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Sample records for aerobic rod-shaped bacterium

  1. Halopeptonella vilamensis gen. nov, sp. nov., a halophilic strictly aerobic bacterium of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae.

    PubMed

    Menes, Rodolfo Javier; Viera, Claudia Elizabeth; Farías, María Eugenia; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-negative, halophilic, heterotrophic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (SV525T) was isolated from the sediment of a hypersaline lake located at 4600 m above sea level (Laguna Vilama, Argentina). Strain SV525T was strictly aerobic and formed pink-to-magenta colonies. Growth occurred at 10–35 °C (optimum 25–30 °C), at pH levels 6.0–8.5 (optimum 7.0) and at NaCl concentrations of 7.5–25 % (w/v) with an optimum at 10–15 % (w/v). The strain required sodium and magnesium but not potassium ions for growth. Grows with tryptone, or Bacto Peptone as sole carbon and energy source and requires yeast extract for growth. It produced catalase and oxidase. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8 and the major fatty acids comprised C18:1 ω7c, C16:0 and C18:0. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol% and its polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and a phosphoglycolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SV525T belongs to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic data, SV525T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Halopeptonella vilamensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV525T (=DSM 21056T =JCM 16388T =NCIMB 14596T). PMID:26475627

  2. Methylopila musalis sp. nov., an aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Doronina, Nina V; Kaparullina, Elena N; Bykova, Tatjana V; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2013-05-01

    A newly isolated, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium (strain MUSA(T)) was investigated. The isolate was strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, asporogenous, motile, rod-shaped and multiplied by binary fission. The strain utilized methanol, methylamine and an apparently narrow range of multi-carbon compounds, but not methane, dichloromethane or CO2/H2, as the carbon and energy sources. Growth occurred at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 16-40 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C). The major fatty acids of methanol-grown cells were C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 0 and 11-methyl-C18 : 1ω7c . The predominant phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. The strain had methanol and methylamine dehydrogenases as well as the enzymes of the N-methylglutamate pathway (lyases of γ-glutamylmethylamide and N-methylglutamate). C1 assimilation occurs via the isocitrate lyase-negative serine pathway. Ammonium was assimilated by glutamate dehydrogenase and the glutamate cycle (glutamate synthase/glutamine synthetase). The DNA G+C content of the strain was 64.5 mol% (determined from the melting temperature). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.0-98.9 %) and DNA-DNA relatedness (36-38 %) with representatives of the genus Methylopila (Methylopila capsulata IM1(T) and Methylopila jiangsuensis JZL-4(T)) the isolate was classified as a novel species of the genus Methylopila, for which the name Methylopila musalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSA(T) ( = VKM B-2646(T) = DSM 24986(T) = CCUG 61696(T)). PMID:22984139

  3. Elasticity of the Rod-Shaped Gram-Negative Eubacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulbitch, A.; Quinn, B.; Pink, D.

    2000-12-01

    We report a theoretical calculation of the elasticity of the peptidoglycan network, the only stress-bearing part of rod-shaped Gram-negative eubacteria. The peptidoglycan network consists of elastic peptides and inextensible glycan strands, and it has been proposed that the latter form zigzag filaments along the circumference of the cylindrical bacterial shell. The zigzag geometry of the glycan strands gives rise to nonlinear elastic behavior. The four elastic moduli of the peptidoglycan network depend on its stressed state. For a bacterium under physiological conditions the elasticity is proportional to the bacterial turgor pressure. Our results are in good agreement with recent measurements.

  4. Humitalea rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium of the family Acetobacteraceae isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Margesin, Rosa; Zhang, De-Chao

    2013-04-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, pale-pink-pigmented, non-motile, obligately aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain W37(T), was isolated from soil and subjected to a taxonomic investigation using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew at 1-30 °C, oxidized thiosulfate and accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates. Photosynthetic pigments were represented by bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain W37(T) was most closely related to members of the genera Roseococcus and Rubritepida (with sequence similarities of <92.8 %) but formed a distinct lineage in the family Acetobacteraceae. The polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, three unidentified aminolipids and one other unidentified lipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The DNA G+C content of strain W37(T) was 68.2 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, strain W37(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae, for which the name Humitalea rosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is W37(T) ( = CIP 110261(T) = LMG 26243(T)).

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Novel Agar-Digesting Marine Bacterium HQM9▿

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zongjun; Zhang, Zhewen; Miao, Tingting; Wu, Jiayan; Lü, Guoqiang; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Chen, Guanjun

    2011-01-01

    Strain HQM9, an aerobic, rod-shaped marine bacterium from red algae, can produce agarases and liquefy solid plating media efficiently when agar is used as a coagulant. Here we report the draft genome sequence and the initial findings from a preliminary analysis of strain HQM9, which should be a novel species of Flavobacteriaceae. PMID:21725015

  6. Aerobic biodegradation of 4-methylquinoline by a soil bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S D; Pfaller, S L; Shann, J R; Warshawsky, D; Kinkle, B K; Vestal, J R

    1996-01-01

    Methylquinolines and related N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds are common contaminants associated with the use of hydrocarbons in both coal gasification and wood treatment processes. These compounds have been found in groundwater, and many are known mutagens. A stable, five-member bacterial consortium able to degrade 4-methylquinoline was established by selective enrichment using soil collected from an abandoned coal gasification site. The consortium was maintained for 5 years by serial transfer in a medium containing 4-methylquinoline. A gram-negative soil bacterium, strain Lep1, was isolated from the consortium and shown to utilize 4-methylquinoline as a source of carbon and energy during growth in liquid medium. A time course experiment demonstrated that both the isolate Lep1 and the consortium containing Lep1 were able to degrade 4-methylquinoline under aerobic conditions. Complete degradation of 4-methylquinoline by either strain Lep1 alone or the consortium was characterized by the production and eventual disappearance of 2-hydroxy-4-methylquinoline, followed by the appearance and persistence of a second metabolite tentatively identified as a hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin. Currently, there is no indication that 4-methylquinoline degradation proceeds differently in the consortium culture compared with Lep1 alone. This is the first report of 4-methylquinoline biodegradation under aerobic conditions. PMID:8702284

  7. Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, P. J.; Haack, E. A.; Maurice, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological consequence. In batch experiments P. mendocina shows typical bacterial growth curves, with an initial lag phase followed by an exponential phase and a stationary to death phase; concomitant with growth was an increase in pH from initial values of 7 to final values at 96 hours of 8.8. Cd both delays the onset of the exponential phase and decreases the maximum population size, as quantified by optical density and microscopic cell counts (DAPI). The total amount of Cd removed from solution increases over time, as does the amount of Cd removed from solution normalized per bacterial cell. Images obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the production of a cadmium, phosphorus, and iron containing precipitate that was similar in form and composition to precipitates formed abiotically at elevated pH. However, by late stationary phase, the precipitate had been re-dissolved, perhaps by biotic processes in order to obtain Fe. Stressed conditions are suggested by TEM images showing the formation of pili, or nanowires, when 20ppm Cd was present and a marked decrease in exopolysaccharide and biofilm material in comparison to control cells (no cadmium added).

  8. Savagea faecisuis gen. nov., sp. nov., a tylosin- and tetracycline-resistant bacterium isolated from a swine-manure storage pit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polyphasic taxonomic study using morphological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular methods was performed on three strains of an unknown Gram-positive staining, nonspore-forming, motile aerobic rod-shaped bacterium resistant to tetracycline and tylosin isolated from a swine-manure storage pi...

  9. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic facultative aerobic bacterium with a broad pH optimum from the Geyser valley, Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Kevbrin, Vadim V; Zengler, Karsten; Lysenko, Anatolii M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2005-10-01

    A facultative aerobic, moderately thermophilic, spore forming bacterium, strain JW/VK-KG4 was isolated from an enrichment culture obtained from the Geyser valley, a geo-thermally heated environment located in the Kamchatka peninsula (Far East region of Russia). The cells were rod shaped, motile, peritrichous flagellated stained Gram positive and had a Gram positive type cell wall. Aerobically, the strain utilized a range of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, trehalose, proteinuous substrates, and pectin as well. Anaerobically, only carbohydrates are utilized. When growing on carbohydrates, the strain required yeast extract and vitamin B(12). Anaerobically, glucose was fermented to lactate as main product and acetate, formate, ethanol as minor products. Aerobically, even in well-aerated cultures (agitated at 500 rpm), glucose oxidation was incomplete and lactate and acetate were found in culture supernatants as by-products. Optimal growth of the isolate was observed at pH(25 C) 6.8-8.5 and 60 degrees C. The doubling times on glucose at optimal growth conditions were 34 min (aerobically) and 40 min (anaerobically). The G+C content was 42.3 mol% as determined by T(m) assay. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated an affiliation of strain JW/VK-KG4 with Anoxybacillus species. Based on its morphology, physiology, phylogenetic relationship and its low DNA-DNA homology with validly published species of Anoxybacillus, it is proposed that strain JW/VK-KG4 represents a new species in the genus Anoxybacillus as A. kamchatkensis sp. nov. The type strain for the novel species is JW/VK-KG4(T) (=DSM 14988, =ATCC BAA-549). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence is AF510985.

  10. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic facultative aerobic bacterium with a broad pH optimum from the Geyser valley, Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Kevbrin, Vadim V; Zengler, Karsten; Lysenko, Anatolii M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2005-10-01

    A facultative aerobic, moderately thermophilic, spore forming bacterium, strain JW/VK-KG4 was isolated from an enrichment culture obtained from the Geyser valley, a geo-thermally heated environment located in the Kamchatka peninsula (Far East region of Russia). The cells were rod shaped, motile, peritrichous flagellated stained Gram positive and had a Gram positive type cell wall. Aerobically, the strain utilized a range of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, trehalose, proteinuous substrates, and pectin as well. Anaerobically, only carbohydrates are utilized. When growing on carbohydrates, the strain required yeast extract and vitamin B(12). Anaerobically, glucose was fermented to lactate as main product and acetate, formate, ethanol as minor products. Aerobically, even in well-aerated cultures (agitated at 500 rpm), glucose oxidation was incomplete and lactate and acetate were found in culture supernatants as by-products. Optimal growth of the isolate was observed at pH(25 C) 6.8-8.5 and 60 degrees C. The doubling times on glucose at optimal growth conditions were 34 min (aerobically) and 40 min (anaerobically). The G+C content was 42.3 mol% as determined by T(m) assay. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated an affiliation of strain JW/VK-KG4 with Anoxybacillus species. Based on its morphology, physiology, phylogenetic relationship and its low DNA-DNA homology with validly published species of Anoxybacillus, it is proposed that strain JW/VK-KG4 represents a new species in the genus Anoxybacillus as A. kamchatkensis sp. nov. The type strain for the novel species is JW/VK-KG4(T) (=DSM 14988, =ATCC BAA-549). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence is AF510985. PMID:16142505

  11. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  12. Aerobic Reduction of Arsenate by a Bacterium Isolated From Activated Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, N.; Ohnuki, T.; Hanada, S.; Nakamura, K.; Francis, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Microlunatus phosphovorus strain NM-1 is a polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium isolated from activated sludge. This bacterium takes up a large amount of polyphosphate under aerobic conditions and release phosphate ions by hydrolysis of polyphosphate to orthophosphate under anaerobic conditions to derive energy for taking up substrates. To understand the nature of this strain, especially, influence of potential contaminants in sewage and wastewater on growth, we have been investigating behavior of this bacterium in media containing arsenic. The present paper mainly reports reduction of arsenate by this bacterium under aerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 (JCM 9379) was aerobically cultured at 30 °C in a nutrient medium containing 2.5 g/l peptone, 0.5 g/l glucose, 1.5 g/l yeast extract, and arsenic [Na2HAsO4 (As(V)) or Na3AsO3 (As(III))] at concentrations between 0 and 50 mM. The cells collected from arsenic-free media were dispersed in buffer solutions containing 2mM HEPES, 10mM NaCl, prescribed concentrations of As(V), and 0-0.2 percent glucose. Then, this cell suspension was kept at 20 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The speciation of arsenic was carried out by ion chromatography and ICP-MS. The growth of the strain under aerobic conditions was enhanced by the addition of As(V) at the concentration between 1 and 10 mM. The maximum optical density of the culture in the medium containing 5mM As(V) was 1.4 times greater than that of the control culture. Below the As(V) concentration of 10mM, most of the As(V) was reduced to As(III). The growth of the strain under anaerobic conditions has not been observed so far. The cells in the buffer solutions reduced As(V) under aerobic condition. The reduction was enhanced by the addition of glucose. However, the cell did not reduce As(V) under anaerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 showed high resistance to As(V) and As(III). The maximum optical density of the culture grown in a medium containing 50 mM As(V) was only

  13. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  14. Dissolution of Fe(III)(hydr)oxides by an Aerobic Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, P.

    2004-12-13

    This project investigated the effects of an aerobic Pseudomonas mendocina bacterium on the dissolution of Fe(III)(hydr)oxides. The research is important because metals and radionuclides that adsorb to Fe(III)(hydr)oxides could potentially be remobilized by dissolving bacteria. We showed that P. mendocina is capable of dissolving Fe-bearing minerals by a variety of mechanisms, including production of siderophores, pH changes, and formation of reductants. The production of siderophores by P. mendocina was quantified under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, we demonstrated that microbial siderophores may adsorb to and enhance dissolution of clay minerals.

  15. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseini Salekdeh, Ghasem; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated. PMID:26725518

  16. Evaluation of nitrate removal by continuous culturing of an aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Paracoccus pantotrophus.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Kurisu, K; Otani, Y; Hanaki, K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate removal under aerobic conditions was investigated using pure cultures of Paracoccus pantotrophus, which is a well-known aerobic-denitrifying (AD) bacterium. When a high concentration of cultures with a high carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio was preserved at the beginning of batch experiments, subsequently added nitrate was completely removed. When continuous culturing was perpetuated, a high nitrate removal rate (66.5%) was observed on day 4 post-culture, although gradual decreases in AD ability with time were observed. The attenuation in AD ability was probably caused by carbon limitation, because when carbon concentration of inflow water was doubled, nitrate removal efficiency improved from 18.1% to 59.6%. Bacterial community analysis using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed that P. pantotrophus disappeared in the suspended medium on day 8 post-culture, whereas other bacterial communities dominated by Acidovorax sp. appeared. Interestingly, this replaced bacterial community also showed AD ability. As P. pantotrophus was detected as attached colonies around the membrane and bottom of the reactor, this bacterium can therefore be introduced in a fixed form for treatment of wastewater containing nitrate with a high C/N ratio. PMID:17163031

  17. Pseudomonas sp. strain 273, and aerobic {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkane-degrading bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Wischnak, C.; Mueller, R.; Loeffler, F.E. |; Li, J.; Urbance, J.W.

    1998-09-01

    A gram-negative, aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil; this bacterium grew in 50% (vol/vol) suspensions of 1,10-dichlorodecane (1,10-DCD) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenotypic and small-subunit ribosomal RNA characterizations identified the organism, designated strain 273, as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. After induction with 1,10-DCD, Pseudomonas sp. strain 273 released stoichiometric amounts of chloride from C{sub 5} to C{sub 12} {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes in the presence of oxygen. No dehalogenation occurred under anaerobic conditions. The best substrates for dehalogenation and growth were C{sub 9} to C{sub 12} chloroalkanes. The isolate also grew with nonhalogenated aliphatic compounds, and decane-grown cells dechlorinated 1,10-DCD without a lag phase. In addition, cells grown on decane dechlorinated 1,10-DCD in the presence of chloramphenicol, indicating that the 1,10-DCD-dechlorinating enzyme system was also induced by decane. Other known alkane-degrading Pseudomonas species did not grow with 1,10-DCD as a carbon source. Dechlorination of 1,10-DCD was demonstrated in cell extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 273. Cell-free activity was strictly oxygen dependent, and NADH stimulated dechlorination, whereas EDTA had an inhibitory effect.

  18. [Characteristics of Nitrogen Removal by a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium YL].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xian; Ren, Yong-xiang; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Si-qi; Xia, Zhi-hong

    2015-05-01

    Traditional process of autotrophic nitrification-anaerobic denitrification usually has problems of long procedure and low efficiency. To overcome these problems, a heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium YL was isolated from a domesticated mature SBR reactor with efficient simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability, and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa YL. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the nitrogen removal of strain YL was investigated through single-factor experiments and an orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the preferred conditions were: succinate as the carbon source, C/N ratio of 10, pH of 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and the shaking speed of 160-200 r · min(-1), while the removal rate of ammonia oxidation was 5. 05 mg · (g · h)(-1), the transformation rate of TOC was 45.95 mg · (g · h)(-1), and the removal rates of nitrogen and TOC were 100% and 90.8%, respectively. Nitrite, nitrate and hydroxylamine could also be metabolized by strain YL, and the removal rates were 92.7%, 93.6% and 94.8%, respectively. The most important influencing factor on aerobic denitrification of strain YL was C/N ratio. Under the optimal conditions (C/N = 10, T = 30°C , r = 200 r · min(-1), pH = 7), the removal rates of nitrate and total nitrogen were 94.6% and 76.3%, respectively. Hence, strain YL could remove nitrogen by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification independently, quickly, and effectively.

  19. Metabolism of 2-Methylpropene (Isobutylene) by the Aerobic Bacterium Mycobacterium sp. Strain ELW1

    PubMed Central

    Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h−1) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene−1. Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates. PMID:25576605

  20. Mechanism for longitudinal growth of rod-shaped bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Swadhin; Levitan, Ben; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall along with MreB proteins are major determinants of shape in rod-shaped bacteria. However the mechanism guiding the growth of this elastic network of cross-linked PG (sacculus) that maintains the integrity and shape of the rod-shaped cell remains elusive. We propose that the known anisotropic elasticity and anisotropic loading, due to the shape and turgor pressure, of the sacculus is sufficient to direct small gaps in the sacculus to elongate around the cell, and that subsequent repair leads to longitudinal growth without radial growth. We computationally show in our anisotropically stressed anisotropic elasticity model small gaps can extend stably in the circumferential direction for the known elasticity of the sacculus. We suggest that MreB patches that normally propagate circumferentially, are associated with these gaps and are steered with this common mechanism. This basic picture is unchanged in Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. We also show that small changes of elastic properties can in fact lead to bi-stable propagation of gaps, both longitudinal and circumferential, that can explain the bi-stability in patch movement observed in ΔmblΔmreb mutants.

  1. Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

    1990-01-01

    Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

  2. Dynamic features of rod-shaped Au nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Woong Young; Das, Anindita; Wang, Shuxin; Zhao, Shuo; Byun, Hee Young; Lee, Dana; Kumar, Santosh; Jin, Rongchao; Peteanu, Linda A.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoclusters hold many potential applications such as biosensing and optics due to their emission characteristics, small size, and non-toxicity. However, their low quantum yields remain problematic for further applications, and their fluorescence mechanism is still unclear. To increase the low quantum yields, various methods have been performed: doping, tuning structures, and changing number of gold atoms. In the past, most characterizations have been performed on spherical shaped nanoclusters; in this paper, several characterizations of various rod-shaped Au nanoclusters specifically on Au25 are shown. It has been determined that the central gold atom in Au25 nano-rod is crucial in fluorescence. Furthermore, single molecule analysis of silver doped Au25 nano-rod revealed that it has more photo-stability than conjugated polymers and quantum dots.

  3. Genome sequence of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Erythrobacter sp. JL475, isolated from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Liu, Yanting; Sun, Jia; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-06-01

    Erythrobacter sp. JL475 is a bacteriochlorophyll a-containing aerobic anoxygenic photo-heterotrophic bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Erythrobacter sp. JL475 isolated from the South China Sea. It comprises ~3.26Mbp in 7 contigs with the G+C content of 61.7%. A total of 3042 protein-coding genes were obtained, and one complete photosynthetic gene cluster (~38Kbp) was found.

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of a range of alkyl sulfides by a denitrifying marine bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Taylor, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and nitrate. The isolate grew aerobically or anaerobically as a denitrifier on alkyl sulfides, including DMS, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl sulfide (DES), ethyl methyl sulfide, dipropyl sulfide, dibutyl sulfide, and dibutyl disulfide. Cells grown on an alkyl sulfide or disulfide also oxidized the corresponding thiols, namely, methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, or butanethiol. Alkyl sulfides were metabolized by induced or derepressed cells with oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite as electron acceptor. Cells grown on DMS immediately metabolized DMS, but there was a lag before DES was consumed; with DES-grown cells, DES was immediately used but DMS was used only after a lag. Chloramphenicol prevented the eventual use of DES by DMS-grown cells and DMS use by DES-grown cells, respectively, indicating separate enzymes for the metabolism of methyl and ethyl groups. Growth was rapid on formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate but slow on methanol. The organism also grew chemolithotrophically on thiosulfate with a decrease in pH; growth required carbonate in the medium. Growth on sulfide was also carbonate dependent but slow. The isolate was identified as a Thiobacillus sp. and designated strain ASN-1. It may have utility for removing alkyl sulfides, and also nitrate, nitrite, and sulfide, from wastewaters.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of a range of alkyl sulfides by a denitrifying marine bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P T; Taylor, B F

    1993-01-01

    A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and nitrate. The isolate grew aerobically or anaerobically as a denitrifier on alkyl sulfides, including DMS, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl sulfide (DES), ethyl methyl sulfide, dipropyl sulfide, dibutyl sulfide, and dibutyl disulfide. Cells grown on an alkyl sulfide or disulfide also oxidized the corresponding thiols, namely, methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, or butanethiol. Alkyl sulfides were metabolized by induced or derepressed cells with oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite as electron acceptor. Cells grown on DMS immediately metabolized DMS, but there was a lag before DES was consumed; with DES-grown cells, DES was immediately used but DMS was used only after a lag. Chloramphenicol prevented the eventual use of DES by DMS-grown cells and DMS use by DES-grown cells, respectively, indicating separate enzymes for the metabolism of methyl and ethyl groups. Growth was rapid on formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate but slow on methanol. The organism also grew chemolithotrophically on thiosulfate with a decrease in pH; growth required carbonate in the medium. Growth on sulfide was also carbonate dependent but slow. The isolate was identified as a Thiobacillus sp. and designated strain ASN-1. It may have utility for removing alkyl sulfides, and also nitrate, nitrite, and sulfide, from wastewaters. PMID:8285707

  6. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobos, J.H.; Leib, T.K. ); Tahmun Su )

    1992-06-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichmet takes from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4[prime]-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO[sub 2], 20% was associated with the bacterial cells, and 20% was converted to soluble organic compounds. Metabolic intermediates detected in the culture medium during growth on bisphenol A were identified as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, and 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol. Most of the bisphenol A degraded by strain MV1 is cleaved in some way to form 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxyacetophenone, which are subsequently mineralized or assimilated into cell carbon. In addition, about 20% of the bisphenol A is hydroxylated to form 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, which is slowly biotransformed to 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol. Cells that were grown on bisphenol A degraded a variety of bisphenol alkanes, hydroxylated benzoic acids, and hydroxylated acetophenones during resting-cell assays. Transmission electron microscopy of cells grown on bisphenol A revealed lipid storage granules and intracytoplasmic membranes.

  7. Preparation and characterization of the rod-shaped stibnite

    SciTech Connect

    Ouni, B.; Zouini, M.; Lakhdar, M. Haj; Larbi, T.; Dimassi, W.; Amlouk, M.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A facile route to synthesize large-scale rod-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} micro-wires was presented. • A deep analysis conjoint between band tails, band gap alteration and electrical model. • The band gap is 1.75 eV which may hold for solar energy conversion. - Abstract: Stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) micro-wires have been grown on glass substrates by sulfuration of Sb thermal evaporated film in a vacuum sealed tube in presence of sulfur powder at 300 °C for 6 h. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques indicate that the synthesized micro-wires have an orthorhombic structure. SEM micrographs show rod-shaped micro-wires with a typical length of several tens of micrometers and a diameter of the order of 0.5 μm. The absorption coefficient dependence on the photon energy in the UV–visible range revealed the existence of a direct transition with an energy band gap of about 1.7 eV. Moreover, the band tails and localized states which are related to the level of defects in the material will be presented. These parameters were determined from the exponential absorption profile. All these results have been evaluated and discussed in terms of alteration of band gap edge and electrical measurements.

  8. Characterization of uncultured giant rod-shaped magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria from a freshwater pond in Kanazawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Azuma; Kondo, Junya; Oestreicher, Zachery; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are widespread aquatic bacteria, and are a phylogenetically, physiologically and morphologically heterogeneous group, but they all have the ability to orientate and move along the geomagnetic field using intracellular magnetic organelles called magnetosomes. Isolation and cultivation of novel MTB are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of magnetosome formation and function in divergent MTB. In this study, we enriched a giant rod-shaped magnetotactic bacterium (strain GRS-1) from a freshwater pond in Kanazawa, Japan. Cells of strain GRS-1 were unusually large (~13×~8 µm). They swam in a helical trajectory towards the south pole of a bar magnet by means of a polar bundle of flagella. Another striking feature of GRS-1 was the presence of two distinct intracellular biomineralized structures: large electron-dense granules composed of calcium and long chains of magnetosomes that surround the large calcium granules. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that this strain belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and represents a new genus of MTB. PMID:25028459

  9. Complete genome of Zhongshania aliphaticivorans SM-2(T), an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Baolei; Jeong, Hye Im; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-05-20

    Zhongshania aliphaticivorans SM-2(T), a degrader of aliphatic hydrocarbons, is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, facultatively aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain SM-2(T), which has a size of 4,204,359bp with 44 tRNAs, 9 rRNAs, and 3664 protein-coding genes. In addition, several genes encoding aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders (alkane 1-monooxygenase, haloalkane dehalogenase, and cytochrome P450) were detected in the genome shedding light on the function of pollutants degradation.

  10. Respiration and respiratory enzyme activity in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Garfield, P. C.; Martinez, R.

    1983-03-01

    Oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction, respiratory electron transport activity, and nitrate reductase activity were measured in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. The respiratory electron transport activity was closely correlated with oxygen consumption ( r = 0.98) in aerobic cultures and nearly as well correlated with nitrate reductase activity ( r = 0.91) and nitrate reduction ( r = 0.85) in anaerobic cultures. It was also well correlated with biomass in both aerobic ( r = 0.99) and anaerobic ( r = 0.94) cultures supporting the use of tetrazolium reduction as an index of living biomass. Time courses of nitrate and nitrate in the anaerobic cultures demonstrated that at nitrate concentrations above 1 mM, denitrification proceeds stepwise. Time courses of pH in anaerobic cultures revealed a rise from 7 to 8.5 during nitrite reduction indicating net proton utilization. This proton utilization is predicted by the stoichiometry of denitrification. Although the experiments were not under 'simulated in situ' conditions, the results are relevant to studies of denitrification, to bacterial ATP production, and to the respiratory activity of marine plankton in the ocean.

  11. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions.

  12. Aerobic mineralization of vinyl chlorides by a bacterium of the order Actinomycetales

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, T.J.; Malachowsky, K.; Schram, R.M. ); White, D.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1991-04-01

    A gram-positive branched bacterium isolated from a trichloroethylene-degrading consortium mineralized vinyl chloride in growing cultures and cell suspensions. Greater than 67% of the (1,2-{sup 14}C)vinyl chloride was mineralized to carbon dioxide, with approximately 10% of the radioactivity appearing in {sup 14}C-aqueous-phase products.

  13. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments.

  14. [Photosynthetic activity and components of the electron transport chain in the aerobic bacteriochlorophyll A-containing bacterium Roseinatronobacter thiooxidans].

    PubMed

    Stadnichuk, I N; Ianiushin, M F; Boĭchenko, V A; Lukashev, E P; Boldareva, E N; Solov'ev, A A; Gorlenko, V M

    2009-01-01

    Bioenergetics of the aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing (BCl a) bacterium (ABC bacterium) Roseinatronobacter thiooxidans is a combination of photosynthesis, oxygen respiration, and oxidation of sulfur compounds under alkaliphilic conditions. The photosynthetic activity of Rna. thiooxidans cells was established by the photoinhibition of cell respiration and reversible photobleaching discoloration of the BCl a of reaction centers (RC), connected by the chain of electron transfer with cytochrome c551 oxidation. The species under study, like many purple bacteria and some of the known ABC bacteria, possesses a light-harvesting pigment-protein (LHI) complex with the average number of 30 molecules of antenna BCl a per one photosynthetic RC. Under microaerobic growth conditions, the cells contained bc1 complex and two terminal oxidases: cbb3-cytochrome oxidase and the alternative cytochrome oxidase of the a3 type. Besides, Rna. thiooxidans was shown to have several different soluble low- and high-potential cytochromes c, probably associated with the ability of utilizing sulfur compounds as additional electron donors.

  15. Isolation, identification, and algicidal activity of aerobic denitrifying bacterium R11 and its effect on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Su, Jun-feng; Shao, Si-cheng; Huang, Ting-lin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Kai; Wen, Gang; Zheng, Sheng-chen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, algicidal bacteria have attracted attention as possible agents for the inhibition of algal water blooms. In this study, an aerobic denitrifying bacterium, R11, with high algicidal activity against the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa was isolated from lake sediments. Based on its physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence, it was identified as Raoultella, indicating that the bacterium R11 has a good denitrifying ability at 30 °C and can reduce the concentration of nitrate-N completely within 36 h. Additionally, different algicidal characteristics against Microcystis aeruginosa were tested. The results showed that the initial bacterial cell density and algal cell densities strongly influence the removal rates of chlorophyll a. Algicidal activity increased with an increase in the bacterial cell density. With densities of bacterial culture at over 2.4 × 10(5) cell/mL, algicidal activity of up to 80% was obtained in 4 days. We have demonstrated that, with the low initial algal cell density (OD680 less than 0.220), the algicidal activity reached was higher than 90% after 6 days. PMID:27232395

  16. Characterization of a halophilic heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium and its application on treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinming; Fang, Hongda; Su, Bing; Chen, Jinfang; Lin, Jinmei

    2015-03-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification was isolated from marine sediments and identified as Vibrio diabolicus SF16. It had ability to remove 91.82% of NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) and 99.71% of NO3(-)-N (136.43 mg/L). The nitrogen balance showed that 35.83% of initial NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) was changed to intracellular nitrogen, and 53.98% of the initial NH4(+)-N was converted to gaseous denitrification products. The existence of napA gene further proved the aerobic denitrification ability of strain SF16. The optimum culture conditions were salinity 1-5%, sodium acetate as carbon source, C/N 10, and pH 7.5-9.5. When an aerated biological filter system inoculated with strain SF16 was employed to treat saline wastewater, the average removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N and TN reached 97.14% and 73.92%, respectively, indicating great potential of strain SF16 for future full-scale applications. PMID:25557251

  17. Removal of nitrogen by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification of a phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24.

    PubMed

    Li, Chune; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Xin; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; He, Ruoxue; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-04-01

    Phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24 exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability. Single factor experiments showed that both heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification occurred with sodium citrate as carbon source and lower C/N ratio of 8. High average NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N removal rates of 8.75, 7.51 and 7.73 mg L(-1)h(-1) were achieved. The application of strain YG-24 in wastewater samples resulted in TN, NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N and P removal efficiencies of 85.28%, 88.13%, 86.15%, 70.83% and 51.21%. Sequencing and quantitative amplification by real-time PCR of napA, nirS and ppk showed that nitrogen removal pathway of strain YG-24 was achieved through heterotrophic ammonium nitrification coupled with fast nitrite denitrification (NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N and then to gaseous nitrogen) directly. These results demonstrated the strain as a suitable candidate to simultaneously remove both nitrogen and phosphate in wastewater treatment.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Facultatively Aerobic Bacterium That Reductively Dehalogenates Tetrachloroethene to cis-1,2-Dichloroethene

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, P. K.; McCarty, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    A rapidly-growing facultatively aerobic bacterium that transforms tetrachloroethene (PCE) via trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) at high rates in a defined medium was isolated from a contaminated site. Metabolic characterization, cellular fatty acid analysis, and partial sequence analysis of 16S rRNA showed that the new isolate, strain MS-1, has characteristics matching those of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Strain MS-1 can oxidize about 58 substrates including many carbohydrates, short-chain fatty acids, amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines. It can transform up to 1 mM PCE (aqueous) at a rate of about 0.5 (mu)mol of PCE(middot) h(sup-1)(middot)mg (dry weight) of cell(sup-1). PCE transformation occurs following growth on or with the addition of single carbon sources such as glucose, pyruvate, formate, lactate, or acetate or with complex nutrient sources such as yeast extract or a mixture of amino acids. PCE dehalogenation requires the absence of oxygen, nitrate, and high concentrations of fermentable compounds such as glucose. Enterobacter agglomerans biogroup 5 (ATCC 27993), a known facultative bacterium that is closely related to strain MS-1, also reductively dehalogenated PCE to cis-1,2-DCE. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of a facultative bacterium that can reductively transform PCE to cis-1,2-DCE under defined physiological conditions. Also, this is the first report of the ability of E. agglomerans to dehalogenate PCE. PMID:16535267

  19. The characteristics of a novel heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium, Bacillus methylotrophicus strain L7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Liu, Ying; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-03-01

    Bacillus methylotrophicus strain L7, exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification ability, with maximum NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N removal rate of 51.58 mg/L/d and 5.81 mg/L/d, respectively. Strain L7 showed different gaseous emitting patterns from those strains ever described. When (15)NH(4)Cl, or Na(15)NO(2), or K(15)NO(3) was used, results of GC-MS indicated that N(2)O was emitted as the intermediate of heterotrophic nitrification or aerobic denitrification, while GC-IRMS results showed that N(2) was produced as end product when nitrite was used. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for heterotrophic nitrification were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N 6, pH 7-8, 0 g/L NaCl, 37 °C and a wide range of NH(4)(+)-N from 80 to 1000 mg/L. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal conditions for aerobic denitrification were C/N 20, pH 7-8, 10 g/L NaCl and DO 4.82 mg/L (shaking speed 50 r/min) when nitrite was served as substrate.

  20. Rod-shape porous carbon derived from aniline modified lignin for symmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Cao, Yuhe; Wang, Xiaomin; Castro, Maria Andrea; Luo, Bing; Gu, Zhengrong; Liu, Jun; Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Fan, Qihua

    2016-03-01

    Rod-shape porous carbon was prepared from aniline modified lignin via KOH activation and used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The specific surface area, pore size and shape could be modulated by the carbonization temperature, which significantly affected the electrochemical performance. Unique rod-shape carbon with massive pores and a high BET surface area of 2265 m2 g-1 were obtained at 700 °C in contrast to irregular morphology created at other carbonization temperatures. In 6 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte, a specific capacitance of 336 F g-1, small resistance of 0.9 Ω and stable charge/discharge at current density of 1 A g-1 after 1, 000 cycles were achieved using rod-shape porous carbon as electrodes in an electrical double layer capacitor.

  1. Physiology of Resistant Deinococcus geothermalis Bacterium Aerobically Cultivated in Low-Manganese Medium

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Minna; Bernhardt, Jörg; Neubauer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dynamic proteome study describes the physiology of growth and survival of Deinococcus geothermalis, in conditions simulating paper machine waters being aerobic, warm, and low in carbon and manganese. The industrial environment of this species differs from its natural habitats, geothermal springs and deep ocean subsurfaces, by being highly exposed to oxygen. Quantitative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and bioinformatic tools showed expression change for 165 proteins, from which 47 were assigned to a function. We propose that D. geothermalis grew and survived in aerobic conditions by channeling central carbon metabolism to pathways where mainly NADPH rather than NADH was retrieved from the carbon source. A major part of the carbon substrate was converted into succinate, which was not a fermentation product but likely served combating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Transition from growth to nongrowth resulted in downregulation of the oxidative phosphorylation observed as reduced expression of V-type ATPase responsible for ATP synthesis in D. geothermalis. The battle against oxidative stress was seen as upregulation of superoxide dismutase (Mn dependent) and catalase, as well as several protein repair enzymes, including FeS cluster assembly proteins of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein system, peptidylprolyl isomerase, and chaperones. Addition of soluble Mn reinitiated respiration and proliferation with concomitant acidification, indicating that aerobic metabolism was restricted by access to manganese. We conclude that D. geothermalis prefers to combat ROS using manganese-dependent enzymes, but when manganese is not available central carbon metabolism is used to produce ROS neutralizing metabolites at the expense of high utilization of carbon substrate. PMID:22228732

  2. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  3. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment. PMID:25432342

  4. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni RM1285 a rod-shaped morphological variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative food-borne human pathogen found on poultry products. Strain RM1285 is a rod-shaped variant of this species. The genome of RM1285 was determined to be 1,635,803 bp with a G+C content of 30.5%....

  5. Selenite reduction by the obligate aerobic bacterium Comamonas testosteroni S44 isolated from a metal-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in most organisms but has to be carefully handled since there is a thin line between beneficial and toxic concentrations. Many bacteria have the ability to reduce selenite (Se(IV)) and (or) selenate (Se(VI)) to red elemental selenium that is less toxic. Results A strictly aerobic bacterium, Comamonas testosteroni S44, previously isolated from metal(loid)-contaminated soil in southern China, reduced Se(IV) to red selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm. Both energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS) and EDS Elemental Mapping showed no element Se and SeNPs were produced inside cells whereas Se(IV) was reduced to red-colored selenium in the cytoplasmic fraction in presence of NADPH. Tungstate inhibited Se(VI) but not Se(IV) reduction, indicating the Se(IV)-reducing determinant does not contain molybdenum as co-factor. Strain S44 was resistant to multiple heavy and transition metal(loid)s such as Se(IV), As(III), Cu(II), and Cd(II) with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 100 mM, 20 mM, 4 mM, and 0.5 mM, respectively. Disruption of iscR encoding a transcriptional regulator negatively impacted cellular growth and subsequent resistance to multiple heavy metal(loid)s. Conclusions C. testosteroni S44 could be very useful for bioremediation in heavy metal(loid) polluted soils due to the ability to both reduce toxic Se(VI) and Se(IV) to non-toxic Se (0) under aerobic conditions and to tolerate multiple heavy and transition metals. IscR appears to be an activator to regulate genes involved in resistance to heavy or transition metal(loid)s but not for genes responsible for Se(IV) reduction. PMID:25098921

  6. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments. PMID:26762390

  7. Removal of nitrogen by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification of a novel metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyi; Lv, Yongkang; Liu, Yuxiang; Ren, Ruipeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and metal resistant bacterium was isolated and identified as Cupriavidus sp. S1. The utilization of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite as well as the production of N2 proved the heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability of S1. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal efficiencies were 99.68%, 98.03% and 99.81%, with removal rates of 10.43, 8.64 and 8.36mg/L/h, respectively. A multiple regression equation well described the relationship between carbon source utilization, cell growth and nitrification. Keeping the shaking speed at 120rpm was beneficial for denitrification. Moreover, different forms of nitrogen source could be utilize in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Additionally, the efficient removal of ammonium occurred at 20.0mg/LZn(2+), or 10.0mg/LNi(2+) or 8.0mg/LCu(2+) or 5.0mg/LCr(6+), 33.35mmol/L sodium pyruvate, C/N 12-28. These findings demonstrate that S1 was effective for nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater containing heavy metal. PMID:27566522

  8. Engineering mediator-based electroactivity in the obligate aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Simone; Nies, Salome; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M.; Rosenbaum, Miriam A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strains are being developed as microbial production hosts for production of a range of amphiphilic and hydrophobic biochemicals. P. putida's obligate aerobic growth thereby can be an economical and technical challenge because it requires constant rigorous aeration and often causes reactor foaming. Here, we engineered a strain of P. putida KT2440 that can produce phenazine redox-mediators from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow partial redox balancing with an electrode under oxygen-limited conditions. P. aeruginosa is known to employ its phenazine-type redox mediators for electron exchange with an anode in bioelectrochemical systems (BES). We transferred the seven core phenazine biosynthesis genes phzA-G and the two specific genes phzM and phzS required for pyocyanin synthesis from P. aeruginosa on two inducible plasmids into P. putida KT2440. The best clone, P. putida pPhz, produced 45 mg/L pyocyanin over 25 h of growth, which was visible as blue color formation and is comparable to the pyocyanin production of P. aeruginosa. This new strain was then characterized under different oxygen-limited conditions with electrochemical redox control and changes in central energy metabolism were evaluated in comparison to the unmodified P. putida KT2440. In the new strain, phenazine synthesis with supernatant concentrations up to 33 μg/mL correlated linearly with the ability to discharge electrons to an anode, whereby phenazine-1-carboxylic acid served as the dominating redox mediator. P. putida pPhz sustained strongly oxygen-limited metabolism for up to 2 weeks at up to 12 μA/cm2 anodic current density. Together, this work lays a foundation for future oxygen-limited biocatalysis with P. putida strains. PMID:25914687

  9. Effects of molecular noise on bistable protein distributions in rod-shaped bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wettmann, L.; Bonny, M.; Kruse, K.

    2014-01-01

    The distributions of many proteins in rod-shaped bacteria are far from homogeneous. Often they accumulate at the cell poles or in the cell centre. At the same time, the copy number of proteins in a single cell is relatively small making the patterns noisy. To explore limits to protein patterns due to molecular noise, we studied a generic mechanism for spontaneous polar protein assemblies in rod-shaped bacteria, which are based on cooperative binding of proteins to the cytoplasmic membrane. For mono-polar assemblies, we find that the switching time between the two poles increases exponentially with the cell length and with the protein number. This feature could be beneficial to organelle maintenance in ageing bacteria. PMID:25485085

  10. A Tool for Alignment and Averaging of Sparse Fluorescence Signals in Rod-Shaped Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goudsmits, Joris M H; van Oijen, Antoine M; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-04-26

    Fluorescence microscopy studies have shown that many proteins localize to highly specific subregions within bacterial cells. Analyzing the spatial distribution of low-abundance proteins within cells is highly challenging because information obtained from multiple cells needs to be combined to provide well-defined maps of protein locations. We present (to our knowledge) a novel tool for fast, automated, and user-impartial analysis of fluorescent protein distribution across the short axis of rod-shaped bacteria. To demonstrate the strength of our approach in extracting spatial distributions and visualizing dynamic intracellular processes, we analyzed sparse fluorescence signals from single-molecule time-lapse images of individual Escherichia coli cells. In principle, our tool can be used to provide information on the distribution of signal intensity across the short axis of any rod-shaped object. PMID:27119631

  11. Biosynthesis and recovery of rod-shaped tellurium nanoparticles and their bactericidal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Zare, Bijan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Rezaie, Sassan; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Biosynthesis of rod shape tellurium nanoparticles with a hexagonal crystal structure. ► Extraction procedure for isolation of tellurium nanoparticles from Bacillus sp. BZ. ► Extracted tellurium nanoparticles have good bactericidal activity against some bacteria. -- Abstract: In this study, a tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. BZ was isolated from the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. The isolate was identified by various tests and 16S rDNA analysis, and then used to prepare elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The isolate was subsequently used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. The shape, size, and composition of the extracted nanoparticles were characterized. The transmission electron micrograph showed rod-shaped nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20 nm × 180 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction spectra respectively demonstrated that the extracted nanoparticles consisted of only tellurium and have a hexagonal crystal structure. This is the first study to demonstrate a biological method for synthesizing rod-shaped elemental tellurium by a Bacillus sp., its extraction and its antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates.

  12. Long helical filaments are not seen encircling cells in electron cryotomograms of rod-shaped bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Swulius, Matthew T.; Chen, Songye; Jane Ding, H.; Li, Zhuo; Briegel, Ariane; Pilhofer, Martin; Tocheva, Elitza I.; Lybarger, Suzanne R.; Johnson, Tanya L.; Sandkvist, Maria; Jensen, Grant J.

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} No long helical filaments are seen near or along rod-shaped bacterial inner membranes by electron cryo-tomography. {yields} Electron cryo-tomography has the resolution to detect single filaments in vivo. -- Abstract: How rod-shaped bacteria form and maintain their shape is an important question in bacterial cell biology. Results from fluorescent light microscopy have led many to believe that the actin homolog MreB and a number of other proteins form long helical filaments along the inner membrane of the cell. Here we show using electron cryotomography of six different rod-shaped bacterial species, at macromolecular resolution, that no long (>80 nm) helical filaments exist near or along either surface of the inner membrane. We also use correlated cryo-fluorescent light microscopy (cryo-fLM) and electron cryo-tomography (ECT) to identify cytoplasmic bundles of MreB, showing that MreB filaments are detectable by ECT. In light of these results, the structure and function of MreB must be reconsidered: instead of acting as a large, rigid scaffold that localizes cell-wall synthetic machinery, moving MreB complexes may apply tension to growing peptidoglycan strands to ensure their orderly, linear insertion.

  13. Differential Isotopic Fractionation during Cr(VI) Reduction by an Aquifer-Derived Bacterium under Aerobic versus Denitrifying Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

    2012-01-27

    We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Finally, despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) cometabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε was ~2‰ aerobically and ~0.4‰ under denitrifying conditions).

  14. Nanostructures of Liquid Crystal Phases in Mixtures of Bent-core and Rod-shaped Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    S Hong; R Verduzco; J Gleeson; S Sprunt; A Jakli

    2011-12-31

    We report small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of isotropic, nematic, and smectic mesophases formed by binary mixtures of bent-core (BC) and rod-shaped (RS) molecules. While optical studies indicate that the components are fully miscible, SAXS reveals fascinating structures that are consistent with segregation on a nanoscopic scale. We find that tilted smectic clusters, which have been previously reported in both the nematic and isotropic states of the pure BC materials, are also present in mixtures with up to 50 wt% of the RS compound; this is consistent with previous dielectric and flexoelectric studies on such mixtures. Unexpectedly in this concentration range the clusters are present in the isotropic and in the induced smectic phase range, as well as throughout the nematic phase. The results in the smectic phase also reveal complex layering phenomena, providing important insight into the interaction between bent and rod-shaped molecules. These studies will be crucial in the design of promising new functional nanomaterials.

  15. On the elastic buckling of rod-shaped particles in sheared suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The rheology of rod-shaped particle suspensions is of practical importance for the processing of discontinuous fiber composites. A correction of the original work by Forgacs and Mason describing the elastic buckling of rod-shaped particles in sheared suspensions is presented. Although the qualitative relationship among critical buckling conditions and the fiber aspect ratio and elastic modulus is unaltered, the new result for the predicted critical buckling condition shows that the resistance of suspended rods to buckling is more than five times greater than had been believed. Reexamination of experimental results using the corrected solution yielded mixed conclusions concerning the validity of the model. The agreement with results of the original experiments by Forgacs and Mason using Dacron fibers suspended in corn syrup and the new result was found to be excellent and quantitative. The results of experiments with glass fibers suspended in glucose solutions were found to be in poor agreement with predictions. The ability of the proposed result to account for an unusual degradation due to shearing in polystyrene melts of Kevlar 29 fibers was also found to be quantitative and excellent. The Kevlar fibers exhibited permanent bends spaced with a uniform spacing which was predicted by application of the new buckling relationship.

  16. Nanostructures of liquid crystal phases in mixtures of bent-core and rod-shaped molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, S. H.; Gleeson, J. T.; Sprunt, S.; Verduzco, R.; Jakli, A.

    2011-06-15

    We report small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of isotropic, nematic, and smectic mesophases formed by binary mixtures of bent-core (BC) and rod-shaped (RS) molecules. While optical studies indicate that the components are fully miscible, SAXS reveals fascinating structures that are consistent with segregation on a nanoscopic scale. We find that tilted smectic clusters, which have been previously reported in both the nematic and isotropic states of the pure BC materials, are also present in mixtures with up to 50 wt% of the RS compound; this is consistent with previous dielectric and flexoelectric studies on such mixtures. Unexpectedly in this concentration range the clusters are present in the isotropic and in the induced smectic phase range, as well as throughout the nematic phase. The results in the smectic phase also reveal complex layering phenomena, providing important insight into the interaction between bent and rod-shaped molecules. These studies will be crucial in the design of promising new functional nanomaterials.

