability trend in the anaerobic and double-stage digested sludge. In the proposed digestion lay out, the aerobic stage was operated with intermittent aeration to reduce the nitrogen load recycled to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Experimental results showed a very good performance of the sequential digestion process for both waste and mixed sludge, even if, given its better digestibility, higher efficiencies are observed for mixed sludge. VS removal efficiencies in the anaerobic stage were 48 and 50% for waste and mixed sludge, respectively, while a significant additional improvement of the VS removal of 25% for WAS and 45% for mixed sludge has been obtained in the aerobic stage. The post-aerobic stage, operated with intermittent aeration, was also efficient in nitrogen removal, providing a significant decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant: nitrification efficiencies of 90 and 97% and denitrification efficiencies of 62 and 70% have been obtained for secondary and mixed sludges, respectively. A positive effect due to the aerobic stage was also observed on the sludge dewaterability in both cases. Biogas production, expressed as Nm(3)/(kgVSdestroyed), was 0.54 for waste and 0.82 for mixed sludge and is in the range of values reported in the literature in spite of the low anaerobic sludge retention time of 15 days. PMID:25028317

  16. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of high strength, strong nitrogenous landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S V; Gladchenko, M A

    2004-01-01

    As a first step in treatment of high strength, strong nitrogenous landfill leachates (total COD--9.66-20.56 g/l, total nitrogen 780-1,080 mg/l), the performance of laboratory UASB reactors has been investigated under sub-mesophilic (19+/-3 degrees C) and psychrophilic (10+/-2 degrees C) conditions. Under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of around 1.2 days, when the average organic loading rate (OLR) was around 8.5 g COD/l/day, the total COD removal accounted for 71% (on average) for sub-mesophilic regime. The psychrophilic treatment conducted under the average HRT of 2.44 days and the average OLR of 4.2 g COD/l/day showed an average total COD removal of 58% giving effluents more suitable for subsequent biological nitrogen removal. Both anaerobic regimes were quite efficient for elimination of heavy metals by concomitant precipitation in the form of insoluble sulphides inside the sludge. The subsequent submesophilic aerobic-anoxic treatment of submesophilic anaerobic effluents led to only 75% of total inorganic N removal due to COD deficiency for denitrification created by too efficient anaerobic step. On the contrary, psychrophilic anaerobic effluents (richer in COD compared to the submesophilic ones) were more suitable for subsequent aerobic-anoxic treatment giving the total N removal of 95 and 92% at 19 and 10 degrees C, respectively. PMID:15137438

  17. Nitrogen Removal in Aerobic Granular Sludge SBR: Real-time Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangjuan; Gao, Dawen

    2010-11-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granules was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentration on biological nitrogen removal for synthetic sewage treatment, and the spatial profiles of DO, ORP and pH as on-line control parameters in such systems were investigated. The results showed that DO concentrations had significant effect on nitrification efficiencies and the profiles of DO, ORP and pH. High DO concentration improved the nitrification causing volumetric NH4+-N removal increased and shortened the nitrification duration. Also there existed a good correlation between on-line control parameters (ORP, pH) and nutrients (COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N) variations in aerobic granules when DO was 2.5 mg/L, 3.5 mg/L and 4.5 mg/L. However it is difficult to identify the end of nitrification and denitrification when DO was 1.0 mg/L, due to no apparent bending points on ORP and pH curves. In conclusion the optimal DO concentration was suggested at 2.5 mg/L as it not only achieved high nitrogen removal efficiency and decreased the reaction duration, but also saved operation cost by aeration and mixing.

