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Sample records for aerobic training study

  1. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study - Sprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Moore, Alan; Ryder, Jeffrey; Everett, Meg; Bloomberg, Jacob; Sibonga, Jean; Shackelford, Linda; Platts, Steven; Martin, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Guilliams, Mark; Trappe, Scott; Trappe, Todd; Kohrt, Wendy; Coyle, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Space flight causes reductions in fitness/health: (1) Cardiovascular -- reduced VO2max, cardiac output (2) Bone -- reduced bone mineral density (3) Muscle -- reduced mass, strength and endurance. Exercise is the primary countermeasure to protect against these changes and was made operational before completely mature. Research continues to identify most effective/efficient exercise programs. Crew medical tests (cardio, muscle, bone) do not yield sufficient information to fine tune the effectiveness of exercise programs, thus there is a need for more detailed testing aimed at identifying the most effective training program. The objective of this program was to obtain detailed information about crew physical fitness pre-and post-flight and evaluate new evidence based exercise prescription with higher intensity, lower duration and frequency.

  2. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  3. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  4. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  6. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  7. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (p<0.05) and they also showed a non-significant trend to increased peak power output. In conclusion, children with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  8. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    PubMed

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p < 0.01). Stroke length increased in 100 and 400-m swimming tests after training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p < 0.001-0.05). In conclusion, when matched for distance and exercise intensity, the short-interval (50 m) and long-interval (100 m) protocols confer analogous

  9. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  10. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  11. Can aerobic treadmill training reduce the effort of walking and fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Newman, M A; Dawes, H; van den Berg, M; Wade, D T; Burridge, J; Izadi, H

    2007-01-01

    Impaired mobility in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with high-energy costs and effort when walking, gait abnormalities, poor endurance and fatigue. This repeated measures trial with blinded assessments investigated the effect of treadmill walking at an aerobic training intensity in 16 adults with MS. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions of up to 30 minutes treadmill training (TT), at 55-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. The primary outcome measure was walking effort, measured by oxygen consumption (mL/kg per metre), during treadmill walking at comfortable walking speed (CWS). Associated changes in gait parameters using the 'Gait-Rite' mat, 10-m time and 2-minute distance, and Fatigue Severity Scale were examined. Following training, oxygen consumption decreased at rest (P = 0.008), CWS increased (P = 0.002), and 10-m times (P = 0.032) and walking endurance (P = 0.020) increased. At increased CWS, oxygen consumption decreased (P = 0.020), with a decreased time spent in stance in the weaker leg (P = 0.034), and a greater stride distance with the stronger leg (P = 0.044). Reported fatigue levels remained the same. Aerobic TT presents the opportunity to alter a motor skill and reduce the effort of walking, whilst addressing cardiovascular de-conditioning, thereby, potentially reducing effort and fatigue for some people with MS.

  12. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  13. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  14. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  15. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction.

  16. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  17. Aerobic Training in Patients with Congenital Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hedermann, Gitte; Vissing, Christoffer Rasmus; Heje, Karen; Preisler, Nicolai; Witting, Nanna; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital myopathies (CM) often affect contractile proteins of the sarcomere, which could render patients susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage. We investigated if exercise is safe and beneficial in patients with CM. Methods Patients exercised on a stationary bike for 30 minutes, three times weekly, for 10 weeks at 70% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Creatine kinase (CK) was monitored as a marker of muscle damage. VO2max, functional tests, and questionnaires evaluated efficacy. Results Sixteen patients with CM were included in a controlled study. VO2max increased by 14% (range, 6–25%; 95% CI 7–20; p < 0.001) in the seven patients who completed training, and tended to decrease in a non-intervention group (n = 7; change -3.5%; range, -11–3%, p = 0.083). CK levels were normal and remained stable during training. Baseline Fatigue Severity Scale scores were high, 4.9 (SE 1.9), and tended to decrease (to 4.4 (SE 1.7); p = 0.08) with training. Nine patients dropped out of the training program. Fatigue was the major single reason. Conclusions Ten weeks of endurance training is safe and improves fitness in patients with congenital myopathies. The training did not cause sarcomeric injury, even though sarcomeric function is affected by the genetic abnormalities in most patients with CM. Severe fatigue, which characterizes patients with CM, is a limiting factor for initiating training in CM, but tends to improve in those who train. Trial Registration The Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics of the Capital Region of Denmark H-2-2013-066 and ClinicalTrials.gov H2-2013-066 PMID:26751952

  18. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females.

    PubMed

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-12-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance.

  19. Effects of aerobic training on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Cameron-Smith, David; Heigenhauser, George J F

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the effects of short- and long-term aerobic training on the stable up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and PDH kinase (PDK) in human skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that 8 weeks, but not 1 week, of aerobic training would increase total PDH (PDHt) and PDK activities compared to pretraining, and this would be detectable at the level of gene transcription (mRNA) and/or gene translation (protein). Resting muscle biopsies were taken before and after 1 and 8 weeks of aerobic cycle exercise training. PDHt and PDK activities, and their respective protein and mRNA expression, did not differ after 1 week of aerobic training. PDHt activity increased 31% after 8 weeks and this may be partially due to a 1.3-fold increase in PDH-E(1)alpha protein expression. PDK activity approximately doubled after 8 weeks of aerobic training and this was attributed to a 1.3-fold increase in PDK2 isoform protein expression. Similar to 1 week, no changes were observed at the mRNA level after 8 weeks of training. These findings suggest that aerobically trained human skeletal muscle has an increased maximal capacity to utilize carbohydrates, evident by increased PDHt, but increased metabolic control sensitivity to pyruvate through increased contribution of PDK2 to total PDK activity. PMID:15020699

  20. Aerobic fitness, maturation, and training experience in youth basketball.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14-16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23-3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37-0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46-1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11-16% of explained variance) and training experience (7-11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.

  1. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  2. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 ± 3.2 years; 167.6 ± 6.4 cm; 65.0 ± 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise.

  3. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  4. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  5. Physiological and performance effects of generic versus specific aerobic training in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, F M; Marcora, S M; Castagna, C; Reilly, T; Sassi, A; Iaia, F M; Rampinini, E

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of specific (small-sided games) vs. generic (running) aerobic interval training on physical fitness and objective measures of match performance in soccer. Forty junior players were randomly assigned to either generic (n=20) or specific (n=20) interval training consisting of 4 bouts of 4 min at 90-95 % of maximum heart rate with 3 min active rest periods, completed twice a week. The following outcomes were measured at baseline (Pre), after 4 weeks of pre-season training (Mid), and after a further 8 weeks of training during the regular season (Post): maximum oxygen uptake, lactate threshold (Tlac), running economy at Tlac, a soccer-specific endurance test (Ekblom's circuit), and indices of physical performance during soccer matches (total distance and time spent standing, walking, and at low- and high-intensity running speed). Training load, as quantified by heart rate and rating of perceived exertion, was recorded during all training sessions and was similar between groups. There were significant improvements in aerobic fitness and match performance in both groups of soccer players, especially in response to the first 4 weeks of pre-season training. However, no significant differences between specific and generic aerobic interval training were found in any of the measured variables including soccer specific tests. The results of this study showed that both small-sided games and running are equally effective modes of aerobic interval training in junior soccer players.

  6. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  7. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity.

  8. Increased lactate threshold after five weeks of treadmill aerobic training in rats.

    PubMed

    Brito Vieira, W H; Halsberghe, M J E; Schwantes, M L B; Perez, S E A; Baldissera, V; Prestes, J; Prestes, P; Farias, D L; Parizotto, N A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the lactate threshold (LT) changes in rats submitted to an aerobic treadmill-training programme. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group (CG), and a trained group (TG) submitted to an aerobic training during 5 weeks. All the animals were submitted to an incremental treadmill exercise test in order to determine LT. There was an increase in the maximum running speed in the TG (from 32.25 ± 1.27 to 47.75 ± 3.13 m.min-1 - p = 0.001), and running speed at LT (from 26.21 ± 1.15 to 35.30 ± 2.24 m.min-1 - p = 0.004), a part from the reduction in blood lactate at LT. LT can be determined in rats, and aerobic training induced positive oxidative physiological adaptations in the animals.

  9. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  10. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  11. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  12. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low. PMID:27526151

  13. Evaluating the time limit at maximum aerobic speed in elite swimmers. Training implications.

    PubMed

    Renoux, J C

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to make use of the concepts of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and time limit (tlim) in order to determine the relationship between these two elements, and this in an attempt to significantly improve both speed and swimming performance during a training season. To this same end, an intermittent training model was used, which was adapted to the value obtained for the time limit at maximum aerobic speed. During a 12 week training period, the maximum aerobic speed for a group of 9 top-ranking varsity swimmers was measured on two occasions, as was the tlim. The values generated indicated that: 1) there was an inverse relationship between MAS and the time this speed could be maintained, thus confirming the studies by Billat et al. (1994b); 2) a significant increase in MAS occurred over the 12 week period, although no such evolution was seen for the tlim; 3) there was an improvement in results; 4) the time limit could be used in designing a training program based on intermittent exercises. In addition, results of the present study should allow swimming coaches to draw up individualized training programs for a given swimmer by taking into consideration maximum aerobic speed, time limit and propelling efficiency.

  14. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms "Aerobic exercise" AND "Training" AND "Blood pressure" AND "India." This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15-60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of -05.00 mmHg in SBP and -03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  15. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  16. Femoral artery remodeling after aerobic exercise training without weight loss in women

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Manning J; Schwark, Earl H; Lewis, Richard; Sloan, Gloria; Cannon, Joseph; McCully, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background It is currently unclear whether reductions in adiposity mediate the improvements in vascular health that occur with aerobic exercise. The purpose of this longitudinal study of 13 healthy women (33 ± 4 years old) was to determine whether 14 weeks of aerobic exercise would alter functional measures of vascular health, namely resting aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, an index of arterial stiffness), femoral artery diameter (DFA), and femoral artery blood flow (BFFA) independent of changes in adiposity. Methods Aerobic fitness was assessed as VO2peak normalized to fat-free mass, and adiposity (percent body fat) was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of proteins associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and leptin, were also measured. Subjects cycled for 50 minutes, 3 times per week. Results Aerobic fitness normalized to fat-free mass increased 6% (P = 0.03) whereas adiposity did not change. Resting DFA increased 12% (P < 0.001) and resting shear rate decreased 28% (P = 0.007). Aortic PWV, and serum sICAM-1, CRP and leptin did not change with training. Conclusion Significant reductions in adiposity were not necessary for aerobic exercise training to bring about improvements in aerobic fitness and arterial remodeling. Peripheral arterial remodeling occurred without changes in central arterial stiffness or markers of inflammation. PMID:18775082

  17. Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets.

    PubMed

    Sellers, John H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Jacobson, Bert H; Pope, Zachary K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a ventilatory training mask to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness in reserve officers' training corps (ROTC) cadets. Seventeen ROTC cadets from a Midwest university completed pre- and postassessments consisting of anthropometry, a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and a maximal aerobic capacity test (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). A 6-week intervention training period was used during which time participants completed their mandatory physical training (PT) sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (MASK; n = 9) or the control group (CON; n = 8). The ventilatory training masks were adjusted to simulate an altitude of 2,750 m. There was no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) between groups on fatigue index, anaerobic capacity, peak power, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, or time to exhaustion. These results suggest that the use of the ventilatory training mask during mandatory PT did not elicit superior aerobic or anaerobic adaptations in ROTC cadets. Therefore, it is recommended that more established simulated altitude training methods be used when incorporating intermittent hypoxic training.

  18. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Gabriele; Simoncini, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-12-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6 F e 1M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence of oxidative stress, as indicated by circulating levels of lipoperoxides, in rest condition and as effect of exercise, and also, to verify if an aerobic training program is able to modify, in these patients, ox-redox balance efficiency. At rest and before training blood level of lipoperoxides was 382.4 ± 37.8 AU, compared to controls (318.7 ± 63.8; P<0.05), this corresponding to a moderate oxidative stress degree according to the adopted scale. During incremental exercise blood level of lipoperoxides did not increase, but maintained significantly higher compared to controls. After an aerobic training of 10 weeks the blood level of lipoperoxides decreased by 13.7% at rest (P<0.01) and 10.4%, 8.6% and 8.5% respectively at the corresponding times during the exercise test (P=0.06). These data indicate that, in mitochondrial patients, oxidative stress occurs and that an aerobic training is useful in partially reverting this condition.

  19. Effects of Home-Based Interval Walking Training on Thigh Muscle Strength and Aerobic Capacity in Female Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Morishima, Yutaka; Mizushima, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Morikawa, Mayuko; Masuki, Shizue; Nose, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the reduced physical activity of patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA), there are no home-based exercise training regimens for preventing muscle atrophy and aerobic capacity impairment in these patients. We examined whether interval walking training (IWT) could prevented these issues. Twenty-eight female patients (∼60 years of age) who had undergone THA more than 2 months prior were randomly divided into IWT (n = 14) and control (CNT, n = 14) groups. The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of fast walking at >70% peak aerobic capacity for walking (O2peak) per wk for 12 wk, while those in the CNT maintained their previous sedentary life during the same period. We measured the energy expenditure of the daily physical activity, except during sleeping and bathing, every minute and every day during the intervention. We also measured the isometric knee extension (FEXT) and flexion (FFLX) forces, O2peak, and anaerobic threshold during the graded cycling exercise (O2AT) before and after the intervention. All subjects, except for one in IWT, completed the protocol. FFLX increased by 23% on the operated side (P = 0.003) and 14% on the non-operated side of IWT (P = 0.006), while it only increased on the operated side of CNT (P = 0.03). The O2peak and O2AT in IWT increased by 8% (P = 0.08) and 13% (P = 0.002), respectively, and these changes were significantly higher in the IWT than in CNT group (both, P<0.05). In conclusion, IWT might be an effective home-based training regimen for preventing the muscle atrophy from reduced daily physical activity in THA patients. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000013172 PMID:25268505

  20. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions. PMID:23304504

  1. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions.

  2. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training on Stage I and II Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Dena; Erck, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity has been noted in breast cancer survivors and been attributed to decreased physical function. Purpose: This study assessed the effects of a moderate-to-vigorous physical exercise program on body fat percentage, maximal oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max), body mass index, and bone mineral density (BMD) of…

  3. Aerobic Training Modulates the Effects of Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress on PON1 Activity: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Otocka-Kmiecik, Aneta; Lewandowski, Marek; Szkudlarek, Urszula; Nowak, Dariusz; Orlowska-Majdak, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME) on paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and physically active (PA). All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise. PMID:25379522

  4. Aerobic plus resistance training improves bone metabolism and inflammation in adolescents who are obese.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raquel M S; de Mello, Marco T; Tock, Lian; Silva, Patrícia L; Masquio, Deborah C L; de Piano, Aline; Sanches, Priscila L; Carnier, June; Corgosinho, Flávia C; Foschini, Denis; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a high prevalence of comorbidities, including alterations in bone mineral metabolism. The purpose of this yearlong study was to evaluate the role of 2 types of exercise training (aerobic and aerobic plus resistance exercise) on adipokines parameters and bone metabolism in adolescents who are obese. This was a clinical trial study with interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. Forty-two postpubertal adolescents who are obese were subjected to interdisciplinary weight loss therapy with physical exercise, medical monitoring, nutritional intervention, and psychological intervention. Data were collected from serum analyses of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin. Anthropometric measurements of body composition, bone mineral density, visceral, and subcutaneous fat were also performed. Statistical tests were applied using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Correlations were established using the Pearson test, and dependencies of variables were established using simple linear regression test. Both training types promoted reductions in body mass index, total central, visceral and subcutaneous fat, insulin concentration, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, but only aerobic plus resistance training showed statistical improvements in the bone mineral content, adiponectin concentration, and lean tissue. Effective reduction in the visceral/subcutaneous ratio, central/peripheral ratio, and leptin concentration was observed. Insulin and the HOMA-IR index were negative predictors of bone mineral content in the combined training group. Moreover, fat distribution was a negative predictor for bone mineral density in both groups. Aerobic plus resistance training promotes a protective role in bone mineral content associated with an improvement in adiponectin and leptin concentrations, favoring the control of the inflammatory state related to obesity in adolescents. Aerobic plus resistance training

  5. Aerobic plus resistance training improves bone metabolism and inflammation in adolescents who are obese.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raquel M S; de Mello, Marco T; Tock, Lian; Silva, Patrícia L; Masquio, Deborah C L; de Piano, Aline; Sanches, Priscila L; Carnier, June; Corgosinho, Flávia C; Foschini, Denis; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a high prevalence of comorbidities, including alterations in bone mineral metabolism. The purpose of this yearlong study was to evaluate the role of 2 types of exercise training (aerobic and aerobic plus resistance exercise) on adipokines parameters and bone metabolism in adolescents who are obese. This was a clinical trial study with interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. Forty-two postpubertal adolescents who are obese were subjected to interdisciplinary weight loss therapy with physical exercise, medical monitoring, nutritional intervention, and psychological intervention. Data were collected from serum analyses of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin. Anthropometric measurements of body composition, bone mineral density, visceral, and subcutaneous fat were also performed. Statistical tests were applied using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Correlations were established using the Pearson test, and dependencies of variables were established using simple linear regression test. Both training types promoted reductions in body mass index, total central, visceral and subcutaneous fat, insulin concentration, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, but only aerobic plus resistance training showed statistical improvements in the bone mineral content, adiponectin concentration, and lean tissue. Effective reduction in the visceral/subcutaneous ratio, central/peripheral ratio, and leptin concentration was observed. Insulin and the HOMA-IR index were negative predictors of bone mineral content in the combined training group. Moreover, fat distribution was a negative predictor for bone mineral density in both groups. Aerobic plus resistance training promotes a protective role in bone mineral content associated with an improvement in adiponectin and leptin concentrations, favoring the control of the inflammatory state related to obesity in adolescents. Aerobic plus resistance training

  6. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  7. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  8. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  9. Effects of a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Versus Resistance Training on Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Kelso, Kerry; Zawilinski, Laci

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise versus resistance training on cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders. Seventy-seven participants (60% female; 84% Caucasian) were randomized to complete 20 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, resistance training, or rest, followed by a 35% CO2/65% O2 inhalation challenge task. Results indicated that aerobic exercise and resistance training were significantly and equally effective in reducing anxiety sensitivity (AS) compared with rest ((η(2)(p ) = 52), though only aerobic exercise significantly attenuated reactivity to the CO2 challenge task. Neither form of exercise generated observable effects on distress tolerance, discomfort intolerance, or state anxiety (all ps >.10). The results of this study are discussed with regard to their implications for the use of exercise interventions for anxiety and related forms of psychopathology, and potential directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition. PMID:25387489

  11. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  12. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  13. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  14. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  15. Quantifying differences in the "fat burning" zone and the aerobic zone: implications for training.