  17. Nanostructures of liquid crystal phases in mixtures of bent-core and rod-shaped molecules.

    PubMed

    Hong, S H; Verduzco, R; Gleeson, J T; Sprunt, S; Jákli, A

    2011-06-01

    We report small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of isotropic, nematic, and smectic mesophases formed by binary mixtures of bent-core (BC) and rod-shaped (RS) molecules. While optical studies indicate that the components are fully miscible, SAXS reveals fascinating structures that are consistent with segregation on a nanoscopic scale. We find that tilted smectic clusters, which have been previously reported in both the nematic and isotropic states of the pure BC materials, are also present in mixtures with up to 50 wt% of the RS compound; this is consistent with previous dielectric and flexoelectric studies on such mixtures. Unexpectedly in this concentration range the clusters are present in the isotropic and in the induced smectic phase range, as well as throughout the nematic phase. The results in the smectic phase also reveal complex layering phenomena, providing important insight into the interaction between bent and rod-shaped molecules. These studies will be crucial in the design of promising new functional nanomaterials.

  18. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    PubMed Central

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from −70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth. PMID:24867385

  19. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Youngju; Jung, Jaehwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, Hyunjoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Yongkeun

    2014-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  20. Rod-shaped silica particles derivatized with elongated silver nanoparticles immobilized within mesopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnasri, Najib; Charnay, Clarence; de Ménorval, Louis-Charles; Elaloui, Elimame; Zajac, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Silver-derivatized silica particles possessing a non-spherical morphology and surface plasmon resonance properties have been achieved. Nanometer-sized silica rods with uniformly sized mesopore channels were prepared first making use of alkyltrimethyl ammonium surfactants as porogens and the 1:0.10 tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) : 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) mixture as a silicon source. Silica rods were subsequently functionalized by introducing elongated silver nanoparticles within the intra-particle mesopores thanks to the AgNO3 reduction procedure based on the action of hemiaminal groups previously located on the mesopore walls. The textural and structural features of the samples were inferred from the combined characterization studies including SEM and TEM microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K, powder XRD in the small- and wide-angle region, as well as UV-visible spectroscopy. 129Xe NMR spectroscopy appeared particularly useful to obtain a correct information about the porous structure of rod-shaped silica particles and the silver incorporation within their intra-particle mesopores.

  1. Acquisition of Fe from Natural Organic Matter by an Aerobic Pseudomonas Bacterium: Siderophores and Cellular Fe Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, K.; Dehner, C.; Dubois, J.; Maurice, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerobic microorganisms have evolved various strategies to acquire nutrient Fe, including release of Fe-chelating siderophores. The potential importance of siderophores in Fe acquisition from natural organic matter (NOM) (reverse osmosis, RO; and XAD-8 samples with naturally associated Fe) was investigated using a wild type strain (WT) of aerobic Pseudomonas mendocina that produces siderophore(s) and an engineered mutant that cannot. Microbial growth under Fe-limited batch conditions was monitored via optical density, and a β-galactosidase biosensor assay was used to quantify cellular Fe status. Both WT and mutant strains acquired Fe from NOM. Fe ‘stress’ in the presence of the RO sample decreased with increasing [Fe] (as determined by different [DOC]s) and was consistently less for the WT. For both WT and mutant, maximum growth in the presence of RO sample increased as: 1 mgC/L (0.2μM Fe) < 100 mgC/L (20μM Fe) < 10 mgC/L (2μM Fe). Comparison of XAD-8 and RO samples ([DOC] varied to give 2μM [Fe]total for each), showed that although there were no apparent differences in internal Fe status, growth was better on the XAD-8 sample. Chelex treatment to partially remove metals associated with the RO sample increased Fe stress but did not substantially affect growth. Results demonstrated that: (1) siderophores are useful but not necessary for Fe acquisition from NOM by P. mendocina and (2) NOM may have complex effects on microbial growth, related not just to Fe content but potentially to the presence of other (trace)metals such as Al and/or to effects on biofilm development.

  2. Magnetic engineering of stable rod-shaped stem cell aggregates: circumventing the pitfall of self-bending.

    PubMed

    Du, V; Fayol, D; Reffay, M; Luciani, N; Bacri, J-C; Gay, C; Wilhelm, C

    2015-02-01

    A current challenge for tissue engineering while restoring the function of diseased or damaged tissue is to customize the tissue according to the target area. Scaffold-free approaches usually yield spheroid shapes with the risk of necrosis at the center due to poor nutrient and oxygen diffusion. Here, we used magnetic forces developed at the cellular scale by miniaturized magnets to create rod-shaped aggregates of stem cells that subsequently matured into a tissue-like structure. However, during the maturation process, the tissue-rods spontaneously bent and coiled into sphere-like structures, triggered by the increasing cell-cell adhesion within the initially non-homogeneous tissue. Optimisation of the intra-tissular magnetic forces successfully hindered the transition, in order to produce stable rod-shaped stem cells aggregates. PMID:25580701

  3. Stygiolobus Rod-Shaped Virus and the Interplay of Crenarchaeal Rudiviruses with the CRISPR Antiviral System▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Gisle; Shah, Shiraz A.; Bize, Ariane; Reitberger, Werner; Reuter, Monika; Phan, Hien; Briegel, Ariane; Rachel, Reinhard; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David

    2008-01-01

    A newly characterized archaeal rudivirus Stygiolobus rod-shaped virus (SRV), which infects a hyperthermophilic Stygiolobus species, was isolated from a hot spring in the Azores, Portugal. Its virions are rod-shaped, 702 (± 50) by 22 (± 3) nm in size, and nonenveloped and carry three tail fibers at each terminus. The linear double-stranded DNA genome contains 28,096 bp and an inverted terminal repeat of 1,030 bp. The SRV shows morphological and genomic similarities to the other characterized rudiviruses Sulfolobus rod-shaped virus 1 (SIRV1), SIRV2, and Acidianus rod-shaped virus 1, isolated from hot acidic springs of Iceland and Italy. The single major rudiviral structural protein is shown to generate long tubular structures in vitro of similar dimensions to those of the virion, and we estimate that the virion constitutes a single, superhelical, double-stranded DNA embedded into such a protein structure. Three additional minor conserved structural proteins are also identified. Ubiquitous rudiviral proteins with assigned functions include glycosyl transferases and a S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, as well as a Holliday junction resolvase, a transcriptionally coupled helicase and nuclease implicated in DNA replication. Analysis of matches between known crenarchaeal chromosomal CRISPR spacer sequences, implicated in a viral defense system, and rudiviral genomes revealed that about 10% of the 3,042 unique acidothermophile spacers yield significant matches to rudiviral genomes, with a bias to highly conserved protein genes, consistent with the widespread presence of rudiviruses in hot acidophilic environments. We propose that the 12-bp indels which are commonly found in conserved rudiviral protein genes may be generated as a reaction to the presence of the host CRISPR defense system. PMID:18723627

  4. [Analysis of the Microbial Community Structure in Continuous Flow Reactor Enhanced by Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium Burkholderia sp. YX02].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ji-lun; Cao, Gang; Li, Zi-hui; Huang, Zheng-zheng; Luo, Kai; Mo, Ce-hui

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the dynamic succession of microbial community structure along with time in bio-denitrification reactor, a continuous flow reactor containing immobilized heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium Burkholderia sp. YX02 was taken as a model. The microbial community structure in the bioreactor was analyzed by PCR-DCGE, and its correlations with environmental factors such as pH, NH4+ -N, NO2- -N, NO3- -N and COD were simultaneously investigated. The results showed that the microbial community was relatively rich during the early stage of 18 days. The similarity of community structure in different stages was not orderly declining with the operation. In addition, the structural similarity in adjacent stages firstly increased, then decreased, and eventually tended to be stable. Shannon-Wiener index firstly descended significantly, and then ascended with new microbial community emerging at the later stage. UPGMA clustering analysis roughly divided the process into three periods with certain relationship. Principal component analysis showed that during the operation of the bioreactor predominant bacterial community formed steadily and new microbial community dominated by Burkholderia sp. YX02 emerged at the later stage of the operation. Canonical correspondence analysis certificated that the structure of microbial community was most obviously affected by NO2- -N, followed by NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and COD, and pH had the least effect. PMID:27363154

  5. Potential application of aerobic denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 in nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Liu, Shufeng; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2016-11-15

    Conventional biological removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas has been severely restricted by the presence of oxygen. This paper presents an efficient alternative for NOx removal at varying oxygen levels using the newly isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 which was capable of aerobic and anoxic denitrification. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO), as the obligatory intermediate, was negligibly accumulated during nitrate and nitrite reduction. Moreover, normal nitrate reduction with decreasing NO accumulation was realized under O2 concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. Reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that high efficient NO removal was attributed to the coordinate regulation of gene expressions including napA (for periplasmic nitrate reductase), nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase) and cnorB (for NO reductase). Further batch experiments demonstrated the immobilized strain PCN-2 possessed high capability of removing NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at O2 concentration of 0-10%. A biotrickling filter established with present strain achieved high NOx removal efficiencies of 91.94-96.74% at inlet NO concentration of 100-500ppm and O2 concentration of 0-10%, which implied promising potential applications in purifying NOx contaminated flue gas.

  6. Potential application of aerobic denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 in nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Liu, Shufeng; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2016-11-15

    Conventional biological removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas has been severely restricted by the presence of oxygen. This paper presents an efficient alternative for NOx removal at varying oxygen levels using the newly isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 which was capable of aerobic and anoxic denitrification. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO), as the obligatory intermediate, was negligibly accumulated during nitrate and nitrite reduction. Moreover, normal nitrate reduction with decreasing NO accumulation was realized under O2 concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. Reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that high efficient NO removal was attributed to the coordinate regulation of gene expressions including napA (for periplasmic nitrate reductase), nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase) and cnorB (for NO reductase). Further batch experiments demonstrated the immobilized strain PCN-2 possessed high capability of removing NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at O2 concentration of 0-10%. A biotrickling filter established with present strain achieved high NOx removal efficiencies of 91.94-96.74% at inlet NO concentration of 100-500ppm and O2 concentration of 0-10%, which implied promising potential applications in purifying NOx contaminated flue gas. PMID:27469045

  7. Alkanindiges illinoisensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately hydrocarbonoclastic, aerobic squalane-degrading bacterium isolated from oilfield soils.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Bill W; Sullivan, Wendy R; Kayser, Kevin J; Derr, K D; Aldrich, Henry C; Paterek, J Robert

    2003-09-01

    An alkane-degrading bacterium, designated GTI MVAB Hex1(T), was isolated from chronically crude oil-contaminated soil from an oilfield in southern Illinois. The isolate grew very weakly or not at all in minimal or rich media without hydrocarbons. Straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane and heptadecane, greatly stimulated growth; shorter-chain (

  8. Visualizing single rod-shaped fission yeast vertically in micro-sized holes on agarose pad made by soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Tran, Phong T

    2014-01-01

    Fission yeast cells are rod-shaped unicellular organism that is normally imaged horizontally with its long axis parallel to image plane. This orientation, while practical, limits the imaging resolution of biological structures which are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. We present here a method to prepare agarose pads with micro-sized holes to load single fission yeast cell vertically and image cell with its long axis perpendicular to the image plane. As a demonstration, actomyosin ring contraction is shown with this new imaging device.

  9. Aerobic biodegradation of Azo dye by Bacillus cohnii MTCC 3616; an obligately alkaliphilic bacterium and toxicity evaluation of metabolites by different bioassay systems.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S Arun; Rao, K V Bhaskara

    2013-08-01

    An obligate alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus cohnii MTCC 3616 aerobically decolorized a textile azo dye Direct Red-22 (5,000 mg l⁻¹) with 95 % efficiency at 37 °C and pH 9 in 4 h under static conditions. The decolorization of Direct Red-22 (DR-22) was possible through a broad pH (7-11), temperature (10-45 °C), salinity (1-7 %), and dye concentration (5-10 g l⁻¹) range. Decolorization of dye was assessed by UV-vis spectrophotometer with reduction of peak intensity at 549 nm (λ(max)). Biodegradation of dye was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The FTIR spectrum revealed that B. cohnii specifically targeted azo bond (N=N) at 1,614.42 cm⁻¹ to break down Direct Red-22. Formation of metabolites with different retention times in HPLC analysis further confirmed the degradation of dye. The phytotoxicity test with 5,000 mg l⁻¹ of untreated dye showed 80 % germination inhibition in Vigna mungo, 70 % in Sorghum bicolor and 80 % in Vigna radiata. No germination inhibition was noticed in all three plants by DR-22 metabolites at 5,000 mg l⁻¹. Biotoxicity test with Artemia salina proved the lethality of the azo dye at LC₅₀ of 4 and 8 % for degraded metabolites by causing death of its nauplii compared to its less toxic-degraded metabolites. Bioaccumulation of dye was observed in the mid-gut of A. salina. The cytogenotoxicity assay on the meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa further confirmed the cytotoxic nature of azo dye (DR-22) with decrease in mitotic index (0.5 % at 500 ppm) and increase in aberrant index (4.56 %) over 4-h exposure period. Genotoxic damages (lagging chromosome, metaphase cluster, chromosome bridges, and dye accumulation in cytoplasm) were noticed at different stages of cell cycle. The degraded metabolites had negligible cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  10. Herbaspirillum lusitanum sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Cervantes, Emilio; Ventosa, Antonio; Igual, José-Mariano

    2003-11-01

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris plants grown in a soil from Portugal. The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, curved rod-shaped and motile. The isolates were catalase- and oxidase-positive. The TP-RAPD (two-primer randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) patterns of all strains were identical, suggesting that they belong to the same species. The complete 16S rDNA sequence of a representative strain was obtained and phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbour-joining method indicated that this bacterium belongs to the beta-Proteobacteria and that the closest related genus is Herbaspirillum. The DNA G+C content ranged from 57.9 to 61.9 mol%. Growth was observed with many different carbohydrates and organic acids including caprate, malate, citrate and phenylacetate. No growth was observed with maltose, meso-inositol, meso-erythritol or adipate as sole carbon source. According to the phenotypic and genotypic data obtained in this work, the bacterium represents a novel species of the genus Herbaspirillum, and the name Herbaspirillum lusitanum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P6-12(T) (=LMG 21710(T)=CECT 5661(T)).

  11. Cellulomonas composti sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from cattle farm compost.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Suk; Im, Wan-Taek; Jung, Hae-Min; Kim, Myung Kyum; Goodfellow, Michael; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Yang, Hee-Chan; An, Dong-Shan; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2007-06-01

    A bacterial strain, TR7-06(T), which has cellulase and beta-glucosidase activities, was isolated from compost at a cattle farm near Daejeon, Republic of Korea. It was a Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Cellulomonas, with highest sequence similarity to Cellulomonas uda DSM 20107(T) (98.5 %). Cell wall analysis revealed the presence of type A4beta, L-orn-D-Glu peptidoglycan. The cell-wall sugars detected were mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)); MK-8(H(4)) was detected in smaller quantities. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) and C(18 : 0). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that TR7-06(T) represents a novel species. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain TR7-06(T) (=KCTC 19030(T)=NBRC 100758(T)) merits description as the type strain of a novel Cellulomonas species, Cellulomonas composti sp. nov.

  12. Jeotgalibacillus soli sp. nov., a Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Sofia; Tiago, Igor; Paiva, Gabriel; Nobre, Fernanda; da Costa, Milton S; Veríssimo, António

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, motile, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, designated P9(T), was isolated from soil in Portugal. This organism was aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. It had an optimum growth temperature of about 35 °C and an optimum growth pH of about 8.0-8.5, and grew in medium with 0-9% (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1α type, with L-lysine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (45.4%), iso-C(15:0) (22.0%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (11.2%). The genomic DNA G+C content was about 39.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P9(T) was most closely related to Jeotgalibacillus campisalis DSM 18983(T) (96.8%) and Jeotgalibacillus marinus DSM 1297(T) (96.5%). These two recognized species formed a coherent cluster with strain P9(T) that was supported by a bootstrap value of 99%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain P9(T) (=DSM 23228(T)=LMG 25523(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalibacillus, for which the name Jeotgalibacillus soli sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Sphingomonas glacialis sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Schinner, Franz; Margesin, Rosa

    2011-03-01

    A non-motile, rod-shaped, yellow bacterium, designated C16y(T), was isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. Cells behaved Gram-positively, were aerobic and psychrophilic (good growth at 1-25 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C16y(T) was related to the genus Sphingomonas and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (97.6  %) and Sphingomonas echinoides DSM 1805(T) (97.2  %). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that strain C16y(T) could not be considered as a member of either Sphingomonas oligophenolica or Sphingomonas echinoides. Strain C16y(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C₁₈:₁ and C₁₆:₀ were the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingoglycolipid, five unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified aminophospholipids and two unidentified lipids. The major polyamines were the triamines sym-homospermidine and spermidine. The G+C content was 67.9 mol%. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies demonstrated that strain C16y(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which we propose the name Sphingomonas glacialis sp. nov. The type strain is C16y(T) (=DSM 22294(T) =CGMCC 1.8957(T) =CIP 110131(T) [corrected]).

  14. Halomonas zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Huang, Heng-Yu; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ke; Chen, Qi-Hui; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-11-01

    A novel Gram-negative, slightly halophilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, obligately aerobic, non-sporulating rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 078169(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 1-20 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 3-5 %), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 4-40 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0) and C(12 : 0) 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 55.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 078169(T) should be assigned to the genus Halomonas. The sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of members of the genus Halomonas were in the range 92.4-97.0 %. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 078169(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 078169(T) (=CCTCC AB 208031(T)=DSM 21076(T)=KCTC 22279(T)) as the type strain.

  15. Characterization of Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 gp19, a single-strand specific endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew F; Prangishvili, David; Jack, William E

    2011-09-01

    The hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) encodes a 25-kDa protein (SIRV2gp19) annotated as a hypothetical protein with sequence homology to the RecB nuclease superfamily. Even though SIRV2gp19 homologs are conserved throughout the rudivirus family and presumably play a role in the viral life cycle, SIRV2gp19 has not been functionally characterized. To define the minimal requirements for activity, SIRV2gp19 was purified and tested under varying conditions. SIRV2gp19 is a single-strand specific endonuclease that requires Mg(2+) for activity and is inactive on double-stranded DNA. A conserved aspartic acid in RecB nuclease superfamily Motif II (D89) is also essential for SIRV2gp19 activity and mutation to alanine (D89A) abolishes activity. Therefore, the SIRV2gp19 cleavage mechanism is similar to previously described RecB nucleases. Finally, SIRV2gp19 single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity could play a role in host chromosome degradation during SIRV2 lytic infection. PMID:21667093

  16. Biochemical Characterization of a Structure-Specific Resolving Enzyme from Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew F.; Guan, Chudi; Jack, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus islandicus rod shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) infects the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus at extreme temperature (70°C–80°C) and acidity (pH 3). SIRV2 encodes a Holliday junction resolving enzyme (SIRV2 Hjr) that has been proposed as a key enzyme in SIRV2 genome replication. The molecular mechanism for SIRV2 Hjr four-way junction cleavage bias, minimal requirements for four-way junction cleavage, and substrate specificity were determined. SIRV2 Hjr cleaves four-way DNA junctions with a preference for cleavage of exchange strand pairs, in contrast to host-derived resolving enzymes, suggesting fundamental differences in substrate recognition and cleavage among closely related Sulfolobus resolving enzymes. Unlike other viral resolving enzymes, such as T4 endonuclease VII or T7 endonuclease I, that cleave branched DNA replication intermediates, SIRV2 Hjr cleavage is specific to four-way DNA junctions and inactive on other branched DNA molecules. In addition, a specific interaction was detected between SIRV2 Hjr and the SIRV2 virion body coat protein (SIRV2gp26). Based on this observation, a model is proposed linking SIRV2 Hjr genome resolution to viral particle assembly. PMID:21858199

  17. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, spore-forming and phospholipid-degrading bacterium isolated from acidulocompost.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Ryo; Furuya, Hiroto; Ishihara, Daisuke; Sahara, Takehiko; Kimura, Nobutada; Nishino, Tokuzo; Tsuruoka, Naoki; Shigeri, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2016-07-01

    A thermophilic and phospholipid-degrading bacterium, designated strain B157T, was isolated from acidulocompost, a garbage compost processed under acidic conditions at moderately high temperature. The organism was Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Growth was observed to occur at 40-65 °C and pH 4.8-8.1 (optimum growth: 50-60 °C, pH 6.2). The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glutamic acid and galactose. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain B157T was related most closely to Tuberibacillus calidus 607T (94.8 % identity), and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belonged to the family Sporolactobacillaceae. The DNA G+C content was determined as 51.8 mol%. In spite of many similarities with the type strains of members of the family Sporolactobacillaceae, genotypic analyses suggest that strain B157T represents a novel species of a new genus, Caenibacilluscaldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Caenibacilluscaldisaponilyticus is B157T (=NBRC 111400T=DSM 101100T).

  19. Chimaereicella alkaliphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a nonsaline alkaline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tiago, Igor; Mendes, Vítor; Pires, Carlos; Morais, Paula V; Veríssimo, António

    2006-03-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium designated AC-74(T) was isolated from a highly alkaline groundwater environment (pH 11.4). This organism formed rod-shaped cells, is strictly aerobic, catalase and oxidase positive, tolerates up to 3.0% NaCl, has an optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C, but no growth occurs at 10 or 40 degrees C, and an optimum pH value of 8.0, but no growth occurs at pH 7.0 or 11.3. The predominant fatty acids are iso-15:0, iso-17:1 omega9c and 16:1 omega7c and or iso-15:2OH. The G+C content of DNA was 43.5mol%. The phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the 16s RNA genes indicated that strain AC-74(T) belongs to the family "Flexibacteriaceae" and is phylogenetically equidistant ( approximately 94.5%) from the majority of the species of the genus Algoriphagus and from the genus Hongiella. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and distinct phenotypic characteristics, we are of the opinion that strain AC-74(T), represents a new species of the novel genus for which we propose the name Chimaereicella alkaliphila gen. nov., sp. nov.

  20. Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov., a new marine polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from a Pacific red alga.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Balabanova, Larissa A; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, So-Jeong; Bakunina, Irina Y; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 10Alg 130(T), that displayed the ability to destroy polysaccharides of red and brown algae, was isolated from the red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Flavobacterium, the type genus of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 96.2 and 95.7 % to Flavobacterium jumunjiense KCTC 23618(T) and Flavobacterium ponti CCUG 58402(T), and 95.3-92.5 % to other recognized Flavobacterium species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 10Alg 130(T) were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:0 and iso-C17:1ω9c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.3 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium could strongly be distinguished by a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10Alg 130(T) (=KCTC 32467(T) = KMM 6686(T)).

  1. Paenibacillus guangzhouensis sp. nov., an Fe(III)- and humus-reducing bacterium from a forest soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibing; Lu, Qin; Liu, Ting; Zhou, Shungui; Yang, Guiqin; Zhao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-reaction-variable, rod-shaped, motile, facultatively aerobic and endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain GSS02(T), was isolated from a forest soil. Strain GSS02(T) was capable of reducing humic substances and Fe(III) oxides. Strain GSS02(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 78 and in the presence of 1% NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0) and the polar lipid profile contained mainly phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, with moderate amounts of two unknown aminophospholipids and a minor amount of one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 53.4 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain GSS02(T) was related most closely to Paenibacillus terrigena JCM 21741(T) (98.1% similarity). Mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GSS02(T) and P. terrigena JCM 21741(T) was 58.8 ± 0.5%. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic results clearly demonstrated that strain GSS02(T) belongs to the genus Paenibacillus and represents a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus guangzhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS02(T) ( =KCTC 33171(T) =CCTCC AB 2013236(T)).

  2. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  3. Protein-Protein Interactions Leading to Recruitment of the Host DNA Sliding Clamp by the Hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew F.; Bell, Stephen D.; White, Malcolm F.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea typically do not encode DNA polymerases, raising questions regarding their genome replication. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have assessed interactions between proteins of Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) and the host-encoded proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key DNA replication protein in archaea. Five SIRV2 proteins were found to interact with PCNA, providing insights into the recruitment of host replisome for viral DNA replication. PMID:24696494

  4. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core–shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  5. [New Strains of an Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Porphyrobacter donghaensis Isolated from a Siberian Thermal Spring and a Low-Mineralization Lake].

    PubMed

    Nuyanzina-Boldareva, E N; Akimova, V N; Takaiche, S; Gorlenko, V M

    2016-01-01

    A strain of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) isolated from the surface of a cyano- bacterial mat of an Eastern Siberian thermal spring (40 C) and designated Se 4 was identified as Porphyro- bacter donghaensis according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. A DNA-DNA hybridization level of 95% was determined between strain Se-4 and the type strain of this species; SW-132@T. The isolate was an obligate aerobe,. forming orange round colonies on solid media, which turn red in the course of growth. The cells were motile rods capable of branching. The cells divided by uniform fission by constriction. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.5 and NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1 g/L. The pigments present were carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Another Porphyrobacter donghaensis strain, Noj- 1, isolated from a purple mat developing on the surface of a coastal set-up in a steppe low-mineralization (1.5 g/L) soda lake Nozhii (Eastern Siberia) possessed similar characteristics. Thus, the AAPB species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was shown to-occur, apart from its known habitat, marine environments, in low-mineralization soda lakes and freshwater thermal springs. Description of the species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was amended. PMID:27301129

  6. A marine inducible prophage vB_CibM-P1 isolated from the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Yongle; , Richard Allen White, III; Wang, Yu; Luo, Tingwei; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2014-11-01

    A prophage vB_CibM-P1 was induced by mitomycin C from the epipelagic strain Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354, a member of the alpha-IV subcluster of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB). The induced bacteriophage vB_CibM-P1 had Myoviridae-like morphology and polyhedral heads (approximately capsid 60-100 nm) with tail fibers. The vB_CibM-P1 genome is ~38 kb in size, with 66.0% GC content. The genome contains 58 proposed open reading frames that are involved in integration, DNA packaging, morphogenesis and bacterial lysis. VB_CibM-P1 is a temperate phage that can be directly induced in hosts. In response to mitomycin C induction, virus-like particles can increase to 7 × 109 per ml, while host cells decrease an order of magnitude. The vB_CibM-P1 bacteriophage is the first inducible prophage from AAPB.

  7. Understanding the detailed motion of a model bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thawani, Akanksha; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the motion of flagellated bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, we have built a macroscopic model bacterium, in order to investigate the intricate aspects of their motion which cannot be visualized under a microscope. The flagellated rod shaped cells were approximated with a spherical head attached to a rigid metal helix, via a plastic hook. The motion of model bacterium was observed in a high viscosity silicone oil to replicate the low Reynolds number flow conditions. A significant wobble was observed even in the absence of an off-axis flagellum. We suspect that the flexibility in the hook connecting the head and flagellum is the cause for wobble, since wobble was observed to increase significantly with hook-flexibility. The motion of the model bacterium was predicted using the Slender Body theory of Lighthill, and was compared with the measured trajectories.

  8. Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2015-02-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 °C (optimum 40 °C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ω-alicyclic (ω-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) ( = DSM 28700(T) = NBRC 108949(T) = NRIC 0938(T)).

  9. Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. solipictus subsp. nov., a pigmented bacterium isolated from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and emended description of L. chromiireducens.

    PubMed

    Muir, Rachel E; Tan, Man-Wah

    2007-12-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, irregular rod-shaped bacterium (strain TAN 31504(T)) was isolated from the bacteriophagous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, DNA G+C content of 69.5 mol%, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, major menaquinone MK-11, abundance of anteiso- and iso-fatty acids, polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol and a number of shared biochemical characteristics, strain TAN 31504(T) was placed in the genus Leucobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 91 % DNA-DNA relatedness between strain TAN 31504(T) and Leucobacter chromiireducens LMG 22506(T) indicating that these two strains belong to the same species, when the recommended threshold value of 70 % DNA-DNA relatedness for the definition of a bacterial species by the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics is considered. Based on distinct differences in morphology, physiology, chemotaxonomic markers and various biochemical characteristics, it is proposed to split the species L. chromiireducens into two novel subspecies, Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. chromiireducens subsp. nov. (type strain L-1(T)=CIP 108389(T)=LMG 22506(T)) and Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. solipictus subsp. nov. (type strain TAN 31504(T)=DSM 18340(T)=ATCC BAA-1336(T)). PMID:18048723

  10. Lysinibacillus endophyticus sp. nov., an indole-3-acetic acid producing endophytic bacterium isolated from corn root (Zea mays cv. Xinken-5).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang; Guan, Xuejiao; Liu, Chongxi; Xiang, Wensheng; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Xiaobing; Wang, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain C9(T), was isolated from surface sterilised corn roots (Zea mays cv. Xinken-5) and found to be able to produce indole-3-acetic acid. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to determine the status of strain C9(T). The major cellular fatty acids were found to contain iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0, and the only menaquinone was identified as MK-7. The polar lipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to be of the A4α L-Lys-D-Asp type and the whole cell sugar was found to be glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain C9(T) belongs to the genus Lysinibacillus and is closely related to Lysinibacillus chungkukjangi NBRC 108948(T) (98.1 % similarity) and Lysinibacillus sinduriensis DSM 27595(T) (98.0 %). However, the low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and some differential phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain C9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name Lysinibacillus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C9(T) (=DSM 100506(T) = CGMCC 1.15291(T)).

  11. Wenzhouxiangella marina gen. nov, sp. nov, a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122, and proposal of Wenzhouxiangellaceae fam. nov. in the order Chromatiales.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Li, Tao; Dai, Shikun; Wu, Huanlian; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-phototrophic, non-alkaliphilic, obligately aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Ma-11(T), was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain Ma-11(T) has less than 91 % similarity to its closest relative, Thioalkalivibrio sulfidiphilus HL-EbGR7(T), represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage in the order Chromatiales, and could not be assigned to any defined families in this order. Chemotaxonomic, genetic and physiological characteristics, including major fatty acids, genomic G+C content, lack of motility, aerophilicity and chemoheterotrophicity, could readily distinguish strain Ma-11(T) from any established members of the order Chromatiales. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and its signature nucleotide pattern, a new family Wenzhouxiangellaceae fam. nov. comprising the genus Wenzhouxiangella gen. nov. and species Wenzhouxiangella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ma-11(T) (=CGMCC 1.14936(T) = KCTC 42284(T) = MCCC 1K00261(T)).

  12. Lysobacter cavernae sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a cave sample.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Ying-Liang; Cheng, Juan; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Salam, Nimaichand; Fang, Bao-Zhu; Li, Qing-Qing; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-staining negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated YIM C01544(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Sigangli Cave, Yunnan province, South-West China. The strain was able to grow over a range of temperatures (4-30 °C), pH (6.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (0-2 %, w/v). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain YIM C01544(T) should be a member of the genus Lysobacter. The strain is closely related to Lysobacter niastensis GH41-7(T) (97.6 %), Lysobacter soli DCY21(T) (97.5 %), Lysobacter enzymogenes DSM 2043(T) (97.3 %), Lysobacter antibioticus DSM 2044(T) (97.1 %) and Lysobacter panacisoli CJ29(T) (97.1 %). The genomic DNA relatedness values (<47 %) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization studies were below the threshold limit for characterization of new bacterial species. The chemotaxonomic features of the new isolate include diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids as its characteristic polar lipids and Q-8 as the only quinone. The major fatty acids detected were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:1 ω9c. The DNA G + C content of the strain was determined to be 64.9 mol %. Based on the data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular studies, strain YIM C01544(T) merits recognition as novel species in the genus Lysobacter for which the name Lysobacter cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Lysobacter cavernae is YIM C01544(T) (= KCTC 42875(T) = DSM 101561(T) = CPCC 100816(T)). PMID:27180096

  13. Paenibacillus puernese sp. nov., a β-glucosidase-producing bacterium isolated from Pu'er tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Singh, Priyanka; Wang, Chao; Chun-Yang, Deok

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, endospore-forming, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as DCY97(T), was isolated from ripened Pu'er tea and was identified by using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain DCY97(T) was closely related to Paenibacillus dongdonensis KUDC0114(T) (98.0 %), Paenibacillus oceanisediminis L10(T) (97.7 %), and Paenibacillus barcinonensis BP-23(T) (97.2 %). The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain DCY97(T) matched with the characteristics of members belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. The major identified polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (35.1 %), anteiso-C16:0 (19.0 %), and iso-C16:0 (13.9 %). The peptidoglycan cell wall was composed of meso-diaminopimelic acids, alanine, and D-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G + C content was determined to be 46.7 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY97(T) and Paenibacillus dongdonensis KCTC 33221(T), Paenibacillus oceanisediminis KACC 16023(T), Paenibacillus barcinonensis KCTC 13019(T) were 27, 19, and 10 %, respectively. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain DCY97(T) is considered as a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus puernese sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY97(T) (=KCTC 33596(T) = JCM 140369(T)). PMID:26721586

  14. Xenophilus arseniciresistens sp. nov., an arsenite-resistant bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin-Fen; Sun, Li-Na; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Chen, Qing; He, Jian; Li, Shun-Peng; Zhang, Jun

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, arsenite [As(III)]-resistant bacterium, designated strain YW8(T), was isolated from agricultural soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed over 97% sequence similarity to strains of the environmental species Xenophilus azovorans, Xenophilus aerolatus, Simplicispira metamorpha, Variovorax soli, and Xylophilus ampelinus. However, the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain YW8(T) formed a separate clade from Xenophilus azovorans. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YW8(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbours were below 24.2-35.5%, which clearly separated the strain from these closely related species. The major cellular fatty acids of strain YW8(T) were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(18 : 1)ω7c, and summed feature 3(C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c). The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, an unknown polar lipid and phosphatidylserine. The major polyamines were 2-hydroxyputrescine and putrescine. On the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, phylogenetic position, DNA-DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic data, strain YW8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Xenophilus, for which the name Xenophilus arseniciresistens sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YW8(T) ( = CCTCC AB2012103(T) = KACC 16853(T)).

  15. Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ke; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Li-Li

    2010-02-01

    A novel bacterium, TRM 0175(T), belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a soil sample taken from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. It was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of 0-20 % (optimum at 10-13 %), at 15-50 degrees C (optimum at 37 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0). Metabolism was respiratory with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. Acid was produced from D-ribose, D- and L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose and D- and L-fucose and was produced weakly from aesculin. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.0 mol%. The affiliation of strain TRM 0175(T) with the genus Halomonas was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The most closely related species was Halomonas anticariensis; 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between H. anticariensis FP35(T) and strain TRM 0175(T) was 95.3 %. Phenotypically, some characteristics of TRM 0175(T) differed from those of H. anticariensis. On the basis of data from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 0175(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TRM 0175(T) (=CCTCC AB 208329(T) =KCTC 22608(T)). PMID:19651733

  16. Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from saline sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Ma, Ke-Dong; Wang, Yan-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Li, Yan-Bin; Zhou, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Kong, De-Long; Guo, Xiang; He, Ming-Xiong; Ruan, Zhi-Yong

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporogenous, aerobic, rod-shaped and halophilic bacterium, designated LAM0015(T), was isolated from a saline sediment sample collected from Yantai City in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 5-25 % (w/v) (optimum: 7-12 %), 15-45 °C (optimum: 35 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum: 7.0). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, five phospholipids and one glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol% as determined by the T m method. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belongs within the genus Lentibacillus and is closely related to Lentibacillus persicus DSM 22530(T), Lentibacillus salicampi JCM 11462(T) and Lentibacillus jeotgali JCM 15795(T) with 97.3, 96.7 and 96.4 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between LAM0015(T) and L. persicus DSM 22530(T) was 51.2 ± 1.4 %. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0015(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0015(T) (=ACCC 06401(T) = JCM 19838(T)). PMID:26545789

  17. Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from saline sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Ma, Ke-Dong; Wang, Yan-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Li, Yan-Bin; Zhou, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Kong, De-Long; Guo, Xiang; He, Ming-Xiong; Ruan, Zhi-Yong

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporogenous, aerobic, rod-shaped and halophilic bacterium, designated LAM0015(T), was isolated from a saline sediment sample collected from Yantai City in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 5-25 % (w/v) (optimum: 7-12 %), 15-45 °C (optimum: 35 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum: 7.0). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, five phospholipids and one glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol% as determined by the T m method. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belongs within the genus Lentibacillus and is closely related to Lentibacillus persicus DSM 22530(T), Lentibacillus salicampi JCM 11462(T) and Lentibacillus jeotgali JCM 15795(T) with 97.3, 96.7 and 96.4 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between LAM0015(T) and L. persicus DSM 22530(T) was 51.2 ± 1.4 %. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0015(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0015(T) (=ACCC 06401(T) = JCM 19838(T)).

  18. Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ke; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Li-Li

    2010-02-01

    A novel bacterium, TRM 0175(T), belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a soil sample taken from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. It was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of 0-20 % (optimum at 10-13 %), at 15-50 degrees C (optimum at 37 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0). Metabolism was respiratory with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. Acid was produced from D-ribose, D- and L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose and D- and L-fucose and was produced weakly from aesculin. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.0 mol%. The affiliation of strain TRM 0175(T) with the genus Halomonas was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The most closely related species was Halomonas anticariensis; 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between H. anticariensis FP35(T) and strain TRM 0175(T) was 95.3 %. Phenotypically, some characteristics of TRM 0175(T) differed from those of H. anticariensis. On the basis of data from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 0175(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TRM 0175(T) (=CCTCC AB 208329(T) =KCTC 22608(T)).

  19. Virgibacillus subterraneus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic Gram-positive bacterium isolated from subsurface saline soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-12-01

    A Gram reaction-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated H57B72(T), was isolated from subsurface saline soil of Qaidam basin in the Qinghai province, China. Cells were rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, spore-forming and motile. The isolate grew optimally at 9 % (w/v) NaCl, pH7.5 and 30°C. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain H57B72(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (59.97 %) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) (17.14 %). Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and a glycolipid were found to be the predominant polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain H57B72(T) was 37.1mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain H57B72(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and was most closely related to Virgibacillus salinus DSM 21756(T) (98.3 % gene sequence similarity). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain H57B72(T) and V. salinus DSM 21756(T) was 8.5 %. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data presented, strain H57B72(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Virgibacillus subterraneus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H57B72(T) (=DSM 22441(T) =CGMCC 1.7734(T)). PMID:20061492

  20. Virgibacillus sediminis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt lake in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Cui, Xiao-Long; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Wen, Meng-Liang; Peng, Qian

    2009-08-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, alkalitolerant, strictly aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain YIM kkny3T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a salt lake in the Qaidam Basin of north-west China. Cells were motile by means of peritrichous flagella and formed ellipsoidal endospores lying in subterminal swollen sporangia. Growth occurred with 1-20% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and 10-55 degrees C (optimum, 35-40 degrees C). It was unable to grow with NaCl as the only salt. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The strain contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid as polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was 40.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM kkny3T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus, and was most closely related to the type strains of Virgibacillus olivae (97.1% similarity), Virgibacillus marismortui (97.0%) and Virgibacillus kekensis (96.8%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM kkny3T and the type strains of V. olivae, V. marismortui and V. kekensis were 12.4, 10.6 and 15.7%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, genotypic data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic differences indicated that strain YIM kkny3T represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM kkny3T (=CCTCC AA 207023T=DSM 19797T=KCTC 13193T). PMID:19605714

  1. Virgibacillus kekensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt lake in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Cui, Xiao-Long; Fritze, Dagmar; Chai, Li-Hong; Schumann, Peter; Wen, Meng-Liang; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2008-03-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, motile, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain YIM kkny16(T), was isolated from a saline mud sample collected from the Keke salt lake in the Qaidam Basin, north-west China. This isolate grew in the presence of 0-25 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 10-50 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 10 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C. Strain YIM kkny16(T) had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, with a significant amount of MK-6, and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(14 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol as major fatty acids. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 41.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain YIM kkny16(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus, exhibiting sequence similarities of 94.9-97.3 % to the type strains of recognized Virgibacillus species. Strain YIM kkny16(T) could be differentiated from recognized Virgibacillus species based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain YIM kkny16(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus kekensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM kkny16(T) (=DSM 17056(T)=CGMCC 1.6298(T)). PMID:18319472

  2. Virgibacillus litoralis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Peng, De-Jiao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yan-Qi

    2009-10-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 089168(T), was isolated from saline soil collected from Naozhou Island, Leizhou Bay, South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 2-25% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The strain contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0), and the DNA G + C content was 40.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 089168(T) should be assigned to the genus Virgibacillus, being related most closely to the type strains of Virgibacillus carmonensis (sequence similarity 97.6%), Virgibacillus necropolis (97.3%) and Virgibacillus halodenitrificans (97.1%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JSM 089168(T) and the type strains of V. carmonensis, V. necropolis and V. halodenitrificans were 20.4, 14.3 and 12.0%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 089168(T) represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 089168(T) (=DSM 21085(T) =KCTC 13228(T)). PMID:19459062

  3. Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Qi-Hui; Peng, De-Jiao; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2009-11-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 079157(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coastline of Naozhou Island in South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 4-7%), and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (45.1%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (16.2%), and the DNA G + C content was 39.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 079157(T) should be assigned to the genus Virgibacillus, being related most closely to the type strains of Virgibacillus litoralis (97.4% sequence similarity), Virgibacillus necropolis (97.3%) and Virgibacillus carmonensis (97.1%). These four strains formed a distinct subcluster in the phylogenetic tree. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of V. litoralis, V. necropolis and V. carmonensis were 30.4, 19.3 and 12.6%, respectively. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, combined with DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic information, support the suggestion that strain JSM 079157(T) represents a new species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 079157(T) (=DSM 21084(T) = KCTC 13227(T)). PMID:19774482

  4. Shewanella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoo, Han-Su; Lee, Dong-Heon; Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium motile by means of a single polar flagella, strain ST-6T, was isolated from a brown alga (Sargassum thunbergii) collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Strain ST-6T was psychrotolerant, growing at 4-30 °C (optimum 20 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences revealed that strain ST-6T belonged to a distinct lineage in the genus Shewanella. Strain ST-6T was related most closely to Shewanella basaltis J83T, S. gaetbuli TF-27T, S. arctica IT12T, S. vesiculosa M7T and S. aestuarii SC18T, showing 96-97 % and 85-70 % 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ST-6T and the type strains of two species of the genus Shewanella were <22.6 %. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/ or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, iso-C13:0 and C17:1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain ST-6Twas 42.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone MK-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain ST-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST-6T (= KCTC 23253T = JCM 31091T). PMID:26962005

  5. Halobacillus naozhouensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zhang, You-Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Borrathybay, Entomack; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long

    2009-06-01

    A moderately halophilic, Gram-positive, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 071068(T), was isolated from a sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica) collected from the Naozhou Island on the Leizhou Bay in the South China Sea. Cells were motile by means of peritrichous flagella and formed ellipsoidal endospores lying in subterminal swollen sporangia. Strain JSM 071068(T) was able to grow with 1-20% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 6-9%), at pH values of 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and a temperature range of 10-35 degrees C (optimum, 25 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(15:0). The genomic DNA G + C content was 42.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 071068(T) belonged to the genus Halobacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain JSM 071068(T) and the type strains of the recognized Halobacillus species ranged from 97.9% (with Halobacillus alkaliphilus) to 95.3% (with Halobacillus kuroshimensis). The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of H. alkaliphilus, Halobacillus campisalis, Halobacillus halophilus and Halobacillus seohaensis were 25.6, 22.1, 10.8 and 13.2%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 071068(T) represents a new species of the genus Halobacillus, for which the name Halobacillus naozhouensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 071068(T) (=DSM 21183(T) =KCTC 13234(T)) as the type strain.

  6. Alteromonas halophila sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Borrathybay, Entomack; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun; Liu, Yan-Qi

    2009-10-01

    A pale yellow-colored, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, motile, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 073008(T), was isolated from a sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica) collected from Naozhou Island, Leizhou Bay, South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 1-20% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 10-40 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(16:0), C(16:1) omega7c/iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and C(18:1) omega7c. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the genomic DNA G + C content was 47.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 073008(T) should be assigned to the genus Alteromonas, being most closely related to Alteromonas hispanica F-32(T) (sequence similarity 96.9%), followed by Alteromonas genovensis LMG 24078(T) (96.6%) and Alteromonas litorea TF-22(T) (96.4%). The sequence similarities between the novel isolate and the type strains of other recognized Alteromonas species ranged from 95.9% (with Alteromonas stellipolaris ANT 69a(T)) to 94.5% (with Alteromonas simiduii BCRC 17572(T)). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 073008(T) represents a new species of the genus Alteromonas, for which the name Alteromonas halophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 073008(T) (=CCTCC AA 207035(T) = KCTC 22164(T)).

  7. Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Qi-Hui; Peng, De-Jiao; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2009-11-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 079157(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coastline of Naozhou Island in South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 4-7%), and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (45.1%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (16.2%), and the DNA G + C content was 39.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 079157(T) should be assigned to the genus Virgibacillus, being related most closely to the type strains of Virgibacillus litoralis (97.4% sequence similarity), Virgibacillus necropolis (97.3%) and Virgibacillus carmonensis (97.1%). These four strains formed a distinct subcluster in the phylogenetic tree. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of V. litoralis, V. necropolis and V. carmonensis were 30.4, 19.3 and 12.6%, respectively. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, combined with DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic information, support the suggestion that strain JSM 079157(T) represents a new species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 079157(T) (=DSM 21084(T) = KCTC 13227(T)).

  8. Virgibacillus litoralis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Peng, De-Jiao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yan-Qi

    2009-10-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 089168(T), was isolated from saline soil collected from Naozhou Island, Leizhou Bay, South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 2-25% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The strain contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0), and the DNA G + C content was 40.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 089168(T) should be assigned to the genus Virgibacillus, being related most closely to the type strains of Virgibacillus carmonensis (sequence similarity 97.6%), Virgibacillus necropolis (97.3%) and Virgibacillus halodenitrificans (97.1%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JSM 089168(T) and the type strains of V. carmonensis, V. necropolis and V. halodenitrificans were 20.4, 14.3 and 12.0%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 089168(T) represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 089168(T) (=DSM 21085(T) =KCTC 13228(T)).

  9. Pontibacillus halophilus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Yi, Lang-Bo; Shi, Jin-Xiao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-07-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 076056(T), was isolated from a sea urchin collected from the South China Sea. Cells were motile by means of peritrichous flagella and formed ellipsoidal endospores lying in subterminal swollen sporangia. Strain JSM 076056(T) was able to grow at salinities of 2-25 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-40 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 5-10 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 7.0-8.0 and 25-30 degrees C. It was incapable of growing with NaCl as the sole salt. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(14 : 0,) anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 45.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 076056(T) belonged to the family Bacillaceae and was related most closely to the type strains of the two recognized species of the genus Pontibacillus, namely Pontibacillus chungwhensis BH030062(T) (96.4 % sequence similarity) and Pontibacillus marinus BH030004(T) (96.2 %); these three strains formed a robust cluster in the phylogenetic tree. In combination, the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data indicate that strain JSM 076056(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacillus, for which the name Pontibacillus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 076056(T) (=CCTCC AA 207029(T) =DSM 19796(T) =KCTC 13190(T)).

  10. Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-12-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, strain JSM 071004(T), was isolated from a sea anemone collected from Neizhou Bay in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0.5-10 % (w/v) total salts (optimum 2-4 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum pH 8.5) and 4-30 degrees C (optimum 25 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 071004(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, being related most closely to the type strain of Bacillus agaradhaerens (sequence similarity 97.3 %), followed by the type strains of Bacillus cellulosilyticus (96.2 %), Bacillus clarkii (96.1 %) and Bacillus polygoni (96.0 %). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data support the proposal that strain JSM 071004(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 071004(T) (=CCTCC AB 207161(T) =DSM 19794(T) =KCTC 13187(T)) as the type strain.

  11. Modicisalibacter tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from an oilfield-water injection sample, and emended description of the family Halomonadaceae Franzmann et al. 1989 emend Dobson and Franzmann 1996 emend. Ntougias et al. 2007.

    PubMed

    Ben Ali Gam, Zouhaier; Abdelkafi, Slim; Casalot, Laurence; Tholozan, Jean Luc; Oueslati, Ridha; Labat, Marc

    2007-10-01

    An aerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating bacterium, strain LIT2(T), was isolated from an oilfield-water injection after enrichment on crude oil. Strain LIT2(T) grew between 15 and 45 degrees C and optimally at 37 degrees C. It grew in the presence of 1-25 % (w/v) NaCl, with an optimum at 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0) (26.9 %), C(18 : 1)omega7c (22.6 %), C(16 : 1)omega7c (20.4 %) C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c (10.9 %) and C(17 : 0) (8 %). Interestingly, the relative percentages of these last two fatty acids were intermediate compared with most species among the family Halomonadaceae for which fatty acid composition has been determined. The DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%, which is very low among the family Halomonadaceae. Strain LIT2(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 94.06-95.15 % to members of the genus Chromohalobacter, 94.21-94.65 % to members of the genus Halomonas and 93.57 % with the single species representative of the genus Cobetia. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented in this paper, we propose the name Modicisalibacter tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain LIT2(T). The type strain of Modicisalibacter tunisiensis is LIT2(T) (=CCUG 52917(T) =CIP 109206(T)). A reassignment of the descriptive 16S rRNA signature characteristics of the family Halomonadaceae permitted placement of the new genus Modicisalibacter into the family.