  18. Increased nitrous oxide accumulation by bioelectrochemical denitrification under autotrophic conditions: kinetics and expression of denitrification pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Tuan; Lee, Tae Kwon; Shukla, Sudheer Kumar; Tiedje, James M; Park, Joonhong

    2013-12-01

    Under autotrophic conditions, we investigated the effects of different current densities on bioelectrochemical denitrification (BED). In this study, nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide (N2O) production, microbial diversity and population dynamics, and denitrification pathway gene expressions were explored in continuous flow BED reactors at different current densities (0.2, 1, 5, 10 and 20 A/m(2)). We found that, under the autotrophic conditions, N2O accumulation was increased with increase in current density. The maximum rate of denitrification was 1.65 NO3(-)-N (g/NCCm(3).h), and approximately 70% of the reduced N was accumulated as N2O. After each current density was applied, pyrosequencing of the expressed 16S rRNA genes amplified from the cathodic biofilms revealed that that 16 genera were active and in common at all currents, and that eight of those showed a statistically significant correlation with particular current densities. The relative expression of napA and narG was highest, whereas nosZ was low relative to its level in the inoculum suggesting that this could have contributed the high N2O accumulation. Kinetic analysis of nitrate reduction and N2O accumulation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Vmax for nitrate consumption and N2O accumulation were similar, however the Km values determined as A/m(2) were not. This study provides better understanding of the community and kinetics of a current-fed, autotrophic, cathodic biofilm for evaluating its potential for scale-up and for N2O recovery. PMID:24210359

  19. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated water by solid-phase denitrification process-a review.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Vaishali; Hait, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents a compilation of various autotrophic and heterotrophic ways of solid-phase denitrification. It covers a complete understanding of various pathways followed during denitrification process. The paper gives a brief review on various governing factors on which the process depends. It focuses mainly on the solid-phase denitrification process, its applicability, efficiency, and disadvantages associated. It presents a critical review on various methodologies associated with denitrification process reported in past years. A comparative study has also been carried out to have a better understanding of advantages and disadvantages of a particular method. We summarize the various organic and inorganic substances and various techniques that have been used for enhancing denitrification process and suggest possible gaps in the research areas whi'ch are worthy of future research. PMID:25787220

  20. Soil respiration partition and its components in the total agro-ecosystem respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valerie; Mordelet, Patrick; Buysse, Pauline; Aubinet, Marc; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mary, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Close to 15% of the Earth's terrestrial surface is used for cropland. In the context of global warming, and acknowledged by the Kyoto Protocol, agricultural soils could be a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the factors influencing carbon fluxes of agricultural soils is essential for implementing efficient mitigation practices. Most of the soil respiration modeling studies was carried out in forest ecosystems, but only a few was carried out in agricultural ecosystems. In the study, we evaluated simple formalisms to model soil respiration using wheat data from four contrasting geographical mi-latitude regions. Soil respiration were measured in three winter wheat fields at Lamasquère (43°49'N, 01°23'E, 2007) and Auradé (43°54'N, 01°10'E, 2008), South-West France and Lonzée (50°33'N, 4°44'E, 2007), Belgium, and in a spring wheat field at Ottawa (45°22'N, 75°43'W, 2007, 2011), Ontario, Canada. Manual closed chambers were used in the French sites. The Belgium and Canadian sites were equipped with automated closed chamber systems, which continuously collected 30-min soil respiration exchanges. All the sites were also equipped with eddy flux towers. When eddy flux data were collected over bare soil, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was equal to soil respiration exchange. These NEE data were used to validate the model. Different biotic and abiotic descriptors were used to model daily soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components: soil temperature, soil relative humidity, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), shoot biomass, crop height, with different formalisms. It was interesting to conclude that using biotic descriptors did not improve the performances of the model. In fact, a combination of abiotic descriptors (soil humidity and soil temperature) allowed significant model formalism to model soil respiration. The simple soil respiration model was used to calculate the heterotrophic and autotrophic source contributions to