    PubMed

    Carey, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship of the "fat burning" and aerobic zones. Subjects consisted of 36 relatively fit runners (20 male, 16 female) who completed a maximal exercise test to exhaustion on a motor-driven treadmill. The lower and upper limit of the "fat burning" zone was visually assessed by examining each individual graph. Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) was determined to be that point during the test at which fat metabolism in fat calories per minute peaked. The lower limit of the aerobic zone was assessed as 50% of heart rate reserve, whereas the upper limit was set at anaerobic threshold. Although the lower and upper limits of the "fat burning" zone (67.6-87.1% maximal heart rate) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than their counterparts in the aerobic zone (58.9-76.2%), the considerable overlap of the 2 zones would indicate that training for fat oxidation and training for aerobic fitness are not mutually exclusive and may be accomplished with the same training program. Furthermore, it was determined that this training program could simultaneously meet the requirements of the American College of Sports Medicine for both aerobic fitness and weight control. Maximal fat oxidation occurred at 54.2% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). However, the great variability in response between individuals would preclude the prediction of both the "fat burning" zone and MFO, indicating a need for measurement in the laboratory. If laboratory testing is not possible, the practitioner or subject can be reasonably confident MFO lies between 60.2% and 80.0% of the maximal heart rate. PMID:19855335

  16. Immediate effect of weight training as compared to aerobic exercise on free-throw shooting in collegiate basketball players.

    PubMed

    Shoenfelt, E L

    1991-10-01

    This study empirically assessed the effect weight training has on the accuracy of free-throw shots immediately following a weight-training session. On On alternating days of the week for eight weeks, 14 members of a women's varsity intercollegiate basketball team engaged in a weight-training program and an aerobics exercise program. Each day immediately following the conditioning, the players shot two sets of 10 free throws. Analysis indicated no significant difference in free-throw shooting accuracy as a function of weight training when compared to the aerobic exercise, suggesting that the immediate effects of weight training are no more detrimental or beneficial for free-throw shooting than aerobic exercise.

  17. Is balance exercise training as effective as aerobic exercise training in fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Culhaoglu, Belde

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of aerobic and balance exercises on pain severity, myalgic score, quality of life, exercise capacity and balance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 33 females diagnosed with FMS by the American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited in this randomised controlled study and allocated to aerobic exercise (AE) or balance exercise (BE) groups. Exercises were performed three times a week, for 6 weeks on a treadmill or with a Tetrax interactive balance system (TIBS). Outcome measures were characterised by myalgic score, visual analogue scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exercise testing, Timed Up-Go (TUG) and TIBS measurements. Comparisons from baseline to 6 weeks were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated. Improvements in pain, myalgic score and FIQ were found in both groups (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, myalgic score was significant (p = 0.02, d = -1.77), the value was higher in AE. Exercise duration, Borg scale, resting blood pressures (RBP) and maximal heart rate were significant in AE. In BE, Borg scale, exercise duration was significant (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, diastolic RBP (p = 0.04, d = -0.92), exercise duration (p = 0.00, d = -1.64) were significant, with higher values in AE. TUG significantly changed in groups (p < 0.05, d ≥ -1.22). Stability scores, eyes open while standing on elastic pads (p = 0.00, d = -0.98) and head back (p = 0.03, d = -0.74), were significant, with higher values in BE. This study showed that BE provided some improvements in FMS, but AE training led to greater gains. BE training should be included in comprehensive programs. PMID:25903448

  18. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    PubMed Central

    Sari-Sarraf, Vahid; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Naderali, Mohammad-Mahdi; Esmaeili, Hamid; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years) were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15) and control group (CG; n=15). Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group). At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) reductions in total body weight (−3.2%), waist circumference (−3.43 cm), blood pressure (up to −12.7 mmHg), and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) increases VO2max (−15.3%) and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1%) and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men with metabolic syndrome could significantly reduce cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26056487

  19. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young

  20. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease. PMID:26463598

  1. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  2. The efficacy of aerobic training in improving the inflammatory component of asthmatic children. Randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Lívia Barboza de; Britto, Murilo C A; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Gomes, Renan Garcia; Figueroa, José N

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the effects of aerobic exercise in children with asthma, particularly on the inflammatory component and functional outcomes. This study evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on inflammation, functional capacity, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and symptoms scores in asthmatic children. This was a 6-week randomized trial (NCT0192052) of 33 moderately asthmatic children (6-17 years). Patients were randomized aerobic training (exercise group; n = 14), while another group did not exercise (control; n = 19). Primary endpoint was evaluations serum cytokines (IL-17, IFN, TNF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2) assessed by flow cytometry. The six-minute walk test, pulmonary function, quality of life and symptoms (asthma-free days) were secondary endpoint. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the independent variables and the Wilcoxon test for paired variables. The t-test was used for the remaining calculations. Significance was determined at 5%. Aerobic training failed to modify the inflammatory component. In the exercise group, an increase occurred in functional capacity (p < 0.01) and peak expiratory flow (p = 0.002), and maximal inspiratory (p = 0.005) and expiratory pressure (p < 0.01) improved. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in all the domains of the PAQLQ. The children who exercised had more asthma-free days than the controls (p = 0.012) and less sensation of dyspnea at the end of the study (p < 0.01). In conclusion, six weeks of aerobic exercise no changes in plasma cytokine patterns in asthmatic children and adolescents; however, an improvement was found in functional capacity, maximal respiratory pressure, quality of life and asthma-related symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0192052.

  3. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    PubMed

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  4. Effects of High Intensity Training and Continuous Endurance Training on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Recreationally Active Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish

  5. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  6. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  7. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  8. MicroRNAs 29 are involved in the improvement of ventricular compliance promoted by aerobic exercise training in rats

    PubMed Central

    Soci, U. P. R.; Fernandes, T.; Hashimoto, N. Y.; Mota, G. F.; Amadeu, M. A.; Rosa, K. T.; Irigoyen, M. C.; Phillips, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    MiRNAs regulate cardiac development, hypertrophy, and angiogenesis, but their role in cardiac hypertrophy (CH) induced by aerobic training has not previously been studied. Aerobic training promotes physiological CH preserving cardiac function. This study assessed involvement of miRNAs-29 in CH of trained rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 7/group) were randomized into three groups: sedentary (S), training 1 (T1), training 2 (T2). T1: swimming sessions of 60 min/5 days/wk/10 wk. T2: similar to T1 until 8th wk. On the 9th wk rats swam 2×/day, and on the 10th wk 3×/day. MiRNAs analysis was performed by miRNA microarray and confirmed by real-time PCR. We assessed: markers of training, CH by ratio of left ventricle (LV) weight/body wt and cardiomyocytes diameter, pathological markers of CH (ANF, skeletal α-actin, α/β-MHC), collagen I and III (COLIAI and COLIIIAI) by real-time PCR, protein collagen by hydroxyproline (OH-proline) concentration, CF and CH by echocardiography. Training improved aerobic capacity and induced CH. MiRNAs-1, 133a, and 133b were downregulated as observed in pathological CH, however, without pathological markers. MiRNA-29c expression increased in T1 (52%) and T2 (123%), correlated with a decrease in COLIAI and COLIIIAI expression in T1 (27%, 38%) and T2 (33%, 48%), respectively. MiRNA-29c was inversely correlated to OH-proline concentration (r = 0.61, P < 0.05). The E/A ratio increased in T2, indicating improved LV compliance. Thus, these results show that aerobic training increase miR-29 expression and decreased collagen gene expression and concentration in the heart, which is relevant to the improved LV compliance and beneficial cardiac effects, associated with aerobic high performance training. PMID:21447748

  9. Markers of Human Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Quality Control: Effects of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in mitochondrial health may foster age-related losses of aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle size. However, limited data exist regarding mitochondrial dynamics in aging human skeletal muscle and the influence of exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, VO2peak, and skeletal muscle size before and after aerobic exercise training in young men (20 ± 1 y) and older men (74 ± 3 y). Exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurred independent of age, whereas the improvement in VO2peak was more pronounced in young men. Aerobic exercise training increased proteins involved with mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and fission, independent of age. This is the first study to examine pathways of mitochondrial quality control in aging human skeletal muscle with aerobic exercise training. These data indicate normal aging does not influence proteins associated with mitochondrial health or the ability to respond to aerobic exercise training at the mitochondrial and skeletal muscle levels. PMID:23873965

  10. Markers of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control: effects of age and aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Wolff, Christopher A; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perturbations in mitochondrial health may foster age-related losses of aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle size. However, limited data exist regarding mitochondrial dynamics in aging human skeletal muscle and the influence of exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, VO2peak, and skeletal muscle size before and after aerobic exercise training in young men (20 ± 1 y) and older men (74 ± 3 y). Exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurred independent of age, whereas the improvement in VO2peak was more pronounced in young men. Aerobic exercise training increased proteins involved with mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and fission, independent of age. This is the first study to examine pathways of mitochondrial quality control in aging human skeletal muscle with aerobic exercise training. These data indicate normal aging does not influence proteins associated with mitochondrial health or the ability to respond to aerobic exercise training at the mitochondrial and skeletal muscle levels.

  11. Aerobic endurance training reduces bubble formation and increases survival in rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2001-01-01

    The formation of bubbles is the basis for injury to divers after decompression, a condition known as decompression illness. In the present study we investigated the effect of endurance training in the rat on decompression-induced bubble formation. A total of 52 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (300-370 g) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: training or sedentary control. Trained rats exercised on a treadmill for 1.5 h per day for 1 day, or for 2 or 6 weeks (5 days per week) at exercise intervals that alternated between 8 min at 85-90 % of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max) and 2 min at 50-60 % of V̇O2,max. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a decompression chamber in pairs, one sedentary and one trained, at a rate of 200 kPa min−1 to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the ‘surface’ (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min−1. Immediately after reaching the ‘surface’ (100 kPa) the animals were anaesthetized and the right ventricle was insonated using Doppler ultrasound. Intensity-controlled interval training significantly increased V̇O2,max by 12 and 60 % after 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. At 6 weeks, left and right ventricular weights were 14 and 17 % higher, respectively, in trained compared to control rats. No effect of training was observed on skeletal muscle weight. Bubble formation was significantly reduced in trained rats after both 2 and 6 weeks. However, the same effect was seen after a single bout of aerobic exercise lasting 1.5 h on the day prior to decompression. All of the rats that exercised for 1.5 h and 2 weeks, and most of those that trained for 6 weeks, survived the protocol, whereas most sedentary rats died within 60 min post-decompression. This study shows that aerobic exercise protects rats from severe decompression and death. This may be a result of less bubbling in the trained animals. The data showed that the

  12. Aerobic Conditioning Might Protect Against Liver and Muscle Injury Caused by Short-Term Military Training.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Daleprane, Julio B; Pitaluga-Filho, Mario V; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Gonçalves, Mariana C; Passos, Magna C F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical markers of muscle and liver injury and total antioxidant capacity in army cadets after a traditional army physical training program and to correlate these effects with aerobic conditioning. Male army cadets (n = 87; age, 20 ± 2 years) were evaluated 12 hours before the start of training (T0), 12 hours after a 30-km march (T1), and 48 hours after military training (T2). Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were measured using an autoanalyzer. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Sc%). Seventy-four percent of army cadets were classified as having excellent aerobic conditioning (53.9 ± 3.0 ml · kg(-) · min(-1) predicted VO2max from the Cooper test). The median serum concentration of all enzymes increased 12 hours after marching (T1: CK 675%; ALT 59%; AST 336%; AST/ALT ratio 85%; p = 0.001) and 48 hours after the end of training (T2: CK 878%; ALT 256%; AST 418%; AST/ALT ratio 180%; p = 0.001). Sc% was higher in T2 (31.1 ± 9.8%; p = 0.01) than in T0 (3.4% change). Maximal oxygen consumption (ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) correlated negatively with CK (r = -0.25; p = 0.009) and ALT (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) serum levels, and positively with the change in Sc% (r = 0.22; p = 0.04) at T2. The results indicate that intense military training can cause liver and muscle injury and that aerobic conditioning can be considered as a protective factor for these injuries. PMID:26813633

  13. Cellular fibronectin response to supervised moderate aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is one of the most pivotal targets for the prevention and management of vascular complications, especially endothelial dysfunctions. Cellular fibronectin is an endothelium-derived protein involved in subendothelial matrix assembly. Its plasma levels reflect matrix alterations and vessel wall destruction in patients with type II diabetes. This study investigated the influence of 12 weeks of supervised aerobic training on cellular fibronectin and its relationship with insulin resistance and body weight in type II diabetic subjects. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 50 men with type II diabetes who had a mean age of 48.8 ± 14.6 years and were randomly divided into two groups: an aerobic exercise group (12 weeks, three 50 minutes sessions per week) and control group. To examine changes in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile, 5 ml of blood was taken from the brachial vein of patients before and 48 hours after completion of the exercise period and after 12 hours of fasting at rest. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS-16 software with the independent and paired t-tests. [Results] A significant decrease was observed in body mass index and body fat percentage in the experimental group. Compared with the control group, the aerobic exercise group showed a significant decrease in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. The change in cellular fibronectin showed positive significant correlation with body mass index, diabetic biomarkers, and physical activity level. [Conclusion] The results showed that supervised aerobic exercise as a stimulus can change the levels of cellular fibronectin as matrix metalloproteinase protein a long with improvement of insulin sensitivity and glycosylated hemoglobin in order to prevent

  14. Exercise training from late middle age until senescence does not attenuate the declines in skeletal muscle aerobic function.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Thomas, Melissa M; Wright, Kathryn J; Riel, Caitlin D; Hepple, Russell T

    2009-09-01

    We previously showed that 7 wk of treadmill exercise training in late-middle-aged rats can reverse the modest reductions in skeletal muscle aerobic function and enzyme activity relative to values in young adult rats (Exp Physiol 93: 863-871, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether extending this training program into senescence would attenuate the accelerated decline in the muscle aerobic machinery normally seen at this advanced age. For this purpose, 29-mo-old Fisher 344 Brown-Norway rats underwent 5 or 7 mo of treadmill exercise training. Training resulted in greater exercise capacity during an incremental treadmill exercise test and reduced percent body fat in 34- and 36-mo-old rats and improved survival. Despite these benefits at the whole body level, in situ muscle aerobic capacity and muscle mass were not greater in the trained groups at 34 mo or 36 mo of age. Similarly, the trained groups did not have higher activities of citrate synthase (CS) or Complex IV in homogenates of either the plantaris (fast twitch) or the soleus (slow twitch) muscles at either age. Finally, protein expression of CS (a marker of mitochondrial content) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (relating to the drive on mitochondrial biogenesis) were not higher in the trained groups. Therefore, although treadmill training from late middle age into senescence had significant benefits on running capacity, survival, and body fat, it did not prevent the declines in muscle mass, muscle aerobic capacity, or mitochondrial enzyme activities normally seen across this age, revealing a markedly diminished plasticity of the aerobic machinery in response to endurance exercise at advanced age.