  12. Oligoflexus tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, filamentous bacterium of a novel proteobacterial lineage, and description of Oligoflexaceae fam. nov., Oligoflexales ord. nov. and Oligoflexia classis nov.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Ryosuke; Nishijima, Miyuki; Tazato, Nozomi; Handa, Yutaka; Karray, Fatma; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    A phylogenetically novel proteobacterium, strain Shr3(T), was isolated from sand gravels collected from the eastern margin of the Sahara Desert. The isolation strategy targeted bacteria filterable through 0.2-µm-pore-size filters. Strain Shr3(T) was determined to be a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, filamentous bacterium. Oxidase and catalase reactions were positive. Strain Shr3(T) showed growth on R2A medium, but poor or no growth on nutrient agar, trypticase soy agar and standard method agar. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The dominant cellular fatty acids detected were C16:1ω5c and C16:0, and the primary hydroxy acid present was C12:0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 54.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Shr3(T) was affiliated with an uncultivated lineage of the phylum Proteobacteria; the nearest known type strain, with 83% sequence similarity, was Desulfomicrobium orale DSM 12838(T) in the class Deltaproteobacteria. The isolate and closely related environmental clones formed a novel class-level clade in the phylum Proteobacteria with high bootstrap support (96-99%). Based on these results, the novel class Oligoflexia classis nov. in the phylum Proteobacteria and the novel genus and species Oligoflexus tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are proposed for strain Shr3(T), the first cultivated representative of the Oligoflexia. The type strain of Oligoflexus tunisiensis is Shr3(T) ( = JCM 16864(T) = NCIMB 14846(T)). We also propose the subordinate taxa Oligoflexales ord. nov. and Oligoflexaceae fam. nov. in the class Oligoflexia.

  13. Oligoflexus tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, filamentous bacterium of a novel proteobacterial lineage, and description of Oligoflexaceae fam. nov., Oligoflexales ord. nov. and Oligoflexia classis nov.

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Ryosuke; Nishijima, Miyuki; Tazato, Nozomi; Handa, Yutaka; Karray, Fatma; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    A phylogenetically novel proteobacterium, strain Shr3T, was isolated from sand gravels collected from the eastern margin of the Sahara Desert. The isolation strategy targeted bacteria filterable through 0.2-µm-pore-size filters. Strain Shr3T was determined to be a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, filamentous bacterium. Oxidase and catalase reactions were positive. Strain Shr3T showed growth on R2A medium, but poor or no growth on nutrient agar, trypticase soy agar and standard method agar. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The dominant cellular fatty acids detected were C16 : 1ω5c and C16 : 0, and the primary hydroxy acid present was C12 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 54.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Shr3T was affiliated with an uncultivated lineage of the phylum Proteobacteria; the nearest known type strain, with 83 % sequence similarity, was Desulfomicrobium orale DSM 12838T in the class Deltaproteobacteria. The isolate and closely related environmental clones formed a novel class-level clade in the phylum Proteobacteria with high bootstrap support (96–99 %). Based on these results, the novel class Oligoflexia classis nov. in the phylum Proteobacteria and the novel genus and species Oligoflexus tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are proposed for strain Shr3T, the first cultivated representative of the Oligoflexia. The type strain of Oligoflexus tunisiensis is Shr3T ( = JCM 16864T = NCIMB 14846T). We also propose the subordinate taxa Oligoflexales ord. nov. and Oligoflexaceae fam. nov. in the class Oligoflexia. PMID:25013226

  14. The growth of Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov., a novel agar-degrading bacterium isolated from soil, is enhanced by the diffusible metabolites produced by bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masao; Hosoda, Akifumi; Ogura, Kenjiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5-B(T), belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FS(T), at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5-B(T) was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15-37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0-8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1ω7c, and iso-C17:1ω9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FS(T) was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5-B(T) (JCM 18477(T) = KCTC 32107(T)) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. The Growth of Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov., a Novel Agar-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Soil, is Enhanced by the Diffusible Metabolites Produced by Bacteria Belonging to Rhizobiales

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Masao; Hosoda, Akifumi; Ogura, Kenjiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5–BT, belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FST, at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5–BT was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15–37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0–8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso–C15:0, C16:1ω7c, and iso–C17:1ω9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FST was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5–BT (JCM 18477T = KCTC 32107T) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24621511

  16. Crystalline characterization and photodecomposition properties of rod-shaped Na2Ti6O13 powder prepared by molten salt process.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hye-Kyung; Oh, Hyo-Jin; Noh, Kyung-Jong; Jung, Sang-Chul; Park, Kyeong-Soon; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Sun-Jae

    2011-08-01

    To prepare one-dimensional nanostructured Na2Ti6O13 powder, the starting materials of TiO2, NaCl and Na2CO3 were mixed and then heat-treated at 1000 degrees C for 2 hrs in air under molten state of NaCl. Changes in shape and phase, photo absorbance and photocatalytic ability of TiO2 particle were observed controlling added amount of Na2CO3 under constant weight ratio of TiO2 to NaCl using SEM, X-ray diffractometer, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The TiO2 particle was changed into rod-shape Na2Ti6O13 with the addition of Na2CO3, showing increase in optical energy band-gap of the powder as well as gradual decrease of the photo-decomposition ability.

  17. Oleiphilaceae fam. nov., to include Oleiphilus messinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium that obligately utilizes hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Golyshin, Peter N; Chernikova, Tatiana N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Timmis, Kenneth N; Yakimov, Michail M

    2002-05-01

    A bacterial isolate, ME102T, was obtained from an n-hexadecane enrichment culture of seawater/sediment samples collected in the harbour of Messina (Italy). This gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium used a narrow spectrum of organic compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkanoates and alkanoles, as carbon and energy sources. None of the sugars, organic acids or amino acids tested was used. During cultivation on n-alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy, the cells formed a biofilm on the surface of the alkane droplets. Large-scale (sometimes >50% of the cell mass) intracellular accumulation of alkanoates occurred in cells adsorbed on the alkane surface and under nitrogen-limiting conditions. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this isolate represents a distinct lineage in the gamma-Proteobacteria and has about 91% sequence identity to members of Marinobacter and Alcanivorax, the closest genera. Four different types of polar lipid could be detected, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethylamine, phosphatidyl dimethylethylamine and lipids belonging to an unknown type of phospholipid (m/z between 861 and 879). The principal fatty acids in the polar lipid fatty acid profile were 16:0 and 16:1. The putative gene encoding the key enzyme of alkane catabolism, alkane hydroxylase (AlkB), has been cloned. The protein sequence of the putative AlkB of the isolate ME102T was related to the AlkB of Pseudomonas oleovorans and Alcanivorax borkumensis, showing about 60% sequence identity. On the basis of physiological studies and taking into account the distant phylogenetic position of isolate ME102T relative to previously described organisms, a novel genus and species is proposed, Oleiphilus messinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., within a new family, Oleiphilaceae fam. nov. Strain ME102T (= DSM 13489T = LMG 20357T) is the type and only strain of O. messinensis. PMID:12054256

  18. Sphingomonas panaciterrae sp. nov., a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kang, Chang Ho; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Hoang, Van-An; Choi, Eul-Su; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Strain DCY91(T), a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from soil of ginseng field in Gyeonggi province, South Korea. Strain DCY91(T) shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas mucosissima DSM 17494(T) (98.55%), Sphingomonas dokdonensis KACC 17420(T) (98.11%) and Sphingomonas xinjiangensis DSM 26736(T) (96.68%). The strain DCY91(T) was found to able to grow best in trypticase soy agar at 28 °C, at pH 7 and at 0.5 % NaCl. Ubiquinone 10 was identified as the isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids of strain DCY91(T) were identified as unsaturated C18:1 ω7c and saturated C16:0. The major polyamine content was sym-homospermidine. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 65.8 mol% (HPLC). After 6 days of incubation, strain DCY91(T) produced 9.64 ± 1.73 and 33.73 ± 4.66 µg/ml indole-3-acetic acid, using media without L-tryptophan and supplemented with L-tryptophan, respectively. Strain DCY91(T) was also weakly solubilized phosphate and produced siderophores. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, genotypic analysis and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain DCY91(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas panaciterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY91(T) (=KCTC 42346(T) =JCM 30807(T)).

  19. Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov., a halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from saline-sodic soil in Daqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Sun, Lei; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Baoku; Zhang, Junzheng; Gu, Xuejia; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ying; Li, Yidan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Shuang; Pan, Yaqing; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, bacterium, designated strain X10-1(T), was isolated from saline-alkaline soil in Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Strain X10-1(T) was determined to be a Gram-positive aerobe with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, and capable of growth at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3%). The pH range for growth was 7.5-11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Its major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C16:0. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that X10-1(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to B. saliphilus DSM15402(T) (97.8% similarity) and B. agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of these species was less than 40%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical data, strain X10-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X10-1(T) (=NBRC 109404(T) = CGMCC 1.12295(T)). PMID:24879344

  20. Sphingomonas panaciterrae sp. nov., a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kang, Chang Ho; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Hoang, Van-An; Choi, Eul-Su; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Strain DCY91(T), a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from soil of ginseng field in Gyeonggi province, South Korea. Strain DCY91(T) shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas mucosissima DSM 17494(T) (98.55%), Sphingomonas dokdonensis KACC 17420(T) (98.11%) and Sphingomonas xinjiangensis DSM 26736(T) (96.68%). The strain DCY91(T) was found to able to grow best in trypticase soy agar at 28 °C, at pH 7 and at 0.5 % NaCl. Ubiquinone 10 was identified as the isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids of strain DCY91(T) were identified as unsaturated C18:1 ω7c and saturated C16:0. The major polyamine content was sym-homospermidine. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 65.8 mol% (HPLC). After 6 days of incubation, strain DCY91(T) produced 9.64 ± 1.73 and 33.73 ± 4.66 µg/ml indole-3-acetic acid, using media without L-tryptophan and supplemented with L-tryptophan, respectively. Strain DCY91(T) was also weakly solubilized phosphate and produced siderophores. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, genotypic analysis and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain DCY91(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas panaciterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY91(T) (=KCTC 42346(T) =JCM 30807(T)). PMID:26163005

  1. Sphingobacterium ginsenosidimutans sp. nov., a bacterium with ginsenoside-converting activity isolated from the soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Son, Heung-Min; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kook, Moo-Chang; Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Don-Gill; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacterium designated THG 07(T) was isolated from the soil of a ginseng field of Pocheon in South Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic study. Strain THG 07(T) grew optimally at 25-30°C and at pH 6.5-7.0 and in the absence of NaCl on nutrient agar. Strain THG-T17(T) displayed β-glucosidase activity that was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the dominant ginsenosides of ginseng) to compound C-K. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain THG 07(T) was shown to belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae and was related to Sphingobacterium canadense CR11(T) (98.7%), S. cladoniae No.6(T) (98.1%), S. detergens 6.2S(T) (98.0%), S. multivorum IAM14316(T) (97.9%), S. siyangense SY1(T) (97.8%) and S. thalpophilum DSM11723(T) (96.9%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.6 mol%. The major menaquinone, MK-7, and major fatty acids, iso-C₁₅:₀ and C₁₆:₁ ω7c and/or ω6c, supported the affiliation of strain THG 07(T) to the genus Sphingobacterium. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain THG 07(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbors were below 26.9%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests enabled strain THG 07(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from the recognized species of the genus Sphingobacterium. Therefore the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobacterium ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain THG 07(T) (=KACC 14526(T)=JCM 16722(T)).

  2. Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov., a hexabromocyclododecane assimilating bacterium from the pool of Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Wu, Hualian; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Xi; Tian, Xinpeng; Li, Jie; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane-assimilating bacterium, designated strain GYP-17(T), was isolated from a pool of marine Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China. Colonies on 1/10 strength of marine Glycerol Enriched Medium plates were circular, dark-brown, 1-2 mm in diameter, and with regular margins. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C, 1-10 % (w/v) NaCl and pH of 7-9. The polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C17:1ω9c/10-methyl-C16:0 (summed feature 9, 20.75 %), iso-C15:0 (17.70 %) and C16:0 (6.40 %). The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G + C content of the type strain was 53.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain GYP-17(T) was a member of the genus Aliidiomarina and closely related to Aliidiomarina haloalkalitolerans with a 16S rDNA sequence similarity of 96.36 %. Results from the polyphasic taxonomy study support the conclusion that strain GYP-17(T) represents a novel Aliidiomarina species, for which the name Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. sanyensis is GYP-17(T) (=KCTC 32218(T) =LMG 27471(T)). PMID:23748897

  3. Idiomarina atlantica sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the deep sea sediment of the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Yang; Du, Yaping; Liu, Xiupian; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2015-02-01

    An aerobic Gram-negative, slightly curved rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium, designated G5_TVMV8_7(T), was isolated from the deep sea sediment sample of the North Atlantic Ocean. Strain G5_TVMV8_7(T) displayed growth at 4-45 °C (optimum, 25-35 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum, 7.0-8.0) and in 1.0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0-5.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain G5_TVMV8_7(T) belongs to the genus Idiomarina, sharing the highest similarity with Idiomarina salinarum ISL-52(T) (97.4 %) and I. homiensis PO-M2(T) (97.1 %) followed by other validly described species of the genus Idiomarina (96.9-93.5 %). The G + C content of the genomic DNA was found to be 50.2 mol %. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain G5_TVMV8_7(T) and I. salinarum ISL-52(T) was 17.70 ± 2.24 %. The average nucleotide identity values between strain G5_TVMV8_7T and I. salinarum ISL-52(T) was found to be 70.03 %. The major fatty acids were C16:0 (12.7 %), iso-C15:0 (11.5 %) and Sum In Feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/ω6c) (13.5 %). The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as Q-8, and the polar lipids as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol including several unidentified polar lipids. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic results, a new species Idiomarina atlantica is proposed. The type strain is G5_TVMV8_7(T) (= MCCC 1A10513(T) = KCTC 42141(T)).

  4. Pelagibacillus goriensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halotolerant bacterium isolated from coastal water off the east coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Gon; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Yoo, Kwang Woo; Moon, Hyung Tae; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Byung Cheol

    2007-07-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halotolerant bacterium, designated CL-GR16(T), was isolated from coastal water off the east coast of Korea. The strain was strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by means of peritrichous flagella and produced ellipsoidal spores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate represented an independent lineage within Bacillus rRNA group 1, showing 93.6-94.6 % similarity with respect to the genus Ornithinibacillus, 94.0 % with respect to Paucisalibacillus, 91.0-93.5 % with respect to Virgibacillus, 93.2-93.3 % with respect to Salinibacillus and 92.8-93.2 % with respect to Oceanobacillus. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 7.5. Strain CL-GR16(T) was able to grow at NaCl concentrations from 0 to 14 %, with optimum growth occurring at 0-2 % NaCl. The strain lacked oxidase. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (65.6 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (11.0 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (9.1 %). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The G+C content of the DNA was 43 mol%. On the basis of the results of the polyphasic analysis, strain CL-GR16(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Pelagibacillus goriensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain CL-GR16(T) (=KCCM 42329(T)=DSM 18252(T)). PMID:17625193

  5. Marinobacter zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water of a tidal flat of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Da-Chun; Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Tan, Zhou-Cai; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long

    2009-10-01

    A novel Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 078120(T), was isolated from sea water collected from a tidal flat of Naozhou Island, South China Sea. Growth occurred with 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 2-4%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 4-35 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(18:1) omega9c, C(16:0), C(12:0) 3-OH and C(16:1) omega7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-9, and the genomic DNA G + C content was 60.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 078120(T) should be assigned to the genus Marinobacter, being related most closely to the type strains of Marinobacter segnicrescens (sequence similarity 98.2%), Marinobacter bryozoorum (97.9%) and Marinobacter gudaonensis (97.6%). The sequence similarities between the novel isolate and the type strains of other recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 96.7 (with Marinobacter salsuginis) to 93.3% (with Marinobacter litoralis). The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JSM 078120(T) and the type strains of M. segnicrescens, M. bryozoorum and M. gudaonensis were 25.3, 20.6 and 18.8%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 078120(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 078120(T) (= CCTCC AB 208029(T) = DSM 21077(T) = KCTC 22280(T)).

  6. Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov., a hexabromocyclododecane assimilating bacterium from the pool of Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Wu, Hualian; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Xi; Tian, Xinpeng; Li, Jie; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane-assimilating bacterium, designated strain GYP-17(T), was isolated from a pool of marine Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China. Colonies on 1/10 strength of marine Glycerol Enriched Medium plates were circular, dark-brown, 1-2 mm in diameter, and with regular margins. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C, 1-10 % (w/v) NaCl and pH of 7-9. The polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C17:1ω9c/10-methyl-C16:0 (summed feature 9, 20.75 %), iso-C15:0 (17.70 %) and C16:0 (6.40 %). The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G + C content of the type strain was 53.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain GYP-17(T) was a member of the genus Aliidiomarina and closely related to Aliidiomarina haloalkalitolerans with a 16S rDNA sequence similarity of 96.36 %. Results from the polyphasic taxonomy study support the conclusion that strain GYP-17(T) represents a novel Aliidiomarina species, for which the name Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. sanyensis is GYP-17(T) (=KCTC 32218(T) =LMG 27471(T)).

  7. Ammoniibacillus agariperforans gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, agar-degrading bacterium isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masao; Deguchi, Daigo; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kawauchi, Tomohiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    A thermophilic, agar-degrading bacterium, strain FAB2(T), was isolated from sewage sludge compost. According to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain FAB2(T) belonged to the family Paenibacillaceae within the phylum Firmicutes. However, FAB2(T) was different enough at the genus level from closely related species. The percentages of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with related organisms were 90.4 % for Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, 91.8 % for Paenibacillus barengoltzii, 89.4 % for Cohnella lupini, 90.1 % for Fontibacillus aquaticus, and 89.0 % for Saccharibacillus sacchari. Morphological and physiological analyses revealed that the strain was motile, rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic and able to form oval endospores in swollen sporangia. Ammonium was required as a nitrogen source while nitrate, nitrite, urea and glutamate were not utilized. Catalase and oxidase activities were weakly positive and positive, respectively. The bacterium grew in the temperature range of 50-65 °C and in media with pH 7.5 to 9.0. Optimal growth occurred at 60 °C and pH 8.0-8.6. Growth was inhibited at pH≤7.0 and NaCl concentrations ≥2.5 % (w/v). In chemotaxonomic characterization, MK-7 was identified as the dominant menaquinone. Major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. Dominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylcholine was present in a moderate amount. The diamino acid in the cell wall was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.5 mol% in a nucleic acid study. On the basis of genetic and phenotypic characteristics, strain FAB2(T) ( = NBRC 109510(T) = KCTC 33130(T)) showed characteristics suitable for classification as the type strain of a novel species of a new genus in the family Paenibacillaceae, for which the name Ammoniibacillus agariperforans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Complete genome of a coastal marine bacterium Muricauda lutaonensis KCTC 22339(T).

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeongsu; Choe, Hanna; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-10-01

    Muricauda lutaonensis KCTC 22339(T) is a yellow-pigmented, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from a coastal hot spring of a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean, off the eastern coast of Taiwan. We here report the complete genome of M. lutaonensis KCTC 22339(T), which consists of 3,274,259bp with the G+C content of 44.97%. The completion of the M. lutaonensis genome sequence is expected to provide a valuable resource for understanding the secondary metabolic pathways related to bacterial pigmentation.

  9. Complete genome of a coastal marine bacterium Muricauda lutaonensis KCTC 22339(T).

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeongsu; Choe, Hanna; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-10-01

    Muricauda lutaonensis KCTC 22339(T) is a yellow-pigmented, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from a coastal hot spring of a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean, off the eastern coast of Taiwan. We here report the complete genome of M. lutaonensis KCTC 22339(T), which consists of 3,274,259bp with the G+C content of 44.97%. The completion of the M. lutaonensis genome sequence is expected to provide a valuable resource for understanding the secondary metabolic pathways related to bacterial pigmentation. PMID:25986927

  10. Crystal phase-controlled synthesis of rod-shaped AgInTe2 nanocrystals for in vivo imaging in the near-infrared wavelength region.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Tatsuya; Ishigami, Yujiro; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Shimada, Taisuke; Baba, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kuwabata, Susumu; Torimoto, Tsukasa

    2016-03-14

    Rod-shaped AgInTe2 nanocrystals (NCs) exhibiting intense near-band edge photoluminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region, were successfully prepared by the thermal reaction of metal acetates and Te precursors in 1-dodecanethiol. Increasing the reaction temperature resulted in the formation of larger AgInTe2 NCs with crystal structures varying from hexagonal to tetragonal at reaction temperatures of 280 °C or higher. The energy gap was increased from 1.13 to 1.20 eV with a decrease in rod width from 8.3 to 5.6 nm, accompanied by a blue shift in the photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelength from 1097 to 1033 nm. The optimal PL quantum yield was approximately 18% for AgInTe2 NCs with rod widths of 5.6 nm. The applicability of AgInTe2 NCs as a NIR-emitting material for in vivo biological imaging was examined by injecting AgInTe2 NC-incorporated liposomes into the back of a C57BL/6 mouse, followed by in vivo photoluminescence imaging in the NIR region. PMID:26899620

  11. Control of the saturation temperature in magnetic heating by using polyethylene-glycol-coated rod-shaped nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Polyethylene-glycol (PEG)-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared for magnetic hyperthermia applications by using the co-precipitation method. The PEG coating occurred during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles were rod-shaped with an average length of 16 nm and an average diameter of 4.5 nm, as observed using transmission electron microscopy. The PEG coating on the surfaces of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics with negligible coercive force. Further, magnetic heating effects were observed in aqueous solutions of the coated nanoparticles. The saturation temperature could be controlled at 42 ℃ by changing the concentration of the nanoparticles in the aqueous solution. Alternately, the saturation temperature could be controlled for a given concentration of nanoparticles by changing the intensity of the magnetic field. The Curie temperature of the nanoparticles was estimated to be 495 ℃. These results for the PEG-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles showed the possibility of utilizing them for controlled magnetic hyperthermia at 42 ℃.

  12. A hybrid plant RNA virus made by transferring the noncapsid movement protein from a rod-shaped to an icosahedral virus is competent for systemic infection.

    PubMed

    De Jong, W; Ahlquist, P

    1992-08-01

    For many plant RNA viruses, multiple viral gene products, including noncapsid movement proteins and capsid proteins, contribute to the spread of infection within plants. The extent to which these factors interact to support infection spread is not known, but, for movement protein mutants of certain viruses, the inability of coinoculated "helper" viruses to complement defective movement has suggested a possible requirement for coadaptation between noncapsid movement proteins and other virus factors. To test directly for required coadaptation, the 3a movement protein gene of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, an icosahedral bromovirus, was replaced with the nonhomologous 30-kDa movement protein gene of sunn-hemp mosaic virus, a rod-shaped, cowpea-adapted tobamovirus. The resulting hybrid virus is competent for systemic infection of cowpea, with systemic infection dependent upon expression of the 30-kDa gene. In view of the dramatic differences between cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and sunn-hemp mosaic virus in genetic organization and particle morphology, the ability of the hybrid to systemically infect cowpea implies that the tobamovirus 30-kDa movement protein functions independently of sequence-specific interactions with other viral components or sequences. Similarly, the required contribution of bromovirus capsid protein to infection movement appears to be independent of specific interaction with the natural 3a movement protein. In addition to other implications concerning movement protein and coat protein function, the results are consistent with the possibility that two or more distinguishable transfer processes may be involved in crossing different tissue barriers to achieve full systemic spread of infection. PMID:1495969

  13. Lysinibacillus endophyticus sp. nov., an indole-3-acetic acid producing endophytic bacterium isolated from corn root (Zea mays cv. Xinken-5).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang; Guan, Xuejiao; Liu, Chongxi; Xiang, Wensheng; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Xiaobing; Wang, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain C9(T), was isolated from surface sterilised corn roots (Zea mays cv. Xinken-5) and found to be able to produce indole-3-acetic acid. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to determine the status of strain C9(T). The major cellular fatty acids were found to contain iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0, and the only menaquinone was identified as MK-7. The polar lipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to be of the A4α L-Lys-D-Asp type and the whole cell sugar was found to be glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain C9(T) belongs to the genus Lysinibacillus and is closely related to Lysinibacillus chungkukjangi NBRC 108948(T) (98.1 % similarity) and Lysinibacillus sinduriensis DSM 27595(T) (98.0 %). However, the low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and some differential phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain C9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name Lysinibacillus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C9(T) (=DSM 100506(T) = CGMCC 1.15291(T)). PMID:27401830

  14. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I; Vouidibio Mbozo, Alain B; Thorsen, Line; Anyogu, Amarachukwu; Nielsen, Dennis S; Kobawila, Simon C; Sutherland, Jane P

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate was most closely related to Lysinibacillus meyeri WS 4626T (98.93%), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus XDB9T (96.95%) and Lysinibacillus odysseyi 34hs-1T (96.94%). The DNA-DNA relatedness of the isolate with L. meyeri LMG 26643T, L. xylanilyticus DSM 23493T and L. odysseyi DSM 18869T was 41%, 16% and 15%, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer-PCR profile of the isolate was different from those of closely related bacteria. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4α, L-Lys-D-Asp and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C17:0 and iso-C17:1ω10c. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid, aminolipid, two phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6. Ribose was the only whole-cell sugar detected. The DNA G+C content was 38 mol%. Based on the results of the phenotypic and genotypic characterization, it was concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name of Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov. is proposed. NM73T ( = DSM 25583T = LMG 26837T) represents the type strain.

  15. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium found associated with laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Green, David H; Nichols, Peter D; Whitman, William B; Semple, Kirk T; Aitken, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C(16:0), C(16:1) ω7c, and C(18:1) ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Halobacillus sp. Strain KGW1, a Moderately Halophilic and Alkaline Protease-Producing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Phragmites karka from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ananta Narayan; Mishra, Samir R; Ray, Lopamudra; Sahu, Neha; Acharya, Ankita; Jadhao, Sudhir; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit Kumar; Raina, Vishakha

    2016-01-01

    Halobacillus sp. strain KGW1 is a moderately halophilic, rod shaped, Gram-positive, yellow pigmented, alkaline protease-producing bacterium isolated from a water sample from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Sequencing of bacterial DNA assembled a 3.68-Mb draft genome. The genome annotation analysis showed various gene clusters for tolerance to stress, such as elevated pH, salt concentration, and toxic metals. PMID:27365341

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Halobacillus sp. Strain KGW1, a Moderately Halophilic and Alkaline Protease-Producing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Phragmites karka from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananta Narayan; Mishra, Samir R.; Ray, Lopamudra; Sahu, Neha; Acharya, Ankita; Jadhao, Sudhir; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Halobacillus sp. strain KGW1 is a moderately halophilic, rod shaped, Gram-positive, yellow pigmented, alkaline protease-producing bacterium isolated from a water sample from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Sequencing of bacterial DNA assembled a 3.68-Mb draft genome. The genome annotation analysis showed various gene clusters for tolerance to stress, such as elevated pH, salt concentration, and toxic metals. PMID:27365341

  18. Longimicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., an oligotrophic bacterium of the under-represented phylum Gemmatimonadetes isolated through a system of miniaturized diffusion chambers.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel chemo-organoheterotroph bacterium, strain CB-286315T, was isolated from a Mediterranean forest soil sampled at the Sierra de Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Spain, by using the diffusion sandwich system, a device with 384 miniature diffusion chambers. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified the isolate as a member of the under-represented phylum Gemmatimonadetes, where 'Gemmatirosa kalamazoonensis' KBS708, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T and Gemmatimonas phototrophica AP64T were the closest relatives, with respective similarities of 84.4, 83.6 and 83.3 %. Strain CB-286315T was characterized as a Gram-negative, non-motile, short to long rod-shaped bacterium. Occasionally, some cells attained an unusual length, up to 35-40 μm. The strain showed positive responses for catalase and cytochrome-c oxidase and division by binary fission, and exhibited an aerobic metabolism, showing optimal growth under normal atmospheric conditions. Strain CB-286315T was also able to grow under micro-oxic atmospheres, but not under anoxic conditions. The strain is a slowly growing bacterium able to grow under low nutrient concentrations. Major fatty acids included iso-C17 : 1ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified glycolipids and three phospholipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-8 and the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 67.0 mol%. Based on a polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain CB-286315T represents a novel genus and species, Longimicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., within the phylum Gemmatimonadetes. The type strain of Longimicrobium terrae is strain CB-286315T ( = DSM 29007T = CECT 8660T). In order to classify the novel taxon within the existing taxonomic framework, the family Longimicrobiaceae fam. nov., order

  19. Longimicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., an oligotrophic bacterium of the under-represented phylum Gemmatimonadetes isolated through a system of miniaturized diffusion chambers.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel chemo-organoheterotroph bacterium, strain CB-286315T, was isolated from a Mediterranean forest soil sampled at the Sierra de Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Spain, by using the diffusion sandwich system, a device with 384 miniature diffusion chambers. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified the isolate as a member of the under-represented phylum Gemmatimonadetes, where 'Gemmatirosa kalamazoonensis' KBS708, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T and Gemmatimonas phototrophica AP64T were the closest relatives, with respective similarities of 84.4, 83.6 and 83.3 %. Strain CB-286315T was characterized as a Gram-negative, non-motile, short to long rod-shaped bacterium. Occasionally, some cells attained an unusual length, up to 35-40 μm. The strain showed positive responses for catalase and cytochrome-c oxidase and division by binary fission, and exhibited an aerobic metabolism, showing optimal growth under normal atmospheric conditions. Strain CB-286315T was also able to grow under micro-oxic atmospheres, but not under anoxic conditions. The strain is a slowly growing bacterium able to grow under low nutrient concentrations. Major fatty acids included iso-C17 : 1ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified glycolipids and three phospholipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-8 and the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 67.0 mol%. Based on a polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain CB-286315T represents a novel genus and species, Longimicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., within the phylum Gemmatimonadetes. The type strain of Longimicrobium terrae is strain CB-286315T ( = DSM 29007T = CECT 8660T). In order to classify the novel taxon within the existing taxonomic framework, the family Longimicrobiaceae fam. nov., order

  20. Halomonas heilongjiangensis sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from saline and alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Dou, Guiming; He, Wei; Liu, Hongcan; Ma, Yuchao

    2015-08-01

    A moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain 9-2(T), was isolated from saline and alkaline soil collected in Lindian county, Heilongjiang province, China. The strain was observed to be strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and motile. It was found to require NaCl for growth and to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-14 % (w/v) (optimum, 7-10 %, w/v), at temperatures of 10-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C) and at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum pH 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 9-2(T) is a member of the genus Halomonas and is closely related to Halomonas desiderata DSM 9502(T) (96.68 %), Halomonas campaniensis DSM 1293(T) (96.46 %), Halomonas ventosae DSM 15911(T) (96.27 %) and Halomonas kenyensis DSM 17331(T) (96.27 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization value was 38.9 ± 0.66 % between the novel isolate 9-2(T) and H. desiderata DSM 9502(T). The predominant ubiquinones were identified as Q9 (75.1 %) and Q8 (24.9 %). The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0 (22.0 %), Summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c/C18:1 ω7c, 19.6 %), Summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c/C16:1 ω7c, 12.6 %), C12:0 3-OH (12.0 %) and C10:0 (11.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 69.7 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain 9-2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas heilongjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9-2(T) (=DSM 26881(T) = CGMCC 1.12467(T)). PMID:26036672

  1. Biogenic Mineral Production by a Novel Arsenic-Metabolizing Thermophilic Bacterium from the Alvord Basin, Oregon▿

    PubMed Central

    Ledbetter, Rhesa N.; Connon, Stephanie A.; Neal, Andrew L.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2007-01-01

    The Alvord Basin in southeast Oregon contains a variety of hydrothermal features which have never been microbiologically characterized. A sampling of Murky Pot (61°C; pH 7.1) led to the isolation of a novel arsenic-metabolizing organism (YeAs) which produces an arsenic sulfide mineral known as β-realgar, a mineral that has not previously been observed as a product of bacterial arsenic metabolism. YeAs was grown on a freshwater medium and utilized a variety of organic substrates, particularly carbohydrates and organic acids. The temperature range for growth was 37 to 75°C (optimum, 55°C), and the pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0 to 7.5). No growth was observed when YeAs was grown under aerobic conditions. The doubling time when the organism was grown with yeast extract and As(V) was 0.71 h. Microscopic examination revealed Gram stain-indeterminate, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped cells, with dimensions ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 μm wide by 3 to 10 μm long. Arsenic sulfide mineralization of cell walls and extracellular arsenic sulfide particulate deposition were observed with electron microscopy and elemental analysis. 16S rRNA gene analysis placed YeAs in the family Clostridiaceae and indicated that the organism is most closely related to the Caloramator and Thermobrachium species. The G+C content was 35%. YeAs showed no detectable respiratory arsenate reductase but did display significant detoxification arsenate reductase activity. The phylogenetic, physiological, and morphological characteristics of YeAs demonstrate that it is an anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, arsenic-reducing bacterium. This organism and its associated metabolism could have major implications in the search for innovative methods for arsenic waste management and in the search for novel biogenic mineral signatures. PMID:17630300

  2. Caulobacter flavus sp. nov., a stalked bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Le-Ni; Yang, En-Dong; Wei, Jie-Chao; Tang, Xin-Yun; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Han, Guo-Min

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar flagellum or a stalk, designated strain RHGG3T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) collected from Hefei, China. Optimal growth of strain RHGG3T was observed at pH 7.0 and 28-30 °C. Cells were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain RHGG3T belonged to the genus Caulobacter and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Caulobacter segnis ATCC 21756T (98.6 %), Caulobacter vibrioides CB51T (98.3 %) and Caulobacter henricii ATCC 15253T (97.2 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70 mol%. Strain RHGG3T contained Q-10 as the sole ubiquinone and the major fatty acids (>8 %) were 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The polar lipids were various unknown glycolipids, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphoglycolipids. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain RHGG3T to type strains of the most closely related species (Caulobacter segnis ATCC 21756T, Caulobacter vibrioides DSM 4738 and Caulobacter henricii ATCC 15253T) was 32.4-40.9 %. Based on polyphasic taxonomy analysis (phylogenetic, unique phenotypic traits, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridizations), strain RHGG3T represents a novel species of the genus Caulobacter, for which the name Caulobacter flavus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RHGG3T ( = CGMCC 1.15093T = KCTC 42581T = JCM 30763T). PMID:26354335

  3. Tumebacillus flagellatus sp. nov., an α-amylase/pullulanase-producing bacterium isolated from cassava wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyan; Xie, Nengzhong; Qin, Yan; Shen, Naikun; Zhu, Jing; Mi, Huizhi; Huang, Ribo

    2013-09-01

    A novel α-amylase/pullulanase-producing bacterium, designated strain GST4(T), was isolated from samples collected from the wastewater of a cassava starch factory in Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region, southern China. Cells of strain GST4(T) were rod-shaped bacilli containing ellipsoidal terminal spores and found to be Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, motile, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and formed light yellow colonies on agar plates. Strain GST4(T) was able to grow at pH 4.5-8.5 (optimum at pH 5.5), temperatures ranging from 20 to 42 °C (optimum at 37 °C) and salt concentrations of 0-1% (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 0.5%, w/v) on R2A medium. Strain GST4(T) grew heterotrophically on complex carbon substrates and chemolithoautotrophically on inorganic sulfur compounds, as demonstrated by growth on sodium thiosulfate and sulfite as sole electron donors. It can reduce nitrate and nitrite. Strain GST4(T) contained iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(15:0) as the major cellular fatty acids and menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of type A1γ. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain GST4(T) was 53.7 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics combined with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain GST4(T) was a member of the genus Tumebacillus and most closely related to Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris DSM 18773(T) and Tumebacillus ginsengisoli DSM 18389(T) with 97.3 and 94.5% sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain GST4(T) and T. permanentifrigoris DSM 18773(T), and strain GST4(T) and T. ginsengisoli DSM 18389(T) were 44.0 and 60.4%, respectively. The new isolate differed from those species of the genus Tumebacillus in that it has peritrichous flagella for motility. Based on the evidence obtained from this study, strain GST4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus, for which the name Tumebacillus flagellatus sp. nov. is proposed

  4. Rheinheimera gaetbuli sp. nov., a Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Tidal Flat.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-03-01

    A gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, and motile bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated H26(T), was isolated from tidal flat sediment in Jeju Island, South Korea. Growth of strain H26(T) was observed at 4-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0), and 1-4 % NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain H26(T) formed a phyletic lineage within the genus Rheinheimera, family Chromatiaceae. Strain H26(T) was most closely related to Rheinheimera baltica OSBAC1(T), Rheinheimera aestuarii H29(T), Rheinheimera muenzenbergensis E49(T), and Rheinheimera aquimaris SW-353(T) with 98.5, 98.1, 97.8, and 97.5 % of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain H26(T) and the type strains of R. baltica, R. aestuarii, R. muenzenbergensis, and R. aquimaris were 35.5 ± 3.2, 33.4 ± 1.5, 31.2 ± 2.2, and 28.7 ± 0.9 %, respectively. The major fatty acids of strain H26(T) were iso-C15:0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c), iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C12:0 3-OH and the strain contained ubiquinone (Q-8) as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and an aminolipid were identified as the major polar lipids and the G + C content of the genomic DNA was 52.0 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular properties, strain H26(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimera gaetbuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain was H26(T) (=KACC 18254(T) = JCM 30403(T)). PMID:26660082

  5. A theoretical study of rotational diffusion models for rod-shaped viruses. The influence of motion on 31P nuclear magnetic resonance lineshapes and transversal relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1993-01-01

    Information about the interaction between nucleic acids and coat proteins in intact virus particles may be obtained by studying the restricted backbone dynamics of the incapsulated nucleic acids using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this article, simulations are carried out to investigate how reorientation of a rod-shaped virus particle as a whole and isolated nucleic acid motions within the virion influence the 31P NMR lineshape and transversal relaxation dominated by the phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy. Two opposite cases are considered on a theoretical level. First, isotropic rotational diffusion is used as a model for mobile nucleic acids that are loosely or partially bound to the protein coat. The effect of this type of diffusion on lineshape and transversal relaxation is calculated by solving the stochastic Liouville equation by an expansion in spherical functions. Next, uniaxial rotational diffusion is assumed to represent the mobility of phosphorus in a virion that rotates as a rigid rod about its length axis. This type of diffusion is approximated by an exchange process among discrete sites. As turns out from these simulations, the amplitude and the frequency of the motion can only be unequivocally determined from experimental data by a combined analysis of the lineshape and the transversal relaxation. In the fast motional region both the isotropic and the uniaxial diffusion model predict the same transversal relaxation as the Redfield theory. For very slow motion, transversal relaxation resembles the nonexponential relaxation as observed for water molecules undergoing translational diffusion in a magnetic field gradient. In this frequency region T2e is inversely proportional to the cube root of the diffusion coefficient. In addition to the isotropic and uniaxial diffusion models, a third model is presented, in which fast restricted nucleic acid backbone motions dominating the lineshape are superimposed on a slow rotation of the

  6. Sexual Transmission of a Plant Pathogenic Bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, between Conspecific Insect Vectors during Mating

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Rajinder S.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Hermann, Sara L.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2011-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. We investigated whether Las is transmitted between infected and uninfected D. citri adults during courtship. Our results indicate that Las was sexually transmitted from Las-infected male D. citri to uninfected females at a low rate (<4%) during mating. Sexual transmission was not observed following mating of infected females and uninfected males or among adult pairs of the same sex. Las was detected in genitalia of both sexes and also in eggs of infected females. A latent period of 7 days or more was required to detect the bacterium in recipient females. Rod shaped as well as spherical structures resembling Las were observed in ovaries of Las-infected females with transmission electron microscopy, but were absent in ovaries from uninfected D. citri females. The size of the rod shaped structures varied from 0.39 to 0.67 µm in length and 0.19 to 0.39 µm in width. The spherical structures measured from 0.61 to 0.80 µm in diameter. This investigation provides convincing evidence that a plant pathogenic bacterium is sexually transmitted from male to female insects during courtship and established evidence that bacteria persist in reproductive organs. Moreover, these findings provide an alternative sexually horizontal mechanism for the spread of Las within populations of D. citri, even in the absence of infected host trees. PMID:22216209

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic CO-Oxidizing Thermophile Thermomicrobium roseum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongying; Raymond, Jason; Wu, Martin; Chatterji, Sourav; Ren, Qinghu; Graham, Joel E.; Bryant, Donald A.; Robb, Frank; Colman, Albert; Tallon, Luke J.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Madupu, Ramana; Ward, Naomi L.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to enrich the phylogenetic diversity represented in the available sequenced bacterial genomes and as part of an “Assembling the Tree of Life” project, we determined the genome sequence of Thermomicrobium roseum DSM 5159. T. roseum DSM 5159 is a red-pigmented, rod-shaped, Gram-negative extreme thermophile isolated from a hot spring that possesses both an atypical cell wall composition and an unusual cell membrane that is composed entirely of long-chain 1,2-diols. Its genome is composed of two circular DNA elements, one of 2,006,217 bp (referred to as the chromosome) and one of 919,596 bp (referred to as the megaplasmid). Strikingly, though few standard housekeeping genes are found on the megaplasmid, it does encode a complete system for chemotaxis including both chemosensory components and an entire flagellar apparatus. This is the first known example of a complete flagellar system being encoded on a plasmid and suggests a straightforward means for lateral transfer of flagellum-based motility. Phylogenomic analyses support the recent rRNA-based analyses that led to T. roseum being removed from the phylum Thermomicrobia and assigned to the phylum Chloroflexi. Because T. roseum is a deep-branching member of this phylum, analysis of its genome provides insights into the evolution of the Chloroflexi. In addition, even though this species is not photosynthetic, analysis of the genome provides some insight into the origins of photosynthesis in the Chloroflexi. Metabolic pathway reconstructions and experimental studies revealed new aspects of the biology of this species. For example, we present evidence that T. roseum oxidizes CO aerobically, making it the first thermophile known to do so. In addition, we propose that glycosylation of its carotenoids plays a crucial role in the adaptation of the cell membrane to this bacterium's thermophilic lifestyle. Analyses of published metagenomic sequences from two hot springs similar to the one from which this strain

  8. Characterization of a novel extremely alkalophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Deal, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    A new alkalophilic bacterium, isolated from a natural spring of high pH is characterized. It is a Gram-positive, non-sporulating, motile rod requiring aerobic and alkaline conditions for growth. The characteristics of this organism resemble those of the coryneform group of bacteria; however, there are no accepted genera within this group with which this organism can be closely matched. Therefore, a new genus may be warranted.

  9. Anditalea andensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from extreme alkali-saline soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2012-11-01

    A novel alkalophilic salt-tolerant rod-shaped bacterium, designated ANESC-S(T), was isolated from an extremely alkali-saline soil in the rural area of Anda city in northeast China. Taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach revealed that this non-motile, orange colony-forming microbe was Gram-negative and obligately aerobic. Optimal growth of strain ANESC-S(T) was achieved in the presence of NaCl with a concentration range of 0.5 to 4 % and pH between 7.5 and 9.2, and at temperatures ranging from 10 to 37 °C. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that of strain ANESC-S(T) is most homologous to Mongoliicoccus roseus MIM28(T) and Litoribacter ruber YIM CH208(T) with sequence similarity of 95.1 and 93.2 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain ANESC-S(T) was determined to be 39.1 mol%. The main isoprenoid quinone in ANESC-S(T) was found to be menaquinone-7. The main fatty acids were found to be iso-C(15:0) (27.5 %), iso-C(17:0)3-OH (14.0 %), anteiso-C(15:0) (9.8 %), summed feature 9 (iso-C(17:1)ω9c and/or 10-methyl C(16:0) 10.6 %) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)w7c/C(16:1)w6c, 9.78 %). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain ANESC-S(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species classified into the order Cytophagales, for which the name Anditalea andensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ANESC-S(T) (=CICC 10485(T) = NCCB 100412(T)).

  10. Halomonas nanhaiensis sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Long, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Yang, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhu, Honghui; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-05-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, slightly halophilic, yellow-pigmented, oxidase-negative, Voges-Proskauer positive, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated YIM M 13059(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea at a depth of 310 m. Optimal growth was found to occur at 28-30 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 3-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and motile by peritrichous flagella. The polar lipids of strain YIM M 13059(T) were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, a ninhydrin-positive phospholipid, one glycolipid and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-9. The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c/C16:1 ω7c, C16:0 and C12:0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belongs to the genus Halomonas in the family Halomonadaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain YIM M 13059 (T) and the type strains of members of the genus Halomonas were in the range 93.3-98.3 %. However, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness values between YIM M 13059 and the type strains of the most closely related species, Halomonas zhangjiangensis, Halomonas variabilis, Halomonas neptunia, Halomonas boliviensis and Halomonas sulfadieris were 50.2 ± 0.68 %, 46.8 ± 1.9 %, 28.5 ± 0.74 %, 42.9 ± 0.55 % and 37.1 ± 0.68 %, respectively. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the strain YIM M 13059(T) is proposed to represent a novel member of the genus Halomonas, with the name Halomonas nanhaiensis sp. nov. The type strain is YIM M 13059(T) (=JCM 18142(T) =CCTCC AB 2012911(T)). PMID:23314928

  11. Ornithinibacillus halophilus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming bacterium from a hypersaline lake.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Maryam; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Schumann, Peter; Didari, Maryam; Mehrshad, Malihe; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain G8B(T), was isolated from water of the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain G8B(T) were rod-shaped, motile and produced oval endospores at a terminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain G8B(T) was strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-12.5 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 5-7.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35-40 °C and pH 7.5-8.0, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G8B(T) was shown to belong to the genus Ornithinibacillus within the phylum Firmicutes and showed closest phylogenetic similarity with Ornithinibacillus bavariensis WSBC 24001(T) (97.6 %). The DNA G+C content of strain G8B(T) was 36.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain G8B(T) were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, four unknown phospholipids and an unknown aminolipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (98 %) and MK-8 (2 %). Strain G8B(T) contained a peptidoglycan of type A4β, l-Orn-d-Asp. All these features confirmed the placement of isolate G8B(T) within the genus Ornithinibacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of relatedness (6 %) between strain G8B(T) and Ornithinibacillus bavariensis DSM 15681(T). On the basis of evidence from this study, a novel species of the genus Ornithinibacillus, Ornithinibacillus halophilus sp. nov., is proposed, with strain G8B(T) ( = IBRC-M 10683(T) = KCTC 13822(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Halomonas nanhaiensis sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Long, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Yang, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhu, Honghui; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-05-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, slightly halophilic, yellow-pigmented, oxidase-negative, Voges-Proskauer positive, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated YIM M 13059(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea at a depth of 310 m. Optimal growth was found to occur at 28-30 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 3-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and motile by peritrichous flagella. The polar lipids of strain YIM M 13059(T) were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, a ninhydrin-positive phospholipid, one glycolipid and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-9. The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c/C16:1 ω7c, C16:0 and C12:0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belongs to the genus Halomonas in the family Halomonadaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain YIM M 13059 (T) and the type strains of members of the genus Halomonas were in the range 93.3-98.3 %. However, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness values between YIM M 13059 and the type strains of the most closely related species, Halomonas zhangjiangensis, Halomonas variabilis, Halomonas neptunia, Halomonas boliviensis and Halomonas sulfadieris were 50.2 ± 0.68 %, 46.8 ± 1.9 %, 28.5 ± 0.74 %, 42.9 ± 0.55 % and 37.1 ± 0.68 %, respectively. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the strain YIM M 13059(T) is proposed to represent a novel member of the genus Halomonas, with the name Halomonas nanhaiensis sp. nov. The type strain is YIM M 13059(T) (=JCM 18142(T) =CCTCC AB 2012911(T)).

  13. Paenibacillus yonginensis sp. nov., a potential plant growth promoting bacterium isolated from humus soil of Yongin forest.