  1. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  2. Analysis of denitrification process in the groundwater of floodplains using a modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Brito, David; Sun, Xiaoling; Teissier, Samuel; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Nitrate contamination of freshwater systems is a global concern. In alluvial floodplains, highly vulnerable to nitrate pollution due to widespread agricultural activities, riparian areas have been proven to be efficient in nitrate removal through denitrification. However, denitrification presents complex spatio-temporal patterns and is controlled by many factors. Hence, modelling can provide useful knowledge about this biogeochemical process, by helping to identify key factors involved in denitrification process and its spatio-temporal variability. In this study, a modelling approach combining i) a distributed hydrodynamic model, coupling surface and subsurface flow (MOHID Land), with ii) a simplified denitrification calculation module including dissolved organic carbon (DOC borned by the river) and particulate organic carbon (POC present in soil) have been applied to a monitored meander area of the Garonne river (6.6 km²). The dataset include hydrological data and nitrates concentrations collected in a network of 25 piezometers during 12 monthly campaigns allowing the set up and the validation of the model application. The average denitrification rate was estimated to 28 kg N/ha/yr representing 38% of the lateral nitrate input from the agricultural area. Denitrification was the highest in the low elevation riparian area in relation with inundated soils releasing topsoil organic carbon fueling denitrification. In addition high denitrification rates were simulated in downstream part of the meander in relation with the high nitrates flux coming from the agricultural area. Geomorphological settings and groundwater flows in the area play a major role in controlling denitrification in floodplain area. Flood events lead to high denitrification periods by increasing topsoil layer POC availability with higher water level in the aquifer. However, the role of DOC borne by the river seems restricted. The model can be applied to estimate nitrate removal capacity of riparian

  3. Examining thiosulfate-driven autotrophic denitrification through respirometry.

    PubMed

    Mora, Mabel; Guisasola, Albert; Gamisans, Xavier; Gabriel, David

    2014-10-01

    Anoxic respirometry was applied to characterize a sulfide-oxidizing nitrate-reducing (SO-NR) culture obtained from an anoxic biogas desulfurizing biotrickling filter treating high loads of H2S. Immobilized biomass extracted from the biotrickling filter was grown in a suspended culture with thiosulfate as electron donor to obtain the biomass growth yield and the S2O3(2)(-)/NO3(-) consumed ratio. Afterward, respirometry was applied to describe thiosulfate oxidation under anoxic conditions. A pure culture of Thiobacillus denitrificans was also used as a control culture in order to validate the procedure proposed in this work to characterize the SO-NR biomass. Respirometric profiles obtained with this microbial culture showed that nitrite was formed as intermediate during nitrate reduction and revealed that no competitive inhibition appeared when both electron acceptors were present in the medium. Although final bioreaction products depended on the initial S2O3(2)(-)/NO3(-) ratio, such ratio did not affect thiosulfate oxidation or denitrification rates. Moreover, respirometric profiles showed that the specific nitrite uptake rate depended on the biomass characteristics being that of a SO-NR mixed culture (39.8mgNg(-1) VSSh(-1)) higher than that obtained from a pure culture of T. denitrificans (19.7mgNg(-1) VSSh(-1)). For the first time, the stoichiometry of the two-step denitrification mechanism with thiosulfate oxidation and biomass growth associated was solved for both reactions. PMID:25065782

  4. Transformations of halogenated organic compounds under denitrification conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, E J; McCarty, P L

    1983-01-01

    Trihalomethanes, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane, chlorinated benzenes, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene at concentrations commonly found in surface and groundwater were incubated under anoxic conditions to study their transformability in the presence of denitrifying bacteria. None of the aromatic compounds showed significant utilization relative to sterile controls at initial concentrations from 41 to 114 micrograms/liter after 11 weeks of incubation. Of the halogenated aliphatic compounds studied, transformations of carbon tetrachloride and brominated trihalomethanes were observed after 8 weeks in batch denitrification cultures. Carbon from the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride was both assimilated into cell material and mineralized to carbon dioxide. How this was possible remains unexplained, since carbon tetrachloride is transformed to CO2 by hydrolysis and not by oxidation-reduction. Chloroform was detected in bacterial cultures with carbon tetrachloride initially present, indicating that reductive dechlorination had occurred in addition to hydrolysis. The data suggest that transformations of certain halogenated aliphatic compounds are likely to occur under denitrification conditions in the environment. PMID:6859850