  15. Adding strength to endurance training does not enhance aerobic capacity in cyclists.

    PubMed

    Psilander, N; Frank, P; Flockhart, M; Sahlin, K

    2015-08-01

    The molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced when resistance exercise is added to a bout of endurance exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine if this mode of concurrent training translates into increased mitochondrial content and improved endurance performance. Moderately trained cyclists performed 8 weeks (two sessions per week) of endurance training only (E, n = 10; 60-min cycling) or endurance training followed by strength training (ES, n = 9; 60-min cycling + leg press). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and analyzed for enzyme activities and protein content. Only the ES group increased in leg strength (+19%, P < 0.01), sprint peak power (+5%, P < 0.05), and short-term endurance (+9%, P < 0.01). In contrast, only the E group increased in muscle citrate synthase activity (+11%, P = 0.06), lactate threshold intensity (+3%, P < 0.05), and long-term endurance performance (+4%, P < 0.05). Content of mitochondrial proteins and cycling economy was not affected by training. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that concurrent training does not enhance muscle aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists.

  16. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  17. Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, H; Queiroz, A C C; Chehuen, M R; Costa, L A R; Wallerstein, L F; Mello, M T; Ugrinowitsch, C; Forjaz, C L M

    2011-09-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. This hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. This study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (ST, constant movement velocity) or power training (PT, concentric phase performed as fast as possible) can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. Older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years) were randomly allocated to: control (N = 11), ST (N = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-RM) and PT (N = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-RM) groups. Before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured during a maximal treadmill test. Resting SBP and RPP were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Maximal SBP, HR and RPP did not change. The increase in measured VO(2), HR and RPP for the increment in estimated VO(2) (absolute load) decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05), while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured VO(2) did not change. In elderly subjects, ST and PT did not blunt submaximal or maximal HR, SBP and RPP increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.

  18. Cardiovagal Modulation and Efficacy of Aerobic Exercise Training in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Baynard, Tracy; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Sosnoff, Ruth F.; Fernhall, Bo; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with poor exercise tolerance and peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) even when compared to obese non-diabetic peers. Exercise training studies have demonstrated improvements in VO2peak among T2D, yet there is a large amount of variability in this response. Recent evidence suggests that cardiac autonomic modulation may be an important factor when considering improvements in aerobic capacity. Purpose To determine the effects of a 16 wk aerobic exercise program on VO2peak in obese individuals, with and without T2D, who were classified as having either high or low cardiovagal modulation (HCVM or LCVM) at baseline. Methods Obese individuals (38 women/19 men; BMI = 36.1 kg/m2) were studied in the fasted state. ECG recordings were obtained while seated for 3 min, prior to and after 4 mo of exercise training (4 d/wk, 65% VO2peak). The ECG recording was analyzed for HRV in the spectral domain. Groups were split on a marker of CVM (normalized high frequency (HFnu)) at the 50th percentile, as either high (H) or low (L) CVM. Results VO2peak only increased with exercise training among those classified as having HCVM, regardless of diabetes status (T2D: HCVM 20.3 to 22.5 mL/kg/min, LCVM 24.3 to 25.0 mL/kg/min; Obese non-diabetics: HCVM 24.5 to 26.3 mL/kg/min, LCVM 23.1 to 23.7 mL/kg/min) (p<0.05). No change in VO2peak was observed for the LCVM group. Changes in weight do not explain the change in VO2peak among the HCVM group. Glucose tolerance only improved among the LCVM group with T2D. Conclusion Obese individuals, with or without T2D, when classified as having relatively HCVM prior to exercise training, have a greater propensity to improve VO2peak following a 16-week aerobic training program. PMID:23899888

  19. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  20. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  1. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Alves-Wagner, Ana B; Hirshman, Michael F; Gallagher, Iain J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Atkins, Ryan; Greenhaff, Paul L; Qi, Nathan R; Gustafsson, Thomas; Fielding, Roger A; Timmons, James A; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a risk factor for diabetes and a strong predictor of mortality, yet some individuals are "exercise-resistant" and unable to improve exercise capacity through exercise training. To test the hypothesis that resistance to aerobic exercise training underlies metabolic disease risk, we used selective breeding for 15 generations to develop rat models of low and high aerobic response to training. Before exercise training, rats selected as low and high responders had similar exercise capacities. However, after 8 weeks of treadmill training, low responders failed to improve their exercise capacity, whereas high responders improved by 54%. Remarkably, low responders to aerobic training exhibited pronounced metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and increased adiposity, demonstrating that the exercise-resistant phenotype segregates with disease risk. Low responders had impaired exercise-induced angiogenesis in muscle; however, mitochondrial capacity was intact and increased normally with exercise training, demonstrating that mitochondria are not limiting for aerobic adaptation or responsible for metabolic dysfunction in low responders. Low responders had increased stress/inflammatory signaling and altered transforming growth factor-β signaling, characterized by hyperphosphorylation of a novel exercise-regulated phosphorylation site on SMAD2. Using this powerful biological model system, we have discovered key pathways for low exercise training response that may represent novel targets for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  2. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  3. Aging has greater impact on anaerobic versus aerobic power in trained masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Gent, Debra Nicole; Norton, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study measured the relative rates of change of the three human energy systems across a 30-year age range. A cross-section of highly trained masters cyclists (n = 156 males and 17 females; 35-64 years) were tested for maximal cycling performance. There were 50 (29%) track sprint cyclists and the remaining (71%) were predominantly road cycling specialists. A 10 s peak power test measured anaerobic power, a 30 s test measured anaerobic capacity, and a progressive test to volitional fatigue was used to determine peak aerobic power. Participants' exercise patterns were recorded using a physical activity recall questionnaire. Linear regression showed significant changes in anaerobic performance with aging. Peak anaerobic power (W · kg⁻¹) declined at a rate (mean ± SEE) of 8.1 ± 4.1% per decade (P < 0.0001) and anaerobic capacity (kJ · kg⁻¹) declined at 8.0 ± 3.3% per decade (P < 0.0001). Peak aerobic power [W · kg⁻¹] did not change significantly with age [-1.8 ± 1.5% per decade (P = 0.218)]. This cross-sectional study showed performance of the two anaerobic energy systems declined significantly across the age spectrum with no change in aerobic capacity.

  4. Effects of applied training loads on the aerobic capacity of young soccer players during a soccer season.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Rompa, Paweł; Szutowicz, Marek; Radzimiński, Lukasz

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of applied training loads on the aerobic capacity, speed, power, and speed endurance of young soccer players during 1 soccer season. The participants in the study were 19 young male soccer players (age: 16.61 ± 0.31 years; weight: 64.28 ± 6.42 kg; height: 176.58 ± 5.98 cm). The players completed 150 training sessions and 54 games over the course of 1 soccer season. The training intensity was divided into 4 categories: (a) aerobic performance (61% of the total training duration), (b) mixed aerobic-anaerobic performance (34%), (c) anaerobic lactate performance (3%), and (d) anaerobic nonlactate performance (2%). No significant changes in the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were observed throughout the season. The players' power level and speed endurance increased significantly with the coincident decrements in their 5-m sprint time. The applied training loads, including 1 high-intensity training session of small-sided games performed during a competitive season, did not significantly change the aerobic capacity of the young soccer players. However, the participants did maintain their V[Combining Dot Above]O2max at the elite level. The first squad players (FSPs) reached the highest level of aerobic fitness in the middle of the season, whereas substitute players (SPs) at the end of the season. Moreover, the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in FSP was significantly higher (p < 0.003) than in SP in the middle of the season.

  5. Small-sided game training improves aerobic capacity and technical skills in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Delextrat, A; Martinez, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 training interventions based on small-sided games (SGG) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical and technical performance of male junior basketball players. A secondary objective was to investigate if these effects were similar in starting and bench players. 18 players participated in a pre-testing session, 6-weeks intervention period and a post-testing session. Pre- and post-sessions involved assessments of aerobic fitness, repeated sprint ability (RSA), defensive and offensive agility, upper and lower body power, shooting and passing skills. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons examined the effects of time and type of intervention on physical and technical performances. The main results showed that both interventions resulted in similar improvements in aerobic capacity (+3.4% vs. +4.1%), with greater improvements in bench players compared to starting players (+7.1% vs. +1.1%, P<0.05). However, RSA was unchanged after both interventions. In addition, compared to HIT, SSG resulted in greater improvements in defensive agility (+4.5% vs. -2.7%, P<0.05), shooting skills (+7.4% vs. -2.4%, P<0.05) and upper body power (+7.9% vs. -2.0%, P<0.05). These results suggest that SSG should be prioritized in physical conditioning of junior basketball players during the season. However, when RSA is targeted, more specific training seems necessary.

  6. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  7. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  8. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  9. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  10. Aerobic training in rats increases skeletal muscle sphingomyelinase and serine palmitoyltransferase activity, while decreasing ceramidase activity.

    PubMed

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Zabielski, Piotr; Baranowski, Marcin; Gorski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Sphingolipids are important components of cell membranes that may also serve as cell signaling molecules; ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 5 weeks of aerobic training on key enzymes and intermediates of ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats divided into two groups: (1) sedentary and (2) trained for 5 weeks (on a treadmill). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (nSMase and aSMase), neutral and alkaline ceramidases (nCDase and alCDase) and the content of sphingolipids was determined in three types of skeletal muscle. We also measured the fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentration for calculating HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment) for estimating insulin resistance. We found that the activities of aSMase and SPT increase in muscle in the trained group. These changes were followed by elevation in the content of sphinganine. The activities of both isoforms of ceramidase were reduced in muscle in the trained group. Although the activities of SPT and SMases increased and the activity of CDases decreased, the ceramide content did not change in any of the studied muscle. Although ceramide level did not change, we noticed increased insulin sensitivity in trained animals. It is concluded that training affects the activity of key enzymes of ceramide metabolism but also activates other metabolic pathways which affect ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscles.

  11. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  12. Salivary hormonal responses and performance changes during 15 weeks of mixed aerobic and weight training in elite junior wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Passelergue, Philippe A; Lac, Gérard

    2012-11-01

    To prepare efficiently for competition, wrestlers usually train physically for a period of approximately 12-20 weeks. Numerous physical qualities must be developed during this period of preparation: aerobic fitness, maximal strength, muscular endurance, power, and speed. However, numerous studies have concluded that it is difficult to concurrently develop strength and aerobic fitness for several reasons, in particular antagonistic endocrine variations. The study involved 15 elite junior wrestlers who trained at a sports training school for 15 weeks. To investigate the effects of long-term training and to assess the relationships between hormonal concentrations (salivary testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) and performance changes during simultaneous strength and aerobic fitness training, 6 saliva samples and 3 physical tests and 2 measures of body composition were made during the training period. Wrestlers had a significant increase (+1.5 kg) in body weight without changes in percentage body fat. Apart from the 20-m maximal shuttle speed, all performances increased significantly during the 15 weeks of training: maximum mechanical power output (Pmax: +12.8%), mean power during 30 seconds (Pmean: +10.8%), bench press (+5.7%), squat (+23.1%), power clean (+6.1%), time to 3,000- and 30-m sprints (-3.6, -1.3% respectively). During the period that the C increased, there was no significant variation for the T. The T/C ratio followed a variation pattern contrary to that of the C. We found strong correlations between salivary T, C, and T/C and the variation in explosive strength. Our results suggest that data about subjects' salivary C, T, and T/C may be employed to optimize the training process for sports people who need to develop strength and aerobic fitness simultaneously.

  13. Aerobic and resistance training do not influence plasma carnosinase content or activity in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stegen, Sanne; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Khandwala, Farah; Yard, Benito; De Heer, Emile; Baelde, Hans; Peersman, Wim; Derave, Wim

    2015-10-01

    A particular allele of the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) is associated with reduced plasma carnosinase activity and reduced risk for nephropathy in diabetic patients. On the one hand, animal and human data suggest that hyperglycemia increases plasma carnosinase activity. On the other hand, we recently reported lower carnosinase activity levels in elite athletes involved in high-intensity exercise compared with untrained controls. Therefore, this study investigates whether exercise training and the consequent reduction in hyperglycemia can suppress carnosinase activity and content in adults with type 2 diabetes. Plasma samples were taken from 243 males and females with type 2 diabetes (mean age = 54.3 yr, SD = 7.1) without major microvascular complications before and after a 6-mo exercise training program [4 groups: sedentary control (n = 61), aerobic exercise (n = 59), resistance exercise (n = 63), and combined exercise training (n = 60)]. Plasma carnosinase content and activity, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, lipid profile, and blood pressure were measured. A 6-mo exercise training intervention, irrespective of training modality, did not decrease plasma carnosinase content or activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma carnosinase content and activity showed a high interindividual but very low intraindividual variability over the 6-mo period. Age and sex, but not Hb A1c, were significantly related to the activity or content of this enzyme. It can be concluded that the beneficial effects of exercise training on the incidence of diabetic complications are probably not related to a lowering effect on plasma carnosinase content or activity.

  14. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  15. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  16. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  17. Aerobic Training after Myocardial Infarction: Remodeling Evaluated by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Izeli, Nataly Lino; dos Santos, Aurélia Juliana; Crescêncio, Júlio César; Gonçalves, Ana Clara Campagnolo Real; Papa, Valéria; Marques, Fabiana; Pazin-Filho, Antônio; Gallo-Júnior, Lourenço; Schmidt, André

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies show the benefits of exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, the effects on function and remodeling are still controversial. Objectives To evaluate, in patients after (MI), the effects of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity on ventricular remodeling by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods 26 male patients, 52.9 ± 7.9 years, after a first MI, were assigned to groups: trained group (TG), 18; and control group (CG), 8. The TG performed supervised aerobic exercise on treadmill twice a week, and unsupervised sessions on 2 additional days per week, for at least 3 months. Laboratory tests, anthropometric measurements, resting heart rate (HR), exercise test, and CMR were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results The TG showed a 10.8% reduction in fasting blood glucose (p = 0.01), and a 7.3-bpm reduction in resting HR in both sitting and supine positions (p < 0.0001). There was an increase in oxygen uptake only in the TG (35.4 ± 8.1 to 49.1 ± 9.6 mL/kg/min, p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant decrease in the TG left ventricular mass (LVmass) (128.7 ± 38.9 to 117.2 ± 27.2 g, p = 0.0032). There were no statistically significant changes in the values of left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and ejection fraction in the groups. The LVmass/EDV ratio demonstrated a statistically significant positive remodeling in the TG (p = 0.015). Conclusions Aerobic exercise of moderate intensity improved physical capacity and other cardiovascular variables. A positive remodeling was identified in the TG, where a left ventricular diastolic dimension increase was associated with LVmass reduction. PMID:26959403

  18. Exercise training reverses impaired skeletal muscle metabolism induced by artificial selection for low aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Stephenson, Erin J; Yaspelkis, Ben B; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hawley, John A

    2011-01-01

    We have used a novel model of genetically imparted endurance exercise capacity and metabolic health to study the genetic and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities associated with low intrinsic running capacity would be ameliorated by exercise training. Selective breeding for 22 generations resulted in rat models with a fivefold difference in intrinsic aerobic capacity. Low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity runners remained sedentary (SED) or underwent 6 wk of exercise training (EXT). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signal transduction, and rates of palmitate oxidation were lower in LCR SED vs. HCR SED (P < 0.05). Decreases in glucose and lipid metabolism were associated with decreased β₂-adrenergic receptor (β₂-AR), and reduced expression of Nur77 target proteins that are critical regulators of muscle glucose and lipid metabolism [uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively]. EXT reversed the impairments to glucose and lipid metabolism observed in the skeletal muscle of LCR, while increasing the expression of β₂-AR, Nur77, GLUT4, UCP3, and FAT/CD36 (P < 0.05) in this tissue. However, no metabolic improvements were observed following exercise training in HCR. Our results demonstrate that metabolic impairments resulting from genetic factors (low intrinsic aerobic capacity) can be overcome by an environmental intervention (exercise training). Furthermore, we identify Nur77 as a potential mechanism for improved skeletal muscle metabolism in response to EXT.

  19. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all P<0.05). Weight loss in E-then-D in the 16 weeks without exercise lowered HOMA to the E+D levels and maintained blood pressure at trained levels. Our data suggest that a new lifestyle combination consisting of aerobic interval training followed by weight loss diet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet.

  20. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year.

  1. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. PMID:26369387

  2. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength.