    PubMed

    Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Kwang Je; Koh, Sung-Cheol; Hoang, Van-An; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-11-01

    Strain DCY84(T), a Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, spore-forming bacterium, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, was isolated from humus soil from Yongin forest in Gyeonggi province, South Korea. Strain DCY84(T) shared the highest sequence similarity with Paenibacillus barengoltzii KACC 15270(T) (96.86 %), followed by Paenibacillus timonensis KACC 11491(T) (96.49 %) and Paenibacillus phoenicis NBRC 106274(T) (95.77 %). Strain DCY84(T) was found to able to grow best in TSA at temperature 30 °C, at pH 8 and at 0.5 % NaCl. MK-7 menaquinone was identified as the isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified polar lipid. The peptidoglycan was found to contain the amino acids meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and D-glutamic acid. The major fatty acids of strain DCY84(T) were identified as branched chain anteiso-C15:0, saturated C16:0 and branched chain anteiso-C17:0. The cell wall sugars of strain DCY84(T) were found to comprise of ribose, galactose and xylose. The major polyamine was identified as spermidine. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 62.6 mol%. After 6 days of incubation, strain DCY84(T) produced 52.96 ± 1.85 and 72.83 ± 2.86 µg/ml L-indole-3-acetic acid, using media without L-tryptophan and supplemented with L-tryptophan, respectively. Strain DCY84(T) was also found to be able to solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, genotypic analysis and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain DCY84(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus yonginensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY84(T) (=KCTC 33428(T) = JCM 19885(T)).

  14. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C.; Phelps, T.

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  15. Description of Paralactobacillus selangorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new lactic acid bacterium isolated from chili bo, a Malaysian food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Leisner, J J; Vancanneyt, M; Goris, J; Christensen, H; Rusul, G

    2000-01-01

    Paralactobacillus selangorensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is described. This organism, isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient called chili bo, is an obligatory homofermentative, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium. The G+C content is 46.1-46.2+/-0.3 mol%. Earlier 16S rRNA studies showed that this organism constitutes a new taxon distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei-Pediococcus group. A phenotypic description that distinguishes Paralactobacillus selangorensis from other genera of lactic acid bacteria is presented. The type strain of Paralactobacillus selangorensis is LMG 17710T.

  16. Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Hanada, Satoshi; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kim, Hongik; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2003-07-01

    A phylogenetically novel aerobic bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reactor operated under enhanced biological phosphorus removal conditions for wastewater treatment. The isolation strategy used targeted slowly growing polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria by combining low-speed centrifugations and prolonged incubation on a low-nutrient medium. The isolate, designated strain T-27T, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. Cells often appeared to divide by budding replication. Strain T-27T grew at 25-35 degrees C with an optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C, whilst no growth was observed below 20 degrees C or above 37 degrees C within 20 days incubation. The pH range for growth was 6.5-9.5, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Strain T-27T was able to utilize a limited range of substrates, such as yeast extract, polypepton, succinate, acetate, gelatin and benzoate. Neisser staining was positive and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells displayed a yellow fluorescence, indicative of polyphosphate inclusions. Menaquinone 9 was the major respiratory quinone. The cellular fatty acids of the strain were mainly composed of iso-C15:0, C16:1 and C14:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66 mol%. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T-27T belongs to candidate division BD (also called KS-B), a phylum-level lineage in the bacterial domain, to date comprised exclusively of environmental 16S rDNA clone sequences. Here, a new genus and species are proposed, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (type strain T-27T=JCM 11422T=DSM 14586T) gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Environmental sequence data indicate that this phylum is widespread in nature and has a phylogenetic breadth (19% 16S rDNA sequence divergence) that is greater than well-known phyla such as the Actinobacteria (18% divergence).

  17. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant bacterium from Indian saltpan.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Pilla Sankara; Sreenivas, Ara; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Prakash, Jogadhenu S S

    2015-12-01

    We report the 4.86-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis strain Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant rod shaped bacterium isolated from a salt pan near port of Okha, India. This bacterium is a potential model to study the molecular response of bacteria to salt as well as alkaline stress, as it thrives under both high salt and high pH conditions. The draft genome consist of 4,865,284 bp with 38.2% G + C, 4952 predicted CDS, 157 tRNAs and 8 rRNAs. Sequence was deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession JRJU00000000. PMID:26697400

  18. Genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. strain A1, a dye-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Giek Far; Gan, Han Ming; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul

    2012-10-01

    Citrobacter sp. strain A1, isolated from a sewage oxidation pond, is a facultative aerobe and mesophilic dye-degrading bacterium. This organism degrades azo dyes efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation, followed by the successive biotransformation of dye intermediates under an aerobic environment. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. A1.

  19. Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. an obliqately anaerobic bacterium isolated from a remote Amazonian community in Peru

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Lindsey; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J.; Tito, Raul Y.; Ozga, Andrew T.; Polo, Susan I.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Lawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic Gram-stain positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium designated NE08VT, was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a remote Amazonian community in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the organism belonged to the genus Clostridium and is most closely related to Clostridium vulturis (97.4% sequence similarity) and was further characterized using biochemical and chemotaxonomic methods. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso C13:0 and C16:0 with a genomic DNA G + C content of 31.6 mol%. Fermentation products during growth on glucose were acetate and butyrate. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic information, strain NE08V was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE08VT (DSM 23598T = CCUG 59712T). PMID:26123611

  20. Hoeflea olei sp. nov., a diesel-oil-degrading, anoxygenic, phototrophic bacterium isolated from backwaters and emended description of the genus Hoeflea.

    PubMed

    Rahul, K; Azmatunnisa, M; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, diesel-oil-degrading, rod-shaped bacterium (designated JC234T) was isolated from a water sample collected from diesel-oil-contaminated backwaters in Kerala, India. Strain JC234T was oxidase- and catalase-positive, and grew at 20-35 °C and at pH 7-9. Cells contained bacteriochlorophyll-a, hydroxydemethylspheroidene and three unidentified carotenoids. Growth occurred under aerobic, microaerobic and phototrophic anaerobic conditions. Strain JC234T could utilize diesel-oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JC234T belonged to the genus Hoeflea within the family Phyllobacteriaceae, and was closely related to Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30T (98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Hoeflea halophila JG120-1T (97.6%) and other members of the genus Hoeflea ( < 96.4 ). Strain JC234T showed 22 ± 2% and 28 ± 1.5 % DNA-DNA hybridization with Hoeflea alexandrii KCTC 22096T and Hoeflea halophila KCTC 23107T, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain JC234T was 54.3 mol %. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids. Strain JC234T contained Q10 as the predominant ubiquinone. On the basis of morphological, physiological, genetic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomical analyses, we conclude that strain JC234T represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoefleaolei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC234T ( = KCTC 42071T = LMG 28200T). An emended description of the genus Hoeflea is also provided.

  1. Keep your Sox on: Community genomics-directed isolation and microscopic characterization of the dominant subsurface sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in a sediment aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, S. W.; Wrighton, K. C.; Luef, B.; Wilkins, M. J.; Handley, K. M.; Williams, K. H.; Banfield, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    capable of aerobic growth, but it could tolerate low oxygen conditions in the polysulfide/nitrate growth medium, suggesting that oxidases identified by genomics may play a role in detoxification rather than energy generation. Cryo-TEM imaging showed that strain OBA cells are rod-shaped and ~0.4 wide and 1.0 μm in length, and confirmed metagenomics-based predictions of a Gram-negative cell envelope, pili and polyphosphate body production. Our results show the value of integrating metagenomics, culturing, and microscopic imaging to discern the physiology of bacteria involved in biogeochemical transformations in the subsurface.

  2. Perchlorate reduction by a novel chemolithoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Husen; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E

    2002-10-01

    Water treatment technologies are needed that can remove perchlorate from drinking water without introducing organic chemicals that stimulate bacterial growth in water distribution systems. Hydrogen is an ideal energy source for bacterial degradation of perchlorate as it leaves no organic residue and is sparingly soluble. We describe here the isolation of a perchlorate-respiring, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium (Dechloromonas sp. strain HZ) that grows with carbon dioxide as sole carbon source. Strain HZ is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that was isolated from a gas-phase anaerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor treating perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. The ability of strain HZ to grow autotrophically with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source was confirmed by demonstrating that biomass carbon (100.9%) was derived from CO2. Chemolithotrophic growth with hydrogen was coupled with complete reduction of perchlorate (10 mM) to chloride with a maximum doubling time of 8.9 h. Strain HZ also grew using acetate as the electron donor and chlorate, nitrate, or oxygen (but not sulphate) as an electron acceptor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence placed strain HZ in the genus Dechloromonas within the beta subgroup of the Proteobacteria. The study of this and other novel perchlorate-reducing bacteria may lead to new, safe technologies for removing perchlorate and other chemical pollutants from drinking water.

  3. Genome sequence of the pink–pigmented marine bacterium Loktanella hongkongensis type strain (UST950701–009PT), a representative of the Roseobacter group

    DOE PAGES

    Lau, Stanley CK; Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Petersen, Jörn; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; et al

    2015-08-11

    Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009PT is a Gram-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a marine biofilm in the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong. When growing as a monospecies biofilm on polystyrene surfaces, this bacterium is able to induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of a ubiquitous polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans. The inductive cues are low-molecular weight compounds bound to the exopolymeric matrix of the bacterial cells. In the present study we describe the features of L. hongkongensis strain DSM 17492T together with its genome sequence and annotation and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 3,198,444 bp long genome sequence encodes 3104 protein-codingmore » genes and 57 RNA genes. Lastly, the two unambiguously identified extrachromosomal replicons contain replication modules of the RepB and the Rhodobacteraceae-specific DnaA-like type, respectively.« less

  4. Genome sequence of the pink–pigmented marine bacterium Loktanella hongkongensis type strain (UST950701–009PT), a representative of the Roseobacter group

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Stanley CK; Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Petersen, Jörn; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-11

    Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009PT is a Gram-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a marine biofilm in the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong. When growing as a monospecies biofilm on polystyrene surfaces, this bacterium is able to induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of a ubiquitous polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans. The inductive cues are low-molecular weight compounds bound to the exopolymeric matrix of the bacterial cells. In the present study we describe the features of L. hongkongensis strain DSM 17492T together with its genome sequence and annotation and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 3,198,444 bp long genome sequence encodes 3104 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. Lastly, the two unambiguously identified extrachromosomal replicons contain replication modules of the RepB and the Rhodobacteraceae-specific DnaA-like type, respectively.

  5. Relaxivities of hydrogen protons in aqueous solutions of PEG-coated rod-shaped manganese-nickel-ferrite (Mn0.4Ni0.6Fe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2014-11-01

    Spinel-structured manganese (Mn)-nickel (Ni)-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method. Coating with PEG (polyethylene glycol) was simultaneously conducted along with the synthesis of Mn-Ni-ferrites. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses revealed a cubic spinel ferrite structure of the synthesized nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were rod-shaped with a uniform size distribution and that the average length and width were 15.13 ± 1.32 nm and 3.78 ± 0.71 nm, respectively. The bonding status of PEG on the nanoparticle surface was checked by using FTIR. The relaxivities of the hydrogen protons in the aqueous solutions of the coated particles were determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The T1 and the T2 relaxivities were 0.34 ± 0.11 mM-1s-1 and 29.91 ± 0.98 mM-1s-1, respectively. This indicates that the synthesized PEG-coated Mn-Ni-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable for use as T2 contrast agents.

  6. Characterization and Formation of Rod-Shaped (Al,Si)3Ti Particles in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.12Ti (Wt Pct) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Yuman; Easton, Mark A.; Rinderer, Barbara; Couper, Mal; Nie, Jian-Feng

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the rod-shaped particles in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.12Ti (wt pct) casting alloy have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. It is found that these particles invariably contain Ti, Al, and Si and that they have the structure of the equilibrium phase (Al,Si)3Ti. A near-rational orientation relationship is observed between the (Al,Si)3Ti particles and the α-Al matrix phase. For this orientation relationship, the long axes of the (Al,Si)3Ti rods are invariably parallel to the moiré planes defined by the intersection of closest-packed planes of the (Al,Si)3Ti and α-Al phases. In contrast to the (Al,Si)3Ti or Al3Ti particles form directly from the melt act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for aluminum grains and thus grain-refined Al-Si foundry alloys, the (Al,Si)3Ti particles are found to form during solution treatment at temperatures above 673 K (400 °C). Their formation occurs in the center of aluminum grains and/or dendrites which is Ti enriched due to partitioning during solidification. The low diffusivity of Ti in α-Al allows the particles to form in the Ti-enriched areas near the center of grains as the Ti concentration is not able to be homogenized during typical solution treatment times.

  7. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  8. Complete genome sequence of Hymenobacter sp. strain PAMC26554, an ionizing radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from an Antarctic lichen.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae-Jin; Han, So-Ra; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, Augustine Yonghwi

    2016-06-10

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, red-pink in color, and UV radiation-resistant bacterium Hymenobacter sp. strain PAMC26554 was isolated from Usnea sp., an Antarctic lichen, and belongs to the class of Cytophagia and the phylum of Bacteroidetes. The complete genome of Hymenobacter sp. PAMC26554 consists of one chromosome (5,244,843bp) with two plasmids (199,990bp and 6421bp). The genomic sequence indicates that Hymenobacter sp. strain PAMC26554 possesses several genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway that protects damaged DNA. This complete genome information will help us to understand its adaptation and novel survival strategy in the Antarctic extreme cold environment.

  9. The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface Adhesins.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Roland, Thibault; Berg, Howard C

    2016-09-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium, glides over surfaces at speeds of ∼2 μm/s. The propulsion of a cell-surface adhesin, SprB, is known to enable gliding. We used cephalexin to generate elongated cells with irregular shapes and followed their displacement in three dimensions. These cells rolled about their long axes as they moved forward, following a right-handed trajectory. We coated gold nanoparticles with an SprB antibody and tracked them in three dimensions in an evanescent field where the nanoparticles appeared brighter when they were closer to the glass. The nanoparticles followed a right-handed spiral trajectory on the surface of the cell. Thus, if SprB were to adhere to the glass rather than to a nanoparticle, the cell would move forward along a right-handed trajectory, as observed, but in a direction opposite to that of the nanoparticle. PMID:27602728

  10. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rate, methane dependence, and mechanism of TCE biodegradation. TCE biodegradation by strain 46-1 appears to be a cometabolic process that occurs when the organism is actively metabolizing a suitable growth substrate such as methane or methanol. It is proposed that TCE biodegradation by methanotrophs occurs by formation of TCE epoxide, which breaks down spontaneously in water to form dichloroacetic and glyoxylic acids and one-carbon products. Images PMID:16347616

  11. Psychromonas ingrahamii sp. nov., a novel gas vacuolate, psychrophilic bacterium isolated from Arctic polar sea ice.

    PubMed

    Auman, Ann J; Breezee, Jennifer L; Gosink, John J; Kämpfer, Peter; Staley, James T

    2006-05-01

    A gas vacuolate bacterium, designated strain 37T, was isolated from a sea ice core collected from Point Barrow, Alaska, USA. Cells of strain 37T were large (6-14 microm in length), rod-shaped, contained gas vacuoles of two distinct morphologies, and grew well at NaCl concentrations of 1-10 % and at temperatures of -12 to 10 degrees C. The DNA G+C content was 40 mol%. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis showed that 16 : 1omega7c comprised 67 % of the total fatty acid content. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that this bacterium was closely related to members of the genus Psychromonas, with highest sequence similarity (96.8 %) to Psychromonas antarctica. Phenotypic analysis differentiated strain 37T from P. antarctica on the basis of several characteristics, including cell morphology, growth temperature range and the ability to hydrolyse polymers. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a level of relatedness of 37 % between strain 37T and P. antarctica, providing further support that it represents a distinct species. The name Psychromonas ingrahamii sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is 37T (=CCUG 51855T=CIP 108865T).

  12. Conversion of Daidzein and Genistein by an Anaerobic Bacterium Newly Isolated from the Mouse Intestine▿

    PubMed Central

    Matthies, Anastasia; Clavel, Thomas; Gütschow, Michael; Engst, Wolfram; Haller, Dirk; Blaut, Michael; Braune, Annett

    2008-01-01

    The metabolism of isoflavones by gut bacteria plays a key role in the availability and bioactivation of these compounds in the intestine. Daidzein and genistein are the most common dietary soy isoflavones. While daidzein conversion yielding equol has been known for some time, the corresponding formation of 5-hydroxy-equol from genistein has not been reported previously. We isolated a strictly anaerobic bacterium (Mt1B8) from the mouse intestine which converted daidzein via dihydrodaidzein to equol as well as genistein via dihydrogenistein to 5-hydroxy-equol. Strain Mt1B8 was a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium identified as a member of the Coriobacteriaceae. Strain Mt1B8 also transformed dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein to equol and 5-hydroxy-equol, respectively. The conversion of daidzein, genistein, dihydrodaidzein, and dihydrogenistein in the stationary growth phase depended on preincubation with the corresponding isoflavonoid, indicating enzyme induction. Moreover, dihydrogenistein was transformed even more rapidly in the stationary phase when strain Mt1B8 was grown on either genistein or daidzein. Growing the cells on daidzein also enabled conversion of genistein. This suggests that the same enzymes are involved in the conversion of the two isoflavones. PMID:18539813

  13. Accurate Cell Division in Bacteria: How Does a Bacterium Know Where its Middle Is?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Martin; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2004-03-01

    I will discuss the physical principles lying behind the acquisition of accurate positional information in bacteria. A good application of these ideas is to the rod-shaped bacterium E. coli which divides precisely at its cellular midplane. This positioning is controlled by the Min system of proteins. These proteins coherently oscillate from end to end of the bacterium. I will present a reaction-diffusion model that describes the diffusion of the Min proteins, and their binding/unbinding from the cell membrane. The system possesses an instability that spontaneously generates the Min oscillations, which control accurate placement of the midcell division site. I will then discuss the role of fluctuations in protein dynamics, and investigate whether fluctuations set optimal protein concentration levels. Finally I will examine cell division in a different bacteria, B. subtilis. where different physical principles are used to regulate accurate cell division. See: Howard, Rutenberg, de Vet: Dynamic compartmentalization of bacteria: accurate division in E. coli. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 278102 (2001). Howard, Rutenberg: Pattern formation inside bacteria: fluctuations due to the low copy number of proteins. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 128102 (2003). Howard: A mechanism for polar protein localization in bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 335 655-663 (2004).

  14. Glaciihabitans tibetensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium of the family Microbacteriaceae, isolated from glacier ice water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Xin, Yu-Hua; Kim, Song-Gun; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain MP203(T), was isolated from ice water of Midui Glacier in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The strain was psychrotolerant, growing at 0-25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain MP203(T) was most similar to Frigoribacterium faeni NBRC 103066(T), Compostimonas suwonensis KACC 13354(T), Frigoribacterium mesophilum KCTC 19311(T), Marisediminicola antarctica CCTCC AB 209077(T) and Alpinimonas psychrophila JCM 18951(T), with similarities of 97.4, 97.2, 97.2, 97.1 and 97.1%, respectively. The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree indicated that strain MP203(T) clustered with nine genera of the family Microbacteriaceae, namely Frigoribacterium, Compostimonas, Marisediminicola, Alpinimonas, Frondihabitans, Clavibacter, Subtercola, Klugiella and Agreia. However, bootstrap analysis showed that there was no significance in the branching pattern of the linage comprising strain MP203(T) and any existing generic lineage of the family Microbacteriaceae. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated levels of relatedness between strain MP203(T) and Marisediminicola antarctica CCTCC AB 209077(T), Frigoribacterium faeni NBRC 103066(T), Frigoribacterium mesophilum KCTC 19311(T), Compostimonas suwonensis KACC 13354(T) and Alpinimonas psychrophila JCM 18951(T) were 25.8 ± 7.3, 29.6 ± 7.6, 19.7 ± 6.7, 16.0 ± 4.2 and 12.4 ± 5.1 % (mean ± SD), respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.1 mol%. Analysis of the cell-wall peptidoglycan revealed that the peptidoglycan structure of strain MP203(T) was B10 type with Gly[l-Hse]-D-Glu-D-DAB, containing 2, 4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) as a diagnostic amino acid. The cell-wall sugars were rhamnose, ribose, mannose and glucose. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso A-C(15 : 1). An unusual compound identified as anteiso-C(15 : 0)-DMA (1,1-dimethoxy-anteiso-pentadecane) was also present in strain

  15. Lysobacter agri sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Won, KyungHwa; Du, Juan; Yang, Jung-Eun; Akter, Shahina; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-09-01

    A bacterial strain, designated as THG-SKA3(T), was isolated from field soil of Kyung Hee University, South Korea. Cells of the isolate were observed to be Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. The strain was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7 and in absence of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-SKA3(T) shared highest sequence similarity with Lysobacter niastensis KACC 11588(T) followed by Lysobacter panacisoli KACC 17502(T), Lysobacter enzymogenes LMG 8762(T) and Lysobacter oryzae KCTC 22249(T). The G+C content of THG-SKA3(T) was determined to be 68.9 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain THG-SKA3(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbors were below 25.0 %.The major polar lipids of strain THG-SKA3(T) were determined to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone 8 (Q-8). The major cellular fatty acids were identified as branched chain iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and unsaturated iso-C17:1 ω9c. On the basis of polyphasic data presented, it is evident that strain THG-SKA3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter agri sp. nov. (type strain THG-SKA3(T) = KACC 18283(T) = CSCTCC AB 2015126(T)) is proposed. PMID:26111851

  16. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black pigment producing strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two isolates of a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a da...

  17. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from soybean-based fermented foodstuffs. Two were isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Multilocus sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and 5 protein coding genes indi...

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Is a Diazotrophic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kanvinde, Lalita; Sastry, G. R. K.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grow on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate 15N supplied as 15N2. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH4+ in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship. Images PMID:16348237

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K. )

    1990-07-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate {sup 15}N supplied as {sup 15}N{sub 2}. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship.

  20. Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov., a Novel Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium of the Family Cytophagaceae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linghua; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Nie, Yao; Luo, Xuesong; Zhou, Enmin; Zhou, Lingli; Pan, Yunfan; Li, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Few diazotrophs have been found to belong to the family Cytophagaceae so far. In the present study, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that forms red colonies, was isolated from sands of the Takalamakan desert. It was designated H4XT. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis indicated that the isolate is a new species of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene of H4XT displays 94.2–96.8% sequence similarities to those of other strains in Pontibacter. The major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The DNA G+C content is 46.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15∶0, C16∶1ω5c, summed feature 3 (containing C16∶1ω6c and/or C16∶1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17∶1B and/or iso-C17∶1I). The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), one aminophospholipid (APL) and some unknown phospholipids (PLs). It is interesting to see that this bacterium can grow very well in a nitrogen-free medium. PCR amplification suggested that the bacterium possesses at least one type of nitrogenase gene. Acetylene reduction assay showed that H4XT actually possesses nitrogen-fixing activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that H4XT is a new diazotroph. We thus referred it to as Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is H4XT ( = CCTCC AB 2013049T = NRRL B-59974T). PMID:24647674

  1. Complete genome sequence of Deinococcus soli N5(T), a gamma-radiation- resistant bacterium isolated from rice field in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Sun; Kim, Eun Bit; Jeon, Seon Hwa; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2015-10-10

    A Gram-negative, non-motile and short-rod shaped and gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus soli N5(T), isolated from a rice field soil in South Korea. The complete genome of D. soli N5(T) consists of a chromosome (3,236,984bp). The key enzymes for the central DNA repair mechanisms were present in the genome. The enzyme coding genes has been identified which is involving in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The gene cluster in the genome sequence suggest that the D. soli N5(T) use (NER) pathways for efficient removal of pyrimidine dimers that are the most abundant type of UV- induced damage.

  2. Fate of aerobic bacterial granules with fungal contamination under different organic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, An-jie; Zhang, Tong; Li, Xiao-yan

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic sludge granulation is an attractive new technology for biological wastewater treatment. However, the instability of aerobic granules caused by fungal growth is still one of the main problems encountered in granular bioreactors. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the fate and transformation of aerobic granules under different organic loading conditions. Bacterial granules (2-3mm) in a poor condition with fungi-like black filamentous growth were seeded into two 1L batch reactors. After more than 100d of cultivation, the small seed granules in the two reactors had grown into two different types of large granules (>20mm) with different and unique morphological features. In reactor R1 with a high organic loading rate of 2.0g COD L(-1)d(-1), the black filaments mostly disappeared from the granules, and the dominance of rod-shaped bacteria was recovered. In contrast, at a low loading of 0.5g COD L(-1)d(-1) in reactor R2, the filaments eventually became dominant in the black fungal granules. The bacteria in R1 granules had a unique web-like structure with large pores of a few hundred microm in size, which would allow for effective substrate and oxygen transport into the interior of the granules. DNA-based molecular analysis indicated the evolution of the bacterial population in R1 and that of the eukaryal community in R2. The experimental results suggest that a high loading rate can be an effective means of helping to control fungal bloom, recover bacterial domination and restore the stability of aerobic granules that suffer from fungal contamination.

  3. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  4. Isolation of an indigenous imidacloprid-degrading bacterium and imidacloprid bioremediation under simulated in situ and ex situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guiping; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Bo; Song, Fengqing; You, Minsheng

    2013-11-28

    The Bacterial community structure and its complexity of the enrichment culture during the isolation and screening of imidacloprid-degrading strain were studied using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The dominant bacteria in the original tea rhizosphere soil were uncultured bacteria, Rhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium, Ochrobactrum sp., Alcaligenes, Bacillus sp., Bacterium, Klebsiella sp., and Ensifer adhaerens. The bacterial community structure was altered extensively and its complexity reduced during the enrichment process, and four culturable bacteria, Ochrobactrum sp., Rhizobium sp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Alcaligenes faecalis, remained in the final enrichment. Only one indigenous strain, BCL-1, with imidacloprid-degrading potential, was isolated from the sixth enrichment culture. This isolate was a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium and identified as the genus Ochrobactrum based on its morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties and its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The degradation test showed that approximately 67.67% of the imidacloprid (50 mg/l) was degraded within 48 h by strain BCL-1. The optimum conditions for degradation were a pH of 8 and 30°C. The simulation of imidacloprid bioremediation by strain BCL-1 in soil demonstrated that the best performance in situ (tea soil) resulted in the degradation of 92.44% of the imidacloprid (100 mg/g) within 20 days, which was better than those observed in the ex situ simulations that were 64.66% (cabbage soil), 41.15% (potato soil), and 54.15% (tomato soil). PMID:23985542

  5. A genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea

    PubMed Central

    Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Vorholt, Julia A; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has revealed a highly versatile metabolic potential. In parallel, environmental genomics has provided glimpses into anaerobic methane oxidation by certain archaea, further supporting the hypothesis of reverse methanogenesis. PMID:15693955

  6. Luteimonas arsenica sp. nov., an arsenic-tolerant bacterium isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yao; Pan, Yunfan; Shi, Wanxia; Liu, Lan; Jiang, Zhao; Luo, Xuesong; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that formed yellow and viscous colonies was isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil of the Jianghan plain, Hubei Province, China, and it was designated 26-35T. This strain was capable of resisting arsenate and arsenite with MICs of 40 and 20 mM, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene of the novel isolate displayed 96.7-94.2 % sequence similarities to those of other known species of the genus Luteimonas. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The DNA G+C content was 71.4 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C11 : 0, iso-C11 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic and physiological analysis indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas arsenica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 26-35T (=KCTC 42824T=CCTCC AB 2014326T). PMID:26978245

  7. Haloanaerobium kushneri sp. nov., an obligately halophilic, anaerobic bacterium from an oil brine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhupathiraju, V. K.; McInerney, M. J.; Woese, C. R.; Tanner, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    Three strains, designated VS-751T, VS-511 and VS-732, of a strictly anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium were isolated from a highly saline (15-20%) brine from an oil reservoir in central Oklahoma, USA. The optimal concentration of NaCl for growth of these three strains was 2 M (12%), and the strains also grew in the presence of an additional 1 M MgCl2. The strains were mesophilic and grew at a pH range of 6-8. Carbohydrates used by all three strains included glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, cellobiose, sucrose and inulin. Glucose fermentation products included ethanol, acetate, H2 and CO2, with formate produced by two of the three strains. Differences were noted among strains in the optimal temperature and pH for growth, the maximum and minimum NaCl concentration that supported growth, substrate utilization and cellular fatty acid composition. Despite the phenotypic differences among the three strains, analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that these three strains were members of the same genospecies which belonged to the genus Haloanaerobium. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of strains VS-751T, VS-511 and VS-732 are different from those of previously described species of Haloanaerobium. It is proposed that strain VS-751T (ATCC 700103T) be established as the type strain of a new species, Haloanaerobium kushneri.

  8. Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov., a Novel Soil Acylhomoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signal Quenching Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan; Chen, Fang; Li, Nuo; Zhu, Bo; Li, Xianzhen

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil samples and designated strain LQQ. This organism strongly quenches the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal. The LQQ strain exhibits phenotypic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. It is positive in catalase and no special growth factor is needed. It uses glucose as sole carbon source. The DNA G + C content is 39.8 mol %. The closest relatives based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence are Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Brevibacillus brevis (syn. Bacillus brevis) with the similarity of 96.5%. The DNA–DNA hybridization data indicates a low level of genomic relatedness with the relative type strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (6.1%), Bacillus anthracis (10.5%) and Brevibacillus brevis (8.7%). On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data together with the genomic distinctiveness, the LQQ strain represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LQQT. PMID:20386651

  9. Identification of a Gene Essential for Sheathed Structure Formation in Sphaerotilus natans, a Filamentous Sheathed Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshihiko; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2002-01-01

    Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium that causes bulking in activated sludge processes, can assume two distinct morphologies, depending on the substrate concentration for growth; in substrate-rich media it grows as single rod-shaped cells, whereas in substrate-limited media it grows as filaments. To identify genes responsible for sheath formation, we carried out transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. Of the approximately 20,000 mutants obtained, 7 did not form sheathed structures. Sequencing of the Tn5-flanking regions showed that five of the seven Tn5 insertions converged at the same open reading frame, designated sthA. The deduced amino acids encoded by sthA were found to be homologous to glycosyltransferase, which is known to be involved in linking sugars to lipid carriers during bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Disruption of the gene of the wild-type strain by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette also resulted in sheathless growth under either type of nutrient condition. These findings indicate that sthA is a crucial component responsible for sheath formation. PMID:11772646

  10. Pectinatus brassicae sp. nov., a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium isolated from salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-wu; Fang, Ming-xu; Tan, Hai-qin; Zhang, Xin-qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-fen

    2012-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, strictly anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, strain TY(T), was isolated from salty pickle wastewater. Cells were rod-shaped with comb-like flagella, slightly curved and very variable in length. Optimal growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 6.5. Cells were resistant to up to 50 g NaCl l(-1). Strain TY(T) produced acid from glycerol, sucrose, glucose, fructose and mannitol. The main fermentation products from glucose were acetic and propionic acids. Tests for acid phosphatase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase activities were positive. The major fatty acids were C(14 : 0) DMA (18.7 %), C(15 : 0) (15.4 %), anteiso-C(18 : 1) (15.2 %), C(11 : 0) (13.3 %) and summed feature 5 (C(17 : 1)ω7c and/or C(17 : 2)) (11.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain TY(T) represented a novel species of the genus Pectinatus (sequence similarity to other members of the genus ranged from 93.2 to 94.8 %). Based on its phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain TY(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, named Pectinatus brassicae sp. nov. (type strain TY(T) = JCM 17499(T) = DSM 24661(T)).

  11. Dominating Role of an Unusual Magnetotactic Bacterium in the Microaerobic Zone of a Freshwater Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Stefan; Amann, Rudolf; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; van Gemerden, Hans; Petersen, Nikolai

    1993-01-01

    A combination of polymerase chain reaction-assisted rRNA sequence retrieval and fluorescent oligonucleotide probing was used to identify in situ a hitherto unculturable, big, magnetotactic, rod-shaped organism in freshwater sediment samples collected from Lake Chiemsee. Tentatively named “Magnetobacterium bavaricum,” this bacterium is evolutionarily distant from all other phylogenetically characterized magnetotactic bacteria and contains unusually high numbers of magnetosomes (up to 1,000 magnetosomes per cell). The spatial distribution in the sediment was studied, and up to 7 × 105 active cells per cm3 were found in the microaerobic zone. Considering its average volume (25.8 ± 4.1 μm3) and relative abundance (0.64 ± 0.17%), “M. bavaricum” may account for approximately 30% of the microbial biovolume and may therefore be a dominant fraction of the microbial community in this layer. Its microhabitat and its high content of sulfur globules and magnetosomes suggest that this organism has an iron-dependent way of energy conservation which depends on balanced gradients of oxygen and sulfide. Images PMID:16349008

  12. Pectinatus brassicae sp. nov., a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium isolated from salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-wu; Fang, Ming-xu; Tan, Hai-qin; Zhang, Xin-qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-fen

    2012-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, strictly anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, strain TY(T), was isolated from salty pickle wastewater. Cells were rod-shaped with comb-like flagella, slightly curved and very variable in length. Optimal growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 6.5. Cells were resistant to up to 50 g NaCl l(-1). Strain TY(T) produced acid from glycerol, sucrose, glucose, fructose and mannitol. The main fermentation products from glucose were acetic and propionic acids. Tests for acid phosphatase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase activities were positive. The major fatty acids were C(14 : 0) DMA (18.7 %), C(15 : 0) (15.4 %), anteiso-C(18 : 1) (15.2 %), C(11 : 0) (13.3 %) and summed feature 5 (C(17 : 1)ω7c and/or C(17 : 2)) (11.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain TY(T) represented a novel species of the genus Pectinatus (sequence similarity to other members of the genus ranged from 93.2 to 94.8 %). Based on its phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain TY(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, named Pectinatus brassicae sp. nov. (type strain TY(T) = JCM 17499(T) = DSM 24661(T)). PMID:22058316

  13. Shimia haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Pil Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM35(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The cells of the isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7, and with 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain WM35(T) was grouped in the genus Shimia and was closely related to the type strains of Shimia isoporae (98.7 % similarity) and Shimia marina (97.8 % similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0 2-OH. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain WM35(T) comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 53.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated <16 % genomic relatedness with members of the genus Shimia. The physiological, chemical and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WM35(T) represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM35(T) ( = KACC 17212(T) = JCM 18870(T)).

  14. Fermentation of phenoxyethanol to phenol and acetate by a homoacetogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Frings, J; Schink, B

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain LuPhet1, was isolated from sewage sludge with phenoxyethanol as sole carbon and energy source, and was assigned to the genus Acetobacterium. The new isolate fermented the alkylaryl ether compound phenoxyethanol stoichiometrically to phenol and acetate, whereas phenoxyacetic acid was not degraded. In cell-free extracts of strain LuPhet1, cleavage of the ether linkage was shown, and acetaldehyde was detected as reaction product. Coenzyme A-dependent acetaldehyde: acceptor oxidoreductase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were measured in cell-free extracts of this strain. Our results indicate that the ether linkage of phenoxyethanol is cleaved by a shift of the hydroxyl group to the subterminal carbon atom, analogous to a corrinoid-dependent diol dehydratase reaction, to form an unstable hemiacetal that releases phenol and acetaldehyde. Obviously, phenoxyethanol is degraded by the same strategy as in anaerobic degradation of the alkyl ether polyethylene glycol.

  15. Oceanobacillus bengalensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from seawater of the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Yongchang, Ouyang; Xiang, Wenzhou; Wang, Guanghua

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-stain positive, motile, and subterminal endospore-forming rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Ma-21(T), was isolated from seawater of the Bay of Bengal. Strain Ma-21(T) was found to grow optimally at 37 °C and pH 8.0 with 3% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain Ma-21(T) forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage close to Oceanobacillus chungangensis CAU 1051(T), Oceanobacillus caeni S-11(T), Oceanobacillus arenosus CAU 1183(T), Oceanobacillus halophilum GD01(T) and Ornithinibacillus heyuanensis GIESS003(T) in the family Bacillaceae. The cell wall of strain Ma-21(T) was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, which is in line with those of members of the genus Oceanobacillus. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 35.9 mol%. The only respiratory quinone detected was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties, strain Ma-21(T) is suggested to represent a novel species in the genus Oceanobacillus, for which the name Oceanobacillus bengalensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ma-21(T) (=CGMCC 1.12799(T) = KCTC 33416(T) = MCCC 1K00260(T)).

  16. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)).

  17. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    PubMed

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  18. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)). PMID:26757723

  19. Fabibacter misakiensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from coastal surface water.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu-Kuan; Park, Sanghwa; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Chiura, Hiroshi Xavier; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

    2015-10-01

    A slightly curved-rod-shaped, pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain with gliding motility, designated SK-8T, was isolated from coastal surface water of Misaki, Japan. Phylogenetic trees generated using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SK-8T belonged to the genus Fabibacter and showed 96.0 % sequence similarity to the type strain of the most closely related species, Fabibacter pacificus DY53T. The novel isolate was phenotypically and physiologically different from previously described strains. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 39.1 mol% and MK-7 was the only predominant isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of this taxonomic study employing a polyphasic approach, it was suggested that strain SK-8T represents a novel species of the genus Fabibacter, with the newly proposed name Fabibacter misakiensis sp. nov. The type strain is SK-8T ( = NBRC 110216T = KCTC 32969T). PMID:26296998

  20. Polyphasic Characterization of Lysobacter maris sp. nov., a Bacterium Isolated from Seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo

    2016-03-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, apricot-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped strain designated KMU-14(T) was isolated from seawater collected from the coastal zone of Yokji Island, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate was affiliated with the genus Lysobacter within the class Gammaproteobacteria and that it showed the highest sequence similarity (97.1 %) to Lysobacter concretionis Ko07(T). The hybridization value for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains of KMU-14(T) and L. concretionis Ko07(T) was 34.8 %, which was lower than 70 %, the recommended delineation value for differentiation of species. The DNA G+C content of strain KMU-14(T) was 64.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 8 (Q-8), and iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and 10-methyl C16:0 and/or iso-C17:1 ω9c were the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A polar lipid profile was present consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phosphoglycolipid, two unidentified aminophospholipids, and two unidentified phospholipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species for which the name Lysobacter maris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of L. maris sp. nov. is KMU-14(T) (=KCTC 42381(T) =NBRC 110750(T)). PMID:26616671

  1. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  2. Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Virgibacillus koreensis as Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Virgibacillus albus as Aquibacillus albus comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Bagheri, Maryam; Didari, Maryam; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6B(T), was isolated from the water of an Iranian hypersaline lake, Aran-Bidgol, and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B6B(T) were rod-shaped, motile and produced ellipsoidal endospores in terminal positions in non-swollen sporangia. Strain B6B(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-20.0% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B6B(T) was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and its closest phylogenetic similarities were with the species Virgibacillus koreensis BH30097(T) (97.5%), Virgibacillus albus YIM 93624(T) (97.4%), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) (96.8%), Sediminibacillus albus NHBX5(T) (96.6%), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964(T) (96.3%) and Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158(T) (96.0%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain B6B(T), along with V. koreensis BH30097(T) and V. albus YIM 93624(T), clustered in a separate clade in the family Bacillaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was 35.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of relatedness between strain B6B(T)and V. koreensis BH30097(T) (13%) and V. albus YIM 93624(T) (33%). The major cellular fatty acid of strain B6B(T) was anteiso-C15 : 0 (75.1%) and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (90%) and MK-6 (3%). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All of these features support the placement of isolate B6B(T) within the phylum Firmicutes. It is closely related to V. koreensis and V. albus, but with features that clearly

  3. Virgibacillus salarius sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a Saharan salt lake.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ngoc-Phuc; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Vreeland, Russell H; Isoda, Hiroko; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2008-10-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped and moderately halophilic bacterium was isolated from a salt-crust sample collected from Gharsa salt lake (Chott el Gharsa), Tunisia. The newly isolated bacterium, designated SA-Vb1(T), was identified based on polyphasic taxonomy including genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization. Strain SA-Vb1(T) was closely related to the type strains of Virgibacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus olivae, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.7 and 99.4 %, respectively. However, strain SA-Vb1(T) was distinguished from these two type strains on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness (29.4 and 5.1 %, respectively). The genetic relationship between strain SA-Vb1(T) and Virgibacillus pantothenticus IAM 11061(T) (the type strain of the type species) and other type strains of the genus was 96-98 % based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 18.3-22.3 % based on DNA-DNA hybridization. Biochemical analysis resulted in determination of major fatty acids iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) (33.3, 29.2 and 9.8 %, respectively); phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the main polar lipids and MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone ( approximately 100 %). The distinct characteristics demonstrated by strain SA-Vb1(T) represent properties of a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus salarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA-Vb1(T) (=JCM 12946(T) =DSM 18441(T)). PMID:18842865

  4. Povalibacter uvarum gen. nov., sp. nov., a polyvinyl-alcohol-degrading bacterium isolated from grapes.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Yoshizumi, Masaki; Hamana, Koei; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Horikoshi, Koki

    2014-08-01

    Polyvinyl-alcohol-degrading bacteria were isolated from the fruit of a grape in Yokosuka, Japan. The isolated strain, Zumi 37(T), was a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic chemo-organotroph, showing optimal growth at pH 7.5, 30 °C and 0.1% (w/v) NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 1)ω7c. The major polyamines were homospermidine and putrescine. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 64.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain Zumi 37(T) belongs to the family Sinobacteraceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. Steroidobacter denitrificans DSM 18526(T) was the most closely related species with a validly published name, with 98.0% similarity based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison (and showed less than 87.5% sequence similarity to members of the genera Alkanibacter, Fontimonas, Hydrocarboniphaga, Nevskia and Solimonas with known 16S rRNA gene sequences). Phenotypes for growth under aerobic conditions and on complex media and major fatty acid composition, differed greatly from those of with comparatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic evidence, it is proposed that strain Zumi 37(T) represents a novel species in a new genus for which the name Povalibacter uvarum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is Zumi 37(T) ( = JCM 18749(T) = DSM 26723(T)). PMID:24844263

  5. Genome Sequence of Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26T (ATCC 14576), a Mesophilic and Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Guo-hong; Chen, De-ju; Zhu, Yu-jing; Chen, Zheng; Che, Jian-mei

    2015-01-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26T is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic, mesophilic, and halotolerant bacterium. Here, we report its 4.76-Mb draft genome sequence, which is the first genome information of V. pantothenticus and will promote biological research and biotechnological application for the species. PMID:26383648

  6. Genome Sequence of Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26T (ATCC 14576), a Mesophilic and Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Chen, De-Ju; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Zheng; Che, Jian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26(T) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic, mesophilic, and halotolerant bacterium. Here, we report its 4.76-Mb draft genome sequence, which is the first genome information of V. pantothenticus and will promote biological research and biotechnological application for the species. PMID:26383648

  7. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13. PMID:27388643

  8. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Gordonia sihwensis Strain 9, a Branched Alkane-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Striebich, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Gordonia sihwensis strain 9 is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of efficient aerobic degradation of branched and normal alkanes. The draft genome of G. sihwensis S9 is 4.16 Mb in size, with 3,686 coding sequences and 68.1% G+C content. Alkane monooxygenase and P-450 cytochrome genes required for alkane degradation are predicted in G. sihwensis S9. PMID:27340079

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis SI8, a Psychrotrophic Aromatic-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Striebich, Richard C.; Mueller, Susan S.; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis strain SI8 is a psychrotrophic bacterium capable of efficient aerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The draft genome of P. frederiksbergensis SI8 is 6.57 Mb in size, with 5,904 coding sequences and 60.5% G+C content. The isopropylbenzene (cumene) degradation pathway is predicted to be present in P. frederiksbergensis SI8. PMID:26184950

  11. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  12. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  14. Characterization of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium in the Midgut Epithelium of the Bulrush Bug Chilacis typhae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Artheneinae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Dettner, Konrad; Kehl, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Many members of the suborder Heteroptera have symbiotic bacteria, which are usually found extracellularly in specific sacs or tubular outgrowths of the midgut or intracellularly in mycetomes. In this study, we describe the second molecular characterization of a symbiotic bacterium in a monophagous, seed-sucking stink bug of the family Lygaeidae (sensu stricto). Chilacis typhae possesses at the end of the first section of the midgut a structure which is composed of circularly arranged, strongly enlarged midgut epithelial cells. It is filled with an intracellular endosymbiont. This “mycetocytic belt” might represent an evolutionarily intermediate stage of the usual symbiotic structures found in stink bugs. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and the groEL genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, and it revealed a phylogenetic relationship with a secondary bacterial endosymbiont of Cimex lectularius and free-living plant pathogens such as Pectobacterium and Dickeya. The distribution and ultrastructure of the rod-shaped Chilacis endosymbiont were studied in adults and nymph stages using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and electron microscopy. The detection of symbionts at the anterior poles of developing eggs indicates that endosymbionts are transmitted vertically. A new genus and species name, “Candidatus Rohrkolberia cinguli,” is proposed for this newly characterized clade of symbiotic bacteria. PMID:21378044

  15. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  16. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  17. Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov., a novel alkalitolerant bacterium from the rhizosphere of Atriplex lampa in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Nelda; Siñeriz, Faustino; Breccia, Javier D

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium (PAT 05T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of the perennial shrub Atriplex lampa in north-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. Its overall biochemical and physiological characteristics indicated that this strain should be placed in the alkaliphilic Bacillus group. Strain PAT 05T grew at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8), but not at pH 6. Its DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of PAT 05T revealed the closest match (99.6 % similarity) with Bacillus sp. DSM 8714. The highest level of DNA-DNA relatedness (88.6 %) was also found with this strain. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain PAT 05T is related at the species level to Bacillus sp. DSM 8714, a member of a group referred as phenon 4a by Nielsen et al. [Nielsen, P., Fritze, D. & Priest, F. G. (1995). Microbiology 141, 1745-1761], which still lacks taxonomic standing. These results support the proposal of strain PAT 05T (=DSM 16117T=ATCC BAA-965T) as the type strain of Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov. PMID:15653916

  18. Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov., a novel alkalitolerant bacterium from the rhizosphere of Atriplex lampa in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Nelda; Siñeriz, Faustino; Breccia, Javier D

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium (PAT 05T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of the perennial shrub Atriplex lampa in north-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. Its overall biochemical and physiological characteristics indicated that this strain should be placed in the alkaliphilic Bacillus group. Strain PAT 05T grew at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8), but not at pH 6. Its DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of PAT 05T revealed the closest match (99.6 % similarity) with Bacillus sp. DSM 8714. The highest level of DNA-DNA relatedness (88.6 %) was also found with this strain. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain PAT 05T is related at the species level to Bacillus sp. DSM 8714, a member of a group referred as phenon 4a by Nielsen et al. [Nielsen, P., Fritze, D. & Priest, F. G. (1995). Microbiology 141, 1745-1761], which still lacks taxonomic standing. These results support the proposal of strain PAT 05T (=DSM 16117T=ATCC BAA-965T) as the type strain of Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov.

  19. Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov., a Gamma-Radiation Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Sediment of the Han River in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon Hee; Park, Su Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-negative, long rod-shaped, and yellowish bacterium, designated as strain 15J17T(T), was isolated from sediment of the Han River in South Korea after exposure to 3 kGy of gamma radiation. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive and showed resistance to gamma radiation-D10 value (i.e., the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) of >4 kGy. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Spirosoma and showed moderate degrees of sequence similarity with related species (90.6-93.5 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the strain contained summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0, C18:0, and C15:0 iso as the major fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, and an unidentified polar lipid as the major polar lipids; and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the new strain was 48.3 mol%. Based on these data, type strain 15J17T(T) (=KCTC 52198(T) = JCM 31409(T)) should be classified as representing a new species, for which we propose the name Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov.