  5. Denitrification in bottomland hardwood wetland soils of the Cache River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLaune, R.D.; Boar, R.R.; Lindau, C.W.; Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Denitrification rates were quantified in bottomland hardwood wetland soils of the Cache River. N15 labeled nitrate was added to columns containing wetland soils and river water. Over 40 days, nitrate-N in floodwater (approximately 9 mg N L-1) decreased by between 82% and 59%, which gave estimates of N export from the water column of between 11.5 mg N m-2 day-1 and 7.5 mg N m-2 day-1. These values correlated directly with organic content of surface sediment, which included forest litter. Added glucose doubled rates of nitrate loss in these soils, which indicated that the process was carbon limited. Nitrification occurring simultaneously with denitrification was determined using isotopic dilution techniques. Contributions of nitrate to water from nitrification were estimated at between 5% and 12% of the total nitrate reduced. Rates of nitrogen transformation in these forest soils were likely limited by available soil carbon from tree litter and perhaps canopy leachate, rather than by nitrate concentration in inflowing floodwater.

  6. Denitrification of nitrate by the fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense.

    PubMed

    Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Akira; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-05-01

    The denitrifying fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense was thought to be able to denitrify only nitrite (NO2-) but not nitrate (NO3-) to form nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we found, however, that C. tonkinense can denitrify NO3- under certain conditions. Presence of ammonium (NH3+) in addition to NO3- and the use of a fermentable sugar as an electron donor were key conditions for inducing the denitrifying activity. Such induction accompanied a remarkable increase in the intracellular level of the enzyme activities related to NO3- metabolism. These activities contained assimilatory type NADPH (or NADH)-dependent NO3- reductase (aNar), dissimilatory nitrite reductase (dNir), and nitric oxide reductase (P450nor), but did not contain ubiquinol-dependent, dissimilatory NO3- reductase (dNar). The denitrification was inhibited by tungstate, an inhibitor of Nar. These results demonstrated occurrence of a novel type of denitrification in C. tonkinense, in which assimilatory type Nar is possibly involved. PMID:12834290

  7. Nitrate removal with sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flere, J.M.; Zhang, T.C.

    1999-08-01

    Nitrate removal using sulfur and limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) processes was evaluated with four laboratory-scale fixed-bed column reactors. The research objectives were (1) to determine the optimum design criteria of the fixed-bed SLAD columns; and (2) to evaluate the effects of biofouling on the SLAD column performance. A maximum denitrification rate of 384 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day) was achieved at a loading rate between 600 and 700 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day). The effluent nitrite concentration started to rise gradually once the loading rate was above 600 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day). A loading rate between 175 and 225 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day) achieved the maximum nitrate-N removal efficiency ({approximately}95%). Biofouling was evaluated based on tracer studies, the measured biofilm thickness, and modeling. The porosities of the columns fluctuated with time, and the elongation of the filter media was observed. Biofouling caused short-circuiting and decreased nitrate removal efficiency. A SLAD column will require backwashing after 6 months of operation when the influent is synthetic ground water but will foul and require backwashing within 1--2 months when the influent is real ground water.

  8. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  9. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources. PMID:19782470

  10. Biological denitrification using poly(butanediol succinate) as electron donor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiqiang; Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-07-01

    Poly(butanediol succinate) (PBS), a biodegradable polymer, was used as both solid carbon source and biofilm carrier for biological nitrate removal process, in which PBS was filled in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performance and the microbial diversity of biofilm attached on the surface of PBS were investigated. The experimental results showed that the volumetric denitrification rate was 0.60 kg m(-3) day(-1) when NO3-N loading rate was 0.63 kg m(-3) day(-1), and the average NO2-N concentration was below 0.20 mg L(-1). The effluent pH value decreased slightly from a range of 6.98-7.87 to 6.46-7.18. The analysis of microbial community structure of biofilm by pyrosequencing method showed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (89.87 %), and β-Proteobacteria represented the most abundant class. Among the 76 identified genera, Dechloromonas (10.26 %), Alicycliphilus (9.15 %), Azospira (8.92 %), and Sinobacteraceae-uncultured (8.75 %) were the abundant genera. PBS, as a promising alternative carbon source, is a suitable solid carbon source and biofilm carrier for nitrate removal. PMID:26960320

  11. A Microbial Model of Nitrous Oxide Production That Differentiates Nitrification and Denitrification Production Across Spatial and Temporal Scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouskill, N.; Riley, W. J.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, J.