  3. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  4. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  5. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  6. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  7. Impact of aerobic exercise training during chemotherapy on cancer related cognitive impairments in patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome - Study protocol of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, P; Oberste, M; Bloch, W; Schenk, A; Joisten, N; Hartig, P; Wolf, F; Baumann, F T; Garthe, A; Hallek, M; Elter, T

    2016-07-01

    Cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported by patients prior to, during and after medical treatment. Although this cognitive decline severely affects patients' quality of life, little is known about effective treatments. Exercise programs represent a promising supportive strategy in this field. However, evidence is sparse and existing studies display methodological limitations. In the planned study, 83 men and women newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) will be randomized into one of three treatment groups. During 4weeks of induction chemotherapy with Anthracycline and Cytarabin patients allocated to exercise group will cycle 3×/week for 30min at moderate to vigorous intensity on an ergometer. Patients allocated to placebo group will receive a supervised myofascial release training (3×/week, approx. 30min) and patients at control group will get usual care. As primary endpoints a cognitive test battery will be conducted measuring performances depending on verbal/spatial memory and executive functioning. Secondary endpoints will be self-perceived cognitive functioning, as well as neurotrophic and inflammatory serum markers. All assessments will be conducted immediately after hospitalization and before chemotherapy is commenced, immediately before discharge of hospital after 4-5weeks as well as before continuing medical treatment 3-4weeks after discharge. This will be the first study investigating the impact of an aerobic exercise training on CRCI in AML/MDS patients. We hope that the study design and the state-of-the-art assessments will help to increase knowledge about CRCI in general and exercise as potential treatment option in this under investigated population. PMID:27261170

  8. Impact of aerobic exercise training during chemotherapy on cancer related cognitive impairments in patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome - Study protocol of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, P; Oberste, M; Bloch, W; Schenk, A; Joisten, N; Hartig, P; Wolf, F; Baumann, F T; Garthe, A; Hallek, M; Elter, T

    2016-07-01

    Cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported by patients prior to, during and after medical treatment. Although this cognitive decline severely affects patients' quality of life, little is known about effective treatments. Exercise programs represent a promising supportive strategy in this field. However, evidence is sparse and existing studies display methodological limitations. In the planned study, 83 men and women newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) will be randomized into one of three treatment groups. During 4weeks of induction chemotherapy with Anthracycline and Cytarabin patients allocated to exercise group will cycle 3×/week for 30min at moderate to vigorous intensity on an ergometer. Patients allocated to placebo group will receive a supervised myofascial release training (3×/week, approx. 30min) and patients at control group will get usual care. As primary endpoints a cognitive test battery will be conducted measuring performances depending on verbal/spatial memory and executive functioning. Secondary endpoints will be self-perceived cognitive functioning, as well as neurotrophic and inflammatory serum markers. All assessments will be conducted immediately after hospitalization and before chemotherapy is commenced, immediately before discharge of hospital after 4-5weeks as well as before continuing medical treatment 3-4weeks after discharge. This will be the first study investigating the impact of an aerobic exercise training on CRCI in AML/MDS patients. We hope that the study design and the state-of-the-art assessments will help to increase knowledge about CRCI in general and exercise as potential treatment option in this under investigated population.

  9. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  10. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (p<0.001) increase (10%) in total distance during the ramp test protocol (the speed was increased linearly by 1 km/h per 1min until volitional exhaustion), as well as increased (p<0.01) absolute (4.5%) and relative (6.2%) maximal workload (WRmax). Also, the absolute and relative values of VO2max in this group increased significantly (p<0.001) by 6.5% and 7.8%. Significant, yet minor changes were also observed in the group C, where training in normoxia caused an increase (p<0.05) in relative values of WRmax by 2.8%, as well as an increase (p<0.05) in the absolute (1.3%) and relative (2.1%) values of VO2max

  11. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  12. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities. PMID:25251989

  13. Exercise Responses to Gravity-Independent Flywheel Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Cotter, Joshua A.; Haddad, Fadia; Yu, Alvin M.; Camilon, Marinelle L.; Hoang, Theresa; Jimenez, Daniel; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Tesch, Per A.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a number of exercise systems have been developed to mitigate the physiological deconditioning that occurs in microgravity, few have the capacity to positively impact multiple physiological systems and still meet the volume/mass requirements needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. The purpose of this study was to test the gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) for both resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) training stimuli. Methods Eight men and nine women (mean age 22.0±0.4 years) completed five weeks of training on the M-MED: RE 4×7 squats two days a week, and AE 4×4-min rowing bouts at ~90% VO2max three days a week. Pre- and post-training data collection included an aerobic capacity test, MR imaging, strength testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Results VO2max increased 8%, 3RM strength 18%, and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) 10%. Knee extensor strength increased at all isokinetic speeds tested. Subjects also demonstrated improved resistance to fatigue in knee extension. At the cellular and molecular level, the biopsy revealed increases in mixed myofiber CSA (13%), citrate synthase activity (26%), total RNA concentration (24%), IGF-I mRNA (77%), Type IIa Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) mRNA (8%), and concomitant decrease in Type IIx MHC mRNA (−23%). None of the changes were gender-specific. Discussion Both the functional outcomes and biomarker changes indicate that a very low volume of M-MED exercise results in robust adaptation in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The M-MED has the potential to provide a wide range of countermeasure exercises and should be considered for testing in ground-based spaceflight simulation. PMID:26802373

  14. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  15. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  16. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  17. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  18. Training-induced changes in aerobic aptitudes of professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Laplaud, D; Hug, F; Menier, R

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a training program on the aerobic aptitudes and the relevance of the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange (i. e., RER = 1.00) to assess these effects in professional basketball players. Eight athletes performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycloergometer separated by 4.7 +/- 0.7 months. Physiological variables recorded during these two tests (heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, respiratory exchange ratio, power output) allowed to determine the first and second ventilatory thresholds and the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange. The training program induced significant variations of resting heart rate, oxygen uptake and power output measured for the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange. Moreover, the used fractions of heart rate, oxygen uptake and power reserves for the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange and the second ventilatory threshold increase significantly. Inversely, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal power reached and the used fractions of reserves for the first ventilatory threshold do not differ significantly. Professional basketball training is not focused on drills aiming to enhance both the aerobic power and aptitude, our results suggest that this training program induce the same physiological changes as a typical aerobic training. We also demonstrated that the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange is a powerful tool to quantify the changes in aerobic aptitudes during a sport season.

  19. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  20. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  1. Gait characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis before and after a 6-month aerobic training program.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, M M; Mulcare, J A; King, D L; Mathews, T; Gupta, S C; Glaser, R M

    1999-07-01

    Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic conditioning might also affect gait abnormalities in individuals with MS. Subjects included 18 individuals with MS who presented a range of disability. Passive range of motion (PROM) in the lower limbs was measured and gait analyzed before and after exercise conditioning. Three-dimensional kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic information were acquired as subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Hip PROM increased following conditioning. Mean walking velocity, cadence, and posterior shear GRF (push-off force) decreased. During walking, maximum ankle dorsiflexion decreased and ankle plantarflexion increased. Total knee flexion/extension range during the walking cycle decreased slightly as did maximum hip extension. Results suggest this 6-mo training program had minimal effect on gait abnormalities. PMID:10659801

  2. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males.

    PubMed

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Holst, Jens Juel; Dela, Flemming

    2013-11-01

    Postprandial insulin release is lower in healthy aerobically trained (T) compared to untrained (UT) individuals. This may be mediated by a lower release of the two incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] in T. The aim of this study was to assess and compare gut hormone response and satiety changes after a liquid meal intake in young, healthy T and UT males. Postprandial gut hormone release and subjective feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed before and frequently for the following 3 h after a 200 ml liquid meal (1,260 kJ and 27, 41 and 32 energy % as protein, carbohydrates and fat, respectively) in ten T and ten UT young, healthy male subjects. The insulin and GIP responses were markedly lower in T than UT and correlated during the first 30 min after the liquid meal. Baseline GLP-1 concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial incretin stimulated insulin secretion.

  3. Combined aerobic and resistance training in breast cancer survivors: A randomized, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Herrero, F; San Juan, A F; Fleck, S J; Balmer, J; Pérez, M; Cañete, S; Earnest, C P; Foster, C; Lucía, A

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 8; age: 50 +/- 5 yrs) or control non-exercising group (n = 8; age: 51 +/- 10 yrs). The training group followed an 8-week exercise program consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 90-min duration, supervised by an experienced investigator and divided into resistance exercises and aerobic training. Before and after the intervention period, all of the subjects performed a cardiorespiratory test to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a dynamic strength endurance test (maximum number of repetitions for chest and leg press exercise at 30 - 35 % and 100 - 110 % of body mass, respectively) and a sit-stand test. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC-C30) questionnaire. In response to training, QOL, VO2peak (mean 3.9 ml/kg/min; 95 % CI, 0.93, 6.90) performance in leg press (17.9 kg; 95 % CI, 12.8, 22.4) and sit-stand test (- 0.67 s; 95 % CI, - 0.52, - 1.2) improved (p < or = 0.05). We observed no significant changes in the control group. Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.

  4. Sweat sodium concentration during exercise in the heat in aerobically trained and untrained humans.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, Nassim; Del Coso, Juan; Ortega, Juan F; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)](sweat)) during exercise in the heat differs between aerobically trained and untrained individuals. On three occasions, ten endurance-trained (Tr) and ten untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak = 4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 0.7 L min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-ventilated environment (36 ± 1°C; 25 ± 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (i.e., 40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). Whole-body (SR(WB)) and back sweat rates (SR(BACK)) were measured. At the conclusion of the study, Na(+) in sweat and blood samples was analyzed to calculate Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates. SR(WB) and SR(BACK) were highly correlated in Tr and UTr (r = 0.74 and 0.79, respectively; P < 0.0001). In both groups, SR(BACK) increased with the increases in exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Likewise, [Na(+)](sweat) increased with the exercise intensity in both groups (P < 0.05) and it tended to be higher in Tr than in UTr at 60 and 80% VO2peak (~22 mmol L(-1) higher; P = 0.06). However, when normalized for SR(BACK), [Na(+)](sweat) was not different between groups. In both groups, Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates increased with the increases in SR(BACK) (P < 0.05). However, Na(+) reabsorption rate was lower in the Tr than in the UTr (mean slope = 48 vs. 82 ηmol cm(-2) min(-1); P = 0.03). In conclusion, using a cross-sectional study design, our data suggest that aerobic fitness level does not reduce sweat Na(+) secretion or enhance Na(+) reabsorption during prolonged exercise in the heat that induced high sweat rates.

  5. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  6. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating IGFBP-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P.; Hagberg, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Methods Ten overweight (BMI=28.7±0.9kg/m2), older (61±2yr) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Results In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness 13% (p<0.05) and insulin sensitivity index 28% (p<0.05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased 41% after aerobic exercise training (p<0.05). The insulin response to an OGTT was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased 58% (p<0.001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (p<0.001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.06 and p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion While aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults. PMID:21872284

  7. Epicardial fat gene expression after aerobic exercise training in pigs with coronary atherosclerosis: relationship to visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Company, Joseph M; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Sacks, Harold S; Bahouth, Suleiman W; Fain, John N

    2010-12-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is contiguous with coronary arteries and myocardium and potentially may play a role in coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). Exercise is known to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on the expression of 18 genes, measured by RT-PCR and selected for their role in chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte metabolism, in peri-coronary epicardial (cEAT), peri-myocardial epicardial (mEAT), visceral abdominal (VAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from a castrate male pig model of familial hypercholesterolemia with CAD. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training for 16 wk would reduce the inflammatory profile of mRNAs in both components of EAT and VAT but would have little effect on SAT. Exercise increased mEAT and total heart weights. EAT and heart weights were directly correlated. Compared with sedentary pigs matched for body weight to exercised animals, aerobic exercise training reduced the inflammatory response in mEAT but not cEAT, had no effect on inflammatory genes but preferentially decreased expression of adiponectin and other adipocyte-specific genes in VAT, and had no effect in SAT except that IL-6 mRNA went down and VEGFa mRNA went up. We conclude that 1) EAT is not homogeneous in its inflammatory response to aerobic exercise training, 2) cEAT around CAD remains proinflammatory after chronic exercise, 3) cEAT and VAT share similar inflammatory expression profiles but different metabolic mRNA responses to exercise, and 4) gene expression in SAT cannot be extrapolated to VAT and heart adipose tissues in exercise intervention studies.

  8. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sloth, M; Sloth, D; Overgaard, K; Dalgas, U

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity following SIT. In conclusion, strong evidence support improvement of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT, which coincides with peripheral muscular adaptations. Future RCTs on long-term SIT and underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  9. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  10. The Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs on CD(34+) Stem Cells and Chosen Physiological Variables.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mohammed Nader; Saad, Mohammed; Akar, Samy; Reda, Mubarak Abdelreda Ali; Shalgham, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Exercise is one of the most powerful non-pharmacological strategies, which can affect nearly all cells and organs in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise. Exercise may act on regenerative potential of tissues by altering the ability to generate new stem cells and differentiated cells that are able to carry out tissue specific functions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the role of aerobic and anaerobic training programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and chosen physiological variables. Twenty healthy male athletes aged 18-24 years were recruited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged 20-22 years were recruited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic training programs for 12 weeks were conducted. VO2max pulse observation was carried out using the Astrand Rhyming protocol. RBCs, WBCs, HB and hematocrit were estimated using a coulter counter, lactate by the Accusport apparatus, CD34+ stem cells by flow cytometry. VO2max was increased significantly in case of the aerobic training program compared to anaerobic one (62±2.2 ml/kg/min vs. 54±2.1 ml/kg/min). Haemotological values increased significantly in the anaerobic program when compared to the aerobic one, RBCs (5.3±0.3 and 4.9±0.2 mln/ul), WBCs (6.6±0.5 and 6.1±0.4 thous/ul), HB (15.4±0.4 and 14.2±0.5 g/de), Hematocrit (4.6±1.2 and 4.4±1.1 %), CD34+ stem cells count increased significantly in case of the anaerobic program compared to the aerobic (251.6±21.64 and 130±14.61) and sedentary one (172±24.10). These findings suggest that anaerobic training programs provoke better adaptation to exercise and stem cell counts may differ between trained and sedentary subjects. Circulating immature cells are likely to be involved in angiogenesis and repair process, both mechanisms being associated with strenuous exercise. Knowledge of the physiological effects of training on stem cells might be of potential clinical

  11. The Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and Chosen Physiological Variables

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mohammed Nader; Saad, Mohammed; Akar, Samy; Reda, Mubarak Abdelreda Ali; Shalgham, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Exercise is one of the most powerful non-pharmacological strategies, which can affect nearly all cells and organs in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise. Exercise may act on regenerative potential of tissues by altering the ability to generate new stem cells and differentiated cells that are able to carry out tissue specific functions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the role of aerobic and anaerobic training programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and chosen physiological variables. Twenty healthy male athletes aged 18–24 years were recruited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged 20–22 years were recruited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic training programs for 12 weeks were conducted. VO2max pulse observation was carried out using the Astrand Rhyming protocol. RBCs, WBCs, HB and hematocrit were estimated using a coulter counter, lactate by the Accusport apparatus, CD34+ stem cells by flow cytometry. VO2max was increased significantly in case of the aerobic training program compared to anaerobic one (62±2.2 ml/kg/min vs. 54±2.1 ml/kg/min). Haemotological values increased significantly in the anaerobic program when compared to the aerobic one, RBCs (5.3±0.3 and 4.9±0.2 mln/ul), WBCs (6.6±0.5 and 6.1±0.4 thous/ul), HB (15.4±0.4 and 14.2±0.5 g/de), Hematocrit (4.6±1.2 and 4.4±1.1 %), CD34+ stem cells count increased significantly in case of the anaerobic program compared to the aerobic (251.6±21.64 and 130±14.61) and sedentary one (172±24.10). These findings suggest that anaerobic training programs provoke better adaptation to exercise and stem cell counts may differ between trained and sedentary subjects. Circulating immature cells are likely to be involved in angiogenesis and repair process, both mechanisms being associated with strenuous exercise. Knowledge of the physiological effects of training on stem cells might be of potential

  12. Adverse cardiometabolic response to aerobic exercise training: Should this be a concern?

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Eric S.; Church, Timothy S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Karavirta, Laura; Kraus, William E.; Mikus, Catherine; Resnick, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic exercise training in sedentary individuals improves physical fitness and various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Prior reports suggest that exercise training may adversely affect some risk factors in a small segment of the population. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinically significant worsening of CV risk variables was as or more prevalent among individuals randomized to a supervised endurance training program as compared to those randomized to a control condition. Methods Baseline and end of study measurements of resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and were obtained on 1188 healthy sedentary subjects from the following studies: DREW (N=464), INFLAME (N=162), University of Jyvaskyla study (N=140), and STRRIDE (N=422). Each study randomized subjects to 4- to 6-month supervised aerobic exercise programs or to a control group of no supervised exercise training. For our analyses, the respective control and exercise groups for each study were combined to create one control group (N=345) and one exercise group (n=843). For each of the 4 CV risk variables, we calculated the respective proportions of control and exercise group subjects whose baseline-to-followup changes were greater than or equal to prespecified adverse change (AC) thresholds (ref). Those thresholds were increases of ≥ 24 pmol/L for FI, ≥ 0.42 mmol/L for TG, ≥ 10 mm Hg for SBP, and a decrease of ≥ 0.12 mmol/L for HDL-C Results The respective proportions of subjects meeting the AC threshold in the control and exercise groups were 15.2% vs. 9.6% (p=0.02) for FI, 14.9% vs. 13.1% (p=0.37) for TG, 28.6% vs. 22.5% (p=0.03) for HDL-C, and 16.9% vs. 15.8% (p=0.52) for SBP. The mean changes in the control and exercise groups were 1.8 vs. −6.5 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) for FI, −0.03 vs. −0.11 mmol/L (p=0.02) for TG, −0.03 vs. 0.00 mmol/L (p=0.02) for HDL-C, and −1.9 vs. −2.0 mm Hg (p=0

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes. PMID:27190482

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes. PMID:27190482

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.