  20. Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov., a Gamma-Radiation Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Sediment of the Han River in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon Hee; Park, Su Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-negative, long rod-shaped, and yellowish bacterium, designated as strain 15J17T(T), was isolated from sediment of the Han River in South Korea after exposure to 3 kGy of gamma radiation. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive and showed resistance to gamma radiation-D10 value (i.e., the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) of >4 kGy. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Spirosoma and showed moderate degrees of sequence similarity with related species (90.6-93.5 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the strain contained summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0, C18:0, and C15:0 iso as the major fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, and an unidentified polar lipid as the major polar lipids; and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the new strain was 48.3 mol%. Based on these data, type strain 15J17T(T) (=KCTC 52198(T) = JCM 31409(T)) should be classified as representing a new species, for which we propose the name Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov. PMID:27502066

  1. Spirosoma pulveris sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from a dust sample collected at Chungnam province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Cha, Seho; Jheong, Weonhwa; Seo, Taegun; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2015-11-01

    Strain JSH 5-14(T), a Gram-negative, non-motile, and curved rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from a dust sample collected at Nonsan, Chungnam province, South Korea, and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JSH 5-14(T) revealed that it belongs to the genus Spirosoma, family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. The highest degree of sequence similarities of strain JSH 5-14(T) were found with Spirosoma liguale DSM 74(T) (97.8%) and Spirosoma endophyticum EX 36(T) (96.2%). The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (composed of C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c) and C16:1 ω5c. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic data, we propose the strain JSH 5-14(T) (=KCTC 42550(T) =JCM 30688(T) =KEMB 9004-165(T)) should be classified as a type strain of a novel species, for which the name Spirosoma pulveris sp. nov., is proposed. PMID:26502958

  2. Virgibacillus natechei sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of a saline lake in southwest of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Amziane, Meriam; Metiaz, Farida; Darenfed-Bouanane, Amel; Djenane, Zahia; Selama, Okba; Abderrahmani, Ahmed; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-05-01

    A novel, Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, oxidase- and catalase-positive designated FarD(T) was isolated from sediments of a saline lake located in Taghit, 93 km from Bechar, southwest of Algeria. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore forming, and motile. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 35 °C), pH 6.0-12.0 (optimum, 7.0) and in the presence of 1-20 % NaCl (optimum, 10 %). Strain FarD(T) used glucose, mannitol, melibiose, D-mannose, and 5 ketogluconate. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and three phospholipids; MK-7 is the predominant menaquinone. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso C15:0, anteiso C17:0, C20:0, and anteiso C19:0. The DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence indicated that strain FarD(T) had as its closest relative Virgibacillus salinus (similarity of 96.3 %). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic, and taxonomic characteristics, strain FarD(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus within the order Clostridiales, for which the name V. natechei is proposed. The type strain is FarD(T) (=DSM 25609(T) = CCUG 62224(T)). PMID:23306353

  3. Defluviitoga tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a mesothermic and anaerobic whey digester.

    PubMed

    Ben Hania, Wajdi; Godbane, Ramzi; Postec, Anne; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2012-06-01

    Strain SulfLac1(T), a thermophilic, anaerobic and slightly halophilic, rod-shaped bacterium with a sheath-like outer structure (toga), was isolated from a whey digester in Tunisia. The strain's non-motile cells measured 3-30×1 µm and appeared singly, in pairs or as long chains. The novel strain reduced thiosulfate and elemental sulfur, but not sulfate or sulfite, into sulfide. It grew at 37-65 °C (optimum 55 °C), at pH 6.5-7.9 (optimum pH 6.9) and with 0.2-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The G+C content of the strain's genomic DNA was 33.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SulfLac1(T) was most closely related to Petrotoga mobilis (91.4 % sequence similarity). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic evidence, strain SulfLac1(T) represents a novel species of a new genus within the order Thermotogales, for which the name Defluviitoga tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is SulfLac1(T) ( = DSM 23805(T) = JCM 17210(T)).

  4. Venenivibrio stagnispumantis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium isolated from Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Adrian; McDonald, Ian R; Morgan, Hugh W

    2008-02-01

    A novel thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain CP.B2(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in Waiotapu, New Zealand. Cells were motile, slightly rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and Gram-negative. Isolate CP.B2(T) was an obligate chemolithotroph, growing by utilizing H(2) as electron donor and O(2) as corresponding electron acceptor. Elemental sulfur (S(0)) or thiosulfate ( ) was essential for growth. Microbial growth occurred under microaerophilic conditions in 1.0-10.0 % (v/v) O(2) [optimum 4-8 % (v/v) O(2)], between 45 and 75 degrees C (optimum 70 degrees C) and at pH values of 4.8-5.8 (optimum pH 5.4). The DNA G+C content was 29.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that strain CP.B2(T) belonged to the order Aquificales, with a close phylogenetic relationship to Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense (94 % sequence similarity to the type strain). However, genotypic and metabolic characteristics differentiated the novel isolate from previously described genera of the Aquificales. Therefore, CP.B2(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Venenivibrio stagnispumantis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Venenivibrio stagnispumantis is CP.B2(T) (=JCM 14244(T) =DSM 18763(T)).

  5. Regulation of dissolved oxygen from accumulated nitrite during the heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Pseudomonas stutzeri T13.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yilu; Li, Ang; Zhang, Xuening; Ma, Fang

    2015-04-01

    The nitrogen-removing characteristics of Pseudomonas stutzeri T13, a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium, were investigated. The ammonium and nitrate removal of the bacterium was found to reach nearly 100 % at 15 h. However, the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate reached only about 23.47 % because of the dramatic accumulation of nitrite at a high dissolved oxygen (DO) level (160 rpm). The process of nitrite reduction was found to be the bottleneck for the efficiency of aerobic denitrification. Decreasing the shaking speed from 160 to 50 rpm to lower the DO concentration during cultivation was an effective method of improving nitrite utilization because nitrite removal increased from 62.37 to 100 %. The 99.21 % capability of simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification with TN removal was achieved at a relatively low DO level (50 rpm). PMID:25417744

  6. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  7. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  8. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  9. Psychrobium conchae gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic marine bacterium isolated from the Iheya North hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Abe, Mariko; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Hirayama, Hisako

    2014-11-01

    A novel psychrophilic, marine, bacterial strain designated BJ-1(T) was isolated from the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough off Japan. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, aerobic chemo-organotrophs and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at temperatures below 16 °C, with the optimum between 9 and 12 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the closest relatives of strain BJ-1(T) were Shewanella denitrificans OS-217(T) (93.5% similarity), Shewanella profunda DSM 15900(T) (92.9%), Shewanella gaetbuli TF-27(T) (92.9%), Paraferrimonas sedimenticola Mok-106(T) (92.1%) and Ferrimonas kyonanensis Asr22-7(T) (91.7%). The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C(16:1)ω7c and C(16:0). The G+C content of the novel strain was 40.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic evidence, it is proposed that strain BJ-1(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Psychrobium conchae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Psychrobium conchae is BJ-1(T) ( =JCM 30103(T) =DSM 28701(T)).

  10. Microcella putealis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a nonsaline alkaline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tiago, Igor; Pires, Carlos; Mendes, Vítor; Morais, Paula V; da Costa, Milton; Veríssimo, António

    2005-08-01

    Three Gram-positive bacteria designated CV-2T, CV-40 and AC-30 were isolated from a highly alkaline groundwater environment (pH 11.4). These organisms formed very small rod-shaped cells, are aerobic, non-spore-forming, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, with an optimum growth temperature of 35 degrees C and optimum pH value of growth between 8.5 and 9.0. The strains possessed a novel B-type cell-wall peptidoglycan structure with lysine as the diamino acid; the major respiratory quinones were menaquinone 12 (MK12) and MK13. The G + C content of DNA was between 67.1 and 70.7 mol%. The phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the 16S rRNA genes reveled that they formed a deep branch within the family Microbacteriaceae, with the highest similarity of approximately 95.6% with members of the genera Agreia, Agrococcus, Cryobacterium, Clavibacter, Frigoribacterium, Leifsonia, Mycetocola, Rhodoglobus, Salinibacterium and Subtercola. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and distinct phenotypic characteristics, we are of the opinion that strains CV-2T, CV-40 and AC-30, represent a new species of a novel genus within the family Microbacteriaceae for which we propose the name Microcella putealis gen. nov., sp. nov.

  11. Paenibacillus lemnae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis).

    PubMed

    Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thawai, Chitti

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-stain-variable, rod-shaped and endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain L7-75, was isolated from duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis). Cells were motile with a monopolar flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L7-75(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and the closest phylogenetically related species were Paenibacillus uliginis N3/975(T) (98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Paenibacillus purispatii ES_M17(T) (98.5%), Paenibacillus lactis MB 1871(T) (98.2%), Paenibacillus campinasensis 324(T) (97.7%), Paenibacillus glucanolyticus S93(T) (97.7%) and Paenibacillus lautus ATCC 43898(T) (97.4%). Growth of strain L7-75(T) was observed at pH 7-10 and at 20-40 °C, and NaCl concentrations up to 5% (w/v) were tolerated. Major cellular fatty acids included anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17:0 that were present at 36.0%, 14.2 % and 10.0% of the total cellular fatty acid profile, respectively. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 49.1 mol% (Tm). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain L7-75(T) and its closest relatives ranged from 4.4 to 47.8%. These results indicate that strain L7-75(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lemnae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L7-75(T) ( = BCC 67838(T) = NBRC 109972(T)).

  12. Sphingomonas yunnanensis sp. nov., a novel gram-negative bacterium from a contaminated plate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Yi-Guang; Li, Wen-Jun; Tian, Xin-Peng; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2005-11-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, YIM 003T, which was isolated from a contaminated plate in the laboratory, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The organism had short-rod-shaped, motile cells, formed yellow-pigmented colonies on ISP2 medium and its optimum growth pH was 7.0-7.5. The major respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The phosphate-containing lipids detected in strain YIM 003T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid and one unidentified phospholipid. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c (59.8 %), C(16 : 0) (9.9 %), ai-C(17 : 0) (5.3 %), i-C(17 : 0) (4.4 %) and C(14 : 0) 2-OH (15.8 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.5 mol%. Strain YIM 003T exhibited levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.2 % to Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae FA2T and 98.0 % to Sphingomonas adhaesiva DSM 7418T but showed less than 97.0 % similarity with respect to other species with validly published names. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of the isolate with S. phyllosphaerae FA2T and S. adhaesiva DSM 7418T were 59 and 26 %, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics and genotypic data indicate that strain YIM 003T should be distinguished from S. phyllosphaerae FA2T and S. adhaesiva DSM 7418T. Therefore, on the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data presented, a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, Sphingomonas yunnanensis sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain YIM 003T (=CCTCC AB 204064T=KCTC 12346T).

  13. Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Kläring, Karoline; Hanske, Laura; Bui, Nam; Charrier, Cédric; Blaut, Michael; Haller, Dirk; Plugge, Caroline M; Clavel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming, non-motile, strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the caecal content of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The isolate, referred to as strain SRB-521-5-I(T), was originally cultured on a reduced agar medium containing yeast extract, rumen fluid and lactic acid as main energy and carbon sources. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the species most closely related to strain SRB-521-5-I(T) were Flavonifractor plautii and Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus (<95 % sequence similarity; 1436 bp). In contrast to F. plautii and P. capillosus, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) contained a substantial amount of C18 : 0 dimethylacetal. Additional major fatty acids were C14 : 0 methyl ester, C16 : 0 dimethylacetal and C18 : 0 aldehyde. Strain SRB-521-5-I(T) differed in its enzyme profile from F. plautii and P. capillosus by being positive for dextrin, maltotriose, turanose, dl-lactic acid and d-lactic acid methyl ester but negative for d-fructose. In reduced Wilkins-Chalgren-Anaerobe broth, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) produced approximately 8 mM butyrate and 4 mM acetate. In contrast to F. plautii, the strain did not metabolize flavonoids. It showed intermediate resistance towards the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, colistin and tetracycline. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the name Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain SRB-521-5-I(T) ( = DSM 26588(T) = CCUG 63529(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23918795

  14. Cecembia rubra sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring sediment.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan-Yan; Ming, Hong; Dong, Lei; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, En-Min; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-staining negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM 78110(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Hehua hot spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic status of strain YIM 78110(T) was confirmed by a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain YIM 78110(T) belongs to the genus Cecembia, displaying 96.8% and 94.7% sequence similarity with the two most closely related type strains, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T) and Cecembia lonarensis LW9T, respectively. The low value of DNA-DNA hybridization (52.3 ± 2.3%) between strain YIM 78110(T) and its closest neighbour, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T), indicated that this new isolate represented a different genomic species in the genus Cecembia. The temperature for growth ranged from 30 to 50 °C. The pH for growth ranged from pH 4.0 to 10.0, with NaCl tolerance of 0.5-6.0% (w/v). The predominant menaquinone of strain YIM 78110(T) was MK-7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 47.1 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that strain YIM 78110(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cecembia, for which the name Cecembia rubra sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78110(T) ( = CCTCC AB2013287(T) = DSM 28057(T)).

  15. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)).

  16. Nocardioides caricicola sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from a halophyte, Carex scabrifolia Steud.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Yasir, Muhammad; Bibi, Fehmida; Chung, Eu Jin; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, coccoid to rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YC6903(T), was isolated from a halophytic plant (Carex scabrifolia Steud.) collected from sand dunes at Namhae Island, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain YC6903(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6903(T) belongs to the genus Nocardioides in the family Nocardioidaceae. Strain YC6903(T) was related most closely to Nocardioides pyridinolyticus OS4(T) (97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Nocardioides dokdonensis FR1436(T) (96.6 %), Nocardioides aquiterrae GW-9(T) (96.6 %) and Nocardioides hankookensis DS-30(T) (96.6 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H(4)) was the major respiratory quinone. The mean (±SD) level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YC6903(T) and N. pyridinolyticus OS4(T) was 53.5±5.5 %. The predominant cellular fatty acid of strain YC6903(T) was iso-C(16 : 0) (28.9 %). The DNA G+C content was 71.7 mol%. Phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data indicated that strain YC6903(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides caricicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6903(T) (=KACC 13778(T) =DSM 22177(T)).

  17. Virgibacillus salinus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from sediment of a saline lake.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, I J; Márquez, M C; Ventosa, A

    2009-12-01

    A novel, moderately halophilic, Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain XH-22(T), was isolated from sediment of a saline lake located near Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile. The isolate was able to grow in the presence of 3-20 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 10 %, w/v), and at 15-40 degrees C (optimum, 37 degrees C) and pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5). Strain XH-22(T) had diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, and anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0) as major fatty acids. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain XH-22(T) was 38.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the novel strain was affiliated with the genus Virgibacillus. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain XH-22(T) and the type strains of recognized Virgibacillus species ranged from 97.6 % (with Virgibacillus carmonensis) to 94.9 % (with Virgibacillus koreensis). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain XH-22(T) and V. carmonensis DSM 14868(T) and Virgibacillus necropolis DSM 14866(T) were 32 and 28 %, respectively. Strain XH-22(T) could be differentiated from recognized Virgibacillus species based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and genotypic features. On the basis of these results, strain XH-22(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus salinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XH-22(T) (=CCM 7562(T)=CECT 7439(T)=DSM 21756(T)). PMID:19643886

  18. Tindallia texcoconensis sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from lake Texcoco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alazard, Didier; Badillo, Claudia; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Thomas, Pierre; Roldan, Teresa; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Ollivier, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    A new alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic, strictly anaerobic, fermentative bacterium (strain IMP-300(T)) was isolated from a groundwater sample in the zone of the former soda lake Texcoco in Mexico. Strain IMP-300(T) was Gram-positive, non-sporulated, motile and rod-shaped. It grew within a pH range from 7.5 to 10.5, and an optimum at 9.5. The organism was obligately dependent on the presence of sodium salts. Growth showed an optimum at 35 degrees C with absence of growth above 45 degrees C. It fermented peptone and a few amino acids, preferentially arginine and ornithine, with production of acetate, propionate, and ammonium. Its fatty acid pattern was mainly composed of straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and cyclopropane fatty acids. The G + C content of genomic DNA was 40.0 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the new isolate belongs to the genus Tindallia, in the low G + C Gram-positive phylum. Phylogenetically, strain IMP-300(T) has Tindallia californiensis, as closest relative with a 97.5% similarity level between their 16S rDNA gene sequences, but the DNA-DNA re-association value between the two DNAs was only 42.2%. On the basis of differences in genotypic, phenotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics, strain IMP-300(T) is proposed as a new species of the genus Tindallia, T. texcoconensis sp. nov. (type strain IMP-300(T ) = DSM 18041(T) = JCM 13990(T)).

  19. Pigmentiphaga litoralis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from a tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Huang, Ke; Tang, Shu-Kun; Cao, Yao; Shi, Jin-Xiao; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-03-01

    A novel Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-sporulating, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium (strain JSM 061001(T)) was isolated from a tidal flat in the South China Sea, China. Growth occurred with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum, 0.5-1 % (w/v) NaCl], at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 4-35 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), cyclo C(17 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 1). Strain JSM 061001(T) contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid as the polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 65.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 061001(T) belongs to the family Alcaligenaceae and was related most closely to the type strains of the two recognized species of the genus Pigmentiphaga. The three strains formed a robust cluster in the neighbour-joining, maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JSM 061001(T) and the type strains of Pigmentiphaga daeguensis and Pigmentiphaga kullae were 15.8 and 10.5 %, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic differences supported the view that strain JSM 061001(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 061001(T) (=CCTCC AA207034(T)=KCTC 22165(T)).

  20. Bacillus nitroreducens sp. nov., a humus-reducing bacterium isolated from a compost.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhui; Wang, Yue Qiang; Yang, Guiqin; Chen, Yunqi; Zhou, Shungui; Zhao, Yong; Zhuang, Li

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, facultative anaerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated GSS08(T), was isolated from a windrow compost pile and characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %), at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5) and at 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C). Anaerobic growth occurred with anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate, fumarate and NO3 (-) as electron acceptor. The main respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15:0 (43.1 %), anteiso-C15:0 (27.4 %) and iso-C16:0 (8.3 %). The DNA G + C content was 39.6 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain GSS08(T) formed a phyletic lineage with the type strain of Bacillus humi DSM 16318(T) with a high sequence similarity of 97.5 %, but it displayed low sequence similarity with other valid species in the genus Bacillus (<96.0 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strains GSS08(T) and B. humi DSM 16318(T) was 50.8 %. The results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses clearly indicated that strain GSS08(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus nitroreducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS08(T) (=KCTC 33699(T) = MCCC 1K01091(T)).

  1. Psychromonas boydii sp. nov., a gas-vacuolate, psychrophilic bacterium isolated from an Arctic sea-ice core.

    PubMed

    Auman, Ann J; Breezee, Jennifer L; Gosink, John J; Schumann, Peter; Barnes, Carmen R; Kämpfer, Peter; Staley, James T

    2010-01-01

    A gas-vacuolate bacterium, strain 174(T), was isolated from a sea-ice core collected from Point Barrow, Alaska, USA. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this bacterium was most closely related to Psychromonas ingrahamii 37(T), with a similarity of >99 %. However, strain 174(T) could be clearly distinguished from closely related species by DNA-DNA hybridization; relatedness values determined by two different methods between strain 174(T) and P. ingrahamii 37(T) were 58.4 and 55.7 % and those between strain 174(T) and Psychromonas antarctica DSM 10704(T) were 46.1 and 33.1 %, which are well below the 70 % level used to define a distinct species. Phenotypic analysis, including cell size (strain 174(T) is the largest member of the genus Psychromonas, with rod-shaped cells, 8-18 microm long), further differentiated strain 174(T) from other members of the genus Psychromonas. Strain 174(T) could be distinguished from its closest relative, P. ingrahamii, by its utilization of D-mannose and D-xylose as sole carbon sources, its ability to ferment myo-inositol and its inability to use fumarate and glycerol as sole carbon sources. In addition, strain 174(T) contained gas vacuoles of two distinct morphologies and grew at temperatures ranging from below 0 to 10 degrees C and its optimal NaCl concentration for growth was 3.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 40 mol%. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis showed that 16 : 1omega7c and 16 : 0 comprised 44.9 and 26.4 % of the total fatty acid content, respectively. The name Psychromonas boydii sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with strain 174(T) (=DSM 17665(T) =CCM 7498(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Themoanaerobacterium calidifontis sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, thermophilic, ethanol-producing bacterium from hot springs in China.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shu-mei; Qian, Long; Zhang, Xu; Li, Kun-zhi; Chagan, Irbis

    2013-06-01

    A novel thermophilic Gram staining positive strain Rx1 was isolated from hot springs in Baoshan of Yunnan Province, China. The strain was characterized as a hemicellulose-decomposing obligate anaerobe bacterium that is rod-shaped (diameter: 0.5-0.7 μm; length: 2.0-6.7 μm), spore-forming, and motile. Its growth temperature range is 38-68 °C (optimum 50-55 °C) and pH range is 4.5-8.0 (optimum 7.0). The maximum tolerance concentration of NaCl was 3 %. Rx1 converted thiosulfate to elemental sulfur and reduced sulfite to hydrogen sulfide. The bacterium grew by utilizing xylan and starch, as well as a wide range of monosaccharide and polysaccharides, including glucose and xylose. The main products of fermentation were ethanol, lactate, acetate, CO2, and H2. The maximum xylanase activity in the culture supernatant after 30 h of incubation at 55 °C was 16.2 U/ml. Rx1 DNA G + C content was 36 mol %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain Rx1 belonged to the genus Thermoanaerobacterium of the family 'Thermoanaerobacteriaceae' (Firmicutes), with Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans 761-119 (99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) being its closest relative. DNA-DNA hybridization between Rx1 and T. aciditolerans 761-119 showed 36 % relatedness. Based on its physiological and biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Thermoanaerobacterium, for which the name Thermoanaerobacterium calidifontis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain is Rx1 (=JCM 18270 = CCTCC M 2011109).

  3. Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 22b as a source of cold-adapted beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Turkiewicz, Marianna; Kur, Józef; Białkowska, Aneta; Cieśliński, Hubert; Kalinowska, Halina; Bielecki, Stanisław

    2003-07-01

    The marine, psychrotolerant, rod-shaped and Gram-negative bacterium 22b (the best of 41 beta-galactosidase producers out of 107 Antarctic strains subjected to screening), classified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated from the alimentary tract of Antarctic krill Thyssanoessa macrura, synthesizes an intracellular cold-adapted beta-galactosidase, which efficiently hydrolyzes lactose at 0-20 degrees C, as indicated by its specific activity of 21-67 U mg(-1) of protein (11-35% of maximum activity) in this temperature range, as well as k(cat) of 157 s(-1), and k(cat)/K(m) of 47.5 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 degrees C. The maximum enzyme synthesis (lactose as a sufficient inducer) was observed at 6 degrees C, thus below the optimum growth temperature of the bacterium (15 degrees C). The enzyme extracted from cells was purified to homogeneity (25% recovery) by using the fast, three-step procedure, including affinity chromatography on PABTG-Sepharose. The enzyme is a tetramer composed of roughly 115 kDa subunits. It is maximally active at 40 degrees C (190 U mg(-1) of protein) and pH 6.0-8.0. PNPG is its preferred substrate (50% higher activity than against ONPG). The Pseudoalteromonas sp. 22b beta-galactosidase is activated by thiol compounds (70% rise in activity in the presence of 10 mM dithiotreitol), some metal ions (K(+), Na(+), Mn(2+)-40% increase, Mg(2+)-15% enhancement), and markedly inactivated by pCMB and heavy metal ions, particularly Cu(2+). Noteworthy, Ca(2+) ions do not affect the enzyme activity, and the homogeneous protein is stable at 4 degrees C for at least 30 days without any stabilizers.

  4. Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sheng, Xia-Fang; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, Z29(T), was isolated from the surface of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain Z29(T) belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Z29(T) and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Chitinophaga ranged from 92.7 to 98.2 %. The main fatty acids of strain Z29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. It also contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the respiratory quinone and homospermidine as the main polyamine. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, unknown phospholipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain Z29(T) was 51.3 mol%. Phenotypic properties and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain Z29(T) with the genus Chitinophaga. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.6 to 29.8 %) to the type strains of other species of the genus Chitinophaga and differential phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain Z29(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z29(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2014066(T) = LMG 28237(T)).

  5. Tenacibaculum finnmarkense sp. nov., a fish pathogenic bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Småge, Sverre Bang; Brevik, Øyvind Jakobsen; Duesund, Henrik; Ottem, Karl Fredrik; Watanabe, Kuninori; Nylund, Are

    2016-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated HFJ(T), was isolated from a skin lesion of a diseased Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Finnmark, Norway. Colonies were observed to be yellow pigmented with entire and/or undulating margins and did not adhere to the agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain belongs to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Strain HFJ(T) exhibits high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values to Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi NCIMB 14598(T) (97.2 %). The strain was found to grow at 2-20 °C and only in the presence of sea salts. The respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 and the major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 34.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization and comparative phenotypic and genetic tests were performed with the phylogenetically closely related type strains, T. dicentrarchi NCIMB 14598(T) and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum NCIMB 13127(T). These data, as well as phylogenetic analyses, suggest that strain HFJ(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum finnmarkense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is HFJ (T) = (DSM 28541(T) = NCIMB 42386(T)). PMID:26662517

  6. Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sheng, Xia-Fang; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, Z29(T), was isolated from the surface of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain Z29(T) belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Z29(T) and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Chitinophaga ranged from 92.7 to 98.2 %. The main fatty acids of strain Z29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. It also contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the respiratory quinone and homospermidine as the main polyamine. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, unknown phospholipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain Z29(T) was 51.3 mol%. Phenotypic properties and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain Z29(T) with the genus Chitinophaga. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.6 to 29.8 %) to the type strains of other species of the genus Chitinophaga and differential phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain Z29(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z29(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2014066(T) = LMG 28237(T)). PMID:25376849

  7. Lentibacillus kimchii sp. nov., an extremely halophilic bacterium isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Joon; Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and extremely halophilic bacterial strain, designated K9(T), was isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food. The strain was observed as endospore-forming rod-shaped cells showing oxidase and catalase activity. It was found to grow at 10.0-30.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 15.0-20.0 %), pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C). The polar lipids of strain K9(T) were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinone was identified as menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids (>20 % of the total) were found to be anteisio-C15:0 and anteisio-C17:0. The cell wall peptidoglycan composition was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G + C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 48.2 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolated strain is closely related to Lentibacillus salinarum AHS-1(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity). Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain K9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus kimchii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is K9(T) (=KACC 18490(T) = JCM 30234(T)).

  8. Description of a Gram-negative bacterium, Sphingomonas guangdongensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang-Da; Yang, Song-Zhen; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xiu-Xiu; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Deng, Ming-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, designated 9NM-8T, was isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc ore in Mei county, Meizhou, Guangdong province, PR China. The isolate was orange-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile with lophotrichous flagella and rod-shaped. Strain 9NM-8T grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 30 °C and in the absence of NaCl on R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 9NM-8T belongs to the genus Sphingomonas, with highest sequence similarities to Sphingomonas azotifigens KACC 14484T (96.1%), Sphingomonas trueperi DSM 7225T (96.0%) and Sphingomonas pituitosa DSM 13101T (95.6 %). Strain 9NM-8T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty acids included C18:1ω7c, C16:0, C16:1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (summed feature 3) and 11-methyl C18:1ω7c. The DNA G+C content was 69.6±1.3 mol%. The major component in the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine and the polar lipid profile contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. Based on comparative analysis of physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain 9NM-8T should be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9NM-8T (=GIMCC 1.653T=CGMCC 1.12672T=DSM 27570T).

  9. Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Park, So-Hyun; Seo, Ga-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2015-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated EC29(T), was isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava collected on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain EC29(T) were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 1-5% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Winogradskyella. Strain EC29(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, of 96.5-97.8%, to the type strains of Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T), Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) and Winogradskyella ulvae KMM 6390(T). Strain EC29(T) exhibited < 27% DNA-DNA relatedness with Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T) and Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T). The predominant fatty acids of strain EC29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.1 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Based on a polyphasic study, strain EC29(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EC29(T) ( = KCTC 32172(T) = JCM 18703(T)). PMID:25979633

  10. Meiothermus roseus sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a geothermal area.

    PubMed

    Ming, Hong; Duan, Yan-Yan; Guo, Qian-Qian; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Lan; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two closely related thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039, were isolated from a hot spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The novel isolates were observed to be Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacteria. The strains were found to be able to grow at 37-65 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 1.0 % (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these two isolates in the genus Meiothermus. They were found to be closely related to Meiothermus timidus DSM 17022(T) (98.6 % similarity), and formed a cluster with this species. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8 and the major fatty acids (>10 %) as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039 were determined to be 64.0 and 65.4 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed low values between strains YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039 and their closely related neighbour M. timidus DSM 17022(T). Morphological phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results suggest that strains YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039 are representatives of a new species within the genus Meiothermus, for which the name Meiothermus roseus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 71031(T) (=KCTC 42495(T) =NBRC 110900(T)).

  11. Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongle; Zhang, Rui; Li, Qipei; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-02-01

    A novel, aerobic, heterotrophic, orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacterial strain, designated JLT2000(T), was isolated from surface water of the South China Sea. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of strain JLT2000 T: were C12 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. MK-7 was the major respiratory quinone and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JLT2000(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JLT2000(T) formed a branch within the genus Marivirga, but was clearly separated from the two established species of this genus, Marivirga tractuosa and Marivirga sericea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JLT2000(T) with the type strains of these two species was 95.8 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Strain JLT2000(T) had a shorter cell length and wider growth range in different temperatures and salinities than those of Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). In addition, strain JLT2000(T) could utilize more carbon sources and hydrolyse more polymers than Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). Based on this polyphasic analysis, strain JLT2000(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marivirga, for which the name Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT2000(T) ( = JCM 18012(T) = CGMCC 1.10832(T)).

  12. Burkholderia insulsa sp. nov., a facultatively chemolithotrophic bacterium isolated from an arsenic-rich shallow marine hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Antje; Islam, Shaer; Savalia, Pratixa; Amend, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment cultures inoculated with hydrothermally influenced nearshore sediment from Papua New Guinea led to the isolation of an arsenic-tolerant, acidophilic, facultatively aerobic bacterial strain designated PNG-April(T). Cells of this strain were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile and did not form spores. Strain PNG-April(T) grew at temperatures between 4 °C and 40 °C (optimum 30-37 °C), at pH 3.5 to 8.3 (optimum pH 5-6) and in the presence of up to 2.7% NaCl (optimum 0-1.0%). Both arsenate and arsenite were tolerated up to concentrations of at least 0.5 mM. Metabolism in strain PNG-April(T) was strictly respiratory. Heterotrophic growth occurred with O2 or nitrate as electron acceptors, and aerobic lithoautotrophic growth was observed with thiosulfate or nitrite as electron donors. The novel isolate was capable of N2-fixation. The respiratory quinones were Q-8 and Q-7. Phylogenetically, strain PNG-April(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia and shares the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Burkholderia fungorum (99.8%), Burkholderia phytofirmans (98.8%), Burkholderia caledonica (98.4%) and Burkholderia sediminicola (98.4%). Differences from these related species in several physiological characteristics (lipid composition, carbohydrate utilization, enzyme profiles) and DNA-DNA hybridization suggested the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Burkholderia, for which we propose the name Burkholderia insulsa sp. nov. The type strain is PNG-April(T) ( = DSM 28142(T) = LMG 28183(T)).

  13. Adaptation of Aerobically Growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Copper Starvation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I.; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA′-′lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  14. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus Strain K, a Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Petroleum Reservoir in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Poltaraus, Andrey B; Sokolova, Diyana S; Grouzdev, Denis S; Ivanov, Timophey M; Malakho, Sophia G; Korshunova, Alena V; Tourova, Tatiyana P; Nazina, Tamara N

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus strain K, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water of the Uzen high-temperature oil field in Kazakhstan, is presented here. The genome is annotated for elucidation of the genomic and phenotypic diversity of thermophilic alkane-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:27491973

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus Strain K, a Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Petroleum Reservoir in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus strain K, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water of the Uzen high-temperature oil field in Kazakhstan, is presented here. The genome is annotated for elucidation of the genomic and phenotypic diversity of thermophilic alkane-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:27491973

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. PMID:27284131

  18. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  19. Draft genome sequence of Gluconobacter thailandicus NBRC 3257

    PubMed Central

    Matsutani, Minenosuke; Yakushi, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Gluconobacter thailandicus strain NBRC 3257, isolated from downy cherry (Prunus tomentosa), is a strict aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. Here, we report the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The draft genome sequence is composed of 107 contigs for 3,446,046 bp with 56.17% G+C content and contains 3,360 protein-coding genes and 54 RNA genes. PMID:25197448

  20. The fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Yang, Juan; Chen, Shaoyi

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca NBA-1, which was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment facility. The 90-day survivability of strain NBA-1 after exposure to sludge under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was investigated. The bacterium was inoculated into sludge amended with glucose and p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to compare the bacterial community variations between the modified sludge and nitrobenzene amendment. The results showed that glucose had no obvious effect on nitrobenzene biodegradation in the co-metabolism process, regardless of the presence/absence of oxygen. When p-CNB was added under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene remained unchanged although p-CNB inhibited the production of aniline. The diversity of the microbial community increased and NBA-1 continued to be one of the dominant strains. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation rate of both nitrobenzene and p-CNB was only 20% of that under anaerobic conditions. p-CNB had a toxic effect on the microorganisms in the sludge so that most of the DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) bands, including that of NBA-1, began to disappear under aerobic conditions after 90days of exposure. These data show that the bacterial community was stable under anaerobic conditions and the microorganisms, including NBA-1, were more resistant to the adverse environment. PMID:26086561

  1. Granular Gases of Rod-Shaped Grains in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, K.; Kornek, U.; Trittel, T.; Strachauer, U.; Höme, S.; Will, K.; Stannarius, R.

    2013-04-01

    Granular gases are convenient model systems to investigate the statistical physics of nonequilibrium systems. In the literature, one finds numerous theoretical predictions, but only few experiments. We study a weakly excited dilute gas of rods, confined in a cuboid container in microgravity during a suborbital rocket flight. With respect to a gas of spherical grains at comparable filling fraction, the mean free path is considerably reduced. This guarantees a dominance of grain-grain collisions over grain-wall collisions. No clustering was observed, unlike in similar experiments with spherical grains. Rod positions and orientations were determined and tracked. Translational and rotational velocity distributions are non-Gaussian. Equipartition of kinetic energy between translations and rotations is violated.

  2. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  3. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  4. Caldimicrobium thiodismutans sp. nov., a sulfur-disproportionating bacterium isolated from a hot spring, and emended description of the genus Caldimicrobium.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hisaya; Umezawa, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    A novel autotrophic, thermophilic bacterium, strain TF1T, was isolated from a hot spring in Japan. Cells of strain TF1T were motile, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, 1.0-2.0 μm in length and 0.5-0.6 μm in width. Major components in the cellular fatty acid profile were C16:0, C18:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The temperature range for growth was 40-77 °C, and optimum temperature was 75 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.9-9.5, and the optimum pH was 7.5-8.8. Strain TF1T grew chemolithoautotrophically by disproportionation of sulfur, thiosulfate and sulfite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain belongs to the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The closest cultivated relative was Caldimicrobium rimae DST, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96%. The genome of strain TF1T consists of one circular chromosome, with a size of 1.8 Mbp and G+C content of 38.30 mol%. On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain TF1T (=DSM 29380T=NBRC 110713T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Caldimicrobium thiodismutans sp. nov. PMID:26842785

  5. Controlled Biomineralization of Magnetite (Fe(inf3)O(inf4)) and Greigite (Fe(inf3)S(inf4)) in a Magnetotactic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Bazylinski, D. A.; Frankel, R. B.; Heywood, B. R.; Mann, S.; King, J. W.; Donaghay, P. L.; Hanson, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    A slowly moving, rod-shaped magnetotactic bacterium was found in relatively large numbers at and below the oxic-anoxic transition zone of a semianaerobic estuarine basin. Unlike all magnetotactic bacteria described to date, cells of this organism produce single-magnetic-domain particles of an iron oxide, magnetite (Fe(inf3)O(inf4)), and an iron sulfide, greigite (Fe(inf3)S(inf4)), within their magnetosomes. The crystals had different morphologies, being arrowhead or tooth shaped for the magnetite particles and roughly rectangular for the greigite particles, and were coorganized within the same chain(s) in the same cell with their long axes along the chain direction. Because the two crystal types have different crystallochemical characteristics, the findings presented here suggest that the formation of the crystal types is controlled by separate biomineralization processes and that the assembly of the magnetosome chain is controlled by a third ultrastructural process. In addition, our results show that in some magnetotactic bacteria, external environmental conditions such as redox and/or oxygen or hydrogen sulfide concentrations may affect the composition of the nonmetal part of the magnetosome mineral phase. PMID:16535116

  6. Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium carrying 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity and able to degrade high-molecular-mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Vetion, Gilles; Escande, Marie-Line; Delille, Daniel; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, halotolerant bacterium, designated strain CEE_131(T), which degraded high-molecular-mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of four and five rings, was isolated from intertidal sediment of Corcubion Ria in Cee, A Coruña, Spain. Direct sequencing showed ambiguities and suggested heterogeneity. Cloned 16S rRNA gene sequence PCR products yielded five different sequences varying at five positions. Strain CEE_131(T) showed rather distant relationships to its phylogenetically closest neighbours, including the genera Rheinheimera and Serratia , exhibiting 91 % sequence similarity with Rheinheimera perlucida BA131(T) and Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora DSM 4597(T). The major fatty acids were C(16 : 1 )omega7c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1)omega7c. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol%. On the basis of these distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain CEE_131(T) is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus in the class Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CEE_131(T) (=DSM 21945(T)=CECT 7479(T)).

  7. Aliikangiella marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122, and proposal of Kangiellaceae fam. nov. in the order Oceanospirillales.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Wu, Huanlian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, long rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain GYP-15T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain GYP-15T shared 90.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest relative, Kangiella aquimarina KCTC 12183T, and represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage in a robust clade consisting of GYP-15T and members of the genera Kangiella and Pleionea in the order Oceanospirillales. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including major cellular fatty acids, NaCl tolerance and pattern of carbon source utilization, could also readily distinguish strain GYP-15T from all established genera and species. Thus, it is concluded that strain GYP-15T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Aliikangiella marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aliikangiella marina is GYP-15T ( = MCCC 1K01163T = KCTC 42667T). Based on phylogenetic results, 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotide pattern and some physiological characteristics, the three genera Kangiella, Pleionea and Aliikangiella are proposed to make up a novel family, Kangiellaceae fam. nov., in the order Oceanospirillales.

  8. [Isolation and characterization of a facultative anaerobic aniline-degrading bacterium].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guo-Qu; Ren, Sui-Zhou; Cao, Wei; Hu, Jin-Cai; Lin, Lu-Jing; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2006-08-01

    An aniline-degrading bacterium (designated strain AN29) was isolated from dyeing wastewater process (anaerobic baffled reactor, ABR) with the capability of utilizing aniline as sole carbon source and nitrogen source. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based upon the phenotypic properties and a partial analysis of the 16S rDNA. The strain could degrade aniline under the aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the optimal initial pH 6.5 - 8.0, a temperature of 37 degrees C, and initial aniline concentrations of 500 - 2 000 mg/L with maximum concentration of 4 000 mg/L respectively.

  9. Exoelectrogenic bacterium phylogenetically related to Citrobacter freundii, isolated from anodic biofilm of a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianjian; Zhu, Nengwu; Cao, Yanlan; Peng, Yue; Wu, Pingxiao; Dong, Wenhao

    2015-02-01

    An electrogenic bacterium, named Citrobacter freundii Z7, was isolated from the anodic biofilm of microbial fuel cell (MFC) inoculated with aerobic sewage sludge. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis exhibited that the strain Z7 had relatively high electrochemical activity. When the strain Z7 was inoculated into MFC, the maximum power density can reach 204.5 mW/m(2) using citrate as electron donor. Series of substrates including glucose, glycerol, lactose, sucrose, and rhammose could be utilized to generate power. CV tests and the addition of anode solution as well as AQDS experiments indicated that the strain Z7 might transfer electrons indirectly via secreted mediators.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Barry, Kerrie; Chertkov, Olga; Dalin, Eileen; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Honchak, Barbara M; Karbach, Lauren E; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Larimer, Frank W; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pitluck, Sam; Pierson, Beverly K

    2011-01-01

    Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria.

  11. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  12. Mechanism of biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3, a psychrotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Fukunaga, N.; Sasaki, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Biosynthesis of palmitic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acids in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3 was investigated with in vitro and in vivo systems. (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid was aerobically converted to palmitoleate and cis-vaccenate, and the radioactivities on their carboxyl carbons were 100 and 43%, respectively, of the total radioactivity in the fatty acids. Palmitoyl coenzyme A desaturase activity was found in the membrane fraction. (1-{sup 14}C)stearic acid was converted to octadecenoate and C16 fatty acids. The octadecenoate contained oleate and cis-vaccenate, but only oleate was produced in the presence of cerulenin. (1-{sup 14}C)lauric acid was aerobically converted to palmitate, palmitoleate, and cis-vaccenate. Under anaerobic conditions, palmitate (62%), palmitoleate (4%), and cis-vaccenate (34%) were produced from (1-{sup 14}C)acetic acid, while they amounted to 48, 39, and 14%, respectively, under aerobic conditions. In these incorporation experiments, 3 to 19% of the added radioactivity was detected in released {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, indicating that part of the added fatty acids were oxidatively decomposed. Partially purified fatty acid synthetase produced saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths of C10 to C18. These results indicated that both aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid are operating in this bacterium.

  13. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  14. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  15. Taxonomic characterization and metabolic analysis of the Halomonas sp. KM-1, a highly bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Shi, Lian-Hua; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    In a brief previous report, the gram-negative moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. KM-1, that was isolated in our laboratory was shown to produce the bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), using biodiesel waste glycerol (Kawata and Aiba, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 74, 175-177, 2010). Here, we further characterized this KM-1 strain and compared it to other Halomonas strains. Strain KM-1 was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KM-1 was rod-shaped and formed colonies on a plate that were cream-beige in color, smooth, opaque, and circular with entire edges. KM-1 grew under environmental conditions of 0.1%-10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-10.5 and at temperatures between 10°C and 45°C. The G+C content of strain KM-1 was 63.9 mol%. Of the 16 Halomonas strains examined in this study, the strain KM-1 exhibited the highest production of PHB (63.6%, w/v) in SOT medium supplemented with 10% glycerol, 10.0 g/L sodium nitrate and 2.0 g/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. The intracellular structures within which PHB accumulated had the appearance of intracellular granules with a diameter of approximately 0.5 μm, as assessed by electron microscopy. The intra- and extra-cellular metabolites of strain KM-1 were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. In spite of the high amount of PHB stored intra-cellularly, as possible precursors for PHB only a small quantity of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetyl CoA, and no quantity of 3-hydroxybutyl CoA, acetoacetyl CoA and acetoacetate were detected either intra- or extra-cellularly, suggesting highly efficient conversion of these precursors to PHB.

  16. Sphingobium barthaii sp. nov., a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from cattle pasture soil.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Allyn H; Kunihiro, Marie; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Kanaly, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, yellow, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain KK22(T), was isolated from a microbial consortium that grew on diesel fuel originally recovered from cattle pasture soil. Strain KK22(T) has been studied for its ability to biotransform high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, strain KK22(T) was affiliated with the genus Sphingobium in the phylum Proteobacteria and was most closely related to Sphingobium fuliginis TKP(T) (99.8%) and less closely related to Sphingobium quisquiliarum P25(T) (97.5%). Results of DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) revealed relatedness values between strain KK22(T) and strain TKP(T) and between strain KK22(T) and strain P25(T) of 21 ± 4% (reciprocal hybridization, 27 ± 2%) and 15 ± 2% (reciprocal hybridization, 17 ± 1%), respectively. Chemotaxonomic analyses of strain KK22(T) showed that the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10, that the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl-N-methylethylethanolamine and sphingoglycolipid, and that C18 : 1ω7c and C14 : 0 2-OH were the main fatty acid and hydroxylated fatty acids, respectively. This strain was unable to reduce nitrate and the genomic DNA G+C content was 64.7 mol%. Based upon the results of the DDH analyses, the fact that strain KK22(T) was motile, and its biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain KK22(T) could be separated from recognized species of the genus Sphingobium. We conclude that strain KK22(T) represents a novel species of this genus for which the name Sphingobium barthaii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KK22(T) ( = DSM 29313(T) = JCM 30309(T)). PMID:26012583

  17. Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, alkalitolerant, sulfite-reducing bacterium isolated from a district heating plant.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2006-12-01

    A novel alkalitolerant, anaerobic bacterium, designated strain sk.kt5(T), was isolated from a metal coupon retrieved from a corrosion-monitoring reactor of a Danish district heating plant (Skanderborg, Jutland). The cells of strain sk.kt5(T) were motile, rod-shaped (0.4-0.6 x 2.5-9.6 microm), stained Gram-positive and formed endospores. Strain sk.kt5(T) grew at pH 7.6-10.5 (with optimum growth at pH 8.0-9.5), at temperatures in the range 23-44 degrees C (with optimum growth at 35-37 degrees C), at NaCl concentrations in the range 0-5 % (w/v) (with optimum growth at 0-0.5 %) and required yeast extract for growth. Only a limited number of substrates were utilized as electron donors, including betaine, formate, lactate, methanol, choline and pyruvate. Elemental sulfur, sulfite, thiosulfate, nitrate and nitrite, but not sulfate or Fe(III) citrate, were used as electron acceptors. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data for the dsrAB genes [encoding the major subunits of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] and the 16S rRNA gene placed strain sk.kt5(T) within a novel lineage in the class Clostridia of the phylum Firmicutes. Taken together, the physiological and genotypic data suggest that strain sk.kt5(T) represents a novel species within a novel genus, for which the name Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans is sk.kt5(T) (=JCM 12761(T)=DSM 16504(T)).

  18. Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov., an agar-digesting bacterium isolated from seaweed, and emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Shun; Huo, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-02-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain YN3(T), which was isolated from a seaweed sample taken from the coast of Weihai, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and could grow at pH 5.0-10.0 and 4-32 °C in the presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain YN3(T) was positive for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides, such as agar, starch and xylan. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YN3(T) should be assigned to the genus Gilvimarinus. 'Gilvimarinus agarilyticus' KCTC 23325 and Gilvimarinus chinensis QM42(T) had the closest phylogenetic relationship to strain YN3(T), and showed 97.9 % and 95.8 % sequence similarities, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, we propose that strain YN3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gilvimarinus, for which the name Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YN3(T) ( = KCTC 32438(T) = JCM 19198(T)). An emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus is also presented.

  19. Alteromonas litorea sp. nov., a slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from an intertidal sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Park, Yong-Ha

    2004-07-01

    A Gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TF-22T, was isolated from an intertidal sediment in Korea. This organism grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C and in the presence of 2-5% (w/v) NaCl. It did not grow without NaCl or in the presence of more than 14% (w/v) NaCl. Strain TF-22T was characterized chemotaxonomically as having ubiquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory lipoquinone and C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1) omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and C(18 : 1) omega7c as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain TF-22T was 46.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strain TF-22T falls within the gamma-subclass of the Proteobacteria and forms a coherent cluster with Alteromonas macleodii and Alteromonas marina. Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain TF-22T and the type strains of two Alteromonas species were in the range 98.1-98.6%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain TF-22T and the type strains of two Alteromonas species was 15.7-18.5%. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogeny and genomic distinctiveness, strain TF-22T should be placed in the genus Alteromonas as a novel species, for which the name Alteromonas litorea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TF-22TT (=KCCM 41775T=JCM 12188T).

  20. Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-07-01

    An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain DTU01(T), was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter of approximately 0.5 µm. Optimal growth occurred at 70 °C and pH 7, with a maximum growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Strain DTU01(T) could ferment arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, pectin, starch, sucrose, xylan, yeast extract and xylose, but not cellulose, Avicel, inositol, inulin, glycerol, rhamnose, acetate, lactate, ethanol, butanol or peptone. Ethanol was the major fermentation product and a maximum yield of 1.39 mol ethanol per mol xylose was achieved when sulfite was added to the cultivation medium. Thiosulfate, but not sulfate, nitrate or nitrite, could be used as electron acceptor. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain DTU01(T) was shown to be closely related to Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3(T), Thermoanaerobacter italicus Ab9(T) and Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae JT3-3(T), with 98-99 % similarity. Despite this, the physiological and phylogenetic differences (DNA G+C content, substrate utilization, electron acceptors, phylogenetic distance and isolation site) allow for the proposal of strain DTU01(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DTU01(T) ( = DSM 25963(T) = KCTC 4529(T) = VKM B-2752(T) = CECT 8142(T)).

  1. Cellulosibacter alkalithermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic alkalithermophilic, cellulolytic-xylanolytic bacterium isolated from soil of a coconut garden.