    2014-12-01

    N2O fluxes from soil to the atmosphere are mainly attributable to the activity of two microbial functional guilds: aerobic autotrophic nitrifiers and anaerobic heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria. The controls on N2O production from these guilds are generally known and include species interactions and a range of environmental factors (e.g., oxygen concentrations, organic matter stoichiometry, substrate availability, mineralization rates). Here we attempt to parse out the conditions controlling N2O production using a trait-based microbial model that predicts N2O production by representing the physiology and ecology of nitrifiers and denitrifiers, and the N2O consumption pathways of heterotrophic bacteria. Following successful application of the standalone microbial model to predict nitrification and denitrification rates and associated N2O fluxes, we ran the model with output from the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to examine N2O production across spatial and temporal scales, during rainfall events and under global change scenarios (e.g., increased temperature and nitrogen deposition). We discuss our output with respect to what is understood about the complexity of belowground ecosystems and how our approach can help constrain the global N2O budget.

  12. Oxidation of humic substances supports denitrification reactions in agricultural soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Trump, J. I.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Humic substances (HS) are a ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and diverse class of compounds arising from degradation and condensation of plant and microbial biopolymers. Many bacteria oxidize hydroquinones within humic substances to their quinone analogs, providing electrons for respiratory processes such as nitrate reduction. Microbial hydroquinone oxidation contributes to the redox state of HS and supports denitrification, which may be of import to agricultural soils where nitrate retention is critical and HS are prevalent. Most probable number counts were performed on soils collected from a Nebraska farm, with the model humic hydroquinone 2,6- anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHDS) serving as an electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. Results indicated that AHDS oxidizing, nitrate reducing bacteria were present in soils from bluegrass fields (104 cells/g) and aspen groves (106 cells/g), as well as in plots of corn (106 cells/g), and soybean treated (106 cells/g) and un-treated (105 cells/g) with pig slurry. These results demonstrate that microorganisms participating in the proposed metabolism are prevalent within agricultural soils. Upflow glass columns were constructed, containing a support matrix of glass beads amended with 10% w/w soil from the corn plot previously mentioned. All columns were subjected to a continual flow of phosphate-buffered water amended with sodium nitrate. Above the point source for nitrate injection, phosphate-buffered water containing electron donor treatments were continually injected. The impacts of electron donor treatments (no donor, oxidized HS, reduced HS, and acetate) on denitrification and other geochemical parameters were observed. Column studies were able to resolve effects of electron donor treatment both spatially as a function of distance from the injection point source, and temporally, as a function of time of donor treatment. Four sample ports in each column were routinely analyzed for concentrations of nitrate

  13. Isolation and characterization of transposon Tn5-induced mutants of Pseudomonas perfectomarina defective in nitrous oxide respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Zumft, W G; Döhler, K; Körner, H

    1985-01-01

    Transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis of Pseudomonas perfectomarina with the plasmid pSUP2021 [(pBR325-Mob(RP4))::Tn5] and the chromosomally integrated RP4 plasmid in Escherichia coli as the donor, produced three distinct groups of mutants that were defective in nitrous oxide respiration. One group of mutants lacked the structural protein of N2O reductase, the second synthesized a copper-free apoprotein; and a third group expressed a low level of intact enzyme. The mutants provided evidence for N2O being the immediate precursor of dinitrogen in denitrification and documented the essentiality of the copper enzyme. Synthesis of N2O reductase depended strongly on the growth conditions, with N2O-grown cells expressing the lowest level of enzyme. Regulatory responses of mutants elicited by nitrate or oxygen were unaltered when compared with wild-type behavior. Images PMID:2993252