  16. Improved exercise performance and increased aerobic capacity after endurance training of patients with stable polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, controlled study on patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis was based on three hypotheses: patients display impaired endurance due to reduced aerobic capacity and muscle weakness, endurance training improves their exercise performance by increasing the aerobic capacity, and endurance training has general beneficial effects on their health status. Methods In the first part of this study, we compared 23 patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis with 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A subgroup of patients were randomized to perform a 12-week endurance training program (exercise group, n = 9) or to a non-exercising control group (n = 6). We measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and the associated power output during a progressive cycling test. Endurance was assessed as the cycling time to exhaustion at 65% of VO2 max. Lactate levels in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured with microdialysis. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring citrate synthase (CS) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities in muscle biopsies. Clinical improvement was assessed according to the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) improvement criteria. All assessors were blinded to the type of intervention (that is, training or control). Results Exercise performance and aerobic capacity were lower in patients than in healthy controls, whereas lactate levels at exhaustion were similar. Patients in the exercise group increased their cycling time, aerobic capacity and CS and β-HAD activities, whereas lactate levels at exhaustion decreased. Six of nine patients in the exercise group met the IMACS improvement criteria. Patients in the control group did not show any consistent changes during the 12-week study. Conclusions Polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients have impaired endurance, which could be improved by 12 weeks of endurance training. The clinical improvement corresponds to

  17. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  18. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5 years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  19. Early-phase adaptations of traditional-speed vs. superslow resistance training on strength and aerobic capacity in sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Keeler, L K; Finkelstein, L H; Miller, W; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    We performed a randomized exercise training study to assess the effects of traditional Nautilus-style (TR) or superslow (SS) strength training on muscular strength, body composition, aerobic capacity, and cardiovascular endurance. Subjects were 14 healthy, sedentary women, 19-45 years of age (mean +/- SD age, 32.7 +/- 8.9 years), randomized to either the SS or TR training protocols and trained 3 times per week for 10 weeks. Measurements were taken both before and after training, which included a maximal incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer, body composition, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests on 8 Nautilus machines. Both groups increased their strength significantly on all 8 exercises, whereas the TR group increased significantly more than the SS group on bench press (34% vs. 11%), torso arm (anterior lateral pull-down) (27% vs. 12%), leg press (33% vs. 7%), leg extension (56% vs. 24%), and leg curl (40% vs. 15%). Thus, the TR group's improvement in total exercise weight lifted was significantly greater than that of the SS group after testing (39% vs. 15%). Exercise duration on the cycle ergometer and work rate significantly improved for both groups, but there was no group-by-training interaction. No significant differences were found for body composition or additional aerobic variables measured. Both strength training protocols produced a significant improvement in strength during a 10-week training period, but the TR protocol produced better gains in the absence of changes in percentage of body fat, body mass index, lean body mass, and body weight. In addition, strength training alone did not improve Vo2max, yet short-term endurance increased.

  20. Elevated energy coupling and aerobic capacity improves exercise performance in endurance-trained elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Cress, M Elaine; Esselman, Peter C

    2013-04-01

    Increased maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)), mitochondrial capacity and energy coupling efficiency are reported after endurance training (ET) in adult subjects. Here we test whether leg exercise performance (power output of the legs, P(max), at V(O(2)max)) reflects these improvements with ET in the elderly. Fifteen male and female subjects were endurance trained for a 6 month programme, with 13 subjects (69.5 ± 1.2 years old, range 65-80 years old; n = 7 males; n = 6 females) completing the study. This training significantly improved P(max) (Δ17%; P = 0.003), V(O(2)max) (Δ5.4%; P = 0.021) and the increment in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) above resting (ΔV(O(2)m-r) = V(O(2)max) - V(O(2)rest; Δ9%; P < 0.02). In addition, evidence of improved energy coupling came from elevated leg power output per unit V(O(2))at the aerobic capacity [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)); P = 0.02] and during submaximal exercise in the ramp test as measured by delta efficiency (ΔP(ex)/ΔV(O(2)); P = 0.04). No change was found in blood lactate, muscle glycolysis or fibre type. The rise in P(max) paralleled the improvement in muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity (ATP(max)) in these subjects. In addition, the greater exercise energy coupling [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)) and delta efficiency] was accompanied by increased mitochondrial energy coupling as measured by elevated ATP production per unit mitochondrial content in these subjects. These results suggest that leg exercise performance benefits from elevations in energy coupling and oxidative phosphorylation capacity at both the whole-body and muscle levels that accompany endurance training in the elderly.

  1. Severe Obesity Shifts Metabolic Thresholds but Does Not Attenuate Aerobic Training Adaptations in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Thiago S.; Simões, Herbert G.; Rogero, Marcelo M.; Moraes, Milton R.; Denadai, Benedito S.; Arida, Ricardo M.; Andrade, Marília S.; Silva, Bruno M.

    2016-01-01

    Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10) were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60%) (obese = 78 ± 9% and lean = 68 ± 5%, P < 0.05 vs. 60%). The maximal lactate steady state velocity and maximal velocity were lower in the obese group at pre-training (P < 0.05 vs. lean), increased in both groups at post-training (P < 0.05 vs. pre), but were still lower in the obese group at post-training (P < 0.05 vs. lean). Training-induced increase in maximal lactate steady state, lactate threshold and glycemic threshold velocities was similar between groups (P > 0.05), whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P < 0.05 vs. lean). In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations. PMID:27148063

  2. Improved Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Aerobic Exercise Training in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lisa M. K.; Chan, Leighton; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Christensen, Eric J.; Shenouda, Christian N.; Keyser, Randall E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), prior to and following participation in a supervised 12-week aerobic exercise training program. Methods Ten subjects with non-penetrating TBI (TBI severity: Mild, 50%; Moderate, 40%; Severe, 10%; Time since injury: 6.6 ± 6.8 years, mean ± SD) performed exercise training on a treadmill 3 times a week for 30 minutes at vigorous intensity (70 – 80 % of heart rate reserve). All subjects completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test with gas exchange measured and a questionnaire related to fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) at baseline and following exercise training. Results After training, increases (p<0.01) in peak oxygen consumption (VO2; +3.1 ± 2.4 ml/min/kg), time to volitional fatigue (+1.4 ± 0.8 min), and peak work rate (WR; +59 ± 43 watts) were observed. At the anaerobic threshold, VO2 (+3.6 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min), treadmill time (+1.8 ± 1.1 min) and WR (+37 ± 39 watts) were higher (p<0.01) following exercise training. Subjects also reported significantly lower (p<0.05) FSS composite scores (−0.9 ± 1.3) following exercise training. Conclusion These findings suggest that individuals with TBI may benefit from participation in vigorous aerobic exercise training with improved cardiorespiratory fitness and diminished fatigue. PMID:24901330

  3. Change in body composition following a 15-week, heart rate monitored aerobic exercise program: The TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The joint goals of the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study are to introduce sedentary college-age individuals to regular exercise and identify genetic factors that influence physiologic response to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the study was to examine ...

  4. Aerobic exercise training promotes physiological cardiac remodeling involving a set of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago; Baraúna, Valério G.; Negrão, Carlos E.; Phillips, M. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an important physiological compensatory mechanism in response to chronic increase in hemodynamic overload. There are two different forms of LV hypertrophy, one physiological and another pathological. Aerobic exercise induces beneficial physiological LV remodeling. The molecular/cellular mechanisms for this effect are not totally known, and here we review various mechanisms including the role of microRNA (miRNA). Studies in the heart, have identified antihypertrophic miRNA-1, -133, -26, -9, -98, -29, -378, and -145 and prohypertrophic miRNA-143, -103, -130a, -146a, -21, -210, -221, -222, -27a/b, -199a/b, -208, -195, -499, -34a/b/c, -497, -23a, and -15a/b. Four miRNAs are recognized as cardiac-specific: miRNA-1, -133a/b, -208a/b, and -499 and called myomiRs. In our studies we have shown that miRNAs respond to swimming aerobic exercise by 1) decreasing cardiac fibrosis through miRNA-29 increasing and inhibiting collagen, 2) increasing angiogenesis through miRNA-126 by inhibiting negative regulators of the VEGF pathway, and 3) modulating the renin-angiotensin system through the miRNAs-27a/b and -143. Exercise training also increases cardiomyocyte growth and survival by swimming-regulated miRNA-1, -21, -27a/b, -29a/c, -30e, -99b, -100, -124, -126, -133a/b, -143, -144, -145, -208a, and -222 and running-regulated miRNA-1, -26, -27a, -133, -143, -150, and -222, which influence genes associated with the heart remodeling and angiogenesis. We conclude that there is a potential role of these miRNAs in promoting cardioprotective effects on physiological growth. PMID:26071549

  5. Protective effects of aerobic swimming training on high-fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: regulation of lipid metabolism via PANDER-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Jin, Meihua; Han, Donghe; Zhou, Mingsheng; Mei, Xifan; Guan, Youfei; Liu, Chang

    2015-03-20

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which aerobic swimming training prevents high-fat-diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Forty-two male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into normal-diet sedentary (ND; n = 8), ND exercised (n = 8), high-fat diet sedentary (HFD; n = 13), and HFD exercised groups (n = 13). After 2 weeks of training adaptation, the mice were subjected to an aerobic swimming protocol (60 min/day) 5 days/week for 10 weeks. The HFD group exhibited significantly higher mRNA levels of fatty acid transport-, lipogenesis-, and β-oxidation-associated gene expressions than the ND group. PANDER and FOXO1 expressions increased, whereas AKT expression decreased in the HFD group. The aerobic swimming program with the HFD reversed the effects of the HFD on the expressions of thrombospondin-1 receptor, liver fatty acid-binding protein, long-chain fatty-acid elongase-6, Fas cell surface death receptor, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1, as well as PANDER, FOXO1, and AKT. In the HFD exercised group, PPARα and AOX expressions were much higher. Our findings suggest that aerobic swimming training can prevent NAFLD via the regulation of fatty acid transport-, lipogenesis-, and β-oxidation-associated genes. In addition, the benefits from aerobic swimming training were achieved partly through the PANDER-AKT-FOXO1 pathway. PMID:25701781

  6. Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chtara, M; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Koubaa, D; Feki, Y; Millet, G; Amri, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of the sequencing order of individualised intermittent endurance training combined with muscular strengthening on aerobic performance and capacity. Methods: Forty eight male sport students (mean (SD) age 21.4 (1.3) years) were divided into five homogeneous groups according to their maximal aerobic speeds (vV·O2MAX). Four groups participated in various training programmes for 12 weeks (two sessions a week) as follows: E (n = 10), running endurance training; S (n = 9), strength circuit training; E+S (n = 10) and S+E (n = 10) combined the two programmes in a different order during the same training session. Group C (n = 9) served as a control. All the subjects were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) the training period using four tests: (1) a 4 km time trial running test; (2) an incremental track test to estimate vV·O2MAX; (3) a time to exhaustion test (tlim) at 100% vV·O2MAX; (4) a maximal cycling laboratory test to assess V·O2MAX. Results: Training produced significant improvements in performance and aerobic capacity in the 4 km time trial with interaction effect (p<0.001). The improvements were significantly higher for the E+S group than for the E, S+E, and S groups: 8.6%, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 2.5% for the 4 km test (p<0.05); 10.4%, 8.3%, 8.2%, and 1.6% for vV·O2MAX (p<0.01); 13.7%, 10.1%, 11.0%, and 6.4% for V·O2MAX (ml/kg0.75/min) (p<0.05) respectively. Similar significant results were observed for tlim and the second ventilatory threshold (%V·O2MAX). Conclusions: Circuit training immediately after individualised endurance training in the same session (E+S) produced greater improvement in the 4 km time trial and aerobic capacity than the opposite order or each of the training programmes performed separately. PMID:16046343

  7. Aerobic training reverses airway inflammation and remodelling in an asthma murine model.

    PubMed

    Silva, R A; Vieira, R P; Duarte, A C S; Lopes, F D T Q S; Perini, A; Mauad, T; Martins, M A; Carvalho, C R F

    2010-05-01

    Aerobic training (AT) decreases dyspnoea and exercise-induced bronchospasm, and improves aerobic capacity and quality of life; however, the mechanisms for such benefits remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the AT effects in a chronic model of allergic lung inflammation in mice after the establishment of airway inflammation and remodelling. Mice were divided into the control group, AT group, ovalbumin (OVA) group or OVA+AT group and exposed to saline or OVA. AT was started on day 28 for 60 min five times per week for 4 weeks. Respiratory mechanics, specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG(1), collagen and elastic fibres deposition, smooth muscle thickness, epithelial mucus, and peribronchial density of eosinophils, CD3+ and CD4+, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-1ra, IL-10, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and Foxp3 were evaluated. The OVA group showed an increase in IgE and IgG(1), eosinophils, CD3+, CD4+, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, NF-kappaB, collagen and elastic, mucus synthesis, smooth muscle thickness and lung tissue resistance and elastance. The OVA+AT group demonstrated an increase of IgE and IgG(1), and reduction of eosinophils, CD3+, CD4+, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, NF-kappaB, airway remodelling, mucus synthesis, smooth muscle thickness and tissue resistance and elastance compared with the OVA group (p<0.05). The OVA+AT group also showed an increase in IL-10 and IL-1ra (p<0.05), independently of Foxp3. AT reversed airway inflammation and remodelling and T-helper cell 2 response, and improved respiratory mechanics. These results seem to occur due to an increase in the expression of IL-10 and IL-1ra and a decrease of NF-kappaB. PMID:19897558

  8. High- versus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training effects on skeletal muscle of infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, José B N; Bechara, Luiz R G; Bozi, Luiz H M; Jannig, Paulo R; Monteiro, Alex W A; Dourado, Paulo M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C

    2013-04-01

    Poor skeletal muscle performance was shown to strongly predict mortality and long-term prognosis in a variety of diseases, including heart failure (HF). Despite the known benefits of aerobic exercise training (AET) in improving the skeletal muscle phenotype in HF, the optimal exercise intensity to elicit maximal outcomes is still under debate. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity AET with those of a moderate-intensity protocol on skeletal muscle of infarcted rats. Wistar rats underwent myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery. MI groups were submitted either to an untrained (MI-UNT); moderate-intensity (MI-CMT, 60% Vo(2)(max)); or matched volume, high-intensity AET (MI-HIT, intervals at 85% Vo(2)(max)) protocol. High-intensity AET (HIT) was superior to moderate-intensity AET (CMT) in improving aerobic capacity, assessed by treadmill running tests. Cardiac contractile function, measured by echocardiography, was equally improved by both AET protocols. CMT and HIT prevented the MI-induced decay of skeletal muscle citrate synthase and hexokinase maximal activities, and increased glycogen content, without significant differences between protocols. Similar improvements in skeletal muscle redox balance and deactivation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were also observed after CMT and HIT. Such intracellular findings were accompanied by prevented skeletal muscle atrophy in both MI-CMT and MI-HIT groups, whereas no major differences were observed between protocols. Taken together, our data suggest that despite superior effects of HIT in improving functional capacity, skeletal muscle adaptations were remarkably similar among protocols, leading to the conclusion that skeletal myopathy in infarcted rats was equally prevented by either moderate-intensity or high-intensity AET.

  9. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging.

  10. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (P<0.05) and was maintained in EX; however, significant individual variability was observed (CON: -22%, range: -39% to -.5%; EX: -1.8%, range: -16% to 12.6%). The overlap in ranges between groups included 3 CON who experienced smaller reduction in VO2pk (<16%) than the worst responding EX subjects. Individual variability was maintained when VO2pk was normalized to lean mass (range, CON: -33.7% to -5.7%; EX: -15.8% to 11%), and the overlap included 5 CON with smaller reductions in VO2pk than the worst responding EX subjects. High responders to disuse also lost the most lean mass; however, this relationship was not maintained in EX (i.e. the largest gains/losses in lean mass were observed in both high and low

  11. Aerobic and resistance training improves mood state among adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50 min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. PMID:25322262

  12. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with plasma NOx level (r = 0.493, P < 0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). Serum adropin levels were elevated after the 8-wk aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P < 0.05) and plasma NOx level (r = 0.623, P < 0.001). Thus the increase in adropin may participate in the exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness.