    PubMed

    Watthanalamloet, Amornrat; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Lee, Yun Sik; Kosugi, Akihiko; Mori, Yutaka; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Kyu, Khin Lay; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2012-10-01

    An obligately anaerobic, cellulolytic-xylanolytic bacterium, designated strain A6(T), was isolated from soil of a coconut garden in the Bangkuntien district of Bangkok, Thailand. The strain was Gram-stain positive, catalase-negative, endospore-forming, motile and rod-shaped with a cell size of 0.2-0.3×2.0-3.0 µm. Optimal growth of strain A6(T) occurred at pH(55 °C) 9.5, 55 °C. Strain A6(T) fermented various carbohydrates, and the end products from the fermentation of cellobiose were acetate, ethanol, propionate and a small amount of butyrate. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(14:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0) and C(16:0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. No respiratory quinones were detected. The DNA G+C content was 30.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain represented a new phyletic sublineage within the family Clostridiaceae, with <93.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to recognized species of this family. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strain A6(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Cellulosibacter alkalithermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is A6(T) ( = TISTR 1915(T) = KCTC 5874(T)).

  2. Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an artificial oil-spill marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Rim; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, halophilic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain S37T, was isolated from an artificial oil-spill sediment sample from the coast of Taean, South Korea. Cells grew at 10-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0, with optimal growth at 28 °C and pH 6.0-8.0. Growth was observed with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl in marine broth, with optimal growth with 3-5 % NaCl, but no growth was observed in the absence of NaCl. According to the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37T represents a member of the genus Vibrio of the class Gammaproteobacteria and forms a clade with Vibrio plantisponsor MSSRF60T (97.38 %), Vibrio diazotrophicus ATCC 33466T (97.31 %), Vibrio aestuarianus ATCC 35048T (97.07 %) Vibrio areninigrae J74T (96.76 %) and Vibrio hispanicus LMG 13240T (96.76 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. The DNA G+C content was 41.9 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization analysis results showed a 30.2 % association value with the closely related type strain V. plantisponsor DSM 21026T. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain S37T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain S37T ( = KEMB 2255-005T = JCM 30409T).

  3. Microbacterium rhizomatis sp. nov., a β-glucosidase-producing bacterium isolated from rhizome of Korean mountain ginseng.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc Lan; Kang, Chang Ho; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Dong-Uk; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-09-01

    A novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated DCY100(T), was isolated from rhizome of mountain ginseng root in Hwacheon mountain, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain DCY100(T) belonged to the genus Microbacterium and was most closely related to Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (97.9%), Microbacterium lacus JCM 15575(T) (97.2%) and Microbacterium invictum DSM 19600(T) (97.1%). The major menaquinones were MK-11 and MK-12. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified glycolipid. The major fatty acids (>10.0%) were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained the amino acids ornithine, alanine, glutamic acid and glycine; whole-cell sugars consisted of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and ribose. The DNA G+C content was 63.6 ± 0.7 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values between strain DCY100(T) and Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T), Microbacterium lacus JCM 15575(T) and Microbacterium invictum DSM 19600(T) were 36.2 ± 0.4, 22.0 ± 3.0 and 15.3 ± 1.8%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses, the isolate is classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium rhizomatis DCY100(T) is proposed. The type strain is DCY100(T) ( = KCTC 39529(T) = JCM 30598(T)).

  4. Desulfotomaculum ferrireducens sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic sulfate-reducing and dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guiqin; Guo, Junhui; Zhuang, Li; Yuan, Yong; Zhou, Shungui

    2016-08-01

    A novel dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated strain GSS09T, was isolated from a compost sample by using a solid medium containing acetate and ferrihydrite as electron donor and electron acceptor, respectively. Cells of strain GSS09T were anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 30-55 °C (optimum 50 °C), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %). Both sulfur compounds such as sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate and Fe(III) oxides such as ferrihydrite could be utilized as electron acceptors. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain GSS09T was related closely to Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale Lam5T (94.5 % sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characterization and physiological tests, strain GSS09T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, for which the name Desulfotomaculum ferrireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS09T (=KCTC 15523T=MCCC 1K01254T). PMID:27153808

  5. Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong H; Cho, Byung C

    2006-04-01

    A rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CL-TF09T, isolated from a tidal flat in Ganghwa, Korea, was characterized based on its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile and phylogenetic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CL-TF09T showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with the genera Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter; sequence similarities between CL-TF09T and the type strains of Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter species ranged from 90.7 to 91.8 %. Cells of strain CL-TF09T were non-motile and grew on solid media as yellow colonies. The strain grew in the presence of 1-5 % sea salts, within a temperature range of 5-30 degrees C and at pH 7-8. The strain had iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (17.4 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (16.7 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (15.1 %) and iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (13.4 %) as predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 33.9 mol%. Based on the physiological, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic data presented, strain CL-TF09T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-TF09T (=KCCM 42118T = JCM 13034T).

  6. Marinobacter nanhaiticus sp. nov., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from the sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Cui, Zhisong; Li, Qian; Xu, Guangsu; Jia, Xingjun; Zheng, Li

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly halophilic and facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain D15-8W(T), was isolated from the sediment of the South China Sea. Growth was found to occur optimally at 25 °C, between pH 7.0 and 8.0 and with 1-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to utilize a variety of organic substrates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon sources. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 58.7 %. The predominant respiratory quinone was found to be Q-9. The significant fatty acids were determined to be C(16:0), C(16:1) ω9c, C(18:1) ω9c, C(12:0) and C(14:0) 3OH. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain D15-8W(T) fits within the phylogenetic cluster of the genus Marinobacter and is most closely related to Marinobacter segnicrescens CGMCC 1.6489(T), Marinobacter bryozoorum DSM 15401(T), Marinobacter lacisalsi CECT 7297(T) and Marinobacter daqiaonensis CGMCC1.9167(T). The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain D15-8W(T) and the type strains of the most closely related species were 42.3 % (CGMCC 1.6489(T)), 39.8 % (DSM 15401(T)), 37.3 % (CECT 7297(T)) and 35.2 % (CGMCC1.9167(T)). The results of this polyphasic study indicate that strain D15-8W(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter nanhaiticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D15-8W(T) (=CGMCC 1.11019(T)=KCTC 23749(T)).

  7. Pontibacillus litoralis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from a sea anemone, and emended description of the genus Pontibacillus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yi, Lang-Bo; Li, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Yong-Xiao; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Chen, Qi-Hui; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-03-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain JSM 072002(T), was isolated from a sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica) collected from the South China Sea. Strain JSM 072002(T) was able to grow with 0.5-15 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-50 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.5 and 35 degrees C. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0). The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 072002(T) should be assigned to the genus Pontibacillus and revealed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<97 %) with the type strains of the three recognized Pontibacillus species (Pontibacillus chungwhensis BH030062(T), 96.8 %; Pontibacillus marinus KCTC 3917(T), 96.7 %; Pontibacillus halophilus JSM 076056(T), 96.0 %). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supports the view that strain JSM 072002(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacillus, for which the name Pontibacillus litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 072002(T) (=DSM 21186(T)=KCTC 13237(T)). An emended description of the genus Pontibacillus is also presented.

  8. Genome sequence of the aerobic bacterium Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guohong; Liu, Bo; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain FJAT-13831

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohong; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%. PMID:23144388

  10. Genome Sequence of Chthoniobacter flavus Ellin428, an aerobic heterotrophic soil bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kant, Ravi; Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; De Vos, Willem M.; Janssen, Peter H.; Smidt, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    Chthoniobacter flavusis Ellin428 is the first isolate from subdivision 2 of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. C. flavusis Ellin428 can metabolize many of the saccharide components of plant biomass but does not grow with amino acids or organic acids other than pyruvate.

  11. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  12. Formosa haliotis sp. nov., a brown-alga-degrading bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiji; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Mizutani, Yukino; Iehata, Shunpei; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Mori, Tetsushi; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Bossier, Peter; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Four brown-alga-degrading, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, gliding and rod-shaped bacteria, designated LMG 28520T, LMG 28521, LMG 28522 and LMG 28523, were isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea obtained in Japan. The four isolates had identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns and grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 6.0-9.0 and in the presence of 1.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolates in the genus Formosa with Formosa algae and Formosa arctica as closest neighbours. LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 showed 100 % DNA-DNA relatedness to each other, 16-17 % towards F. algae LMG 28216T and 17-20 % towards F. arctica LMG 28318T; they could be differentiated phenotypically from these established species. The predominant fatty acids of isolates LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 were summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. Isolate LMG 28520T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol% for LMG 28520T and 35.5 mol% for LMG 28522. On the basis of their phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, and differential phenotypic properties, the four isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 28520T ( = NBRC 111189T). PMID:26354496

  13. Methyloterrigena soli gen. nov., sp. nov., a methanol-utilizing bacterium isolated from chloroethylene-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, designated M48T, was isolated from a soil sample contaminated with chloroethylene compounds. Strain M48T was able to biodegrade methanol as a sole carbon source. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain M48T was closely related to Devosia chinhatensis IPL18T, Devosia insulae DS-56T, Vasilyevaea enhydra 9bT and Devosia psychrophila Cr7-05T, showing sequence similarities of 96.0, 95.8, 95.6 and 95.5 %, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain M48T formed a distinct lineage within the family Hyphomicrobiaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Strain M48T contains Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone, and C18 : 1ω7c 11-metyl, C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acids. The polar lipid profile includes diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and dimannosyldiacylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain M48T was 60.3 mol%. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain M48T represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, for which the name Methyloterrigena soli gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is M48T ( = KEMB 224-262T = JCM 30821T). PMID:26475689

  14. Rheinheimera japonica sp. nov., a novel bacterium with antimicrobial activity from seashore sediments of the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, L A; Tanaka, N; Svetashev, V I; Kalinovskaya, N I; Mikhailov, V V

    2015-05-01

    Two gram-negative, aerobic, brown-pigmented, motile rod-shaped bacteria KMM 9512 and KMM 9513(T) were isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore, Russia. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, novel strains KMM 9512 and KMM 9513(T) positioned within the genus Rheinheimera (class Gammaproteobacteria) as a separate subline adjacent to Rheinheimera baltica DSM 14885(T) sharing highest gene sequence similarities of 98.6-97.6 % to their closest phylogenetic relatives, Rheinheimera muenzenbergensis LMG 27269(T), R. baltica DSM 14885(T), Rheinheimera aquimaris JCM 14331(T), Rheinheimera nanhaiensis KACC 14030(T), and Rheinheimera pacifica KMM 1406(T). Strains KMM 9512 and KMM 9513(T) belong to the same separate genospecies on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.8 %) and their DNA relatedness to each other (89 %) and to closely related Rheinheimera species (25-53 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8, polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown phospholipids, and unknown lipids, and major fatty acid were C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, C17:1 ω8c, C12:0 3-OH followed by C17:0 and C18:1 ω7c in both strains. Strains KMM 9512 and KMM 9513(T) revealed a remarkable antagonistic activity toward a number of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization results, and phenotypic differences, strains KMM 9512 and KMM 9513(T) are proposed to be classified as a novel species of the genus Rheinheimera, Rheinheimera japonica sp. nov. The type strain of this species is KMM 9513(T) = NRIC 0918(T). PMID:25702316

  15. Seohaeicola nanhaiensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from the benthic sediment of South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bai-Sheng; Lv, Xiang-Lin; Cai, Man; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Yan-Nan; Cui, Heng-Lin; Liu, Xue-Ying; Tan, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-staining negative, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain, SS011A0-7#2-2(T), was isolated from the sediment of South China Sea with the depth of 1,500 m. Optimum growth occurred at pH 8.0, 30 °C, and 6 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) did not synthesize bacteriochlorophyll a or carotenoid, neither possess photosynthesis genes. Its genome DNA G+C content was 67.9 mol%. It contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1 ω7c (52.3 %) as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified phospholipid, and unidentified aminolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it was closely related to Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS 107(T) and Roseovarius pacificus 81-2(T) in Rhodobacteraceae, with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities being 96.5, 95.7, and 95.6 %, respectively. However, the phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) was a member of the genus Seohaeicola. Strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) was moderately halophilic which was different from Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), and it showed the enzyme activities and carbon source spectrum significantly different from Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T). As its physiological and chemotaxinomic properties were different from those of Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Seohaecola. The name Seohaeicola nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) (=LMG 27733(T) = CGMCC 1.12759(T)) as the type strain.

  16. Oceanisphaera profunda sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediment, and emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Su, Hai-Nan; Yu, Zi-Chao; Liu, Chang; Li, Hai; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Song, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Shi, Mei; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, flagellated, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SM1222(T), was isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the South China Sea. The strain grew at 4-35 °C and with 0.5-8 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SM1222(T) was affiliated with the genus Oceanisphaera in the class Gammaproteobacteria. It shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Oceanisphaera ostreae (96.8 %) and 95.4-96.6 % sequence similarities with type strains of other species of the genus Oceanisphaera with validly published names. Strain SM1222(T) contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C12 : 0 and summed feature 2 (C14 : 0 3-OH and/or iso-C16 : 1 I) as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SM1222(T) was 51.5 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain SM1222(T) represents a novel species of the genus Oceanisphaera, for which the name Oceanisphaera profunda sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Oceanisphaera profunda is SM1222(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013241(T) = KCTC 32510(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera Romanenko et al. 2003 emend. Choi et al. 2011 is also proposed.

  17. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic/aerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye acid red 18: comparison of using two types of packing media.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    Two integrated anaerobic/aerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) were operated to evaluate decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Volcanic pumice stones and a type of plastic media made of polyethylene were used as packing media in FB-SBBR1 and FB-SBBR2, respectively. Decolorization of AR18 in both reactors followed first-order kinetic with respect to dye concentration. More than 63.7% and 71.3% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate (1N-4S), as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase in FB-SBBR1 and FB-SBBR2, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, performance of FB-SBBR2 in terms of COD removal as well as biodegradation of 1N-4S was significantly higher than that of FB-SBBR1. Spherical and rod shaped bacteria were the dominant species of bacteria in the biofilm grown on the pumice stones surfaces, while, the biofilm grown on surfaces of the polyethylene media had a fluffy structure.

  18. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  19. Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, straight rod-shaped, non-pigmented, slightly halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain GBPy7T, was isolated from a sample of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GBPy7T were motile. Growth occurred on media with 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %), at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8.5) and at 4-45 °C (optimum 37 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that strain GBPy7T belonged to the family Idiomarinaceae. Its closest relatives were Aliidiomarina shirensis AIST (98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and other Aliidiomarina species (95.9-94.2 %), together with Idiomarina seosinensis CL-SP19T (94.3 %) and Idiomarina fontislapidosi F23T (94.3 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1ω7c and its polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown aminophospholipid. Cells of strain GBPy7T contained ubiquinone Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 51.6 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GBPy7T and A. shirensis IBRC-M 10414T was 21 %. The physiological, biochemical, genotypic and phylogenetic differences between strain GBPy7T and other previously described taxa indicate that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Aliidiomarina within the family Idiomarinaceae, for which the name Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy7T ( = IBRC-M 10763T = CECT 8339T). PMID:26928783

  20. Anoxybacillus calidus sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from soil near a thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Cokmus, Cumhur; Koc, Melih; Ozcan, Birgul

    2014-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain C161ab(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected near Kizildere, Saraykoy-Buharkent power plant in Denizli. The isolate could grow at temperatures between 35 and 70 °C (optimum 55 °C), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0-8.5) and with 0-2.5 % NaCl (optimum 0.5 %, w/v). The strain formed cream-coloured, circular colonies and tolerated up to 70 mM boron. Its DNA G+C content was 37.8 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain C161ab(T) contained menaquinones MK-7 (96 %) and MK-6 (4 %). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-branched fatty acids: iso-C15 : 0 (52.2 %) and iso-C17 : 0 (28.0 %,) with small amounts of C16 : 0 (7.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed 94.6-96.8 % sequence similarity with all recognized species of the genus Anoxybacillus. Strain C161ab(T) showed the greatest sequence similarity to Anoxybacillus rupiensis DSM 17127(T) and Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 17075(T), both had 96.8 % similarity to strain C161ab(T), as well as to Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus DSM 15730(T) (96.6 %). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed low levels of relatedness with the closest relatives of strain C161ab(T), A. rupiensis (21.2 %) and A. voinovskiensis (16.5 %). On the basis of the results obtained from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genomic fingerprinting, phylogenetic and hybridization analyses, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel species, Anoxybacillus calidus sp. nov. (type strain C161ab(T) = DSM 25520(T) = NCIMB 14851(T)). PMID:24052627

  1. Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, straight rod-shaped, non-pigmented, slightly halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain GBPy7T, was isolated from a sample of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GBPy7T were motile. Growth occurred on media with 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %), at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8.5) and at 4-45 °C (optimum 37 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that strain GBPy7T belonged to the family Idiomarinaceae. Its closest relatives were Aliidiomarina shirensis AIST (98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and other Aliidiomarina species (95.9-94.2 %), together with Idiomarina seosinensis CL-SP19T (94.3 %) and Idiomarina fontislapidosi F23T (94.3 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1ω7c and its polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown aminophospholipid. Cells of strain GBPy7T contained ubiquinone Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 51.6 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GBPy7T and A. shirensis IBRC-M 10414T was 21 %. The physiological, biochemical, genotypic and phylogenetic differences between strain GBPy7T and other previously described taxa indicate that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Aliidiomarina within the family Idiomarinaceae, for which the name Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy7T ( = IBRC-M 10763T = CECT 8339T).

  2. Shewanella aestuarii sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain SC18(T), was isolated from a tidal flat of Suncheon bay in South Korea. Cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Cells were catalase-, oxidase- and β-haemolysis-positive. Growth was observed at 4-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified lipids. Strain SC18(T) contained Q-7, Q-8, MK-7 and MMK-7 as the dominant respiratory quinones and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) gene sequences showed that strain SC18(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Shewanella. Strain SC18(T) was related most closely to Shewanella denitrificans OS217(T) (97.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Shewanella gaetbuli TF-27(T) (97.1 %), but the DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain SC18(T) and the type strains of S. denitrificans and S. gaetbuli were 18.3±2.8 and 22.5±1.6 % (mean±sd), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain SC18(T) represents a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella aestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SC18(T) ( = KACC 16187(T) = JCM 17801(T)).

  3. Salipiger nanhaiensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Shi, Xiaochong; Gao, Xin; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, moderately halophilic, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing, cream, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain ZH114(T), was isolated from deep water of the South China Sea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that this strain belongs to the genus Salipiger with the highest sequence similarity to Salipiger mucescens LMG 22090(T) (96.83%), followed by Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis LMG 24574(T) (96.12%). Growth occurred at 4-37 °C (optimum 32 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 9.0-10.0) and in the presence of 0-19% NaCl (w/v) (optimum 6%, w/v). It did not produce poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate granules or bacteriochlorophyll a. Acid was produced from glycerol, erythrose, ribose, D-xylose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannitol, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, turanose, D-lyxose, D-tagatose, D-fucose, D-arabitol and L-arabitol after inoculating for 24 h and weakly positive results were also detected after 48 h in API 50CH strips with D-arabinose, L-arabinose, L-xylose, adonitol, mannose, aesculin, salicin, sucrose, mycose and L-fucose. The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c and/or C(18 : 1)ω6c, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 0) and 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c. The major polar lipids of ZH114(T) were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain ZH114(T) was 63.8 mol%. Based on this phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain ZH114(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Salipiger , for which the name Salipiger nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZH114(T) ( = JCM 19383(T) = KCTC 32468(T)). PMID:25589735

  4. Marinobacter aromaticivorans sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhisong; Gao, Wei; Xu, Guangfei; Luan, Xiao; Li, Qian; Yin, Xiaofei; Huang, Deming; Zheng, Li

    2016-01-01

    A rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, slightly halotolerant bacterium, designated strain D15-8PT, was isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea. The strain could grow in NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.5 % to 10 % (w/v) (optimum 0.5-1.5 %), and could be cultivated at 10-40 °C (optimum 25 °C) and pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0). The strain was positive for catalase, oxidase, and hydrolysis of Tween 80, but negative for hydrolysis of DNA and gelatin, nitrite reduction, indole production, Voges-Proskauer reaction, and methyl red test. Strain D15-8PT could biodegrade naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. The major respiratory quinone was Q-9. The main cellular fatty acids were C12 : 0 (11.5 %), C14 : 0 3-methyl (22.0 %), C16 : 0 (19.2 %), C16 : 1ω9c (22.9 %), and C18 : 1ω9c (6.7 %). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 56.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes showed that strain D15-8PT was most closely related to Marinobacter maritimus JCM 12521T (98.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Marinobacter antarcticus CGMCC 1.10835T (98.1 %), Marinobacter lipolyticus DSM 15157T (97.1 %), and Marinobacter guineae CECT 7243T (97.0 %). Results of the gyrB gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization were both less than the cut-off values (90 % for gyrB gene sequence similarity and 70 % for DNA-DNA hybridization). On the basis of this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain D15-8PT represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter aromaticivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D15-8PT ( = CGMCC 1.11015T = KCTC 23781T).

  5. Erythrobacter atlanticus sp. nov., a bacterium from ocean sediment able to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Lingping; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, motile, rod-shaped, orange-pigmented bacterium able to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Atlantic Ocean and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain, designated s21-N3T, could grow at 4–37 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 5–10 (optimum pH 7–8) and with 1–7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2–3 %). Strain s21-N3T was positive for nitrate reduction, denitrification, aesculin hydrolysis, oxidase and catalase, but negative for indole production and urease. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain s21-N3T formed a distinct branch within the genus Erythrobacter, sharing high similarities with three closely related strains, Erythrobacter marinus HWDM-33T (98.67 %), ‘Erythrobacter luteus’ KA37 (97.80 %) and Erythrobacter gangjinensis K7-2T (97.59 %). The similarities between strain s21-N3T and other type strains of recognized species within the genus Erythrobacter ranged from 95.00 to 96.47 %. The digital DNA–DNA hybridization values and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain s21-N3T and the three closely related strains Erythrobacter marinus HWDM-33T, ‘Erythrobacter luteus’ KA37 and Erythrobacter gangjinensis K7-2T were 18.60, 18.00 and 18.50 % and 74.24, 72.49 and 72.54 %, respectively. The principal fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/ω6c). The respiratory lipoquinone was identified as Q-10. The major polar lipids comprised sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 58.18 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness demonstrated that strain s21-N3T represents a novel species of the genus Erythrobacter, for which the name Erythrobacter atlanticus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain s21-N3T (

  6. Salipiger nanhaiensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Shi, Xiaochong; Gao, Xin; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, moderately halophilic, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing, cream, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain ZH114(T), was isolated from deep water of the South China Sea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that this strain belongs to the genus Salipiger with the highest sequence similarity to Salipiger mucescens LMG 22090(T) (96.83%), followed by Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis LMG 24574(T) (96.12%). Growth occurred at 4-37 °C (optimum 32 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 9.0-10.0) and in the presence of 0-19% NaCl (w/v) (optimum 6%, w/v). It did not produce poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate granules or bacteriochlorophyll a. Acid was produced from glycerol, erythrose, ribose, D-xylose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannitol, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, turanose, D-lyxose, D-tagatose, D-fucose, D-arabitol and L-arabitol after inoculating for 24 h and weakly positive results were also detected after 48 h in API 50CH strips with D-arabinose, L-arabinose, L-xylose, adonitol, mannose, aesculin, salicin, sucrose, mycose and L-fucose. The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c and/or C(18 : 1)ω6c, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 0) and 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c. The major polar lipids of ZH114(T) were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain ZH114(T) was 63.8 mol%. Based on this phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain ZH114(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Salipiger , for which the name Salipiger nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZH114(T) ( = JCM 19383(T) = KCTC 32468(T)).

  7. Oceanirhabdus sediminicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Pi, Ruo-Xi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Fang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Yan-Zhou; Li, Tian-Tian; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

    2013-11-01

    A novel anaerobic bacterium, designated NH-JN4(T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected in the South China Sea. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, peritrichous and rod-shaped (0.5-1.2×2.2-7 µm). The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 22-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5. Optimal growth occurred at 34-38 °C and pH 6.5-7.0. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0.5-6 % (w/v) with an optimum of 2.5 %. Catalase and oxidase were not produced. Substrates which could be utilized were peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and glycine. Main fermentation products from PYG medium were formate, acetate, butyrate and ethanol. Strain NH-JN4(T) could utilize sodium sulfite as an electron acceptor. No respiratory quinone was detected. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0 DMA. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 35.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NH-JN4(T) was a member of family Clostridiaceae, and was most closely related to Clostridium limosum ATCC 25620(T), Clostridium proteolyticum DSM 3090(T), Clostridium histolyticum ATCC 19401(T) and Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508(T), showing 94.0, 93.0, 92.9 and 92.3 % sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strain NH-JN4(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Clostridiaceae, for which the name Oceanirhabdus sediminicola gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is NH-JN4(T) ( = JCM 18501(T) = CCTCC AB 2013103(T) = KCTC 15322(T)).

  8. Thauera humireducens sp. nov., a humus-reducing bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Jun; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Han, Lu-Chao; Chen, Ming; Ma, Chen; Zhuang, Li

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated SgZ-1(T), was isolated from the anode biofilm of a microbial fuel cell. The strain had the ability to grow under anaerobic condition via the oxidation of various organic compounds coupled to the reduction of anthraquione-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AHQDS). Growth occurred in TSB in the presence of 0-5.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-1 %), at 10-45 °C (optimum 25-37 °C) and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum 8.0-8.5). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain SgZ-1(T) belonged to the genus Thauera. The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequences similarity (96.7 %) was found to be with Thauera aminoaromatica S2(T) and Thauera selenatis AX(T), and lower values were obtained when compared with other recognized Thauera species. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain SgZ-1(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant quinone, and putrescine and 2-hydroxyputrescine as the major polyamines. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (44.6 %), C16 : 0 (18.8 %), and C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c (12.7 %). Based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, chemotaxonomic analysis and the results of physiological and biochemical tests, strain SgZ-1(T) ( = KACC 16524(T) = CCTCC M 2011497(T)) was designated the type strain of a novel species of the genus Thauera, for which the name Thauera humireducens sp. nov. was proposed.

  9. Denitrification by a soil bacterium with phthalate and other aromatic compounds as substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, T; Maruyama, Y

    1988-01-01

    A soil bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain P136, was isolated by selective enrichment for anaerobic utilization of o-phthalate through nitrate respiration. o-Phthalate, m-phthalate, p-phthalate, benzoate, cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylate, and cyclohex-3-ene-carboxylate were utilized by this strain under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. m-Hydroxybenzoate and p-hydroxybenzoate were utilized only under anaerobic conditions. Protocatechuate and catechol were neither utilized nor detected as metabolic intermediates during the metabolism of these aromatic compounds under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cells grown anaerobically on one of these aromatic compounds also utilized all other aromatic compounds as substrates for denitrification without a lag period. On the other hand, cells grown on succinate utilized aromatic compounds after a lag period. Anaerobic growth on these substrates was dependent on the presence of nitrate and accompanied by the production of molecular nitrogen. The reduction of nitrite to nitrous oxide and the reduction of nitrous oxide to molecular nitrogen were also supported by anaerobic utilization of these aromatic compounds in this strain. Aerobically grown cells showed a lag period in denitrification with all substrates tested. Cells grown anaerobically on aromatic compounds also consumed oxygen. No lag period was observed for oxygen consumption during the transition period from anaerobic to aerobic conditions. Cells grown aerobically on one of these aromatic compounds were also adapted to utilize other aromatic compounds as substrates for respiration. However, cells grown on succinate showed a lag period during respiration with aromatic compounds. Some other characteristic properties on metabolism and regulation of this strain are also discussed for their physiological aspects. PMID:3372476

  10. Cellulomonas chitinilytica sp. nov., a chitinolytic bacterium isolated from cattle-farm compost.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min-Ho; Ten, Leonid N; Im, Wan-Taek; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain, designated X.bu-b T, with chitin-, xylan-, cellulose- and starch-degrading activities, was isolated from compost at a cattle farm near Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The strain comprised Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria. On the basis of an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic position of X.bu-b T was within the genus Cellulomonas, and the strain exhibited relatively high sequence similarities with respect to Cellulomonas biazotea DSM 20112T (98.1 %), C. cellasea DSM 20118T (98.1 %), C. fimi DSM 20113T (98.0 %), C. terrae DB5T (97.9 %), C. humilata ATCC 25174T (97.7 %), C. xylanilytica XIL11 T (97.5 %), C. uda DSM 20107T (97.4 %), C. gelida DSM 20111 T (97.3 %), C. iranensis OT (97.3 %) and C. flavigena DSM 20109T (97.0 %). The phylogenetic distance from other Cellulomonas species with validly published names was greater than 3 % (i.e. less than 97.0 % sequence similarity). Chemotaxonomic data also supported the classification of strain X.bu-b T within the genus Cellulomonas: L-ornithine was the cell-wall diamino acid, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 were the major fatty acids, rhamnose, galactose, xylose and ribose were the cell-wall sugars, MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol were present in the polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain X.bu-b T and the phylogenetically closest neighbours were below 23 %. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain X.bu-b T represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas chitinilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X.bu-b T (=KCTC 19133T =DSM 17922T).

  11. Bacillus oleivorans sp. nov., a diesel oil-degrading and solvent-tolerant bacterium.

    PubMed

    Azmatunnisa, M; Rahul, K; Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-04-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, diesel oil-degrading, solvent-tolerant, aerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from a contaminated laboratory plate. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains JC228(T) and JC279 were identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes and were found to be most closely related to Bacillus carboniphilus JCM 9731(T) (98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and shared <96.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other members of the genus Bacillus . The DNA-DNA hybridization value between the two strains was 88±2%. Strain JC228(T) showed 23.4±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. carboniphilus LMG 18001(T). The DNA G+C content of strains JC228(T) and JC279 was 39 and 38.4 mol%, respectively. Both strains were positive for catalase and oxidase activities, and negative for hydrolysis of starch and Tween 80. Strains JC228(T) and JC279 grew chemoorganoheterotrophically with optimum growth at pH 7 (range pH 7-9.5) and 35 °C (range 25-40 °C). Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2) were the major polar lipids. Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Whole-cell hydrolysates contained l-alanine, d-alanine, d-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. Both strains utilized diesel oil as sole carbon and energy source. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses allowed clear differentiation of strains JC228(T) and JC279 from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore strains JC228(T) and JC279 represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus oleivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC228(T) ( = LMG 28084(T) = CCTCC AB 2013353(T)).

  12. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  13. Gracilibacillus kimchii sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from kimchi.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Joon; Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Jang, Ja-Young; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-09-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium, strain K7(T), was isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The strain is Gram-positive, motile, and produces terminal endospores. The isolate is facultative aerobic and grows at salinities of 0.0-25.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10-15% NaCl), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5), and 15-42°C (optimum 37°C). The predominant isoprenoid quinone in the strain is menaquinone-7 and the peptidoglycan of the strain is meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids of the strain are anteisio-C15:0, iso-C15:0, and, C16:0 (other components were < 10.0%), while the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and three unidentified lipids. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that the isolated strain was a cluster of the genus Gracilibacillus. High levels of gene sequence similarity were observed between strain K7(T) and Gracilibacillus orientalis XH-63(T) (96.5%), and between the present strain and Gracilibacillus xinjiangensis (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of this strain is 37.7 mol%. Based on these findings, strain K7(T) is proposed as a novel species: Gracilibacillus kimchii sp. nov. The type strain is K7(T) (KACC 18669(T); JCM 31344(T)).

  14. Gracilibacillus kimchii sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from kimchi.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Joon; Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Jang, Ja-Young; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-09-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium, strain K7(T), was isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The strain is Gram-positive, motile, and produces terminal endospores. The isolate is facultative aerobic and grows at salinities of 0.0-25.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10-15% NaCl), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5), and 15-42°C (optimum 37°C). The predominant isoprenoid quinone in the strain is menaquinone-7 and the peptidoglycan of the strain is meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids of the strain are anteisio-C15:0, iso-C15:0, and, C16:0 (other components were < 10.0%), while the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and three unidentified lipids. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that the isolated strain was a cluster of the genus Gracilibacillus. High levels of gene sequence similarity were observed between strain K7(T) and Gracilibacillus orientalis XH-63(T) (96.5%), and between the present strain and Gracilibacillus xinjiangensis (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of this strain is 37.7 mol%. Based on these findings, strain K7(T) is proposed as a novel species: Gracilibacillus kimchii sp. nov. The type strain is K7(T) (KACC 18669(T); JCM 31344(T)). PMID:27572507

  15. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain B6, a 2,3-Butanediol-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Um, Youngsoon; Beak, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sehwan; Lee, Soojin; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2013-06-27

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain B6, a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This 2,3-butanediol-producing bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated soil on Backwoon Mountain in South Korea. Strain B6 contains 5,398,151 bp with 4,909 protein-coding genes, 104 structural RNAs, and 55.88% G+C content.

  17. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  18. Aerobic organic carbon mineralization by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the oxygen-saturated photic zone of a hypersaline microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, H M; Koh, I-O; Behrend, P; Muyzer, G; de Beer, D

    2005-02-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterium strain SRB D2 isolated from the photic zone of a hypersaline microbial mat, from Lake Chiprana, NE Spain, respired pyruvate, alanine, and alpha-ketoglutarate but not formate, lactate, malate, succinate, and serine at significant rates under fully oxic conditions. Dehydrogenase enzymes of only the former substrates are likely oxygen-tolerant as all substrates supported anaerobic sulfate reduction. No indications were found, however, that aerobic respiration supported growth. Although strain SRB D2 appeared phylogenetically closely related to the oxygen-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio oxyclinae, substrate spectra were markedly different. Most-probable-number (MPN) estimates of sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indicated that the latter were numerically dominant in both the photic and aphotic zones of the mat. Moreover, substrate spectra of representative isolates showed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria are metabolically more diverse. These findings indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria in the fully oxic photic zone of mats have to compete with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria for organic substrates. Porewater analysis revealed that total carbohydrates and low-molecular-weight carbon compounds (LMWC) made up substantial fractions of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool and that nighttime degradation of the former was concomitant with increased concentration of the latter. Our findings indicate that aerobic respiration by sulfate-reducing bacteria contributes to organic carbon mineralization in the oxic zone of microbial mats as daytime porewater LMWC concentrations are above typical half-saturation constants.

  19. Aerobic organic carbon mineralization by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the oxygen-saturated photic zone of a hypersaline microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, H M; Koh, I-O; Behrend, P; Muyzer, G; de Beer, D

    2005-02-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterium strain SRB D2 isolated from the photic zone of a hypersaline microbial mat, from Lake Chiprana, NE Spain, respired pyruvate, alanine, and alpha-ketoglutarate but not formate, lactate, malate, succinate, and serine at significant rates under fully oxic conditions. Dehydrogenase enzymes of only the former substrates are likely oxygen-tolerant as all substrates supported anaerobic sulfate reduction. No indications were found, however, that aerobic respiration supported growth. Although strain SRB D2 appeared phylogenetically closely related to the oxygen-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio oxyclinae, substrate spectra were markedly different. Most-probable-number (MPN) estimates of sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indicated that the latter were numerically dominant in both the photic and aphotic zones of the mat. Moreover, substrate spectra of representative isolates showed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria are metabolically more diverse. These findings indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria in the fully oxic photic zone of mats have to compete with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria for organic substrates. Porewater analysis revealed that total carbohydrates and low-molecular-weight carbon compounds (LMWC) made up substantial fractions of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool and that nighttime degradation of the former was concomitant with increased concentration of the latter. Our findings indicate that aerobic respiration by sulfate-reducing bacteria contributes to organic carbon mineralization in the oxic zone of microbial mats as daytime porewater LMWC concentrations are above typical half-saturation constants. PMID:15965719

  20. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor.

  1. Marinobacter strain NNA5, a newly isolated and highly efficient aerobic denitrifier with zero N2O emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient aerobic denitrification bacterium, strain NNA5, was isolated and identified as Marinobacter sp. NNA5. NNA5 did not perform heterotrophic nitrification. GC/IRMS analysis revealed that (15)N2 was produced from Na(15)NO2 and K(15)NO3. GC/MS and quantitative analyses showed that no N2O emission occurred when nitrite or nitrate was used as substrate. Single factor experiments indicated that optimal conditions for aerobic denitrification were: sodium succinate or sodium pyruvate as carbon source, temperature 35 °C, NaCl concentration 2-4%, C/N ratio 6-8, pH 7.5, rotation speed 150 rpm (giving dissolved oxygen concentration 6.08 mg/L), NO3(-)-N concentration ranging from 140 to 700 mg/L. NNA5 displayed highly efficient aerobic denitrifying ability, with maximal NO3(-)-N removal rate 112.8 mg/L/d. In view of its ability to perform aerobic denitrification with zero N2O emission, NNA5 has great potential for future application in aerobic denitrification processes in industrial and aquaculture wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26836845

  2. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  3. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals. PMID:12238371

  4. Alteromonas infernus sp. nov., a new polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Raguénès, G H; Peres, A; Ruimy, R; Pignet, P; Christen, R; Loaec, M; Rougeaux, H; Barbier, G; Guezennec, J G

    1997-04-01

    A deep-sea, aerobic, mesophilic and heterotrophic new bacterium was isolated from a sample of fluid collected among a dense population of Riftia pachyptila, in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal vent of the Southern depression of the Guaymas basin (Gulf of California). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses and DNA/DNA relatedness, the strain GY785 was recognized as a new species of the genus Alteromonas and the name of Alteromonas infernus is proposed. During the stationary phase in batch cultures in the presence of glucose, this bacterium secreted two unusual polysaccharides. The water-soluble exopolysaccharide-1 produced contained glucose, galactose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids as monosaccharides. The gel-forming exopolysaccharide-2 was separated from the bacterial cells by dialysis against distilled water and partially characterized. PMID:9134716

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  7. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  8. Aerobic deconstruction of cellulosic biomass by an insect-associated Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Takasuka, Taichi E.; Book, Adam J.; Lewin, Gina R.; Currie, Cameron R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces are best known for producing antimicrobial secondary metabolites, but they are also recognized for their contributions to biomass utilization. Despite their importance to carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, our understanding of the cellulolytic ability of Streptomyces is currently limited to a few soil-isolates. Here, we demonstrate the biomass-deconstructing capability of Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E (ActE), an aerobic bacterium associated with the invasive pine-boring woodwasp Sirex noctilio. When grown on plant biomass, ActE secretes a suite of enzymes including endo- and exo-cellulases, CBM33 polysaccharide-monooxygenases, and hemicellulases. Genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, and biochemical assays have revealed the key enzymes used to deconstruct crystalline cellulose, other pure polysaccharides, and biomass. The mixture of enzymes obtained from growth on biomass has biomass-degrading activity comparable to a cellulolytic enzyme cocktail from the fungus Trichoderma reesei, and thus provides a compelling example of high cellulolytic capacity in an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23301151

  9. Aerobic biotransformation of 3-methylindole to ring cleavage products by Cupriavidus sp. strain KK10.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Kimiko; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    3-Methylindole, also referred to as skatole, is a pollutant of environmental concern due to its persistence, mobility and potential health impacts. Petroleum refining, intensive livestock production and application of biosolids to agricultural lands result in releases of 3-methylindole to the environment. Even so, little is known about the aerobic biodegradation of 3-methylindole and comprehensive biotransformation pathways have not been established. Using glycerol as feedstock, the soil bacterium Cupriavidus sp. strain KK10 biodegraded 100 mg/L of 3-methylindole in 24 h. Cometabolic 3-methylindole biodegradation was confirmed by the identification of biotransformation products through liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses. In all, 14 3-methylindole biotransformation products were identified which revealed that biotransformation occurred through different pathways that included carbocyclic aromatic ring-fission of 3-methylindole to single-ring pyrrole carboxylic acids. This work provides first comprehensive evidence for the aerobic biotransformation mechanisms of 3-methylindole by a soil bacterium and expands our understanding of the biodegradative capabilities of members of the genus Cupriavidus towards heteroaromatic pollutants. PMID:26126873

  10. Aerobic biotransformation of 3-methylindole to ring cleavage products by Cupriavidus sp. strain KK10.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Kimiko; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    3-Methylindole, also referred to as skatole, is a pollutant of environmental concern due to its persistence, mobility and potential health impacts. Petroleum refining, intensive livestock production and application of biosolids to agricultural lands result in releases of 3-methylindole to the environment. Even so, little is known about the aerobic biodegradation of 3-methylindole and comprehensive biotransformation pathways have not been established. Using glycerol as feedstock, the soil bacterium Cupriavidus sp. strain KK10 biodegraded 100 mg/L of 3-methylindole in 24 h. Cometabolic 3-methylindole biodegradation was confirmed by the identification of biotransformation products through liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses. In all, 14 3-methylindole biotransformation products were identified which revealed that biotransformation occurred through different pathways that included carbocyclic aromatic ring-fission of 3-methylindole to single-ring pyrrole carboxylic acids. This work provides first comprehensive evidence for the aerobic biotransformation mechanisms of 3-methylindole by a soil bacterium and expands our understanding of the biodegradative capabilities of members of the genus Cupriavidus towards heteroaromatic pollutants.

  11. Burkholderia jiangsuensis sp. nov., a methyl parathion degrading bacterium, isolated from methyl parathion contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-Yun; Li, Chun-Xiu; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Lai, Qi-Liang; Xu, Jian-He

    2014-09-01

    A methyl parathion (MP) degrading bacterial strain, designated MP-1(T), was isolated from a waste land where pesticides were formerly manufactured in Jiangsu province, China. Polyphasic taxonomic studies showed that MP-1(T) is a Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and motile bacterium. The bacterium could grow at salinities of 0-1 % (w/v) and temperatures of 15-40 °C. Strain MP-1(T) could reduce nitrate to nitrite, utilize d-glucose and l-arabinose, but not produce indole, or hydrolyse gelatin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that MP-1(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia, showing highest sequence similarity to Burkholderia grimmiae DSM 25160(T) (98.5 %), and similar strains including Burkholderia zhejiangensis OP-1(T) (98.2 %), Burkholderia choica LMG 22940(T) (97.5 %), Burkholderia glathei DSM 50014(T) (97.4 %), Burkholderia terrestris LMG 22937(T) (97.2 %) and Burkholderia telluris LMG 22936(T) (97.0 %). In addition, the gyrB and recA gene segments of strain MP-1(T) exhibited less than 89.0 % and 95.1 % similarities with the most highly-related type strains indicated above. The G+C content of strain MP-1(T) was 62.6 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The predominant polar lipids comprised phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, aminolipid and phospholipid. The principal fatty acids in strain MP-1(T) were C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c (23.3 %), C16 : 0 (16.8 %), cyclo-C17 : 0 (15.0 %), C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6 (8.5 %), cyclo-C19 : 0ω8c (8.1 %), C16 : 1 iso I/C14 : 0 3-OH (5.7 %), C16 : 0 3-OH (5.6 %) and C16 : 02-OH (5.1 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain MP-1(T) and the three type strains (B. grimmiae DSM 25160(T), B. zhejiangensis OP-1(T) and B. glathei DSM 50014(T)) ranged from 24.6 % to 37.4 %. In accordance with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain MP-1(T) represents a novel

  12. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  13. Inactivation of Mg chelatase during transition from anaerobic to aerobic growth in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Willows, Robert D; Lake, Vanessa; Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Beale, Samuel I

    2003-06-01

    The facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can adapt from an anaerobic photosynthetic mode of growth to aerobic heterotrophic metabolism. As this adaptation occurs, the cells must rapidly halt bacteriochlorophyll synthesis to prevent phototoxic tetrapyrroles from accumulating, while still allowing heme synthesis to continue. A likely control point is Mg chelatase, the enzyme that diverts protoporphyrin IX from heme biosynthesis toward the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway by inserting Mg(2+) to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX. Mg chelatase is composed of three subunits that are encoded by the bchI, bchD, and bchH genes in R. capsulatus. We report that BchH is the rate-limiting component of Mg chelatase activity in cell extracts. BchH binds protoporphyrin IX, and BchH that has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli is red in color due to the bound protoporphyrin IX. Recombinant BchH is rapidly inactivated by light in the presence of O(2), and the inactivation results in the formation of a covalent adduct between the protein and the bound protoporphyrin IX. When photosynthetically growing R. capsulatus cells are transferred to aerobic conditions, Mg chelatase is rapidly inactivated, and BchH is the component that is most rapidly inactivated in vivo when cells are exposed to aerobic conditions. The light- and O(2)-stimulated inactivation of BchH could account for the rapid inactivation of Mg chelatase in vivo and provide a mechanism for inhibiting the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll during adaptation of photosynthetically grown cells to aerobic conditions while still allowing heme synthesis to occur for aerobic respiration.

  14. Denitrification by a soil bacterium with phthalate and other aromatic compounds as substrates. [Pseudomonas sp. strain P136

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, T.; Maruyama, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A soil bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain P136, was isolated by selective enrichment for anaerobic utilization of o-phthalate through nitrate respiration. o-Phthalate, m-phthalate, p-phthalate, benzoate, cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylate, and cyclohex-3-ene-carboxylate were utilized by this strain under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. m-Hydroxybenzoate and p-hydroxybenzoate were utilized only under anaerobic conditions. Cells grown anaerobically on one of these aromatic compounds also utilized all other aromatic compounds as substrates for denitrification without a lag period. On the other hand, cells grown on succinate utilized aromatic compounds after a lag period. Anaerobic growth on these substrates was dependent on the presence of nitrate and accompanied by the production of molecular nitrogen. The reduction of nitrite to nitrous oxide and the reduction of nitrous oxide to molecular nitrogen were also supported by anaerobic utilization of these aromatic compounds in this strain. Aerobically grown cells showed a lag period in denitrification with all substrates tested. Cells grown anaerobically on aromatic compounds also consumed oxygen. No lag period was observed for oxygen consumption during the transition period from anaerobic to aerobic conditions. Cells grown aerobically on one of these aromatic compounds were also adapted to utilize other aromatic compounds as substrates for respiration. However, cells grown on succinate showed a lag period during respiration with aromatic compounds.

  15. Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a chiton, and description of Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov., Holophagaceae fam. nov., Holophagales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. in the phylum 'Acidobacteria'.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Kurahashi, Midori; Yanagi, Kensuke; Yokota, Akira; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-11-01

    Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)).

  16. Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a chiton, and description of Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov., Holophagaceae fam. nov., Holophagales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. in the phylum 'Acidobacteria'.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Kurahashi, Midori; Yanagi, Kensuke; Yokota, Akira; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-11-01

    Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)). PMID:18984699

  17. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  18. Effect of Mn2+ augmentation on reinforcing aerobic sludge granulation in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Weiliang; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors were synchronously operated to investigate the effect of manganese (II) (Mn(2+)) augmentation on aerobic granulation. Reactor 1 (R1) was added with 10 mg/L Mn(2+), while there was no Mn(2+) augmentation in reactor 2 (R2). Results showed that R1 had a faster granulation process than R2 and R1 performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) removal efficiencies. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with Mn(2+) behaved better on their physical characteristics and size distributions, and they also had higher production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. The result of three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix fluorescence showed that Mn(2+) had the function of causing organic material diversity (especially proteins diversity) in EPS fraction from granules. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques were employed to analyze the microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules. The results exhibited that Mn(2+) augmentation was mainly responsible for the higher microbial diversity of granules from R1 compared with that from R2. Uncultured sludge bacterium A16 (AF234726) and Rhodococcus sp. WTZ-R2 (HM004214) were the major species in R1, while only uncultured sludge bacterium A16 (AF234726) in R2. Moreover, there were eight species of organisms found in both two aerobic granules, and three species were found only in aerobic granules from R1. It could be concluded that Mn(2+) could enhance the sludge granulation process and have a key effect role on the biological properties during the sludge granulation. PMID:21894480

  19. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  20. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a new gram-negative, acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium from soil, Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Rainey, F A; Stackebrandt, E; Winter, J

    1996-10-01

    An acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing, coccoid to rod-shaped bacterium, strain L1, was isolated from soil on the site of a natural gas company. Cells of the logarithmic growth phase reacted gram positive, while those of the stationary growth phase were gram negative. Single organisms were 0.4 to 0.5 by 0.9 to 1.5 microns in size, nonmotile, and non-spore forming and had poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions. The doubling time of strain L1 on acetone-CO2-nitrate at the optimal pH of 7 to 8 and the optimal temperature of 30 to 37 degrees C was 12 h. More than 0.2% NaCl or 10 mM thiosulfate inhibited growth. For oxygen or nitrate respiration, acetone and a few organic chemicals were utilized as carbon sources whereas many others could not be used (for details, see Results). Bicarbonate (or CO2) was essential for growth on acetone but not for growth on acetoacetate. The growth yields for acetone-CO2 and acetoacetate were 28.3 and 27.3 g/mol, respectively. With acetone as the carbon source, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accounted for up to 40% of the cellular dry weight. The DNA of strain L1 had a G + C content of 68.5 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography of nucleotides) or 70 mol% (as determined by the TM method). The sequence of the gene coding for the 16S rRNA led to the classification of strain L1 in the paracoccus group of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. The new isolate is named Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov. DSM 6637. PMID:8863446

  2. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)).