  14. BOREAS TE-2 Wood Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. BOREAS TE-2 Continuous Wood Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration measured continuously (about once per hour) in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  17. BOREAS TE-2 Foliage Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Lavigne, Michael; Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of foliar respiration conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. Anaerobic respiration on tellurate and other metalloids in bacteria from hydrothermal vent fields in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Csotonyi, Julius T; Stackebrandt, Erko; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports the discovery of anaerobic respiration on tellurate by bacteria isolated from deep ocean (1,543 to 1,791 m) hydrothermal vent worms. The first evidence for selenite- and vanadate-respiring bacteria from deep ocean hydrothermal vents is also presented. Enumeration of the anaerobic metal(loid)-resistant microbial community associated with hydrothermal vent animals indicates that a greater proportion of the bacterial community associated with certain vent fauna resists and reduces metal(loid)s anaerobically than aerobically, suggesting that anaerobic metal(loid) respiration might be an important process in bacteria that are symbiotic with vent fauna. Isolates from Axial Volcano and Explorer Ridge were tested for their ability to reduce tellurate, selenite, metavanadate, or orthovanadate in the absence of alternate electron acceptors. In the presence of metal(loid)s, strains showed an ability to grow and produce ATP, whereas in the absence of metal(loid)s, no growth or ATP production was observed. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone depressed metal(loid) reduction. Anaerobic tellurate respiration will be a significant component in describing biogeochemical cycling of Te at hydrothermal vents. PMID:16820492

  19. Changes in soil respiration components and their specific respiration along three successional forests in the subtropics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Tianfeng; Liu, Juxiu; Wang, Gangsheng; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Guoyi

    2016-01-16

    1.Understanding how soil respiration components change with forest succession is critical for modelling and predicting soil carbon (C) processes and its sequestration below-ground. The specific respiration (a ratio of respiration to biomass) is increasingly being used as an indicator of forest succession conceptually based on Odum's theory of ecosystem development. However, the hypothesis that specific soil respiration declines with forest succession remains largely untested. 2.We used a trenching method to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration (RH and RA) and then evaluated the specific RH and specific RA in three successional forests in subtropical China. 3.Our resultsmore » showed a clear seasonality in the influence of forest succession on RH, with no significant differences among the three forests in the dry season but a higher value in the old-growth forest than the other two forests in the wet season. RA in the old-growth forest tended to be the highest among the three forests. Both the specific RH and specific RA decreased with the progressive maturity of three forests. 4.Lastly, our results highlight the importance of forest succession in determining the variation of RH in different seasons. With forest succession, soil microbes and plant roots become more efficient to conserve C resources, which would result in a greater proportion of C retained in soils.« less

  20. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  1. Synergistic mechanism for tetrandrine on fluconazole against Candida albicans through the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Xie, Si Ming; Li, Shui Xiu; Song, Yan Jun; Lv, Xia Lin; Zhang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    We found that tetrandrine (TET) can reverse the resistance of Candida albicans to fluconazole (FLC) and that this interaction is associated with the inhibition of drug efflux pumps. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration, which plays a major role in C. albicans metabolism, is the primary source of ATP for cellular processes, including the activation of efflux pumps. However, it was unclear if TET exerts its synergistic action against C. albicans via its impact on the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism. To investigate this mechanism, we examined the impact of FLC in the presence or absence of TET on two C. albicans strains obtained from a single parental source (FLC-sensitive strain CA-1 and FLC-resistant strain CA-16). We analysed key measures of energy generation and conversion, including the activity of respiration chain complexes I and III (CI and CIII), ATP synthase (CV) activity, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and studied intracellular ATP levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), which has a critical impact on energy transport. Mitochondrial morphology was observed by confocal microscopy. Our functional analyses revealed that, compared with strains treated only with FLC, TET+FLC increased the ATP levels and decreased ΔΨm in CA-1, but decreased ATP levels and increased ΔΨm in CA-16 (P<0.05). Additionally, CI, CIII and CV activity decreased by 23-48%. The production of ROS increased by two- to threefold and mitochondrial morphology was altered in both strains. Our data suggested that TET impacted mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism by influencing the generation and transport of ATP, reducing the utilization of ATP, and resulting in the inhibition of drug efflux pump activity. This activity contributed to the synergistic action of TET on FLC against C. albicans. PMID:24790082