  13. EPOC Comparison between Isocaloric Bouts of Steady-State Aerobic, Intermittent Aerobic, and Resistance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Sirithienthad, Prawee; Moffatt, Robert J.; Marcello, Richard T.; Panton, Lynn B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is dependent on intensity, duration, and mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of both exercise mode and intensity on EPOC while controlling for caloric expenditure and duration. Method: Ten low to moderately physically active men (22 ± 2 yrs) performed 3…

  14. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  15. Linear and undulating periodized strength plus aerobic training promote similar benefits and lead to improvement of insulin resistance on obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; De Mello, Marco Túlio; Foschini, Denis; Lira, Fabio Santos; De Piano Ganen, Aline; Da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; De Lima Sanches, Priscila; Silva, Patrícia Leão; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-03-01

    The present study compares the effectiveness of three types of physical training for obesity control in adolescents submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Forty-five post-puberty obese adolescents (15-18yo) were randomly placed in three different groups of physical trainings: aerobic training (AT n=20), aerobic plus strength training with linear periodization (LP n=13) and aerobic plus strength training with daily undulating periodization (DUP n=12). The body composition was evaluated by air-displacement plethysmography; the rest metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry; serum analysis was collected after an overnight fasting. The most important finding of this study was that both LP and DUP groups improved lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin concentration (p<0.01). The linear regression showed a negative association between delta (%) adiponectin and delta (%) insulin (p<0.05). Each group presented a significant reduction in body mass, body mass index and fat mass (kg) after short and long-term intervention (p<0.01). However, the AT group reduced the fat-free mass after short-term intervention (p<0.01) and enhanced protein oxidation (p<0.01), whereas only LP group was able to increase the fat-free mass and maintain the rest metabolic rate (RMR). There was a negative correlation between percentage of protein oxidation and RMR (r=-0.75) in all groups. The interdisciplinary therapy models that included aerobic plus strength training were more effective than only aerobic training to improve lipid profile and insulin sensitivity, as well as the inflammatory state by increasing adiponectin. In all groups were observed an improvement on anthropometric profile.

  16. Morphological adaptation and protein modulation of myotendinous junction following moderate aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Baldassarri, Valentina; De Matteis, Rita; Salamanna, Francesca; Bolotta, Alessandra; Frizziero, Antonio; Fini, Milena; Marini, Marina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Myotendinous junction is the muscle-tendon interface through which the contractile force can be transferred from myofibrils to the tendon extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, aerobic training can modify the distal myotendinous junction of rat gastrocnemius, increasing the contact area between tissues. The aim of this work is to investigate the correlation between morphological changes and protein modulation of the myotendinous junction following moderate training. For this reason, talin, vinculin and type IV collagen amount and spatial distribution were investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The images were then digitally analyzed by evaluating fluorescence intensity. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increased thickening of muscle basal lamina in the trained group (53.1 ± 0.4 nm) with respect to the control group (43.9 ± 0.3 nm), and morphological observation showed the presence of an electron-dense area in the exercised muscles, close to the myotendinous junction. Protein concentrations appeared significantly increased in the trained group (talin +22.2%; vinculin +22.8% and type IV collagen +11.8%) with respect to the control group. Therefore, our findings suggest that moderate aerobic training induces/causes morphological changes at the myotendinous junction, correlated to the synthesis of structural proteins of the muscular basal lamina and of the cytoskeleton.

  17. Step aerobic vs. cycle ergometer training: effects on aerobic capacity, coordinative tasks, and pleasure in untrained adults--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kerschan-Schindl, Katharina; Wiesinger, Günther; Zauner-Dungl, Andrea; Kollmitzer, Josef; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Quittan, Michael

    2002-12-30

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of step aerobic (StA) and cycle ergometer training (CET) on physical performance, coordination, and pleasure, during workout. Forty untrained persons (40-70 years) were randomly assigned to either of the two regimens. Prior to and after three months of training, we investigated the participants' physical performance with a cycle ergometer test and by testing coordinative tasks (upper extremities: tapping test; lower extremities: one-leg stance). After the training period, visual analog scales were used to evaluate personal assessment (pleasure, wellbeing, team spirit, interest in prolongation of training). StA increased the relative oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (RVO2AT) while CET increased the relative maximal oxygen uptake (RVO2max) to a statistically significant extent. However, intergroup comparison failed to show group-specific differences. Concerning coordinative tasks, the members of the StA group achieved a significant time reduction for both hands' tapping test. However, only the improvement in left-handed tapping was significantly higher than that achieved by members of the CET group. Despite the absence of group-specific differences, CET members showed a statistically significant change when comparing the duration of pre- with post-training time for one-leg stance under proprioceptive conditions. Team spirit was significantly higher in the StA group than in the CET group. Except for the time reduction in left-handed tapping, the present study found no group-specific differences in physical performance and coordination. Participating in a StA class has a more cohesive effect on the individual members than attending a CET group.

  18. Aerobic training during hemodialysis improves body composition, muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min; Jo, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the influences of individualized aerobic training on body composition, knee joint muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients. [Subjects] Ten chronic kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis. [Methods] Overall physical function and quality of life before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training were evaluated by body composition, the six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and Short Form 36-item questionnaire. [Results] The six-minute walk test distance increased significantly after 12 weeks aerobic training. Resting metabolic rate, lactate threshold, maximum oxygen uptake, and quality of life tended to increase after training. Post-training weight, muscle mass, body fat mass, fat percentage, body mass index, and peak torque of right and left knee extension and flexion did not change significantly. [Conclusion] Intra-dialytic training can a safe approach to maintain or improve physical performance and quality of life of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis without adverse events or negative cardiovascular responses. Aerobic training may prevent a decline in body composition and knee joint muscle function due to inactivity in chronic kidney disease patients. Clinically, aerobic training may initially be adapted to maintain overall physical function or improve quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:26157237

  19. Moderate Aerobic Training Improves Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Isabela; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Padilha, Gisele A.; Marques, Patrícia S.; Magalhães, Raquel F.; Antunes, Mariana A.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Rocha, Nazareth N.; Silva, Pedro L.; Xisto, Débora G.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the therapeutic effects of aerobic training on lung mechanics, inflammation, morphometry and biological markers associated with inflammation, and endothelial cell damage, as well as cardiac function in a model of elastase-induced emphysema. Methods: Eighty-four BALB/c mice were randomly allocated to receive saline (control, C) or 0.1 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema, ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks. After the end of administration period, once cardiorespiratory impairment associated with emphysema was confirmed, each group was further randomized into sedentary (S) and trained (T) subgroups. Trained mice ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Results: Four weeks after the first instillation, ELA animals, compared to C, showed: (1) reduced static lung elastance (Est,L) and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung tissue, (2) increased elastic and collagen fiber content, dynamic elastance (E, in vitro), alveolar hyperinflation, and levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and (3) increased right ventricular diastolic area (RVA). Four weeks after aerobic training, ELA-T group, compared to ELA-S, was associated with reduced lung hyperinflation, elastic and collagen fiber content, TNF-α levels, and RVA, as well as increased Est,L, E, and levels of VEGF. Conclusion: Four weeks of regular and moderate intensity aerobic training modulated lung inflammation and remodeling, thus improving pulmonary function, and reduced RVA and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this animal model of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:27536247

  20. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  1. Differential Cardiac Effects of Aerobic Interval Training Versus Moderate Continuous Training in a Patient with Schizophrenia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Herbsleb, Marco; Mühlhaus, Tobias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives. In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training (CT) followed by a 6-week period of interval training (IT), each regime two times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1). We observed that IT was far more effective than moderate CT in increasing HRV, as indicated by root mean of squared successive difference (improvement to baseline 27 versus 18%), and reducing resting HR (−14 versus 0%). Improvement in VT1 (21 versus −1%) was only observed after IT. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by CT to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of IT on HR regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention. PMID:25221528

  2. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. Design A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Patients Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 22). Methods Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60–70% heart rate reserve). Results The attendance rate was high (median 89%). None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT) most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group. Conclusion Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371 PMID:27419388

  3. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  4. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players.

  5. Playing vs. Nonplaying Aerobic Training in Tennis: Physiological and Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C.; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  6. Pilot Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, William E.

    The purpose of the Pilot Training Study is to produce tools with which to analyze the pilot training process of the Air Force in terms of the resources required to train pilots and the cost of pilot training. These tools allow examination of the training courses themselves, and also of the policy factors which drive the need for pilots. The tools…

  7. The interaction effects of aerobic exercise training and vitamin D supplementation on plasma lipid profiles and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Parvin; Damirchi, Arsalan; Hoseini, Rastegar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction effects of aerobic exercise training and vitamin D supplementation on indices of obesity and plasma lipid profiles in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods Forty female Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: aerobic training (3 days/week for 8 weeks; AT; n = 8), aerobic training and vitamin D supplementation (OVX + AT + Vit D; n = 8), vitamin D supplementation (OVX + Vit D; n = 8), ovariectomized control (OVX + C, n = 8) and SHAM (n = 8). After blood sampling, visceral fat was taken from the abdominal cavity and weighed immediately. Data was statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Repeated measure ANOVA tests with a 0.05 significance level. Results Body weight, visceral fat, BMI and food intake decreased significantly in OVX + AT + Vit D (P < 0.001); whereas these variables increased significantly in OVX + C (P < 0.001) and SHAM (P < 0.023) groups. At the end of two-months of follow-up, we observed significant differences in TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR in all groups. Conclusion It seems that aerobic training with vitamin D, due to the involvement of muscle mass and exposure to dynamic pressure on the bones and muscles, increased energy expenditure, stimulated insulin exudation and glucose homeostasis, decreased insulin resistance and improved the lipid profile in ovariectomized rats. PMID:26526941

  8. Effect of aerobic training on plasma cytokines and soluble receptors in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis, in response to acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington Fabiano; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Arrieiro, Arthur Nascimento; Fonseca, Sueli Ferreira; Amorim, Mateus Ramos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Miranda, Aline Silva; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Brito-Melo, Gustavo Eustáquio Alvim

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble forms of the TNF-α receptor (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) from plasma taken from the peripheral blood of elderly individuals presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. These patients underwent aerobic treatment through the use of physical exercises. The study consisted of a longitudinal analysis of older individuals presenting clinical and radiographic diagnosis of knee OA that were submitted to 12 weeks of aerobic treatment. The individuals were evaluated during acute exercise or after chronic exercise. During acute exercise (walking slowly on the mat), blood samples of the patients were collected before, immediately after, and 30 min following the end of training. After chronic exercise (aerobic walking training, three times/week for 12 weeks), patient blood samples were obtained for comparison. Additionally, clinical and functional assessments (WOMAC test and 6-min walk) were performed at the end of all physical exercises. Plasma concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors were measured by ELISA. Aerobic training increased the plasma concentration of sTNR1; however, it decreased the plasma concentration of sTNFR2, when compared with levels of resting patients. Acute exercise differentially affects the levels of sTNFR1 dependent on when the samples were taken, before and after aerobic training. However, the levels of sTNFR2 were not affected by training. For the population studied, we observed differences in the levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 following acute and chronic exercise. Other additional factors, like the level of inactivity of the individual and the type of physical exercise that patients are exposed to, need to be considered as well. The variation in the levels of soluble receptors correlated with functional improvement; however, the inflammatory osteoarthritis markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) were unaffected by the walking exercises.

  9. mTOR/HIF1α-mediated aerobic glycolysis as metabolic basis for trained immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Quintin, Jessica; Cramer, Robert A.; Shepardson, Kelly M.; Saeed, Sadia; Kumar, Vinod; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Martens, Joost H.A.; Rao, Nagesha Appukudige; Aghajanirefah, Ali; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Li, Yang; Ifrim, Daniela C.; Arts, Rob J.W.; van der Meer, Brian M.J.W.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Logie, Colin; O’Neill, Luke A.; Willems, Peter; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Ng, Aylwin; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells by infection or vaccination, termed trained immunity, confers non-specific protection from secondary infections. We characterized genome-wide transcriptome and histone modification profiles of human monocytes trained with β-glucan and identified induced expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Trained monocytes display high glucose consumption, lactate production, and NAD+/NADH ratio, reflecting a shift in the metabolism of trained monocytes with an increase in glycolysis dependent on the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through a dectin-1/Akt/HIF1α pathway. Inhibition of Akt, mTOR, or HIF1α blocked monocyte induction of trained immunity, whereas the AMPK activator metformin inhibited the innate immune response to fungal infection. Finally, mice with a myeloid cell-specific defect in HIF1α were unable to mount trained immunity against bacterial sepsis. In conclusion, Akt/mTOR/HIF1α-dependent induction of aerobic glycolysis represents the metabolic basis of trained immunity. PMID:25258083

  10. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  11. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S.; dos Reis, Ivan G. M.; Beck, Wladimir R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  12. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  13. The effect of ovariectomy on cardiac autonomic control in rats submitted to aerobic physical training.

    PubMed

    Tezini, Geisa C S V; Silveira, Larissa C R; Maida, Karina D; Blanco, João Henrique D; Souza, Hugo C D

    2008-12-01

    We have investigated the ovariectomy effects on the cardiovascular autonomic adaptations induced by aerobic physical training and the role played by nitric oxide (NO). Female Wistar rats (n=70) were divided into five groups: Sedentary Sham (SS); Trained Sham (TS); Trained Hypertensive Sham treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (THS); Trained Ovariectomized (TO); and Trained Hypertensive Ovariectomized treated with L-NAME (THO). Trained groups were submitted to a physical training during 10 weeks. The cardiovascular autonomic control was investigated in all groups using different approaches: 1) pharmacological evaluation of autonomic tonus with methylatropine and propranolol; 2) analysis of heart rate (HR) and systolic arterial pressure (AP) variability; 3) spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) evaluation. Hypertension was observed in THS and THO groups. Pharmacological analysis showed that TS group had increased predominance of autonomic vagal tonus compared to SS group. HR and intrinsic HR were found to be reduced in all trained animals. TS group, compared to other groups, showed a reduction in LF oscillations (LF=0.2-0.75 Hz) of pulse interval in both absolute and normalized units as well as an increase in HF oscillations (HF=0.75-2.50 Hz) in normalized unit. BRS analysis showed that alpha-index was different between all groups. TS group presented the greatest value, followed by the TO, SS, THO and THS groups. Ovariectomy has negative effects on cardiac autonomic modulation in trained rats, which is characterized by an increase in the sympathetic autonomic modulation. These negative effects suggest NO deficiency. In contrast, the ovariectomy seems to have no effect on AP variability.

  14. The effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on fitness, blood pressure, and psychological stress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Norris, R; Carroll, D; Cochrane, R

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether fitness alters psychological and physiological indices of well-being, male police officers were assigned to either an aerobic or anaerobic training condition or to a no treatment control group. The training groups met three times per week in 45 min sessions aimed at improving either cardiovascular endurance or muscle strength. Aerobic fitness level, heart rate, blood pressure and self-report of stress and well-being were measured prior to and following 10 weeks of training. Post-training fitness measures confirmed the effectiveness of training and between group differences for physiological and self-report measures were found. Subjects undergoing aerobic training evinced larger changes on the self-report measures of well-being and stress than the anaerobic trainers and both groups showed significant improvement when compared to controls. This experiment provides support for the hypothesis that exercise, and in particular aerobic exercise, has positive effects of well-being. It is suggested that future research might usefully explore the particular contribution of different aspects of the training situation to these effects.