  3. Hungatella effluvii gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from an effluent treatment plant, and reclassification of Clostridium hathewayi as Hungatella hathewayi gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Yawar, Mir; Kumar, P Anil; Suresh, K

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated UB-B.2(T), was isolated from an industrial effluent anaerobic digester sample. It grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that strain UB-B.2(T) was closely related to Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479(T) (97.84% similarity), a member of rRNA gene cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium, and formed a coherent cluster with other related members of the Blautia (Clostridium) coccoides rRNA group in phylogenetic analyses. The end products of glucose fermentation by strain UB-B.2(T) were acetate and propionate. The G+C content of the DNA was 51.4 mol%. Although strain UB-B.2(T) showed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to the type strain of C. hathewayi, it exhibited only 38.4% relatedness at the whole-genome level. It also showed differences from its closest phylogenetic relative, C. hathewayi DSM 13479(T), in phenotypic characteristics such as hydrolysis of aesculin, starch and urea and fermentation end products. Both strains showed phenotypic differences from the members of rRNA gene cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium. Based on these differences, C. hathewayi DSM 13479(T) and strain UB-B.2(T) were identified as representatives of a new genus of the family Clostridiaceae. Thus, we propose the reclassification of Clostridium hathewayi as Hungatella hathewayi gen. nov., comb. nov., the type species of the new genus (type strain DSM 13479(T) = CCUG 43506(T) = MTCC 10951(T)). Strain UB-B.2(T) ( = MTCC 11101(T) = DSM 24995(T)) is assigned to the novel species Hungatella effluvii gen. nov., sp. nov as the type strain.

  4. Seonamhaeicola algicola sp. nov., a complex-polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from Gracilaria blodgettii, and emended description of the genus Seonamhaeicola.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Du, Zong-Jun; Chen, Guan-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, yellow, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, gliding bacterial strain, designated Gy8T, was isolated from the surface of Gracilaria blodgettii. This bacterium was able to degrade various polysaccharides, especially agar and alginate. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1. The major menaquinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content was 35.3 mol%. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown polar lipids. Strain Gy8T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Seonamhaeicola aphaedonensis AH-M5T (95.6 %), and these two strains formed a distinct branch in phylogenetic trees generated with the neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony algorithms. The novel strain and the reference type strain of the single species described to date in the genus Seonamhaeicola contained MK-6 as the major menaquinone, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1 as the major fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain Gy8T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Seonamhaeicola in the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes, for which the name Seonamhaeicola algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gy8T ( = KCTC 42396T = CICC 23816T).

  5. Gelatiniphilus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium from the culture broth of a microalga, Picochlorum sp. 122, and emended description of the genus Hwangdonia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingxing; Tan, Li; Wu, Hualian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; Li, Jiaying; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang; Wang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain GYP-24T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochlorum sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain GYP-24T forms a robust cluster with H.wangdoniaseohaensis KCTC 32177T (95.8 % sequence similarity) in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Growth of strain GYP-24T was observed at 15, 22, 28, 30, 33 and 37 °C (optimal 30-33 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimal pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0.5-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal 2-3 %). The only menaquinone of strain GYP-24T was MK-6, and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.9 mol%. The major fatty acid profile comprised iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/ω6c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids of strain GYP-24T were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. Comprehensive analyses based on polyphasic characterization of GYP-24T indicated that it represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Gelatiniphilus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GYP-24T (=KCTC 42903T=MCCC 1K01730T). An emended description of the genus Hwangdonia is also given.

  6. Volatile dimethyl polonium produced by aerobic marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bahrou, Andrew S; Ollivier, Patrick R L; Hanson, Thomas E; Tessier, Emmanuel; Amouroux, David; Church, Thomas M

    2012-10-16

    The production of volatile polonium (Po(v)), a naturally occurring radioactive element, by pure cultures of aerobic marine tellurite-resistant microorganisms was investigated. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a carotogenic yeast, and a Bacillus sp. strain, a Gram-positive bacterium, generated approximately one and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively, greater amounts of Po(v) compared to the other organisms tested. Gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) analysis identified dimethyl polonide (DMPo) as the predominant volatile Po compound in culture headspace of the yeast. This species assignment is based on the exact relation between GC retention times and boiling points of this and other Group VI B analogues (S, Se, and Te). The extent of the biotic Po(v) production correlates exponentially with elevated particulate Po (Po(p)): dissolved Po (Po(aq)) ratios in the cultures, consistent with efficient Po bioaccumulation. Further experimentation demonstrated that some abiotic Po(v) generation is possible. However, high-level Po(v) generation in these cultures is predominantly biotic.

  7. Sulfobacillus thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermotolerant, chemolithotrophic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Tat'yana I; Tsaplina, Iraida A; Kondrat'eva, Tamara F; Duda, Vitalii I; Suzina, Natalya E; Melamud, Vitalii S; Tourova, Tat'yana P; Karavaiko, Grigorii I

    2006-05-01

    A thermotolerant, Gram-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, acidophilic bacterium (strain Kr1T) was isolated from the pulp of a gold-containing sulfide concentrate processed at 40 degrees C in a gold-recovery plant (Siberia). Cells of strain Kr1(T) were straight to slightly curved rods, 0.8-1.2 microm in diameter and 1.5-4.5 microm in length. Strain Kr1T formed spherical and oval, refractile, subterminally located endospores. The temperature range for growth was 20-60 degrees C, with an optimum at 40 degrees C. The pH range for growth on medium containing ferrous iron was 1.2-2.4, with an optimum at pH 2.0; the pH range for growth on medium containing S0 was 2.0-5.0, with an optimum at pH 2.5. Strain Kr1T was mixotrophic, oxidizing ferrous iron, S0, tetrathionate or sulfide minerals as energy sources in the presence of 0.02 % yeast extract or other organic substrates. The G+C content of the DNA of strain Kr1T was 48.2+/-0.5 mol%. Strain Kr1T showed a low level of DNA-DNA reassociation with the known Sulfobacillus species (11-44 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that Kr1T formed a separate phylogenetic group with a high degree of similarity between the nucleotide sequences (98.3-99.6 %) and 100 % bootstrap support within the phylogenetic Sulfobacillus cluster. On the basis of its physiological properties and the results of phylogenetic analyses, strain Kr1T can be affiliated to a novel species of the genus Sulfobacillus, for which the name Sulfobacillus thermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Kr1T (=VKM B-2339T=DSM 17362T).

  8. Energy coupling to K+ transport in a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, E G; MacLeod, R A

    1980-10-01

    Cells of the marine bacterium Alteromonas haloplanktis 214 ATCC 19855 (previously referred to as marine pseudomonad B-16) were depleted of K+ by washing with 0.1 M MgSO4. Washing with 0.05 M MgSO4 lowered the Vmax for K+ transport compared with washing with 0.1 M with 0.05 but did not change the Km, while washing with lower concentrations of MgSO4 caused loss of ultraviolet-absorbing material from the cells. K+ uptake was a strictly aerobic process and was accompanied by proton release. When an anaerobic suspension of cells was added to incubation mixtures containing increasing amounts of O2, intracellular ATP concentrations increased as the O2 concentration increased and reached near maximum values before K+ transport began. The O2 concentration initiating K+ transport caused transport to proceed at its maximum rate. For these experiments A. haloplanktis was depleted of ATP by incubating under anaerobic conditions. Incubating with either N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCCD) or arsenate failed to deplete intact cells of ATP or prevent K+ transport. The inhibitory activity of DCCD for ATPase in membrane preparations was higher at 5 mM than at other MgSO4 concentrations and increased with time. Cyanide and the uncoupling agents tetrachloro-salicylanide (TCS) and carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) prevented K+ uptake while TSC and FCCP though not cyanide caused K+ to be released from K+-containing cells. It is concluded that the driving force for K+ transport in these cells is likely to be the membrane potential and that K+ transport may be gated.

  9. Idiomarina maris sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Li, Hui-Juan; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dang, Hong-Yue; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-02-01

    A protease-producing marine bacterium, designated CF12-14(T), was isolated from sediment of the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain CF12-14(T) formed a separate lineage within the genus Idiomarina (Gammaproteobacteria). The isolate showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Idiomarina salinarum ISL-52(T) (94.7 %), Idiomarina seosinensis CL-SP19(T) (94.6 %) and other members of the genus Idiomarina (91.9-94.6 %). Cells were gram-negative, aerobic, flagellated, straight or slightly curved, and often formed buds and prosthecae. Strain CF12-14(T) grew at 4-42 °C (optimum 30-35 °C) and with 0.1-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %). The isolate reduced nitrate to nitrite and hydrolysed DNA, but did not produce acids from sugars. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (27.4 %), iso-C(17 : 0) (16.0 %) and iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c (15.8 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 8. The DNA G+C content was 50.4 mol%. The phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data supported the conclusion that CF12-14(T) represents a novel species of the genus Idiomarina, for which the name Idiomarina maris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CF12-14(T) ( = CCTCC AB 208166(T) = KACC 13974(T)).

  10. Ammonium removal by Agrobacterium sp. LAD9 capable of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2012-05-01

    Characteristics of ammonium removal by a newly isolated heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium Agrobacterium sp. LAD9 were systematically investigated. Succinate and acetate were found to be the most favorable carbon sources for LAD9. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis demonstrated that maximum removal of ammonium occurred under the conditions with an initial pH of 8.46, C/N ratio of 8.28, temperature of 27.9°C and shaking speed of 150rpm, where temperature and shaking speed produced the largest effect. Further nitrogen balance analysis revealed that 50.1% of nitrogen was removed as gas products and 40.8% was converted to the biomass. Moreover, the occurrence of aerobic denitrification was evidenced by the utilization of nitrite and nitrate as nitrogen sources, and the successful amplifications of membrane bound nitrate reductase and cytochrome cd(1) nitrite reductase genes from strain LAD9. Thus, the nitrogen removal in strain LAD9 was speculated to comply with the mechanism of heterotrophic nitrification coupled with aerobic denitrification (NH(4)(+)-NH(2)OH-NO(2)(-)-N(2)O-N(2)), in which also accompanied with the mutual transformation of nitrite and nitrate. The findings can help in applying appropriate controls over operational parameters in systems involving the use of this kind of strain.

  11. Comparison of aerobic denitrifying activity among three cultural species with various carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Otani, Y; Hasegawa, K; Hanaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Abilities of three aerobic denitrifiers such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Microvirgula aerodenitrificans and Paracoccus pantotrophus were compared from the viewpoints of nitrate removal efficiency and organic matter utilization. First, the effect of carbon source was investigated. Although nitrate reduction was observed in all strains under aerobic conditions, a change of carbon source considerably affected the denitrification ability. In the case of P. pantotrophus, nitrate and nitrite were completely removed in three days under sodium acetate or leucine as a carbon source. In the case of A. faecalis, sufficient nitrate removal was observed only when sodium acetate or ethanol was added. P. pantotrophus and A. faecalis showed a higher ability of nitrate removal than that of M. aerodenitrificans. Therefore, P. pantotrophus was selected in order to investigate the effects of concentration and repetitive addition of carbon. Sodium acetate was used as a sole carbon source. Nitrate was not reduced when the carbon concentration was below 500 mgC/L. However, when carbon source was added repeatedly, nitrate was reduced under 100 mgC/L after the optical density of the bacterium reached above 1.0. This result indicated that a high enough level of bacterial density was necessary to express aerobic denitrification activity. PMID:15566182

  12. Clostridium geopurificans strain MJ1 sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that grows via fermentation and reduces the cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; Wei, Na; Millerick, Kayleigh; Popovic, Jovan; Finneran, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    A fermentative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain MJ1(T), was isolated from an RDX contaminated aquifer at a live-fire training site in Northwest NJ, United States. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA base composition, strain MJ1(T) was assigned to the Firmicutes. The DNA G+C content was 42.8 mol%. Fermentative growth was supported by glucose and citrate in a defined basal medium. The bacterium is a strict anaerobe that grows between at pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and 18 and 37 °C. The culture did not grow with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) as the electron acceptor or mineralize RDX under these conditions. However, MJ1(T) transformed RDX into MNX, methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, formate, ammonium, nitrous oxide, and nitrate. The nearest phylogenetic relative with a validly published name was Desulfotomaculum guttoideum (95 % similarity). However, MJ1(T) was also related to Clostridium celerecrescens DSM 5628 (95 %), Clostridium indolis DSM 755 (94 %), and Clostridium sphenoides DSM 632 (94 %). DNA:DNA hybridization with these strains was between 6.7 and 58.7 percent. The dominant cellular fatty acids (greater than 5 % of the total, which was 99.0 % recovery) were 16:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) (32.12 %), 18:1cis 11 dimethyl acetal (DMA) (16.47 %), 16:1cis 9 DMA (10.28 %), 16:1cis 9 FAME (8.10 %), and 18:1cis 9 DMA (5.36 %). On the basis of morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic data, Clostridium geopurificans is proposed as a new species in genus Clostridium, with strain MJ1(T) as the type strain. PMID:24522483

  13. Evolution of Molybdenum Nitrogenase during the Transition from Anaerobic to Aerobic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Costas, Amaya M. Garcia; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Mus, Florence

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molybdenum nitrogenase (Nif), which catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium, has modulated the availability of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere since early in Earth's history. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that oxygen (O2)-sensitive Nif emerged in an anaerobic archaeon and later diversified into an aerobic bacterium. Aerobic bacteria that fix N2 have adapted a number of strategies to protect Nif from inactivation by O2, including spatial and temporal segregation of Nif from O2 and respiratory consumption of O2. Here we report the complement of Nif-encoding genes in 189 diazotrophic genomes. We show that the evolution of Nif during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism was accompanied by both gene recruitment and loss, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of nif genes. While the observed increase in the number of nif genes and their phylogenetic distribution are strongly correlated with adaptation to utilize O2 in metabolism, the increase is not correlated with any of the known O2 protection mechanisms. Rather, gene recruitment appears to have been in response to selective pressure to optimize Nif synthesis to meet fixed N demands associated with aerobic productivity and to more efficiently regulate Nif under oxic conditions that favor protein turnover. Consistent with this hypothesis, the transition of Nif from anoxic to oxic environments is associated with a shift from posttranslational regulation in anaerobes to transcriptional regulation in obligate aerobes and facultative anaerobes. Given that fixed nitrogen typically limits ecosystem productivity, our observations further underscore the dynamic interplay between the evolution of Earth's oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon biogeochemical cycles. IMPORTANCE Molybdenum nitrogenase (Nif), which catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium, has modulated the availability of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere since early in Earth's history. Nif emerged in an anaerobe and

  14. Anaerobic metabolism of phthalate and other aromatic compounds by a denitrifying bacterium. [Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, T.; Maruyama, Y. )

    1988-12-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of phthalate and other aromatic compounds by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain P136 was studied. Benzoate, cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylate, 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate, and pimelate were detected as predominant metabolic intermediates during the metabolism of three isomers of phthalate, m-hydroxybenzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and cyclohex-3-ene-carboxylate. Inducible acyl-coeznyme A synthetase activities for phthalates, benzoate, cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylate, and cyclohex-3-ene-carboxylate were detected in the cells grown on aromatic compounds. Simultaneous adaptation to these aromatic compounds also occurred. A similar phenomenon was observed in the aerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by this strain. A new pathway for the anaerobic metabolism of phthalate and a series of other aromatic compounds by this strain was proposed. Some properties of the regulation of this pathway were also discussed.

  15. Cellulomonas xylanilytica sp. nov., a cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a decayed elm tree.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; Trujillo, Martha E; Mateos, P F; Martínez-Molina, E; Velázquez, Encarna

    2004-03-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile bacterium was isolated from a decayed elm tree. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed 99.0 % similarity to Cellulomonas humilata. Chemotaxonomic data that were determined for this isolate included cell-wall composition, fatty acid profiles and polar lipids; the results supported the placement of strain XIL11(T) in the genus Cellulomonas. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization with C. humilata ATCC 25174(T), in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that isolate XIL11(T) should be classified as a novel Cellulomonas species. The name Cellulomonas xylanilytica sp. nov. is proposed, with strain XIL11(T) (=LMG 21723(T)=CECT 5729(T)) as the type strain.

  16. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  17. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  18. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  19. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  20. Evidence of Carbon Fixation Pathway in a Bacterium from Candidate Phylum SBR1093 Revealed with Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB) cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30∼50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30∼80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere. PMID:25310003

  1. Metabolic Engineering of an Aerobic Sulfate Reduction Pathway and Its Application to Precipitation of Cadmium on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Clifford L.; Maratukulam, Priya D.; Lum, Amy M.; Clark, Douglas S.; Keasling, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The conversion of sulfate to an excess of free sulfide requires stringent reductive conditions. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is used in nature by sulfate-reducing bacteria for respiration and results in the conversion of sulfate to sulfide. However, this dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway is inhibited by oxygen and is thus limited to anaerobic environments. As an alternative, we have metabolically engineered a novel aerobic sulfate reduction pathway for the secretion of sulfides. The assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway was redirected to overproduce cysteine, and excess cysteine was converted to sulfide by cysteine desulfhydrase. As a potential application for this pathway, a bacterium was engineered with this pathway and was used to aerobically precipitate cadmium as cadmium sulfide, which was deposited on the cell surface. To maximize sulfide production and cadmium precipitation, the production of cysteine desulfhydrase was modulated to achieve an optimal balance between the production and degradation of cysteine. PMID:11010904

  2. Cetia pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a chemolithoautotrophic, thermophilic, nitrate-ammonifying bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Ashley; Sekaran, Hema; Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Starovoytov, Valentin; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-04-01

    A thermophilic, anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium, strain TB-6(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent located on the East Pacific Rise at 9° N. The cells were Gram-staining-negative and rod-shaped with one or more polar flagella. Cell size was approximately 1-1.5 µm in length and 0.5 µm in width. Strain TB-6(T) grew between 45 and 70 °C (optimum 55-60 °C), 0 and 35 g NaCl l(-1) (optimum 20-30 g l(-1)) and pH 4.5 and 7.5 (optimum pH 5.5-6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2 h. Growth of strain TB-6(T) occurred with H2 as the energy source, CO2 as the carbon source and nitrate or sulfur as electron acceptors, with formation of ammonium or hydrogen sulfide, respectively. Acetate, (+)-d-glucose, Casamino acids, sucrose and yeast extract were not used as carbon and energy sources. Inhibition of growth occurred in the presence of lactate, peptone and tryptone under a H2/CO2 (80 : 20; 200 kPa) gas phase. Thiosulfate, sulfite, arsenate, selenate and oxygen were not used as electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strain TB-6(T) showed that this organism branched separately from the three most closely related genera, Caminibacter , Nautilia and Lebetimonas , within the family Nautiliaceae . Strain TB-6(T) contained several unique fatty acids in comparison with other members of the family Nautiliaceae . Based on experimental evidence, it is proposed that the organism represents a novel species and genus within the family Nautiliaceae , Cetia pacifica, gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is TB-6(T) ( = DSM 27783(T) = JCM 19563(T)). PMID:25604337

  3. Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov., a novel anaerobic bacterium isolated from the pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaolan; Huang, Dan; Liu, Laiyan; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Yu; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Wenxue; Wu, Zhengyun; Fan, Ao; Lai, Dengyi; Dai, Lirong

    2014-10-01

    A novel Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain S11-3-10(T), was isolated from the pit mud used for Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain formed a monophyletic clade with the closely related type strains of Clostridium cluster I and was most closely related to Clostridium amylolyticum JCM 14823(T) (94.38%). The temperature, pH, and NaCl range for growth was determined to be 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), 4.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.3), and 0-3.0% (w/v), respectively. The strain was able to tolerate up to 7.5 % (v/v) ethanol. Yeast extract or peptone was found to be required for growth. Acids were found to be produced from glucose, mannose and trehalose. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as ethanol, acetate and hydrogen. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified phospholipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids (>5%) were identified as iso-C(15:0), C(16:0), C(16:0)dma, C(14:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(13:0). No respiratory quinone was detected. The diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were found to include galactose and glucose as major components. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.4 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium for which the name Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S11-3-10(T) (=DSM 27788(T) = JCM 19606(T) = CICC 10730(T)).

  4. Desulfosoma caldarium gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Baena, Sandra; Perdomo, Natalia; Carvajal, Catalina; Díaz, Carolina; Patel, Bharat K C

    2011-04-01

    A thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain USBA-053(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring located at a height of 2500 m in the Colombian Andes (5° 45' 33.29″ N 73° 6' 49.89″ W), Colombia. Cells of strain USBA-053(T) were oval- to rod-shaped, Gram-negative and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The strain grew autotrophically with H(2) as the electron donor and heterotrophically on formate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, ethanol, glycerol, serine and hexadecanoic acid in the presence of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor. The main end products from lactate degradation, in the presence of sulfate, were acetate, CO(2) and H(2)S. Strain USBA-053(T) fermented pyruvate in the absence of sulfate and grew optimally at 57 °C (growth temperature ranged from 50 °C to 62 °C) and pH 6.8 (growth pH ranged from 5.7 to 7.7). The novel strain was slightly halophilic and grew in NaCl concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 g l(-1), with an optimum at 25 g l(-1) NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, nitrate or nitrite. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56±1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA-053(T) was a member of the class Deltaproteobacteria, with Desulfacinum hydrothermale MT-96(T) as the closest relative (93 % gene sequence similarity). On the basis of physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it is suggested that strain USBA-053(T) represents a new genus and novel species for which the name Desulfosoma caldarium gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is USBA-053(T) ( = KCTC 5670(T) = DSM 22027(T)). PMID:20418410

  5. Desulfosoma caldarium gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Baena, Sandra; Perdomo, Natalia; Carvajal, Catalina; Díaz, Carolina; Patel, Bharat K C

    2011-04-01

    A thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain USBA-053(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring located at a height of 2500 m in the Colombian Andes (5° 45' 33.29″ N 73° 6' 49.89″ W), Colombia. Cells of strain USBA-053(T) were oval- to rod-shaped, Gram-negative and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The strain grew autotrophically with H(2) as the electron donor and heterotrophically on formate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, ethanol, glycerol, serine and hexadecanoic acid in the presence of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor. The main end products from lactate degradation, in the presence of sulfate, were acetate, CO(2) and H(2)S. Strain USBA-053(T) fermented pyruvate in the absence of sulfate and grew optimally at 57 °C (growth temperature ranged from 50 °C to 62 °C) and pH 6.8 (growth pH ranged from 5.7 to 7.7). The novel strain was slightly halophilic and grew in NaCl concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 g l(-1), with an optimum at 25 g l(-1) NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, nitrate or nitrite. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56±1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA-053(T) was a member of the class Deltaproteobacteria, with Desulfacinum hydrothermale MT-96(T) as the closest relative (93 % gene sequence similarity). On the basis of physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it is suggested that strain USBA-053(T) represents a new genus and novel species for which the name Desulfosoma caldarium gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is USBA-053(T) ( = KCTC 5670(T) = DSM 22027(T)).

  6. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut

    2012-04-01

    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes.

  7. Extreme furfural tolerance of a soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Gong, Gyeongtaek; Park, Hong-Sil; Um, Youngsoon; Sim, Sang Jun; Woo, Han Min

    2015-01-10

    Detoxification process of cellular inhibitors including furfural is essential for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we isolated an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036 from soil sample collected in Mt. Gwanak, Republic of Korea. Among isolated bacteria, only E. cloacae GGT036 showed cell growth with 35 mM furfural under aerobic culture. Compared to the maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of well-known industrial strains Escherichia coli (24.9 mM furfural) and Corynebacterium glutamicum (10 mM furfural) based on the cell density, IC50 of E. cloacae GGT036 (47.7 mM) was significantly higher after 24 h, compared to E. coli and C. glutamicum. Since bacterial cell growth was exponentially inhibited depending on linearly increased furfural concentrations in the medium, we concluded that E. cloacae GGT036 is an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium. Recently, the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 was announced and this could provide an insight for engineering of E. cloacae GGT036 itself or other industrially relevant bacteria.

  8. Polaribacter butkevichii sp. nov., a novel marine mesophilic bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Kalinovskaya, Nataliya I; Mikhailov, Valery V; Kim, In Seop; Bae, Kyung Sook

    2005-12-01

    A novel heterotrophic, yellow pigmented, aerobic, Gram-negative, nonmotile, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium KMM 3,938(T) was isolated from sea water collected in the Sea of Japan, Russia. The strain grew at mesophilic temperature range, and required the presence of NaCl for growth. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KMM 3,938(T) is a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The predominant fatty acids were C13:0 iso, C14:0 iso, C15:0 iso, C15:0, C15:1Delta6, 3OH-C15:0:3 iso, and 3OH-C15:0. The G + C content of the DNA of KMM 3938(T) was 32.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacterium was assigned to the genus Polaribacter as Polaribacter butkevichii sp. nov. The type strain is KMM 3938(T )(= KCTC 12100(T) = CCUG 48005(T)).

  9. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Alexander; Wincker, Patrick; Mauger, Stéphane; Jaillon, Olivier; Malarme, Karine; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2001-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire genome and a shotgun polishing step. The genome contains 2,365,589 base pairs and encodes 2310 proteins, including 293 protein-coding genes belonging to six prophages and 43 insertion sequence (IS) elements. Nonrandom distribution of IS elements indicates that the chromosome of the sequenced strain may be a product of recent recombination between two closely related genomes. A complete set of late competence genes is present, indicating the ability of L. lactis to undergo DNA transformation. Genomic sequence revealed new possibilities for fermentation pathways and for aerobic respiration. It also indicated a horizontal transfer of genetic information from Lactococcus to gram-negative enteric bacteria of Salmonella-Escherichia group. [The sequence data described in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AE005176.] PMID:11337471

  10. Removal of arsenic from groundwater by using a native isolated arsenite-oxidizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kao, An-Chieh; Chu, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a significant public health concern. In this study, the removal of arsenic from groundwater using biological processes was investigated. The efficiency of arsenite (As(III)) bacterial oxidation and subsequent arsenate (As(V)) removal from contaminated groundwater using bacterial biomass was examined. A novel As(III)-oxidizing bacterium (As7325) was isolated from the aquifer in the blackfoot disease (BFD) endemic area in Taiwan. As7325 oxidized 2300μg/l As(III) using in situ As(III)-contaminated groundwater under aerobic conditions within 1d. After the oxidation of As(III) to As(V), As(V) removal was further examined using As7325 cell pellets. The results showed that As(V) could be adsorbed efficiently by lyophilized As7325 cell pellets, the efficiency of which was related to lyophilized cell pellet concentration. Our study conducted the examination of an alternative technology for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from groundwater, indicating that the oxidation of As(III)-contaminated groundwater by native isolated bacterium, followed by As(V) removal using bacterial biomass is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of As(III)-contaminated groundwater.

  11. Formation of Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactor: Comparison of Different Divalent Metal Ions as Cofactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Dawen; Zhang, Min

    2010-11-01

    The two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the different effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ augmentation on aerobic granulation. R1 was augmented with Ca2+ at 40 mg/L, while Mg+ was added to R2 with 40 mg/L. Results indicated that R1 had a faster granulation process, and aerobic granulation reached the steady state after 60 cycles in R1 but 80 cycles in R2. The mean diameter of the mature granules in R1 was 1.6 mm which was consistently larger than that (0.8 mm) in R2, and aerobic granules in R1 also showed a higher physical strength. However, the mature granules in R2 had the higher production yield of polysaccharides and proteins, and aerobic granules in R2 experienced a faster substrate biodegradation. Microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The results revealed that Mg2+ addition led to higher microbial diversity in mature granules. In addition, the uncultured bacterium (AB447697) was major specie in R1, and β-proteobacterium was dominant in R2.

  12. Sphingomonas gimensis sp. nov., a novel Gram-negative bacterium isolated from abandoned lead-zinc ore mine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang-Da; Yang, Song-Zhen; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Deng, Ming-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterial strain designated 9PNM-6(T) was isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc ore mine site in Meizhou, Guangdong Province, China. The isolate was found to be Gram-negative, rod-shaped, orange-pigmented, strictly aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 0-4 % NaCl (w/v, optimum, 0 %), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 15-32 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain 9PNM-6(T) belongs to the genus Sphingomonas, with the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas jejuensis NBRC 107775(T) (99.7 %), Sphingomonas koreensis KCTC 2882(T) (95.1 %) and Sphingomonas dokdonesis KCTC 12541(T) (95.1 %). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain 9PNM-6(T) were consistent with those of the genus Sphingomonas. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone Q-10, the major polyamine as sym-homospermidine, and the major cellular fatty acids as C18:1 ω7c, C16:0, C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c and C14:0 2-OH. The major polar lipids are sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatideylcholine, an unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified aminolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 9PNM-6(T) was determined to be 69.2 ± 0.6 mol%. Based on comparative analyses of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness values, strain 9PNM-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas gimensis sp. nov. (Type strain 9PNM-6(T) = GIMCC 1.655(T) = CGMCC 1.12671(T) = DSM 27569(T)) is proposed.

  13. Sphingomonas kyungheensis sp. nov., a bacterium with ginsenoside-converting activity isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Son, Heung-Min; Yang, Jung-Eun; Park, Yongjin; Han, Chang-Kyun; Kim, Song-Gun; Kook, Moochang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-10-01

    A bacterial strain THG-B283(T), which has β-glucosidase activity, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, motile with one polar flagellum and rod-shaped. The strain was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain THG-B283(T) grew optimally at around pH 7.0, at 25-28 °C and in the absence of NaCl on R2A agar. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain THG-B283(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae and is closely related to Sphingomonas melonis DAPP-PG 224(T) (98.2 %), S. aquatilis JSS7(T) (98.1 %), S. insulae DS-28(T) (97.6 %), S. mali IFO 15500(T) (97.1 %) and S. pruni IFO 15498(T) (97.0 %). Strain THG-B283(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty acids included summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C18 : 1ω7c, C14 : 0 2-OH and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 72.2 mol%. The major component in the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, unidentified aminolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and unidentified lipids. Genomic and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain THG-B283(T) to the genus Sphingomonas. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-B283(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbours was below 23 %. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain THG-B283(T) represents a novel species of genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas kyungheensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-B283(T) ( = KACC 16224(T) = LMG 26582(T)).

  14. Aerobic Degradation of N-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline (MNA) by Pseudomonas sp. Strain FK357 Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Vyas, Bhawna; Pal, Deepika; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT) as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent) reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway. PMID:24116023

  15. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Adel, Mustafa; Ouf, Amged; Sayed, Ahmed; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Alam, Intikhab; Essack, Magbubah; Lafi, Feras F.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; El-Dorry, Hamza; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater) boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I) and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U) and Lower (KB-L) brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces. PMID:25295031

  16. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  17. Anaerobic arsenite oxidation by an autotrophic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium from an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Wuxian; Liu, Bingbing; He, Jian; Shen, Qirong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-05-19

    Microbe-mediated arsenic (As) redox reactions play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of As. Reduction of arsenate [As(V)] generally leads to As mobilization in paddy soils and increased As availability to rice plants, whereas oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] results in As immobilization. A novel chemoautotrophic As(III)-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain SY, was isolated from an As-contaminated paddy soil. The isolate was able to derive energy from the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using O2 or NO3(-) as the respective electron acceptor. Inoculation of the washed SY cells into a flooded soil greatly enhanced As(III) oxidation to As(V) both in the solution and adsorbed phases of the soil. Strain SY is phylogenetically closely related to Paracoccus niistensis with a 16S rRNA gene similarity of 96.79%. The isolate contains both the denitrification and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene clusters, underscoring its ability to denitrify and to fix CO2 while coupled to As(III) oxidation. Deletion of the aioA gene encoding the As(III) oxidase subunit A abolished the As(III) oxidation ability of strain SY and led to increased sensitivity to As(III), suggesting that As(III) oxidation is a detoxification mechanism in this bacterium under aerobic and heterotrophic growth conditions. Analysis of the aioA gene clone library revealed that the majority of the As(III)-oxidizing bacteria in the soil were closely related to the genera Paracoccus of α-Proteobacteria. Our results provide direct evidence for As(III) oxidation by Paracoccus species and suggest that these species may play an important role in As(III) oxidation in paddy soils under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions. PMID:25905768

  18. Genomic Analysis of Melioribacter roseus, Facultatively Anaerobic Organotrophic Bacterium Representing a Novel Deep Lineage within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi Group

    PubMed Central

    Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2013-01-01

    Melioribacter roseus is a moderately thermophilic facultatively anaerobic organotrophic bacterium representing a novel deep branch within Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group. To better understand the metabolic capabilities and possible ecological functions of M. roseus and get insights into the evolutionary history of this bacterial lineage, we sequenced the genome of the type strain P3M-2T. A total of 2838 open reading frames was predicted from its 3.30 Mb genome. The whole proteome analysis supported phylum-level classification of M. roseus since most of the predicted proteins had closest matches in Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes and deeply-branching bacterium Caldithrix abyssi, rather than in one particular phylum. Consistent with the ability of the bacterium to grow on complex carbohydrates, the genome analysis revealed more than one hundred glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. The reconstructed central metabolism revealed pathways enabling the fermentation of complex organic substrates, as well as their complete oxidation through aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Genes encoding the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixation machinery of green sulfur bacteria, as well as key enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways, were not identified. The M. roseus genome supports its affiliation to a novel phylum Ignavibateriae, representing the first step on the evolutionary pathway from heterotrophic ancestors of Bacteriodetes/Chlorobi group towards anaerobic photoautotrophic Chlorobi. PMID:23301019

  19. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  20. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  1. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-01-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.

  2. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).

    SciTech Connect

    Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

  3. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Cellulomonas massiliensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Ramasamy, Dhamodharan; Rivet, Romain; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-12-19

    Cellulomonas massiliensis strain JC225(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of Cellulomonas massiliensis sp., a new species within the genus Cellulomonas. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. C. massiliensis is an aerobic rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,407,283 bp long genome contains 3,083 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes.

  4. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Brevibacillus massiliensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Hugon, Perrine; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Nguyen, Thi Thien; Couderc, Carine; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Brevibacillus massiliensis strain phRT sp. nov. is the type strain of B. massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Brevibacillus. This strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a woman suffering from morbid obesity. B. massiliensis is a Gram-positive aerobic rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 5,051,018 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid) contains 5,051 protein-coding and 84 RNA genes, and exhibits a G+C content of 53.1%. PMID:23961307

  5. Complete genome of Kangiella geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T), putative evidence for recent genome reduction in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hanna; Kim, Seil; Oh, Jeongsu; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-12-01

    Kangiella geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T) is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from seawater off the southern coast of Korea. We here report the complete genome of K. geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T), which consists of 2,495,242 bp (G+C content of 43.78%) with 2,257 protein-coding genes, 41 tRNAs, 2 rRNA operons. The genome is smaller than the other closely related genomes, indicating that K. geojedonensis has recently experienced reductive evolution.

  6. Complete genome of Kangiella geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T), putative evidence for recent genome reduction in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hanna; Kim, Seil; Oh, Jeongsu; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-12-01

    Kangiella geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T) is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from seawater off the southern coast of Korea. We here report the complete genome of K. geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T), which consists of 2,495,242 bp (G+C content of 43.78%) with 2,257 protein-coding genes, 41 tRNAs, 2 rRNA operons. The genome is smaller than the other closely related genomes, indicating that K. geojedonensis has recently experienced reductive evolution. PMID:26044616

  7. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Cellulomonas massiliensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Ramasamy, Dhamodharan; Rivet, Romain; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Cellulomonas massiliensis strain JC225T sp. nov. is the type strain of Cellulomonas massiliensis sp., a new species within the genus Cellulomonas. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. C. massiliensis is an aerobic rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,407,283 bp long genome contains 3,083 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes. PMID:23408774

  8. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  9. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  10. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  11. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  12. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  13. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  14. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  15. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  16. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  17. Aerobic degradation of BDE-209 by Enterococcus casseliflavus: Isolation, identification and cell changes during degradation process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaoyu; Yin, Hua; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is one of the most commonly used brominated flame retardants that have contaminated the environment worldwide. Microbial bioremediation has been considered as an effective technique to remove these sorts of persistent organic pollutants. Enterococcus casseliflavus, a gram-positive bacterium capable of aerobically transforming BDE-209, was isolated by our team from sediments in Guiyu, an e-waste dismantling area in Guangdong Province, China. To promote microbial bioremediation of BDE-209 and elucidate the mechanism behind its aerobic degradation, the effects of BDE-209 on the cell changes of E. casseliflavus were examined in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that the high cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of E. casseliflavus made the bacteria absorb hydrophobic BDE-209 more easily. E. casseliflavus responded to BDE-209 stress, resulting in an increase in cell membrane permeability and accumulation of BDE-209 inside the cell. The differential expression of intracellular protein was analyzed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 50 differentially expressed protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 25 up, and 25 down regulated after a 4 days exposure. Moreover, the apoptotic-like cell changes were observed during E. casseliflavus mediated degradation of BDE-209 by means of flow cytometry. PMID:26852209

  18. Aerobic mineralization of 2,6-dichlorophenol by Ralstonia sp. strain RK1

    SciTech Connect

    Steinle, P.; Stucki, G.; Stettler, R.; Hanselmann, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    A new aerobic bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater pond close to a contaminated site at Amponville (France). It was enriched in a fixed-bed reactor fed with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) as the sole carbon and energy source at pH 7.5 and room temperature. The degradation of 2,6-DCP followed Monod kinetics at low initial concentrations. At concentrations above 300 {micro}M, 2,6-DCP increasingly inhibited its own degradation. The base sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA allowed us to assign the bacterium to the genus Ralstonia (formerly Alcaligenes). The substrate spectrum of the bacterium includes toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, phenol, and all four ortho- and para-substituted mono- and dichlorophenol isomers. Substituents other than chlorine prevented degradation. The capacity to degrade 2,6-DCP was examined in two fixed-bed reactors. The microbial population grew on and completely mineralized 2,6-DCP at 2,6-DCP concentrations up to 740 {micro}M in continuous reactor culture supplied with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen source. Lack of peroxide completely stopped further degradation of 2,6-DCP. Lowering the acid-neutralizing capacity of the medium to 1/10th the original capacity led to a decrease in the pH of the effluent from 7 to 6 and to a significant reduction in the degradation activity. A second fixed-bed reactor successfully removed low chlorophenol concentrations with hydraulic residence times of 8 to 30 min.

  19. Immobilization of the Methanogenic bacterium methanosarcina barkeri

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, P.; Kluge, M.; Klein, J.; Sahm, H.

    1981-05-01

    Whole cells of the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri were immobilized in an alginate network which was crosslinked with Ca/sup 2+/ calcium ions. The rates of methanol conversion to methane of entrapped cells were found to be in the same range as the corresponding rates of free cells. Furthermore, immobilized cells were active for a longer period than free cells. The particle size of the spherical alginate beads and thus diffusion has no obvious influence on the turnover of methanol. The half-value period for methanol conversion activity determined in a buffer medium was approximately 4 days at 37/degree/C for entrapped cells. The high rates of methanol degradation indicated that the immobilization technique preserved the cellular functions of this methanogenic bacterium. 24 refs.

  20. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life.

  1. Vertical distribution and characterization of aerobic phototrophic bacteria at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Christopher; Lince, Michael T; Alric, Jean; Lang, Andrew S; Humphrey, Elaine; Blankenship, Robert E; Verméglio, André; Plumley, F Gerald; Van Dover, Cindy L; Beatty, J Thomas; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2008-09-01

    The vertical distribution of culturable anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was investigated at five sites at or near the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Twelve similar strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria were isolated in pure culture, from depths ranging from 500 to 2,379 m below the surface. These strains appear morphologically, physiologically, biochemically, and phylogenetically similar to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum strain JF-1, a bacterium previously isolated from hydrothermal vent plume waters. Only one aerobic phototrophic strain was isolated from surface waters. This strain is morphologically and physiologically distinct from the strains isolated at deeper sampling locations, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is most closely related to the genus Erythrobacter. Phototrophs were cultivated from three water casts taken above vents but not from two casts taken away from active vent sites. No culturable anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs were detected. The photosynthetic apparatus was investigated in strain JF-1 and contains light-harvesting I and reaction center complexes, which are functional under aerobic conditions.

  2. Identification of hopanoid, sterol, and tetrahymanol production in the aerobic methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welander, P. V.; Summons, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Correlating the occurrence of molecular biosignatures preserved in the rock record with specific microbial taxa is a compelling strategy for studying microbial life in the context of the Earth's distant past. Polycyclic triterpenoids, including the hopanes and steranes, comprise classes of biomarkers that are readily detected in a variety of ancient sediments and are clearly recognized as the diagenetic products of modern day bacterial hopanoids and eukaryotic sterols. Thus, based on the distribution of these lipids in extant microbes, the occurrence of their diagenetic products in the rock record is often utilized as evidence for the existence of specific bacterial and eukaryotic taxa in ancient ecosystems. However, questions have arisen about our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of many of these molecular biomarkers in extant microbes. This is prompting reassessments of the use of polycyclic triterpenoids as geological proxies for microbial taxa, especially in the light of the poorly defined issue of microbial diversity. Recently, significant effort has been put forth to better understand the biosynthesis, function, and regulation of these lipid molecules in a variety of modern organisms so that a more informed interpretation of their occurrence in the rock record can be reached. Here we report the unprecedented production of three different classes of polycyclic triterpenoid biomarker lipids in one bacterium. Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, a member of the Gammaproteobacteria, is a halotolerant alkaliphilic aerobic methanotroph previously isolated from a moderately saline soda lake in Tuva (Central Asia). In this study, M. alcaliphilum is shown to produce C-3 methylated and unmethylated aminohopanoids commonly associated with other mesophilic aerobic methanotrophs. In addition, this organism is also able to produce 4,4-dimethyl sterols and surprisingly, the gammacerane triterpenoid tetrahymanol. Previously, tetrahymanol production has only been

  3. FtsZ-Dependent Elongation of a Coccoid Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana R.; Hsin, Jen; Król, Ewa; Tavares, Andreia C.; Flores, Pierre; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ng, Natalie; Dajkovic, Alex; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Roemer, Terry; Carballido-Lopez, Rut; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A mechanistic understanding of the determination and maintenance of the simplest bacterial cell shape, a sphere, remains elusive compared with that of more complex shapes. Cocci seem to lack a dedicated elongation machinery, and a spherical shape has been considered an evolutionary dead-end morphology, as a transition from a spherical to a rod-like shape has never been observed in bacteria. Here we show that a Staphylococcus aureus mutant (M5) expressing the ftsZG193D allele exhibits elongated cells. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies indicate that FtsZG193D filaments are more twisted and shorter than wild-type filaments. In vivo, M5 cell wall deposition is initiated asymmetrically, only on one side of the cell, and progresses into a helical pattern rather than into a constricting ring as in wild-type cells. This helical pattern of wall insertion leads to elongation, as in rod-shaped cells. Thus, structural flexibility of FtsZ filaments can result in an FtsZ-dependent mechanism for generating elongated cells from cocci. PMID:27601570

  4. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  5. Alsobacter metallidurans gen. nov., sp. nov., a thallium-tolerant soil bacterium in the order Rhizobiales.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhihua; Sato, Yoshinori; Fujimura, Reiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-01

    A thallium-tolerant, aerobic bacterium, designated strain SK200a-9(T), isolated from a garden soil sample was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SK200a-9(T) was affiliated with an uncultivated lineage within the Alphaproteobacteria and the nearest cultivated neighbours were bacteria in genera in the family Methylocystaceae (93.3-94.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and the family Beijerinckiaceae (92.3-93.1%) in the order Rhizobiales. Cells of strain SK200a-9(T) were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating rods. The strain was a chemo-organotrophic bacterium, which was incapable of growth on C1 substrates. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Atmospheric nitrogen fixation and nitrate reduction were negative. The strain contained ubiquinone Q-10 and cellular fatty acids C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 as predominant components. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 64.8 mol%. On the basis of the information described above, strain SK200a-9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the order Rhizobiales, for which the name Alsobacter metallidurans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alsobacter metallidurans is SK200a-9(T) ( = NBRC 107718(T) = CGMCC 1.12214(T)).

  6. Ca2+-stabilized adhesin helps an Antarctic bacterium reach out and bind ice

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Tyler D. R.; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Campbell, Robert L.; Voets, Ilja K.; Davies, Peter L.; Guo, Shuaiqi

    2014-01-01

    The large size of a 1.5-MDa ice-binding adhesin [MpAFP (Marinomonas primoryensis antifreeze protein)] from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, M. primoryensis, is mainly due to its highly repetitive RII (Region II). MpAFP_RII contains roughly 120 tandem copies of an identical 104-residue repeat. We have previously determined that a single RII repeat folds as a Ca2+-dependent immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we solved the crystal structure of RII tetra-tandemer (four tandem RII repeats) to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The RII tetra-tandemer reveals an extended (~190-Å × ~25-Å), rod-like structure with four RII-repeats aligned in series with each other. The inter-repeat regions of the RII tetra-tandemer are strengthened by Ca2+ bound to acidic residues. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) profiles indicate the RII tetra-tandemer is significantly rigidified upon Ca2+ binding, and that the protein's solution structure is in excellent agreement with its crystal structure. We hypothesize that >600 Ca2+ help rigidify the chain of ~120 104-residue repeats to form a ~0.6 μm rod-like structure in order to project the ice-binding domain of MpAFP away from the bacterial cell surface. The proposed extender role of RII can help the strictly aerobic, motile bacterium bind ice in the upper reaches of the Antarctic lake where oxygen and nutrients are most abundant. Ca2+-induced rigidity of tandem Ig-like repeats in large adhesins might be a general mechanism used by bacteria to bind to their substrates and help colonize specific niches. PMID:24892750

  7. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Virgibacillus massiliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from human gut

    PubMed Central

    Khelaifia, S.; Croce, O.; Lagier, J.-C.; Robert, C.; Couderc, C.; Di Pinto, F.; Davoust, B.; Djossou, F.; Raoult, D.; Fournier, P.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Strain Vm-5T was isolated from the stool specimen of a 10-year-old Amazonian boy. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic rod, motile by a polar flagellum. Here we describe its phenotypic characteristics and complete genome sequence. The 4 353 177 bp long genome exhibits a G + C content of 36.87% and contains 4394 protein-coding and 125 predicted RNA genes. Phylogenetically and genetically, strain Vm-c is a member of the genus Virgibacillus but is distinct enough to be classified as a new species. We propose the creation of V. massiliensis sp. nov., whose type strain is strain Vm-5T (CSUR P971 = DSM 28587). PMID:26649181

  8. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Virgibacillus massiliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from human gut.

    PubMed

    Khelaifia, S; Croce, O; Lagier, J-C; Robert, C; Couderc, C; Di Pinto, F; Davoust, B; Djossou, F; Raoult, D; Fournier, P-E

    2015-11-01

    Strain Vm-5(T) was isolated from the stool specimen of a 10-year-old Amazonian boy. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic rod, motile by a polar flagellum. Here we describe its phenotypic characteristics and complete genome sequence. The 4 353 177 bp long genome exhibits a G + C content of 36.87% and contains 4394 protein-coding and 125 predicted RNA genes. Phylogenetically and genetically, strain Vm-c is a member of the genus Virgibacillus but is distinct enough to be classified as a new species. We propose the creation of V. massiliensis sp. nov., whose type strain is strain Vm-5(T) (CSUR P971 = DSM 28587). PMID:26649181

  9. Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Chen, C; Li, J; Xiang, W; Wu, H; Wu, J; Dai, S; Wu, H; Li, T; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, red, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain A4T, was isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium. Cells were flexible rods with gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain A4T formed a coherent cluster with members of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter, and represents a distinct lineage in the family Flammeovirgaceae. Thermotolerance and a distinctive cellular fatty acid profile could readily distinguish this isolate from any bacteria of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter with a validly published name. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain A4T is suggested to represent a novel species in a novel genus, for which the name Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A4T ( = KCTC 42507T = CGMCC 1.15111T).