  2. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Energetics Are Associated With Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Walking Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lower ambulatory performance with aging may be related to a reduced oxidative capacity within skeletal muscle. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and efficiency with walking performance in a group of older adults. Methods. Thirty-seven older adults (mean age 78 years; 21 men and 16 women) completed an aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) test and measurement of preferred walking speed over 400 m. Maximal coupled (State 3; St3) mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized myofibers obtained from percutanous biopsies of vastus lateralis (n = 22). Maximal phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax) of vastus lateralis was determined in vivo by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 30). Quadriceps contractile volume was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Mitochondrial efficiency (max ATP production/max O2 consumption) was characterized using ATPmax per St3 respiration (ATPmax/St3). Results. In vitro St3 respiration was significantly correlated with in vivo ATPmax (r 2 = .47, p = .004). Total oxidative capacity of the quadriceps (St3*quadriceps contractile volume) was a determinant of VO2 peak (r 2 = .33, p = .006). ATPmax (r 2 = .158, p = .03) and VO2 peak (r 2 = .475, p < .0001) were correlated with preferred walking speed. Inclusion of both ATPmax/St3 and VO2 peak in a multiple linear regression model improved the prediction of preferred walking speed (r 2 = .647, p < .0001), suggesting that mitochondrial efficiency is an important determinant for preferred walking speed. Conclusions. Lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency were both associated with slower walking speed within a group of older participants with a wide range of function. In addition to aerobic capacity, lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency likely play roles in slowing gait speed with age. PMID:23051977

  3. Perspectives on the microbial carbon pump with special reference to microbial respiration and ecosystem efficiency in large estuarine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Jiao, N.

    2014-07-01

    Although respiration-based oxidation of reduced carbon releases CO2 into the environment, it provides an ecosystem with the metabolic energy for essential biogeochemical processes, including the newly proposed microbial carbon pump (MCP). The efficiency of MCP in heterotrophic microorganisms is related to the mechanisms of energy transduction employed and hence is related to the form of respiration utilized. Anaerobic organisms typically have lower efficiencies of energy transduction and hence lower efficiencies of energy-dependent carbon transformation. This leads to a lower MCP efficiency on a per-cell basis. Substantial input of terrigenous nutrients and organic matter into estuarine ecosystems typically results in elevated heterotrophic respiration that rapidly consumes dissolved oxygen, potentially producing hypoxic and anoxic zones in the water column. The lowered availability of dissolved oxygen and the excessive supply of nutrients such as nitrate from river discharge lead to enhanced anaerobic respiration processes such as denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. Thus, some nutrients may be consumed through anaerobic heterotrophs, instead of being utilized by phytoplankton for autotrophic carbon fixation. In this manner, eutrophied estuarine ecosystems become largely fueled by anaerobic respiratory pathways and their efficiency is less due to lowered ecosystem productivity when compared to healthy and balanced estuarine ecosystems. This situation may have a negative impact on the ecological function and efficiency of the MCP which depends on the supply of both organic carbon and metabolic energy. This review presents our current understanding of the MCP mechanisms from the view point of ecosystem energy transduction efficiency, which has not been discussed in previous literature.

  4. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in anoxic-aerobic circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR).

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Nakhla, G; Zhu, J; Patel, A

    2004-06-01

    Biological nutrient removal (BNR) in municipal wastewater treatment to remove carbonaceous substrates and nutrients, has recently become increasingly popular worldwide due to increasingly stringent regulations. Biological fluidized bed (BFB) technology, which could be potentially used for BNR, can provide some advantages such as high efficiency and a compact structure. This work shows the results of simultaneous elimination of organic carbon and nitrogen using a circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR, which has been developed recently for chemical engineering processes. The CFBBR has two fluidized beds, running as anoxic and aerobic processes to accomplish simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, with continuous liquid recirculation through the anoxic bed and the aerobic bed. Soluble COD concentrations in the effluent ranging from 4 to 20 mg l(-1) were obtained at varying COD loading rates; ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies averaged in excess of 99% at a minimum total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.0 hours over a temperature range of 25 degrees C to 28 degrees C. Effluent nitrate nitrogen concentration of less than 5 mg l(-1) was achieved by increasing effluent recycle rate. No nitrite accumulation was observed either in the anoxic bed or in the aerobic bed. The system was able to treat grit chamber effluent wastewater at a HRT of 2.0 hours while achieving average effluent BOD, COD, NH3-N, TKN, nitrates, total phosphate, TSS and VSS concentrations of 10 mg l(-1), 18 mg l(-1), 1.3 mg l(-1), 1.5 mg l(-1), 7 mg l(-1), 2.0 mg l(-1), 10 mg l(-1) and 8 mg l(-1) respectively. The CFBBR appears to be not only an excellent alternative for conventional activated sludge type BNR technologies but also capable of processing much higher loadings that are suitable for industrial applications. PMID:15369290