  15. Lipoprotein profile, glycemic control and physical fitness after strength and aerobic training in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zois, Christos E; Christos, Zois E; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Touvra, Anna-Maria; Douda, Eleni; Yovos, Ioannis G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effects on blood lipids and physical fitness after a training program that combined strength and aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Ten patients (55.0 +/- 5.2 years) followed four exercise sessions per week, two strength and two aerobic, and ten (59.4 +/- 3.2 years) served as a control group. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), HOMA2 index, exercise stress and muscular testing were assessed at the beginning and after 16 weeks of training program. Exercise training increased significantly HDL-C (17.2%; P < 0.001) and decreased triglycerides (18.9%), HbA(1c) (15.0%), fasting plasma glucose (5.4%), insulin resistance (HOMA2 25.2%) and resting blood pressure (P < 0.01). After 16 weeks of training, exercise time (17.8%) and muscular strength increased significantly (P < 0.001). The results indicated that a combined strength and aerobic training program could induce positive adaptations on lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin resistance, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effect of mild aerobic training on the myocardium of mice with chronic Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Preto, Emerson; Lima, Nathalia EA; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Filho, Abílio Augusto Fragata; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic chagasic heart disease represents extensive remodeling of the cardiovascular system, manifested as cardiac denervation, interstitial mononuclear infiltrate, myocyte and vascular degenerative changes, fibrosis, and hypertrophy. Moreover, aerobic exercises are widely indicated for the treatment of various disorders of the cardiovascular system. Purpose To evaluate the right and left ventricles of BALB/c mice with chronic Chagas disease, undergoing mild exercise, by using morphometric and stereological methods. Materials and methods A total of 20 male mice at 4 months of age were used for experiments. The animals were divided into four groups (n=5 in each group): untrained control, trained control, untrained infected (UI), and trained infected (TI). Animals of UI and TI groups were inoculated with 1,000 trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain), and after 40 days, animals entered chronic phase of the disease. Physical exercise, which included swimming, was performed for 30 minutes daily, five times a week for 8 consecutive weeks at a bath temperature of 30°C. After the trial period, euthanasia and subsequent withdrawal of the heart were done. The organ was prepared by histological staining procedures with hematoxylin–eosin and picrosirius red. Results We found that the physical training used in our experimental model promoted increase in volume density of capillaries and decrease in volume density of collagen fibers and cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in chagasic animals (TI group). By histopathological analysis, we found differences in the inflammatory infiltrate, which was lower in animals of TI group. The training program promoted a recovery of these parameters in the TI group. Conclusion Our results suggest that low-intensity aerobic exercise acts on morphological and morphometric parameters of the left and right ventricles in mice infected with T. cruzi, reducing the changes caused by the organism and making the results

  17. Effects of a group-based step aerobics training on sleep quality and melatonin levels in sleep-impaired postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zong-Yan; Wen-Chyuan Chen, Kenny; Wen, Huei-Jhen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training on the melatonin levels and sleep quality of sleep-impaired postmenopausal women (PMW). PMW with poor sleep (having a score over 5 in the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index [PSQI]) were divided into a training group (TG, n = 10) and an age-, height-, weight-, and PSQI score-matched control group (CG, n = 9). The participants in the TG performed 40-45 minutes of step aerobics exercise 3 times per week for 10 weeks at an intensity of 75-85% of the heart rate reserve, whereas the participants in the CG maintained their regular lifestyle. The fasting blood was analyzed, and the PSQI questionnaire and aerobic fitness test were administered before and after the 10-week program. The results revealed that for the participants in the TG, the PSQI score significantly decreased (TG from 9.40 ± 0.81 to 7.40 ± 0.43; CG from 7.56 ± 0.34 to 7.78 ± 0.68; between-group difference = 2.22, p ≤ 0.05) and the melatonin levels significantly increased (TG from 12.08 ± 4.20 to 44.42 ± 7.03 pg·ml; CG from 11.81 ± 2.03 to 5.5 ± 1.39 pg·ml, between-group difference = 38.65, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, a 10-week moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training program can improve sleep quality and increase the melatonin levels in sleep-impaired PMW. Therefore, regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training is recommended for sleep-impaired PMW.

  18. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables.

    PubMed

    Porcari, John P; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key pointsWearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT.Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  19. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L.; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key points Wearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT. Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  20. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables.

    PubMed

    Porcari, John P; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key pointsWearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT.Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  1. [Study on technological characters of anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor landfill].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu-Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Ting; Jiang, Juan; Cao, Li; Lü, Zhi-Zhong; Li, Xi-Kun; Li, Xiao-Bao

    2007-04-01

    A technology of anaerobic-aerobic landfill bioreactor aimed at reusing landfill site is studied, and it's based on landfill bioreactor technology. A set of stimulating equipment is designed, and the technology characters are studied. In the anaerobic period, technological conditions are controlled by the means of leachate recirculation. The main experimental results are: pH, R1 rises to 6.7 - 7.8 in 6 weeks, and R2 is under 6.8 in 17 weeks; COD concentration of leachate, R1 declines to 10 617 mg/L in 13 weeks, while R2 rises to 60 000 mg/L in 5 weeks, and keeps stabilization in long time; the cumulating methane production, R1 reaches 44% in 8 weeks, while R2 almost cannot produce methane. The stabilization can be evaluated by pH of leachate, COD and BOD5/COD decreasing ratio, and cumulating methane production. They are main evidences to transform anaerobic period to aerobic period. In the aerobic period, odor and moisture are reduced by the means of aeration. The main experimental results are: ammonia concentration reduces to 1.16 mg/m3 in 19 days, and the odor concentration reduces to 19 in 23 days; the moisture of the wastes reduces to 26% in 14 days. The technological indexes to evaluate finishing of this period can be determined by the ultimately purpose of exploited wastes. Numerical modeling has been researched with the use of experimental data. The succession of microbes in the anaerobic-aerobic course is studied by RISA (ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) analysis. There are 4 preponderant groups in this course, and some facultative anaerobes play important roles in the transition of anaerobic period to aerobic period.

  2. The Effect of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Jeszka, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Durkalec-Michalski, K and Jeszka, J. The effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on aerobic capacity and body composition in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2617-2626, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) affects body composition, aerobic capacity, or intramuscular enzymes activity, as well as in anabolic and/or catabolic hormones and lactate concentrations. A cohort of 58 highly trained males was subjected to 12-week supplementation with HMB (3 × 1 gHMB·d) and a placebo (PLA) in randomized, PLA controlled, double-blind crossover trials, with a 10-day washout period. Body composition and aerobic capacity were recorded, whereas the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol, and lactate, as well as the T/C ratio, in blood samples were measured. After HMB supplementation, fat-free mass increased (+0.2 kgHMB vs. -1.0 kgPLA, p = 0.021), with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass (-0.8 kgHMB vs. +0.8 kgPLA, p < 0.001). In turn, after HMB supplementation, in comparison to PLA, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above][Combining Dot Above]O2max: +0.102 L·minHMB vs. -0.063 L·minPLA, p = 0.013), time to reach ventilatory threshold (VT) (TVT: +1.0 minHMB vs. -0.4 minPLA, p < 0.0001), threshold load at VT (WVT: +20 WHMB vs. -7 WPLA, p = 0.001), and the threshold heart rate at VT (HRVT: +8 b·minHMB vs. -1 b·minPLA, p < 0.0001) increased significantly. Analysis of the tested biochemical markers shows significant differences only in relation to the initial concentration. In HMB group, testosterone levels increased (p = 0.047) and in both groups (HMB: p = 0.008; PLA: p = 0.008) higher cortisol levels were observed. The results indicate that supplying HMB promotes advantageous changes in body composition and stimulates an increase in aerobic capacity, although seeming not to significantly affect the levels of the analyzed blood markers. PMID:26849784

  3. Effects of aerobic interval training and continuous training on cellular markers of endothelial integrity in coronary artery disease: a SAINTEX-CAD substudy.

    PubMed

    Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Frederix, Geert; Pattyn, Nele; Beckers, Paul; Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H; Gevaert, Andreas; Possemiers, Nadine; Cornelissen, Veronique; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Vrints, Christiaan J; Vanhees, Luc; Hoymans, Vicky Y

    2015-12-01

    In this large multicenter trial, we aimed to assess the effect of aerobic exercise training in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients on cellular markers of endothelial integrity and to examine their relation with improvement of endothelial function. Two-hundred CAD patients (left ventricular ejection fraction > 40%, 90% male, mean age 58.4 ± 9.1 yr) were randomized on a 1:1 base to a supervised 12-wk rehabilitation program of either aerobic interval training or aerobic continuous training on a bicycle. At baseline and after 12 wk, numbers of circulating CD34(+)/KDR(+)/CD45dim endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), CD31(+)/CD3(+)/CXCR4(+) angiogenic T cells, and CD31(+)/CD42b(-) endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. After 12 wk of aerobic interval training or aerobic continuous training, numbers of circulating EPCs, angiogenic T cells, and EMPs were comparable with baseline levels. Whereas improvement in peak oxygen consumption was correlated to improvement in FMD (Pearson r = 0.17, P = 0.035), a direct correlation of baseline or posttraining EPCs, angiogenic T cells, and EMP levels with FMD was absent. Baseline EMPs related inversely to the magnitude of the increases in peak oxygen consumption (Spearman rho = -0.245, P = 0.027) and FMD (Spearman rho = -0.374, P = 0.001) following exercise training. In conclusion, endothelial function improvement in response to exercise training in patients with CAD did not relate to altered levels of EPCs and angiogenic T cells and/or a diminished shedding of EMPs into the circulation. EMP flow cytometry may be predictive of the increase in aerobic capacity and endothelial function.

  4. Effects of aerobic interval training and continuous training on cellular markers of endothelial integrity in coronary artery disease: a SAINTEX-CAD substudy.

    PubMed

    Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Frederix, Geert; Pattyn, Nele; Beckers, Paul; Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H; Gevaert, Andreas; Possemiers, Nadine; Cornelissen, Veronique; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Vrints, Christiaan J; Vanhees, Luc; Hoymans, Vicky Y

    2015-12-01

    In this large multicenter trial, we aimed to assess the effect of aerobic exercise training in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients on cellular markers of endothelial integrity and to examine their relation with improvement of endothelial function. Two-hundred CAD patients (left ventricular ejection fraction > 40%, 90% male, mean age 58.4 ± 9.1 yr) were randomized on a 1:1 base to a supervised 12-wk rehabilitation program of either aerobic interval training or aerobic continuous training on a bicycle. At baseline and after 12 wk, numbers of circulating CD34(+)/KDR(+)/CD45dim endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), CD31(+)/CD3(+)/CXCR4(+) angiogenic T cells, and CD31(+)/CD42b(-) endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. After 12 wk of aerobic interval training or aerobic continuous training, numbers of circulating EPCs, angiogenic T cells, and EMPs were comparable with baseline levels. Whereas improvement in peak oxygen consumption was correlated to improvement in FMD (Pearson r = 0.17, P = 0.035), a direct correlation of baseline or posttraining EPCs, angiogenic T cells, and EMP levels with FMD was absent. Baseline EMPs related inversely to the magnitude of the increases in peak oxygen consumption (Spearman rho = -0.245, P = 0.027) and FMD (Spearman rho = -0.374, P = 0.001) following exercise training. In conclusion, endothelial function improvement in response to exercise training in patients with CAD did not relate to altered levels of EPCs and angiogenic T cells and/or a diminished shedding of EMPs into the circulation. EMP flow cytometry may be predictive of the increase in aerobic capacity and endothelial function. PMID:26453327

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  6. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  7. Comparative Effects of Vigorous-Intensity and Low-Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Cycle Training and Detraining on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Young, Kaelin; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Traditional high-intensity aerobic training has been shown to improve muscle protein synthesis and aerobic capacity; however, recent research indicates that low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may have similar effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vigorous-intensity (VI) cycling vs. low-intensity cycling with BFR (LI-BFR) on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity after training and subsequent detraining. Thirty-one physically active subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: VI (n = 10, 60-70% heart rate reserve [HRR]), LI-BFR (n = 11, 30% HRR with BFR at 160-180 mm Hg), and no exercise control (n = 10, no exercise). Subjects in VI and LI-BFR cycled 3 times per week for 6 weeks (total 18 sessions). Body composition, muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity were measured pre, post, and after 3 weeks of detraining. A group × time interaction (p = 0.019) effect for both knee flexion and leg lean mass was found. For both VI and LI-BFR groups, knee flexion strength was significantly increased between pre and post (p = 0.024, p = 0.01) and between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.039, p = 0.003), respectively. For the LI-BFR group, leg lean mass was significantly increased between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.024) and between post and 3 week-post (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences between groups for any variables. The LI-BFR elicits an increase in the knee flexion muscle strength over time similar to the VI. An increase in the leg lean mass over time was seen in the LI-BFR, but not in VI and CON.

  8. Metabolomic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Aerobic Exercise Training in Insulin Resistant Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dotzert, Michelle S.; Murray, Michael R.; McDonald, Matthew W.; Olver, T. Dylan; Velenosi, Thomas J.; Hennop, Anzel; Noble, Earl G.; Urquhart, Brad L.; Melling, C. W. James

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of insulin resistance in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is unknown, however it affects approximately 20% of T1D patients. Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) have been identified as a mechanism of insulin resistance. We examined skeletal muscle of T1D rats to determine if alterations in lipid metabolism were evident and whether aerobic exercise training improves IMCL and insulin resistance. To do so, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C), sedentary diabetes (D) and diabetes exercise (DX) groups. Following multiple low-dose Streptozotocin (STZ) injections (20 mg/kg), glycemia (9–15 mM) was maintained using insulin treatment. DX were treadmill trained at high intensity (~75% V02max; 5days/week) for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that D exhibited insulin resistance compared with C and DX, indicated by decreased glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (p < 0.05). There were no differences between C and DX, suggesting that exercise improved insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Metabolomics analysis revealed a significant shift in lipid metabolism whereby notable fatty acid metabolites (arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and several polyunsaturated fatty acids) were significantly elevated in D compared to C and DX. Based on the intermediates observed, insulin resistance in T1D is characterized by an insulin-desensitizing intramyocellular fatty acid metabolite profile that is ameliorated with exercise training. PMID:27197730

  9. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 after a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Jenkins, Nathan T; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P; Hagberg, James M

    2012-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body, and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies, and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Ten overweight (body mass index = 28.7 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)), older (61 ± 2 years) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness by 13% (P < .05) and insulin sensitivity index by 28% (P < .05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased by 41% after aerobic exercise training (P < .05). The insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (P = .02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased by 58% (P < .001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (P < .001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (P = .06 and P < .05, respectively). Although aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults.

  10. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  11. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    Background Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. Objective The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30–60 years with age average of 41.2±4.9. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (47 males, 53 females; age range 30–60 years) were recruited for this study. Based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan analysis, the participants were classified into three groups: normal (n=30), osteopenic (n=40), and osteoporotic (n=30). Following, 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), BMD, T-score, and trace elements such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Significant improvement in serum BAP level, T-score, and BMD were observed in all participants following 12 weeks of moderate exercise. Participants with osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in serum Ca and Mn, along with decrease in serum Cu and Zn levels following 12 weeks of aerobic training. In control group, the improvements in serum trace elements and body mass index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05) with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Ismail, I; Keating, S E; Baker, M K; Johnson, N A

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the location of excess adiposity, particularly increased deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is important when determining the adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. Exercise therapy is an integral component of obesity management, but the most potent exercise prescription for VAT benefit is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of aerobic exercise (AEx) and progressive resistance training (PRT) and to directly compare the efficacy of AEx and PRT for beneficial VAT modulation. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions on VAT content/volume in overweight and obese adults. Relevant databases were searched to November 2010. Included studies were randomized controlled designs in which AEx or PRT in isolation or combination were employed for 4 weeks or more in adult humans, where computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for quantification of VAT pre- and post-intervention. Of the 12196 studies from the initial search, 35 were included. After removal of outliers, there was a significant pooled effect size (ES) for the comparison between AEx therapy and control (-0.33, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.14; P < 0.01) but not for the comparison between PRT therapy and control (0.09, 95% CI: -0.17 to -0.36; P = 0.49). Of the available nine studies which directly compared AEx with PRT, the pooled ES did not reach statistical significance (ES = 0.23, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.50; P = 0.07 favouring AEx). The pooled ES did not reach statistical significance for interventions that combined AEx and PRT therapy vs. control (-0.28, 95% CI: -0.69 to 0.14; P = 0.19), for which only seven studies were available. These data suggest that aerobic exercise is central for exercise programmes aimed at reducing VAT, and that aerobic exercise below current recommendations for overweight/obesity management may be sufficient for beneficial VAT

  13. The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance- and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students.

    PubMed

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Hukam, Harmel; Metsios, George; Nevill, Alan; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Myszkewycz, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-week aerobic and muscular strength training program on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. The sample consisted of 32 men and women (age 19 +/- 2.2 years) who were randomly assigned into exercise (n = 19) and control (n = 13) groups. Anthropometric and flexibility assessments, treadmill ergometry, strength measurements, and- on a separate day-a dance technique test were conducted pre- and postexercise training in both groups. After the end of the program, the exercise group revealed significant increases in dance (p < 0.02), VO(2)max (p < 0.04), flexibility (p < 0.01), and leg strength (p < 0.001) tests compared to controls. It is concluded that in modern dance students (a) a 3-month aerobic and strength training program has positive effects on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters, (b) aerobic capacity and leg strength improvements do not hinder dance performance as studied herein, and (c) the dance-only approach does not provide enough scope for physical fitness enhancements. PMID:17685714

  14. The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance- and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students.

    PubMed

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Hukam, Harmel; Metsios, George; Nevill, Alan; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Myszkewycz, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-week aerobic and muscular strength training program on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. The sample consisted of 32 men and women (age 19 +/- 2.2 years) who were randomly assigned into exercise (n = 19) and control (n = 13) groups. Anthropometric and flexibility assessments, treadmill ergometry, strength measurements, and- on a separate day-a dance technique test were conducted pre- and postexercise training in both groups. After the end of the program, the exercise group revealed significant increases in dance (p < 0.02), VO(2)max (p < 0.04), flexibility (p < 0.01), and leg strength (p < 0.001) tests compared to controls. It is concluded that in modern dance students (a) a 3-month aerobic and strength training program has positive effects on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters, (b) aerobic capacity and leg strength improvements do not hinder dance performance as studied herein, and (c) the dance-only approach does not provide enough scope for physical fitness enhancements.