  10. Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., a microaerotolerant anaerobic lactic acid bacterium from the sheep rumen and pig jejunum, and emended descriptions of Olsenella, Olsenella uli and Olsenella profusa.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Mareike; Wallace, R John; Svensson, Liselott

    2011-04-01

    Strain A2 is an anaerobic, variably Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, small and irregularly rod-shaped bacterium from the ruminal fluid of a sheep that has been described informally as a representative of 'Olsenella (basonym Atopobium) oviles'. Three phenotypically similar bacterial strains (lac15, lac16 and lac31(T)) were isolated in concert with Veillonella magna lac18(T) from the mucosal jejunum of a pig. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) formed a genetically coherent group (100 % interstrain sequence similarity) within the bigeneric Olsenella-Atopobium branch of the family Coriobacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria. This group was most closely related to the type strains of the two recognized Olsenella species, namely Olsenella uli (sequence similarity of 96.85 %) and Olsenella profusa (sequence similarity of 97.20 %). The sequence similarity to the type strain of Atopobium minutum, the type species of the genus Atopobium, was 92.33 %. Unlike those of O. uli and O. profusa, outgrown colonies of strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) were opaque and greyish-white with an umbonate elevation on solid culture media. The four novel strains were characterized as being well-adapted and presumably indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract of homoeothermic vertebrates: they were mesophilic, microaerotolerant, neutrophilic and acidotolerant, bile-resistant, mucin-utilizing and markedly peptidolytic lactic acid bacteria. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, cellular fatty acid analysis and other differential phenotypic (physiological and biochemical) tests confirmed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) represent a novel species of the genus Olsenella. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic results, we therefore describe Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., with lac31(T) ( = CCUG 58604(T)  = DSM 22620(T)  = JCM 16156(T)) as the type strain and A2 ( = CCUG 58212

  11. Chitoporin from the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Chumjan, Watcharin; Winterhalter, Mathias; Schulte, Albert; Benz, Roland; Suginta, Wipa

    2015-01-01

    VhChiP is a sugar-specific porin present in the outer membrane of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. VhChiP is responsible for the uptake of chitin oligosaccharides, with particular selectivity for chitohexaose. In this study, we employed electrophysiological and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that Trp136, located at the mouth of the VhChiP pore, plays an essential role in controlling the channel's ion conductivity, chitin affinity, and permeability. Kinetic analysis of sugar translocation obtained from single channel recordings indicated that the Trp136 mutations W136A, W136D, W136R, and W136F considerably reduce the binding affinity of the protein channel for its best substrate, chitohexaose. Liposome swelling assays confirmed that the Trp136 mutations decreased the rate of bulk chitohexaose permeation through the VhChiP channel. Notably, all of the mutants show increases in the off-rate for chitohexaose of up to 20-fold compared with that of the native channel. Furthermore, the cation/anion permeability ratio Pc/Pa is decreased in the W136R mutant and increased in the W136D mutant. This demonstrates that the negatively charged surface at the interior of the protein lumen preferentially attracts cationic species, leading to the cation selectivity of this trimeric channel. PMID:26082491

  12. Characterizations of intracellular arsenic in a bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Yannone, S. M.; Tainer, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Life requires a key set of chemical elements to sustain growth. Yet, a growing body of literature suggests that microbes can alter their nutritional requirements based on the availability of these chemical elements. Under limiting conditions for one element microbes have been shown to utilize a variety of other elements to serve similar functions often (but not always) in similar molecular structures. Well-characterized elemental exchanges include manganese for iron, tungsten for molybdenum and sulfur for phosphorus or oxygen. These exchanges can be found in a wide variety of biomolecules ranging from protein to lipids and DNA. Recent evidence suggested that arsenic, as arsenate or As(V), was taken up and incorporated into the cellular material of the bacterium GFAJ-1. The evidence was interpreted to support As(V) acting in an analogous role to phosphate. We will therefore discuss our ongoing efforts to characterize intracellular arsenate and how it may partition among the cellular fractions of the microbial isolate GFAJ-1 when exposed to As(V) in the presence of various levels of phosphate. Under high As(V) conditions, cells express a dramatically different proteome than when grown given only phosphate. Ongoing studies on the diversity and potential role of proteins and metabolites produced in the presence of As(V) will be reported. These investigations promise to inform the role and additional metabolic potential for As in biology. Arsenic assimilation into biomolecules contributes to the expanding set of chemical elements utilized by microbes in unusual environmental niches.

  13. Gene function analysis in environmental isolates: The nif regulon of the strict iron oxidizing bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Parro, Víctor; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    A random genomic library from an environmental isolate of the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans has been printed on a microarray. Gene expression analysis was carried out with total RNA extracted from L. ferrooxidans cultures in the presence or absence of ammonium as nitrogen source under aerobic conditions. Although practically nothing is known about the genome sequence of this bacterium, this approach allowed us the selection and sequencing of only those clones bearing genes that showed an altered expression pattern. By sequence comparison, we have identified most of the genes of nitrogen fixation regulon in L. ferrooxidans, like the nifHDKENX operon, encoding the structural components of Mo-Fe nitrogenase; nifSU-hesB-hscBA-fdx operon, for Fe-S cluster assembly; the amtB gene (ammonium transporter); modA (molybdenum ABC type transporter); some regulatory genes like ntrC, nifA (the specific activator of nif genes); or two glnB-like genes (encoding the PII regulatory protein). Our results show that shotgun DNA microarrays are very powerful tools to accomplish gene expression studies with environmental bacteria whose genome sequence is still unknown, avoiding the time and effort necessary for whole genome sequencing projects. PMID:12808145

  14. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  15. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by bioaugmentation with a dehalorespiring bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rayford B; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of commercial PCBs such as Aroclor 1260 has a critical role of transforming highly chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are then susceptible to aerobic degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with the dehalorespiring bacterium “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 was tested in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing sediment contaminated with weathered Aroclor 1260 (1.3 ppm) from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Total penta- and higher chlorinated PCBs decreased by approximately 56% (by mass) in bioaugmented mesocosms after 120 days compared with no activity observed in unamended controls. Bioaugmentation with DF-1 enhanced the dechlorination of doubly flanked chlorines and stimulated the dechlorination of single flanked chlorines as a result of an apparent synergistic effect on the indigenous population. Addition of granulated activated carbon had a slight stimulatory effect indicating that anaerobic reductive dechlorination of PCBs at low concentrations was not inhibited by a high background of inorganic carbon that could affect bioavailability. The total number of dehalorespiring bacteria was reduced by approximately half after 60 days. However, a steady state level was maintained that was greater than the indigenous population of putative dehalorespiring bacteria in untreated sediments and DF1 was maintained within the indigenous population after 120 days. The results of this study demonstrate that bioaugmentation with dehalorespiring bacteria has a stimulatory effect on the dechlorination of weathered PCBs and supports the feasibility of using in situ bioaugmentation as an environmentally less invasive and lower cost alternate to dredging for treatment of PCB impacted sediments. PMID:21902247

  16. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  17. Identification of a novel ice-nucleating bacterium of Antarctic origin and its ice nucleation properties.

    PubMed

    Obata, H; Muryoi, N; Kawahara, H; Yamade, K; Nishikawa, J

    1999-03-01

    A novel ice-nucleating bacterium (INB) was isolated from Ross Island, Antarctica. INBs could be isolated more frequently than was generally thought. INB strain IN-74 was found in the white colony group. Strain IN-74 was identified from its taxonomic characteristics as a novel INB, Pseudomonas antarctica IN-74. When strain IN-74 was cultured aerobically in a medium consisting of the ice-nucleating broth (pH 7.0) for 6 days at 4 degrees C, the ice-nucleating activity of strain IN-74 cells was obtained. Strain IN-74 cells produced ice nuclei only at extremely low growth temperatures. The nuclei appeared to be less thermolabile than those of INB Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. The freezing difference spectra in D2O and H2O at ice-nucleating temperature for strain IN-74 cells and conventional INBs (Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1, Pseudomonas viridiflava KUIN-2, and Pseudomonas syringae C-9) exhibited different curves. PMID:10191036

  18. Arthrobacter cryoconiti sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Margesin, Rosa; Schumann, Peter; Zhang, De-Chao; Redzic, Mersiha; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Schinner, Franz

    2012-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain Cr6-08(T), was isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. Growth of strain Cr6-08(T) occurred at 1-25 °C. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Cr6-08(T) is most closely related to members of the genus Arthrobacter. Strain Cr6-08(T) possessed chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Arthrobacter, such as peptidoglycan type A3α (l-Lys-L-Ala(4)), MK-9(H(2)) as major menaquinone and anteiso- and iso-branched compounds (anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0)) as major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown glycolipid and three unknown polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Cr6-08(T) was 57.3 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain Cr6-08(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter cryoconiti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Cr6-08(T) ( = DSM 23324(T)  = LMG 26052(T)  = CGMCC 1.10698(T)).

  19. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments in the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2003-06-01

    A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis. Nineteen open reading frame, most of which are thought to be genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll, and the photosynthetic reaction center, were identified surrounding the plasposon in a 22-kb-long chromosomal locus. The general arrangement of the photosynthetic genes was similar to that in other purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, the locations of a few genes occurring in this region were unusual. Most of the gene products showed the highest similarity to the corresponding proteins in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The plasposon was inserted into the crtD gene, likely inactivating crtC as well, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway. Homologous and heterologous complementation experiments indicated a conserved function of CrtC and CrtD in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The crtDC and crtE genes were shown to be regulated by oxygen, and a role of CrtJ in aerobic repression was suggested.

  20. Sphingomonas alpina sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from alpine soil.

    PubMed

    Margesin, Rosa; Zhang, De-Chao; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative-staining, motile, psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain S8-3(T), was isolated from alpine soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain S8-3(T) was related to the genus Sphingomonas and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica S213(T) (98.0%). 16S RNA gene sequence similarity between strain S8-3(T) and Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 29837(T) (the type species of the genus Sphingomonas) was 93.0%. Strain S8-3(T) contained Q-10 as the ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c (65.0%) and C(14:0) 2-OH (13.4%) as the dominant fatty acids (>10%). The major polyamines were the triamine sym-homospermidine and spermidine. The polar lipid profile contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 64.1 mol%. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies demonstrated that strain S8-3(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas alpina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S8-3(T) (=DSM 22537(T)=LMG 26055(T)).

  1. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  2. Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel filamentous, endospore-forming, thermophilic and halophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Addou, Nariman Ammara; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    A novel filamentous, endospore-forming, thermophilic and moderately halophilic bacterium designated strain Nari2A(T) was isolated from soil collected from an Algerian salt lake, Chott Melghir. The novel isolate was Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive. Optimum growth occurred at 50-55 °C, 7-10% (w/v) NaCl and pH 7-8. The strain exhibited 95.4, 95.4 and 95.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Thalassobacillus devorans G19.1(T), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) and Virgibacillus kekensis YIM-kkny16(T), respectively. The major menaquinone was MK-7. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unknown phosphoglycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 41.9 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain Nari2A(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Bacillaceae , order Bacillales , for which the name Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus is Nari2A(T) ( = DSM 25894(T) = CCUG 62543(T)). PMID:25604343

  3. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  4. Bioreduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium by the extremely acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Acidocella aromatica strain PFBC.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yusei; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Okibe, Naoko

    2015-03-01

    The extremely acidophilic, Fe(III)-reducing heterotrophic bacterium Acidocella aromatica strain PFBC was tested for its potential utility in bioreduction of highly toxic heavy metal, hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI). During its aerobic growth on fructose at pH 2.5, 20 µM Cr(VI) was readily reduced to Cr(III), achieving the final Cr(VI) concentration of 0.4 µM (0.02 mg/L), meeting the WHO drinking water guideline of 0.05 mg/L. Despite of the highly inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) on cell growth at higher concentrations, especially at low pH, Cr(VI) reduction activity was readily observed in growth-decoupled cell suspensions under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Strain PFBC was not capable of anaerobic growth via dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), such as reported for Fe(III). In the presence of both Cr(VI) and Fe(III) under micro-aerobic condition, microbial Fe(III) reduction occurred only upon complete disappearance of Cr(VI) by its reduction to Cr(III). Following Cr(VI) reduction, the resultant Cr(III), supposedly present in the form of cationic Cr (III) (OH2) 6 (3+) , was partially immobilized on the negatively charged cell surface through biosorption. When Cr(III) was externally provided, rather than microbially produced, it was poorly immobilized on the cell surface. Cr(VI) reducing ability was reported for the first time in Acidocella sp. in this study, and its potential role in biogeochemical cycling of Cr, as well as its possible utility in Cr(VI) bioremediation, in highly acidic environments/solutions, were discussed.

  5. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  6. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  7. Pangenome Evolution in the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We have examined a collection of the free-living marine bacterium Alteromonas genomes with cores diverging in average nucleotide identities ranging from 99.98% to 73.35%, i.e., from microbes that can be considered members of a natural clone (like in a clinical epidemiological outbreak) to borderline genus level. The genomes were largely syntenic allowing a precise delimitation of the core and flexible regions in each. The core was 1.4 Mb (ca. 30% of the typical strain genome size). Recombination rates along the core were high among strains belonging to the same species (37.7–83.7% of all nucleotide polymorphisms) but they decreased sharply between species (18.9–5.1%). Regarding the flexible genome, its main expansion occurred within the boundaries of the species, i.e., strains of the same species already have a large and diverse flexible genome. Flexible regions occupy mostly fixed genomic locations. Four large genomic islands are involved in the synthesis of strain-specific glycosydic receptors that we have called glycotypes. These genomic regions are exchanged by homologous recombination within and between species and there is evidence for their import from distant taxonomic units (other genera within the family). In addition, several hotspots for integration of gene cassettes by illegitimate recombination are distributed throughout the genome. They code for features that give each clone specific properties to interact with their ecological niche and must flow fast throughout the whole genus as they are found, with nearly identical sequences, in different species. Models for the generation of this genomic diversity involving phage predation are discussed. PMID:27189983

  8. Pangenome Evolution in the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We have examined a collection of the free-living marine bacterium Alteromonas genomes with cores diverging in average nucleotide identities ranging from 99.98% to 73.35%, i.e., from microbes that can be considered members of a natural clone (like in a clinical epidemiological outbreak) to borderline genus level. The genomes were largely syntenic allowing a precise delimitation of the core and flexible regions in each. The core was 1.4 Mb (ca. 30% of the typical strain genome size). Recombination rates along the core were high among strains belonging to the same species (37.7-83.7% of all nucleotide polymorphisms) but they decreased sharply between species (18.9-5.1%). Regarding the flexible genome, its main expansion occurred within the boundaries of the species, i.e., strains of the same species already have a large and diverse flexible genome. Flexible regions occupy mostly fixed genomic locations. Four large genomic islands are involved in the synthesis of strain-specific glycosydic receptors that we have called glycotypes. These genomic regions are exchanged by homologous recombination within and between species and there is evidence for their import from distant taxonomic units (other genera within the family). In addition, several hotspots for integration of gene cassettes by illegitimate recombination are distributed throughout the genome. They code for features that give each clone specific properties to interact with their ecological niche and must flow fast throughout the whole genus as they are found, with nearly identical sequences, in different species. Models for the generation of this genomic diversity involving phage predation are discussed. PMID:27189983

  9. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  10. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  11. Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Cheng, Cheng; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JN53(T), was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Strain JN53(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JN53(T) belonged to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was most closely related to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (97.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729(T) (96.3 %). Strain JN53(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The main fatty acids of strain JN53(T) were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (summed feature 3), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain JN53(T) was 49.7 mol%. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties that distinguished strain JN53(T) from recognized species of this genus demonstrated that isolate JN53(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN53(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013166(T) = JCM 19354(T)).

  12. Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Cheng, Cheng; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JN53(T), was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Strain JN53(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JN53(T) belonged to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was most closely related to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (97.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729(T) (96.3 %). Strain JN53(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The main fatty acids of strain JN53(T) were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (summed feature 3), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain JN53(T) was 49.7 mol%. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties that distinguished strain JN53(T) from recognized species of this genus demonstrated that isolate JN53(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN53(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013166(T) = JCM 19354(T)). PMID:24052630

  13. Flavobacterium tistrianum sp. nov., a gliding bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suwannachart, Chatrudee; Rueangyotchanthana, Kanjana; Srichuay, Suksan; Pheng, Sophea; Fungsin, Bundit; Phoonsiri, Chantara; Kim, Song-Gun

    2016-06-01

    A novel gliding bacterial strain, GB 56.1T, was obtained from soil at the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand; the strain was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, yellow, rod shaped and devoid of flagella, but showed gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences found that GB 56.1T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and that the strain shared the highest sequence similarities with Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens (98.4 %), Flavobacterium anhuiense(98.3 %) and Flavobacterium ginsenosidimutans (97.9 %). The similarities of the sequences of all other species of the genus Flavobacterium were below 97.4 %. The major respiratory quinone of strain GB 56.1T was MK-6; fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1ω6c/C16:1ω7c, C16:0 and C16:0 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, an unidentified amino lipid and four polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of this strain was 34.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness of GB 56.1T was highest against F.anhuiense, with a value of 37.6 %. On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we conclude that strain GB 56.1T represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium tistrianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GB 56.1T (=TISTR 1612T =KCTC 42679T). PMID:26970735

  14. Thalassolituus marinus sp. nov., a hydrocarbon-utilizing marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ahyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2013-06-01

    Gram-negative strains, motile by a single polar flagellum, non-pigmented and with a curved rod-shaped morphology, designated IMCC1826(T) and IMCC1883, were isolated from a surface seawater sample from the Yellow Sea. The two strains shared 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed 92% DNA-DNA relatedness, suggesting that they belonged to the same genomic species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two isolates were related most closely to the type strain of Thalassolituus oleivorans with a sequence similarity of 96.4% and formed a robust phyletic lineage with T. oleivorans. DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains and T. oleivorans DSM 14913(T) was 8.7-11.6%. A putative alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene was detected in strain IMCC1826(T) by PCR, but the amino acid sequence of the gene was distantly related to that of the AlkB homologue of T. oleivorans DSM 14913(T). As expected from the presence of the alkB gene, the new strains utilized n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane as a carbon source. The DNA G+C content was 54.6-56.0 mol% and the main isoprenoid quinone detected was Q-9. Polar lipids of strain IMCC1826(T) included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and amino-group-containing lipids. On the basis of taxonomic data obtained in this study, strains IMCC1826(T) and IMCC1883 represent a novel species of the genus Thalassolituus, for which the name Thalassolituus marinus sp. nov. is proposed, with IMCC1826(T) (=KCTC 23084(T)=NBRC 107590(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23148102

  15. Settling behaviour of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor Anuar, A; Ujang, Z; van Loosdrecht, M C M; de Kreuk, M K

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.

  16. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  17. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of aerobic organisms. PMID:20974919

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  19. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  20. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  1. [Value of aerobic rehabilitation in the management of fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Maquet, D; Croisier, J L; Demoulin, C; Faymonville, M; Crielaard, J M

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of a muscular aerobic revalidation program on the management of the fibromyalgia syndrome. After 3 months, benefits consisting of increased muscle performances associated with a reduction of pain and an improvement of quality of life were documented. This study confirms the value of aerobic muscle exercise in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:16566119

  2. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  3. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  4. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  5. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  6. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  7. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  8. Coiled to diffuse: Brownian motion of a helical bacterium.

    PubMed

    Butenko, Alexander V; Mogilko, Emma; Amitai, Lee; Pokroy, Boaz; Sloutskin, Eli

    2012-09-11

    We employ real-time three-dimensional confocal microscopy to follow the Brownian motion of a fixed helically shaped Leptospira interrogans (LI) bacterium. We extract from our measurements the translational and the rotational diffusion coefficients of this bacterium. A simple theoretical model is suggested, perfectly reproducing the experimental diffusion coefficients, with no tunable parameters. An older theoretical model, where edge effects are neglected, dramatically underestimates the observed rates of translation. Interestingly, the coiling of LI increases its rotational diffusion coefficient by a factor of 5, compared to a (hypothetical) rectified bacterium of the same contour length. Moreover, the translational diffusion coefficients would have decreased by a factor of ~1.5, if LI were rectified. This suggests that the spiral shape of the spirochaete bacteria, in addition to being employed for their active twisting motion, may also increase the ability of these bacteria to explore the surrounding fluid by passive Brownian diffusion.

  9. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N. L.; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production. PMID:26053393

  10. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d'Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-06-04

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production.

  11. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2012-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  12. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  13. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  14. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  15. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  16. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  17. Microcalorimetric Measurements of Glucose Metabolism by Marine Bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew S.; Millero, Frank J.; Gerchakov, Sol M.

    1982-01-01

    Microcalorimetric measurements of heat production from glucose by Vibrio alginolyticus were made to assess the viability of calorimetry as a technique for studying the metabolism of marine bacteria at organic nutrient concentrations found in marine waters. The results show that the metabolism of glucose by this bacterium can be measured by calorimetry at submicromolar concentrations. A linear correlation between glucose concentration and total heat production was observed over a concentration range of 8 mM to 0.35 μM. It is suggested that these data indicate a constant efficiency of metabolism for this bacterium over the wide range of glucose concentrations studied. PMID:16346131

  18. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction.

  19. Mutagenicity of anaerobic fenitrothion metabolites after aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Taku; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Saeki, Ryo; Inoue, Takanobu

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the mutagenicity of fenitrothion increases during anaerobic biodegradation, suggesting that this insecticide's mutagenicity could effectively increase after it pollutes anaerobic environments such as lake sediments. To investigate possible changes to the mutagenicity of fenitrothion under aerobic conditions after it had already been increased by anaerobic biodegradation, batch incubation cultures were maintained under aerobic conditions. The mutagenicity, which had increased during anaerobic biodegradation, decreased under aerobic conditions with aerobic or facultative bacteria, but did not disappear completely in 22 days. In contrast, it did not change under aerobic conditions without bacteria or under continued anaerobic conditions. These observations suggest that the mutagenicity of anaerobically metabolized fenitrothion would not necessarily decrease after it arrives in an aerobic environment: this would depend on the presence of suitable bacteria. Therefore, fenitrothion-derived mutagenic compounds may pollute the water environment, including our drinking water sources, after accidental pollution of aerobic waters. Although amino-fenitrothion generated during anaerobic biodegradation of fenitrothion was the principal mutagen, non-trivial contributions of other, unidentified metabolites to the mutagenicity were also observed. PMID:16263383

  20. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Borglin, Sharon E; Hazen, Terry C; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Zawislanski, Peter T

    2004-07-01

    To increase the operating lifetime of landfills and to lower leachate treatment costs, an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are being managed as either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Landfill gas composition, respiration rates, and subsidence were measured for 400 days in 200-L tanks filled with fresh waste materials to compare the relative effectiveness of the two treatments. Tanks were prepared to provide the following conditions: (1) air injection and leachate recirculation (aerobic), (2) leachate recirculation (anaerobic), and (3) no treatment (anaerobic). Respiration tests on the aerobic wet tank showed a steady decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 400 days. Aerobic wet tanks produced, on average, 6 mol of carbon dioxide (CO2)/kg of MSW as compared with anaerobic wet tanks, which produced 2.2 mol methane/kg of MSW and 2.0 mol CO2/kg methane. Over the test period, the aerobic tanks settled on average 35%, anaerobic tanks settled 21.7%, and the no-treatment tank settled 7.5%, equivalent to overall mass loss in the corresponding reactors. Aerobic tanks reduced stabilization time and produced negligible odor compared with anaerobic tanks, possibly because of the 2 orders of magnitude lower leachate ammonia levels in the aerobic tank. Both treatment regimes provide the opportunity for disposal and remediation of liquid waste.

  1. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  2. A rod-shaped vibro touch sensor using PZT thin film.

    PubMed

    Kanda, T; Morita, T; Kurosawa, M K; Higuchi, T

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated a probe sensor. This sensor is for high precision coordinate measuring machines, surface roughness measuring tools, or scanning probe microscopes (SPM). This sensor consists of a rod vibrating in the axial direction. The longitudinal vibration was excited and also detected by PZT thin film. The PZT thin film was fabricated by a hydrothermal method. The hydrothermal method uses the reaction process in hot and high pressure aqueous solutions. We made a 27.8-mm long sensor. Its resonance frequency was 116 kHz. The sensitivity and resolution were evaluated by experiments. We succeeded in oscillating the rod and detecting the contact.

  3. Catalytically powered dynamic assembly of rod-shaped nanomotors and passive tracer particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2013-10-29

    Nano- and microscale motors powered by catalytic reactions exhibit collective behavior such as swarming, predator-prey interactions, and chemotaxis that resemble those of biological microorganisms. A quantitative understanding of the catalytically generated forces between particles that lead to these behaviors has so far been lacking. Observations and numerical simulations of pairwise interactions between gold-platinum nanorods in hydrogen peroxide solutions show that attractive and repulsive interactions arise from the catalytically generated electric field. Electrokinetic effects drive the assembly of staggered doublets and triplets of nanorods that are moving in the same direction. None of these behaviors are observed with nanorods composed of a single metal. The motors also collect tracer microparticles at their head or tail, depending on the charge of the particles, actively assembling them into close-packed rafts and aggregates of rafts. These motor-tracer particle interactions can also be understood in terms of the catalytically generated electric field around the ends of the nanorod motors. PMID:24127603

  4. The generality of cation-binding sites in rod-shaped viruses.

    PubMed

    Durham, A C; Bancroft, J B; Bourque, D P

    1981-07-01

    Hydrogen-ion titration curves have been measured for two filamentous plant viruses (clover yellow mosaic virus and potato virus X) and two filamentous bacterial viruses (fd and Pf1) with and without Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions present, and for the protein of the PM6 mutant of tobacco mosaic virus. The bacterial viruses do not possess the 'strong' cation-binding sites found in all plant viruses, but they have 'weak' sites that can be assigned to juxtaposed carboxylate groups on their external surfaces. The strong sites in plant viruses still cannot be assigned to any particular amino-acid side chains, but they must be located in the region of high electronegativity near the axis.

  5. Catalytically powered dynamic assembly of rod-shaped nanomotors and passive tracer particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Nano- and microscale motors powered by catalytic reactions exhibit collective behavior such as swarming, predator–prey interactions, and chemotaxis that resemble those of biological microorganisms. A quantitative understanding of the catalytically generated forces between particles that lead to these behaviors has so far been lacking. Observations and numerical simulations of pairwise interactions between gold-platinum nanorods in hydrogen peroxide solutions show that attractive and repulsive interactions arise from the catalytically generated electric field. Electrokinetic effects drive the assembly of staggered doublets and triplets of nanorods that are moving in the same direction. None of these behaviors are observed with nanorods composed of a single metal. The motors also collect tracer microparticles at their head or tail, depending on the charge of the particles, actively assembling them into close-packed rafts and aggregates of rafts. These motor–tracer particle interactions can also be understood in terms of the catalytically generated electric field around the ends of the nanorod motors. PMID:24127603

  6. Graphene Induces Formation of Pores That Kill Spherical and Rod-Shaped Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pham, Vy T H; Truong, Vi Khanh; Quinn, Matthew D J; Notley, Shannon M; Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A; Al Kobaisi, Mohammad; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2015-08-25

    Pristine graphene, its derivatives, and composites have been widely reported to possess antibacterial properties. Most of the studies simulating the interaction between bacterial cell membranes and the surface of graphene have proposed that the graphene-induced bacterial cell death is caused either by (1) the insertion of blade-like graphene-based nanosheets or (2) the destructive extraction of lipid molecules by the presence of the lipophilic graphene. These simulation studies have, however, only take into account graphene-cell membrane interactions where the graphene is in a dispersed form. In this paper, we report the antimicrobial behavior of graphene sheet surfaces in an attempt to further advance the current knowledge pertaining to graphene cytotoxicity using both experimental and computer simulation approaches. Graphene nanofilms were fabricated to exhibit different edge lengths and different angles of orientation in the graphene sheets. These substrates were placed in contact with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, where it was seen that these substrates exhibited variable bactericidal efficiency toward these two pathogenic bacteria. It was demonstrated that the density of the edges of the graphene was one of the principal parameters that contributed to the antibacterial behavior of the graphene nanosheet films. The study provides both experimental and theoretical evidence that the antibacterial behavior of graphene nanosheets arises from the formation of pores in the bacterial cell wall, causing a subsequent osmotic imbalance and cell death.

  7. Synergistic Targeting of Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm and Nucleus of Cancer Cells using Rod-Shaped Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Sutapa; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Design of carriers for effective delivery and targeting of drugs to cellular and sub-cellular compartments is an unmet need in medicine. Here, we report pure drug nanoparticles comprising camptothecin (CPT), trastuzumab (TTZ) and doxorubicin (DOX) to enable cell-specific interactions, subcellular accumulation and growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. CPT is formulated in the form of nanorods which are coated with TTZ. DOX is encapsulated in the TTZ corona around the CPT nanoparticle. Our results show that TTZ/DOX-coated CPT nanorods exhibit cell-specific internalization in BT-474 breast cancer cells, after which TTZ is recycled to the plasma membrane leaving CPT nanorods in the perinuclear region and delivering DOX into the nucleus of the cells. The effects of CPT-TTZ-DOX nanoparticles on growth inhibition are synergistic (combination index = 0.17±0.03) showing 10-10,000 fold lower inhibitory concentrations (IC50) compared to those of individual drugs. The design of antibody-targeted pure drug nanoparticles offers a promising design strategy to facilitate intracellular delivery and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs. PMID:24053162

  8. Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Rachel J.; Elder, Theresa; Sowinksi, Olivia; Fostvedt, Jade I.; Hoefelmeyer, James D.

    2016-06-01

    Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6, C8, C12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions.

  9. Synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles as potential optical contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayavarapu, R. G.; Petersen, W.; Le Gac, S.; Ungureanu, C.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Manohar, S.

    2007-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit intense and narrow optical extinction bands due to the phenomenon of plasmon resonance making them useful as contrast agents for light-based imaging techniques. Localized heating results from the absorbed light energy, which shows potential for these particles in photothermal therapy as well. The bioconjugation of gold nanoparticles to appropriate antibodies targeted to tumors in vivo, could make highly selective detection and therapy of tumors possible. We have synthesised gold nanorods based on seed mediated protocols using two methods. The first method is based on using a mono-surfactant silver assisted method which produces gold nanorods having plasmon peaks between 670-850 nm within the "optical imaging and therapeutic window". These nanorods have aspect ratios between 2.3 - 3.7. A second method is a silver assisted bi-surfactant method which produce nanorods with peaks in the range of 850-1100 nm having aspect ratios between 5 - 11. Typical concentrations of these particles in aqueous dispersions are in the range of 1x10 10 - 1x10 11 particles per mL. We have bioconjugated these gold nanorods with anti-HER2/neu mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Since the as-prepared CTAB-stabilized nanorods were found to be toxic to SKBR3 cells, we decided to coat the gold nanorods with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Characterization and size estimation of the nanoparticles were performed using electron microscopies, optical spectroscopy and confocal microscopy. We present these results and implications for use of these nanoparticles for in vivo biomedical applications.

  10. Synergistic targeting of cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of cancer cells using rod-shaped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barua, Sutapa; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-11-26

    Design of carriers for effective delivery and targeting of drugs to cellular and subcellular compartments is an unmet need in medicine. Here, we report pure drug nanoparticles comprising camptothecin (CPT), trastuzumab (TTZ), and doxorubicin (DOX) to enable cell-specific interactions, subcellular accumulation, and growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. CPT is formulated in the form of nanorods which are coated with TTZ. DOX is encapsulated in the TTZ corona around the CPT nanoparticle. Our results show that TTZ/DOX-coated CPT nanorods exhibit cell-specific internalization in BT-474 breast cancer cells, after which TTZ is recycled to the plasma membrane, leaving CPT nanorods in the perinuclear region and delivering DOX into the nucleus of the cells. The effects of CPT-TTZ-DOX nanoparticles on growth inhibition are synergistic (combination index = 0.17 ± 0.03) showing 10-10 000-fold lower inhibitory concentrations (IC50) compared to those of individual drugs. The design of antibody-targeted pure drug nanoparticles offers a promising design strategy to facilitate intracellular delivery and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs.

  11. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    PubMed

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E; Bennett, Braden W; Lyons, Eric M; Carney, Laura T

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The "crash" of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  12. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    PubMed

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E; Bennett, Braden W; Lyons, Eric M; Carney, Laura T

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The "crash" of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  13. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus

    PubMed Central

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E.; Bennett, Braden W.; Lyons, Eric M.; Carney, Laura T.

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The “crash” of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  14. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  15. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain.

  16. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions. PMID:27480532

  17. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain. PMID:26989057

  18. Comprehensive analysis of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found on dental bib clips.

    PubMed

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Murphy, Christina M; Powers, Anne; Kublin, Claire L; Jeong, Youjin Natalie; DiMattia, Michelle; Pham, Linh; Park, Angel; Finkelman, Matthew; Lombard, Maureen; Hanley, James B; Paster, Bruce J; Kugel, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-use dental bib clips are considered to present relatively low risks for transmitting infections and, thus, are thought to only require disinfection between patient visits. This study was designed to: 1) determine the presence and composition of bacterial contaminants on reusable rubber-faced metal bib clips after dental treatment at the hygiene clinic at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfection for this clip type. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial contaminant loads on the surfaces of the clips were investigated immediately after hygiene treatments were rendered and again after clips were disinfected. The species and strains of bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray analyses. The results demonstrated that although the use of disinfection proved to be significantly effective, some clips retained at least one bacterium on their surfaces after disinfection. Although the bacterial species present on disinfected clips were typical skin or environmental isolates, some were oral in origin. In the study's settings, bacterial presence on the clips did not indicate an infectious disease problem. The different bacterial loads on clips suggest that cross-contamination risks may not be the same for all clinics, and that this difference may be related to the type of treatments and services performed.

  19. Purple Sulfur Bacteria Control the Growth of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacterioplankton in a Meromictic Salt Lake

    PubMed Central

    Overmann, J.; Beatty, J. T.; Hall, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    In meromictic Mahoney Lake, British Columbia, Canada, the heterotrophic bacterial production in the mixolimnion exceeded concomitant primary production by a factor of 7. Bacterial growth rates were correlated neither to primary production nor to the amount of chlorophyll a. Both results indicate an uncoupling of bacteria and phytoplankton. In the chemocline of the lake, an extremely dense population of the purple sulfur bacterium Amoebobacter purpureus is present year round. We investigated whether anoxygenic phototrophs are significant for the growth of aerobic bacterioplankton in the overlaying water. Bacterial growth rates in the mixolimnion were limited by inorganic phosphorus or nitrogen most of the time, and the biomass of heterotrophic bacteria did not increase until, in autumn, 86% of the cells of A. purpureus appeared in the mixolimnion because of their reduced buoyant density. The increase in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, soluble phosphorus concentrations below the detection limit, and an extraordinarily high activity of alkaline phosphatase in the mixolimnion indicate a rapid liberation of organically bound phosphorus from A. purpureus cells accompanied by a simultaneous incorporation into heterotrophic bacterioplankton. High concentrations of allochthonously derived dissolved organic carbon (mean, 60 mg of C(middot)liter(sup-1)) were measured in the lake water. In Mahoney Lake, liberation of phosphorus from upwelling purple sulfur bacteria and degradation of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon as an additional carbon source render heterotrophic bacterial production largely independent of the photosynthesis of phytoplankton. A recycling of inorganic nutrients via phototrophic bacteria also appears to be relevant in other lakes with anoxic bottom waters. PMID:16535399

  20. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  1. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  2. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  3. Gut bacterium of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida: Oligochaeta) possesses antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Piersiak, Tomasz D; Wróbel, Marek; Pawelec, Jarosław

    2010-09-01

    The new bacterial strain with antimycobacterial activity has been isolated from the midgut of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida). Biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates from 18 individuals identified all as Raoultella ornithinolytica genus with 99% similarity. The bacterium is a possible symbiont of the earthworm D. veneta. The isolated microorganism has shown the activity against four strains of fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium butiricum, Mycobacterium jucho, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei. The multiplication of the gut bacterium on plates with Sauton medium containing mycobacteria has caused a lytic effect. After the incubation of the cell free extract prepared from the gut bacterium with four strains of mycobacteria in liquid Sauton medium, the cells of all tested strains were deformed and divided to small oval forms and sometimes created long filaments. The effect was observed by the use of light, transmission and scanning microscopy. Viability of all examined species of mycobacteria was significantly decreased. The antimycobacterial effect was probably the result of the antibiotic action produced by the gut bacterium of the earthworm. The application of ultrafiltration procedure allowed to demonstrate that antimicrobial substance with strong antimycobacterial activity from bacterial culture supernatant, is a protein with the molecular mass above 100 kDa.

  4. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  5. Revised Genome Sequence of the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Blastochloris viridis

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Matthew; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Fang; Darby, Alistair C.; Hall, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Blastochloris viridis is a unique anaerobic, phototrophic purple bacterium that produces bacteriochlorophyll b. Here we report an improved genome sequence of Blastochloris viridis DSM133, which is instrumental to the studies of photosynthesis, metabolic versatility, and genetic engineering of this microorganism. PMID:26798090

  6. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  7. High quality permanent draft genome sequence of Phaseolibacter flectens ATCC 12775T, a plant pathogen of French bean pods

    DOE PAGES

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, TBK; Huntemann, Marcel; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2016-01-13

    We report that the Phaseolibacter flectens strain ATCC 12775T (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:268–273, 2013) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. Ph. flectens is as a plant-pathogenic bacterium on pods of French bean and was first identified by Johnson (1956) as Pseudomonas flectens. After its phylogenetic position was reexamined, Pseudomonas flectens was transferred to the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 44.34 mol%. The chromosome length is 2,748,442 bp.more » It encodes 2,437 proteins and 89 RNA genes. Ph. flectens genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes study.« less

  8. Biodegradation of Phenol by Bacteria Strain Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus PA Isolated from Phenolic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenghui; Xie, Wenyu; Li, Dehao; Peng, Yang; Li, Zesheng; Liu, Shusi

    2016-01-01

    A phenol-degrading bacterium strain PA was successfully isolated from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain PA was characterized as a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, nonmotile and short rod-shaped bacterium that utilizes phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that this strain is affiliated to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the group of Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was efficient in removing 91.6% of the initial 800 mg∙L−1 phenol within 48 h, and had a tolerance of phenol concentration as high as 1700 mg∙L−1. These results indicated that A. calcoaceticus possesses a promising potential in treating phenolic wastewater. PMID:27005648

  9. Biodegradation of Phenol by Bacteria Strain Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus PA Isolated from Phenolic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenghui; Xie, Wenyu; Li, Dehao; Peng, Yang; Li, Zesheng; Liu, Shusi

    2016-03-09

    A phenol-degrading bacterium strain PA was successfully isolated from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain PA was characterized as a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, nonmotile and short rod-shaped bacterium that utilizes phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that this strain is affiliated to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the group of Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was efficient in removing 91.6% of the initial 800 mg ∙ L(-1) phenol within 48 h, and had a tolerance of phenol concentration as high as 1700 mg ∙ L(-1). These results indicated that A. calcoaceticus possesses a promising potential in treating phenolic wastewater.

  10. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  11. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  12. Mental Aerobics: Exercises for the Mind in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paggi, Kay; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reports observations of the use of mental aerobics with 48 adults whose median age was 70. Provides examples of the group puzzles and logic, math, and word problems used to enhance cognitive functioning and creative thinking. (SK)

  13. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  14. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  15. Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis sp. nov., a thermo-acidophilic bacterium isolated from hot spring soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Goo; Lee, Jae-Chan; Park, Dong-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    A thermo-acidophilic bacterium, designated strain ACK006(T), was isolated from the soil of a hot spring at Tengchong in China. Cells were Gram-staining-positive, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, spore-forming rods. The isolate grew aerobically at 30-50°C (optimum at 45°C), pH 2.0-6.0 (optimum pH 3.2) and 0-5.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1% NaCl). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain ACK006(T) belongs to the genus Alicyclobacillus with the sequence similarity of 92.3, 92.4, 92.5, and 92.8% to Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus SCH(T), Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans TC-34(T), Alicyclobacillus contaminans 3-A191(T) and Alicyclobacillus disulfidooxidans SD-11(T), respectively. Similarity to other species of the genus Alicyclobacillus was 90.3-92.8% and similarity to species of the genus Tumebacillus was 85.9-87.8%. The genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids were ω-cycloheptane C18:0, iso-C17:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was the A1γ type; containing meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of polyphasic analysis from this study, strain ACK006(T) represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus for which the name Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ACK006(T) (=KCTC 33022(T) =DSM 25924(T)).

  16. A Novel Electrophototrophic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strain RP2, Exhibits Hydrocarbonoclastic Potential in Anaerobic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-01-01

    An electrophototrophic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris stain RP2 was isolated from the anodic biofilms of hydrocarbon fed microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS). Salient properties of the strain RP2 were direct electrode respiration, dissimilatory metal oxide reduction, spore formation, anaerobic nitrate reduction, free living diazotrophy and the ability to degrade n-alkane components of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) in anoxic, photic environments. In acetate fed microbial electrochemical cells, a maximum current density of 305 ± 10 mA/m2 (1000Ω) was generated (power density 131.65 ± 10 mW/m2) by strain RP2 with a coulombic efficiency of 46.7 ± 1.3%. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain RP2 is electrochemically active and likely to transfer electrons extracellularly to solid electron acceptors through membrane bound compounds, however, aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. The ability of strain RP2 to produce current (maximum current density 21 ± 3 mA/m2; power density 720 ± 7 μW/m2, 1000 Ω) using PH as a sole energy source was also examined using an initial concentration of 800 mg l-1 of diesel range hydrocarbons (C9-C36) with a concomitant removal of 47.4 ± 2.7% hydrocarbons in MERS. Here, we also report the first study that shows an initial evidence for the existence of a hydrocarbonoclastic behavior in the strain RP2 when grown in different electron accepting and illuminated conditions (anaerobic and MERS degradation). Such observations reveal the importance of photoorganotrophic growth in the utilization of hydrocarbons from contaminated environments. Identification of such novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading electricigens, not only expands the knowledge on the range of bacteria known for the hydrocarbon bioremediation but also shows a biotechnological potential that goes well beyond its applications to MERS. PMID:27462307

  17. The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitfificans.

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H R; Larimer, Frank W

    2006-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, {beta}-proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and to oxidize mineral electron donors. Notable genomic features include (i) genes encoding c-type cytochromes totaling 1 to 2 percent of the genome, which is a proportion greater than for almost all bacterial and archaeal species sequenced to date, (ii) genes encoding two [NiFe]hydrogenases, which is particularly significant because no information on hydrogenases has previously been reported for T. denitrificans and hydrogen oxidation appears to be critical for anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by this species, (iii) a diverse complement of more than 50 genes associated with sulfur-compound oxidation (including sox genes, dsr genes, and genes associated with the AMP-dependent oxidation of sulfite to sulfate), some of which occur in multiple (up to eight) copies, (iv) a relatively large number of genes associated with inorganic ion transport and heavy metal resistance, and (v) a paucity of genes encoding organic-compound transporters, commensurate with obligate chemolithoautotrophy. Ultimately, the genome sequence of T. denitrificans will enable elucidation of the mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur-compound oxidation by {beta}-proteobacteria and will help reveal the molecular basis of this organism's role in major biogeochemical cycles (i.e., those involving sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon) and groundwater restoration.

  18. Paucisalibacillus globulus gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from potting soil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Tiago, Igor; Pires, Ana Luísa; da Costa, Milton S; Veríssimo, António

    2006-08-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, designated B22(T), was isolated from potting soil produced in Portugal. This organism is a catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, motile, spore-forming, aerobic rod that grows optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 8.0-8.5. Optimal growth occurs in media containing 1 % (w/v) NaCl, although the organism can grow in 0-8 % NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan is of the A4alpha type with a cross-linkage containing d-Asp. The major respiratory quinone is menaquinone 7 and the major fatty acids are anteiso-15 : 0, anteiso-17 : 0 and iso-15 : 0. The DNA G+C content is 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain B22(T) formed a new branch within the family Bacillaceae. The novel isolate is phylogenetically closely related to members of genera of moderately halophilic bacilli and formed a coherent cluster with species of the genera Salinibacillus, Virgibacillus, Oceanobacillus and Lentibacillus, supported by bootstrap analysis at a confidence level of 71 %. Strain B22(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene pairwise sequence similarity values of 94.7-94.3 % with members of the genus Salinibacillus, 95.1-92.8 % with members of the genus Virgibacillus, 94.7-93.2 % with members of the genus Oceanobacillus and 93.1-92.3 % with members of the genus Lentibacillus. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that strain B22(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, Paucisalibacillus globulus gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain B22(T) (=LMG 23148(T)=CIP 108857(T)) is the type strain of Paucisalibacillus globulus.

  19. Brevundimonas denitrificans sp. nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from deep subseafloor sediment.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Taishi; Koyama, Sumihiro; Mori, Kozue; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Usui, Keiko; Tokuda, Maki; Tame, Akihiro; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Maruyama, Tadashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, heterotrophic, stalked and capsulated bacterium with potential denitrification ability, designated strain TAR-002(T), was isolated from deep seafloor sediment in Japan. Colonies lacked lustre, and were viscous and translucent white. The ranges of temperature, pH and salt concentration for growth were 8-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain TAR-002(T) belongs to the genus Brevundimonas of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Levels of similarity between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain TAR-002(T) and those of the type strains of species of the genus Brevundimonas were 93.5-98.9%; the most closely related species was Brevundimonas basaltis. In DNA-DNA hybridization assays between strain TAR-002(T) and its phylogenetic neighbours, Brevundimonas lenta DS-18(T), B. basaltis J22(T), Brevundimonas subvibrioides ATCC 15264(T) and Brevundimonas alba DSM 4736(T), mean hybridization levels were 6.4-27.7%. The G+C content of strain TAR-002(T) was 70.3 mol%. Q-10 was the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone. The major fatty acids were C(18:1)ω7c and C(16:0), and the presence of 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-D-glucopyranuronosyl]glycerol (DGL) indicates the affiliation of strain TAR-002(T) with the genus Brevundimonas. On the basis of biological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain TAR-002(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Brevundimonas, for which the name Brevundimonas denitrificans sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TAR-002(T) ( =NBRC 110107(T) =CECT 8537(T)).

  20. A Novel Electrophototrophic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strain RP2, Exhibits Hydrocarbonoclastic Potential in Anaerobic Environments.

    PubMed

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-01-01

    An electrophototrophic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris stain RP2 was isolated from the anodic biofilms of hydrocarbon fed microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS). Salient properties of the strain RP2 were direct electrode respiration, dissimilatory metal oxide reduction, spore formation, anaerobic nitrate reduction, free living diazotrophy and the ability to degrade n-alkane components of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) in anoxic, photic environments. In acetate fed microbial electrochemical cells, a maximum current density of 305 ± 10 mA/m(2) (1000Ω) was generated (power density 131.65 ± 10 mW/m(2)) by strain RP2 with a coulombic efficiency of 46.7 ± 1.3%. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain RP2 is electrochemically active and likely to transfer electrons extracellularly to solid electron acceptors through membrane bound compounds, however, aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. The ability of strain RP2 to produce current (maximum current density 21 ± 3 mA/m(2); power density 720 ± 7 μW/m(2), 1000 Ω) using PH as a sole energy source was also examined using an initial concentration of 800 mg l(-1) of diesel range hydrocarbons (C9-C36) with a concomitant removal of 47.4 ± 2.7% hydrocarbons in MERS. Here, we also report the first study that shows an initial evidence for the existence of a hydrocarbonoclastic behavior in the strain RP2 when grown in different electron accepting and illuminated conditions (anaerobic and MERS degradation). Such observations reveal the importance of photoorganotrophic growth in the utilization of hydrocarbons from contaminated environments. Identification of such novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading electricigens, not only expands the knowledge on the range of bacteria known for the hydrocarbon bioremediation but also shows a biotechnological potential that goes well beyond its applications to MERS. PMID:27462307