  5. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  6. Supramolecular organization of bacterial aerobic respiratory chains: From cells and back.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana M P; Teixeira, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic respiratory chains from all life kingdoms are composed by several complexes that have been deeply characterized in their isolated form. These membranous complexes link the oxidation of reducing substrates to the reduction of molecular oxygen, in a process that conserves energy by ion translocation between both sides of the mitochondrial or prokaryotic cytoplasmatic membranes. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that those complexes are organized as supramolecular structures, the so-called supercomplexes and respirasomes, being available for eukaryotes strong data namely obtained by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. A parallel study has been developed for prokaryotes, based on blue native gels and mass spectrometry analysis, showing that in these more simple unicellular organisms such supercomplexes also exist, involving not only typical aerobic-respiration associated complexes, but also anaerobic-linked enzymes. After a short overview of the data on eukaryotic supercomplexes, we will analyse comprehensively the different types of prokaryotic aerobic respiratory supercomplexes that have been thus far suggested, in both bacteria and archaea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26546715

  7. Nitrogen removal from medium-age landfill leachate via post-denitrification driven by PHAs and glycogen in a single sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongming; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Weitang; Miao, Lei; Cao, Tianhao; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-10-01

    An anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (AOA) process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was proposed to treat typical medium-age landfill leachate without extra carbon addition. In a steady-state, the average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen (TN) and COD were 99.7 ± 0.1%, 98.3 ± 0.3% and 89.8 ± 1.4%, when influent NH4(+)-N, TN and COD were 1025-1327 mg/L, 1346-1854 mg/L and 6430-9372 mg/L, respectively. In the anaerobic stage, dissolved organic matter was taken up partially and stored as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with concomitant consumption of glycogen. In the aerobic stage, PHAs was oxidized and glycogen was replenished in the bacterial cells, when TN of 75.4 mg/L was removed via simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The residual nitrate and nitrite were denitrified completely by utilizing residual PHAs and glycogen as electron donors in the anoxic phase. Denitrifying glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were considered to be playing the major role in the process. PMID:25066902

  8. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  9. Aerobic Dance for Children: Resources and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Denise A.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic dance classes may be safe for older children, but are inappropriate for children in the fourth grade and under. Programs for these children should emphasize creativity. Resources for program development are given. (MT)

  10. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  11. Aerobic dynamic feeding as a strategy for in situ accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate in aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-06-01

    Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV). PMID:24725384

  12. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  13. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  14. [Respiration disorders after severe mechanical trauma].

    PubMed

    Deriabin, I I; Kustov, N A; Novikov, S A

    1979-11-01

    The external respiration has been studied in 221 patients. The disorders in pulmonary gas exchange subsequent to an injury are due to decreased ventilation volumes, delayed diffusion of inhaled gases and disturbed blood circulation in the lungs. Functional disorders are often aggravated by pulmonary complications. PMID:524676

  15. 78 FR 18535 - Respirator Certification Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 84 RIN 0920-AA42 Respirator Certification Fees AGENCY: Centers for Disease... and Human Services (HHS) proposes to revise the fee structure currently used by the National Institute... number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This proposed rule is designed to establish fees for the...

  16. Microbial iron respiration: impacts on corrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, A K; Newman, D K

    2003-08-01

    In this review, we focus on how biofilms comprising iron-respiring bacteria influence steel corrosion. Specifically, we discuss how biofilm growth can affect the chemistry of the environment around the steel at different stages of biofilm development, under static or dynamic fluid regimes. We suggest that a mechanistic understanding of the role of biofilm metabolic activity may facilitate corrosion control. PMID:12734693

  17. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...