  15. Distinct effects of aerobic exercise training and weight loss on glucose homeostasis in obese sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Dengel, D R; Pratley, R E; Hagberg, J M; Rogus, E M; Goldberg, A P

    1996-07-01

    The decline in glucose homeostasis with aging may be due to the physical deconditioning and obesity that often develop with aging. The independent and combined effects of aerobic exercise training (AEX) and weight loss (WL) on glucose metabolism were studied in 47 nondiabetic sedentary older men. There were 14 men in a weekly behavioral modification/WL program, 10 in a 3 times/wk AEX program, 14 in an AEX+WL program, and 9 in the control (Con) group. The 10-mo intervention increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in both the AEX and AEX+WL groups [0.33 +/- 0.05 and 0.37 +/- 0.09 (SE) l/min, respectively], but VO2max did not significantly change in the WL (0.01 +/- 0.06 l/min) and Con groups (-0.04 +/- 0.05 l/min; P > 0.05). The AEX+WL and WL groups had comparable reductions in body weight (-8.5 +/- 0.9 and -8.8 +/- 1.2 kg, respectively) and percent fat (-5.5 +/- 0.7 and -5.9 +/- 1.1%, respectively) that were significantly greater than those in the Con and AEX groups. Oral glucose tolerance tests showed significant reductions in insulin responses in the AEX, WL, and AEX+WL groups, but the decrease in insulin response in the AEX+WL group was significantly greater than that in the other three groups. The glucose area decreased significantly in the WL and AEX+WL groups but did not change in the Con or AEX groups. There were significant increases in insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates as measured by the hyperinsulinemic (600 pmol.m-2.min-1) euglycemic clamps in the AEX and AEX+WL groups [1.66 +/- 0.50 and 1.76 +/- 0.41 mg.kg fat-free mass (FFM)-1.min-1, respectively] that were significantly greater than those in the WL (0.13 +/- 0.31 mg.kg FFM-1.min-1) and Con groups (-0.05 +/- 0.51 mg.kg FFM-1.min-1; n = 5). These data suggest that AEX and WL improve glucose metabolism through different mechanisms and that the combined intervention of AEX+WL is necessary to improve both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in older men.

  16. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  17. A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, A L; Genant, H K; Sadowsky, S; Byl, N N; Glüer, C C

    1995-04-01

    Previous research suggests that physical activity may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women. This relationship was explored in a 2-year, randomized, intervention trial investigating the efficacy of exercise and calcium supplementation on increasing peak bone mass in young women. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects (ages of 20-35 years) were randomly assigned either to an exercise program that contained both aerobics and weight training components or to a stretching program. Calcium supplementation (up to 1500 mg/day including dietary intake) or placebo was given in a double-blinded design to all subjects. Spinal trabecular BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Spinal integral, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calcaneal BMD by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Fitness variables included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and isokinetic muscle performance of the trunk and thigh. Measurements were made at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Sixty-three subjects (32 exercise, 31 stretching) completed the study, and all the measured bone parameters indicated a positive influence of the exercise intervention. There were significant positive differences in BMD between the exercise and stretching groups for spinal trabecular (2.5%), femoral neck (2.4%), femoral trochanteric (2.3%), and calcaneal (6.4%) measurements. The exercise group demonstrated a significant gain in BMD for spinal integral (1.3 +/- 2.8%, p < 0.02), femoral trochanteric (2.6 +/- 6.1%, p < 0.05), and calcaneal (5.6 +/- 5.1, p < 0.01) measurements. In contrast to exercise, the calcium intervention had no positive effect on any of the bone parameters. In regard to fitness parameters, the exercise group completed the study with significant gains in VO2max and isokinetic (peak torque) values for the knee flexion and extension and trunk extension. This study indicates that over a 2-year period, a combined

  18. A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Genant, H. K.; Sadowsky, S.; Byl, N. N.; Gluer, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research suggests that physical activity may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women. This relationship was explored in a 2-year, randomized, intervention trial investigating the efficacy of exercise and calcium supplementation on increasing peak bone mass in young women. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects (ages of 20-35 years) were randomly assigned either to an exercise program that contained both aerobics and weight training components or to a stretching program. Calcium supplementation (up to 1500 mg/day including dietary intake) or placebo was given in a double-blinded design to all subjects. Spinal trabecular BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Spinal integral, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calcaneal BMD by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Fitness variables included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and isokinetic muscle performance of the trunk and thigh. Measurements were made at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Sixty-three subjects (32 exercise, 31 stretching) completed the study, and all the measured bone parameters indicated a positive influence of the exercise intervention. There were significant positive differences in BMD between the exercise and stretching groups for spinal trabecular (2.5%), femoral neck (2.4%), femoral trochanteric (2.3%), and calcaneal (6.4%) measurements. The exercise group demonstrated a significant gain in BMD for spinal integral (1.3 +/- 2.8%, p < 0.02), femoral trochanteric (2.6 +/- 6.1%, p < 0.05), and calcaneal (5.6 +/- 5.1, p < 0.01) measurements. In contrast to exercise, the calcium intervention had no positive effect on any of the bone parameters. In regard to fitness parameters, the exercise group completed the study with significant gains in VO2max and isokinetic (peak torque) values for the knee flexion and extension and trunk extension. This study indicates that over a 2-year period, a combined

  19. Home-Based Aerobic Interval Training Improves Peak Oxygen Uptake Equal to Residential Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moholdt, Trine; Bekken Vold, Mona; Grimsmo, Jostein; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, measured as the peak oxygen uptake, is a strong predictor of survival in cardiac patients. Aerobic interval training (AIT), walking/running four times four minutes at 85–95% of peak heart rate, has proven to be effective in increasing peak oxygen uptake in coronary heart disease patients. As some patients do not attend organized rehabilitation programs, home-based exercise should be an alternative. We investigated whether AIT could be performed effectively at home, and compared the effects on peak oxygen uptake with that observed after a standard care, four-week residential rehabilitation. Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to residential rehabilitation or home-based AIT. At six months follow-up, peak oxygen uptake increased 4.6 (±2.7) and 3.9 (±3.6) mL·kg−1 min−1 (both p<0.005, non-significant between-group difference) after residential rehabilitation and AIT, respectively. Quality of life increased significantly in both groups, with no statistical significant difference between groups. We found no evidence for a different treatment effect between patients randomized to home-based AIT compared to patients attending organized rehabilitation (95% confidence interval −1.8, 3.5). AIT patients reported good adherence to exercise training. Even though these first data indicate positive effects of home-based AIT in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, more studies are needed to provide supporting evidence for the application of this rehabilitation strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00363922 PMID:22815970

  20. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p < 0.01) but not for DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p < 0.05) and 16:00 h (p < 0.01), versus the other trials. This acute response to exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  1. Payload training methodology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the Payload Training Methodology Study (PTMS) are documented. Methods and procedures are defined for the development of payload training programs to be conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center Payload Training Complex (PCT) for the Space Station Freedom program. The study outlines the overall training program concept as well as the six methodologies associated with the program implementation. The program concept outlines the entire payload training program from initial identification of training requirements to the development of detailed design specifications for simulators and instructional material. The following six methodologies are defined: (1) The Training and Simulation Needs Assessment Methodology; (2) The Simulation Approach Methodology; (3) The Simulation Definition Analysis Methodology; (4) The Simulator Requirements Standardization Methodology; (5) The Simulator Development Verification Methodology; and (6) The Simulator Validation Methodology.

  2. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Undem, Miranda K.; Hinkley, James M.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P < 0.05) after training in both YM (16 ± 2%) and OM (13 ± 3%). Quadriceps muscle volume, determined via MRI, was 5 ± 1 and 6 ± 1% greater (P < 0.05) after training for YM and OM, respectively, which was associated with an increase in MHC I myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), independent of age. MHC I peak power was higher (P < 0.05) after training for both YM and OM, while MHC IIa peak power was increased (P < 0.05) with training in OM only. MHC I and MHC IIa myofiber peak and normalized (peak force/CSA) force were preserved with training in OM, while MHC I peak force/CSA and MHC IIa peak force were lower (P < 0.05) after training in YM. The age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function were not due to changes in protein content, as total muscle protein and myofibrillar protein concentration were unchanged (P > 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P < 0.05) the proportion of MHC IIx isoform, independent of age, whereas no other changes in MHC composition were observed. These data suggest relative improvements in muscle size and aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals. PMID:22984247

  3. Hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation Exercise Training Alters the Relationship Between Spinal Cord Injury Level and Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Andrew; Picard, Glen; Porter, Aidan; Morse, Leslie R.; Pronovost, Meghan F.; Deley, Gaelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation Row Training (FES-RT) would improve aerobic capacity but that it would remain strongly linked to level of spinal cord lesion due to limited maximal ventilation. Design Longitudinal before-after trial of 6 months FES-RT. Setting Exercise for persons with disabilities program. Participants Fourteen volunteers with complete SCI T3_T11, >2 years post-injury, aged 21–63 years. Interventions Six months of FES-RT preceded by a variable period of FES 'strength training.' Main Outcome Measures Peak aerobic capacity, and peak exercise ventilation before and after 6 months of FES-RT Results FES_RT significantly increased VO2peak and Vepeak (both p<0.05). Prior to FES-RT, there was a close relationship between level of spinal cord injury and VO2peak (adj r2=0.40, p=0.009) that was markedly reduced after FES-RT (adj r2=0.15, p=0.10) . In contrast, the relationship between level of injury and VEpeak was comparable before and after FES-RT (adj r2=0.38 vs. adj r2=0.32, both p<0.05). Conclusions The increased aerobic capacity reflects more than increased ventilation; FES_RT effectively circumvents the effect of the spinal cord injury on peak aerobic capacity by engaging more muscle mass for training, independent of level of injury. PMID:25152170

  4. Effect of 4 months of training on aerobic power, strength, and acceleration in two under-19 soccer teams.

    PubMed

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Palao Andrés, José M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the training executed by 2 under-19 teams from the first Spanish division on aerobic power, strength, and acceleration capacity. Two under-19 soccer teams that competed in the same league were evaluated on 2 occasions. The first evaluation (E₁) was done at the beginning of the competitive period, and the second evaluation (E₂) was done 16 weeks later, coinciding with the end of the first half of the regular season. The following were evaluated: lower-body strength through jump height with countermovement with and without load (CMJ/CMJ₂₀), speed of the Smith machine bar movement in a progressive load test of full squats (FSL), acceleration capacity in 10, 20, and 30 m (T₁₀, T₂₀, T₃₀, T₁₀₋₂₀, T₁₀₋₃₀, T₂₀₋₃₀), and maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Team A executed complementary strength training, and training loads were determined with regard to the speed with which each player moved the bar in FSL. Between the evaluations, the training sessions of each team were recorded to assess their influence on the changes in E2. Team A significantly improved its MAS (p < 0.01) and its application of strength in the CMJ₂₀ (p < 0.05) and FS₂₀₋₃₀₋₄₀ (p < 0.01), while significantly worsening their acceleration capacity in all the splits (p < 0.01). Team B slightly worsened its MAS and significantly improved its application of strength in the CMJ₂₀ (p < 0.01) and FS₅₀₋₆₀ (p < 0.05). Its acceleration capacity improved insignificantly except for in the 20- to 30-m interval/T₂₀₋₃₀ (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that the use of loads as a function of the speed of movement, without the need to determine maximum repetitions is a methodology that is adequate for the improvement of the application of strength in under-19 soccer players.

  5. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both

  6. Predictors of fat mass changes in response to aerobic exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Ryan, Dana M; Ryder, Justin R; Sussman, Elizabeth J; Bertmann, Farryl M W; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training in women typically results in minimal fat loss, with considerable individual variability. We hypothesized that women with higher baseline body fat would lose more body fat in response to exercise training and that early fat loss would predict final fat loss. Eighty-one sedentary premenopausal women (age: 30.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 164.5 ± 7.4 cm; weight: 68.2 ± 16.4 kg; fat percent: 38.1 ± 8.8) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after 12 weeks of supervised treadmill walking 3 days per week for 30 minutes at 70% of (Equation is included in full-text article.). Overall, women did not lose body weight or fat mass. However, considerable individual variability was observed for changes in body weight (-11.7 to +4.8 kg) and fat mass (-11.8 to +3.7 kg). Fifty-five women were classified as compensators and, as a group, gained fat mass (25.6 ± 11.1 kg to 26.1 ± 11.3 kg; p < 0.001). The strongest correlates of change in body fat at 12 weeks were change in body weight (r = 0.52) and fat mass (r = 0.48) at 4 weeks. Stepwise regression analysis that included change in body weight and body fat at 4 weeks and submaximal exercise energy expenditure yielded a prediction model that explained 37% of the variance in fat mass change (R = 0.37, p < 0.001). Change in body weight and fat mass at 4 weeks were moderate predictors of fat loss and may potentially be useful for identification of individuals who achieve less than expected weight loss or experience unintended fat gain in response to exercise training.

  7. Role of exercise duration on metabolic adaptations in working muscle to short-term moderate-to-heavy aerobic-based cycle training.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Burnett, Margaret; Carter, Sherry; Jacobs, Ira; Ranney, Don; Smith, Ian; Tupling, Susan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relative roles of the duration versus intensity of exercise on the metabolic adaptations in vastus lateralis to short-term (10 day) aerobic-based cycle training. Healthy males with a peak aerobic power (VO2 peak) of 46.0 ± 2.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1) were assigned to either a 30-min (n = 7) or a 60-min (n = 8) duration performed at two different intensities (with order randomly assigned), namely moderate (M) and heavy (H), corresponding to 70 and 86 % VO2 peak, respectively. No change (P > 0.05) in VO2 peak was observed regardless of the training program. Based on the metabolic responses to prolonged exercise (60 % VO2 peak), both M and H and 30 and 60 min protocols displayed less of a decrease (P < 0.05) in phosphocreatine (PCr) and glycogen (Glyc) and less of an increase (P < 0.05) in free adenosine diphosphate (ADPf), free adenosine monophosphate (AMPf), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and lactate (La). Training for 60 min compared with 30 min resulted in a greater protection (P < 0.05) of ADPf, AMPf, PCr and Glyc during exercise, effects that were not displayed between M and H. The reduction in both VO2 and RER (P < 0.05) observed during submaximal exercise did not depend on training program specifics. These findings indicate that in conjunction with our earlier study (Green et al., Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012b), a threshold exists for duration rather than intensity of aerobic exercise to induce a greater training impact in reducing metabolic strain.

  8. The effect of 48 weeks of aerobic exercise training on cutaneous vasodilator function in post-menopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Sharp, Lisa; Stephenson, Claire; Patwala, Ashish Y; George, Keith P; Goldspink, David F; Tim Cable, N

    2010-04-01

    Skin blood flow (SkBF) and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation decline with ageing and can be reversed with exercise training. We tested whether 48 weeks of training could improve SkBF and endothelial function in post-menopausal females; 20 post-menopausal subjects completed the study. SkBF was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/blood pressure. Resting CVC was measured at 32 degrees C and peak CVC at 42 degrees C. Cutaneous endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilatations were determined by the iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. All assessments described were performed at entry (week 0), and after 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of training. Resting CVC measures did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the study. Peak CVC increased (P < 0.05) after 24 weeks (7.2 +/- 1.2 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.4 AU mmHg(-1)) and at the 36- and 48-week assessments (13.0 +/- 1.7 and 14.9 +/- 2.1 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Responses to ACh also increased (P < 0.05) at the 24-week assessment (5.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 8.55 +/- 2.3 AU mmHg(-1)) and increased further at the 36 and 48-week assessments (11.6 +/- 3.7 and 13.2 +/- 3.9 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Cutaneous responses to SNP increased (P < 0.05) after 36 weeks (8.7 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.02 +/- 2.23 AU mmHg(-1) at 36 weeks). VO(2max) increased after 12 weeks (23.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 25.4 +/- 0.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and improved (P < 0.05) further throughout the study (31.6 +/- 1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) at week 48). Aerobic exercise produces positive adaptations in the cutaneous vasodilator function to local heating as well as in cutaneous endothelial and endothelial-independent vasodilator mechanisms. Aerobic capacity was also significantly improved. These adaptations were further enhanced with progressive increases in exercise intensity.

  9. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  10. The effect of increased lipid intake on hormonal responses during aerobic exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Christ, Emanuel R; Zehnder, Monica; Boesch, Chris; Trepp, Roman; Mullis, Primus E; Diem, Peter; Décombaz, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    In view of the growing health problem associated with obesity, clarification of the regulation of energy homeostasis is important. Peripheral signals, such as ghrelin and leptin, have been shown to influence energy homeostasis. Nutrients and physical exercise, in turn, influence hormone levels. Data on the hormonal response to physical exercise (standardized negative energy balance) after high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet with identical carbohydrate intake are currently not available. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a short-term dietary intervention with HF and LF affects ghrelin and leptin levels and their modulators, GH, insulin and cortisol, before and during aerobic exercise. Eleven healthy, endurance-trained male athletes (W(max) 365 +/- 29 W) were investigated twice in a randomized crossover design following two types of diet: 1. LF - 0.5 g fat/kg body weight (BW) per day for 2.5 days; 2. HF - 0.5 g fat/kg BW per day for 1 day followed by 3.5 g fat/kg BW per day for 1.5 days. After a standardized carbohydrate snack in the morning, metabolites and hormones (GH, ghrelin, leptin, insulin and cortisol) were measured before and at regular intervals throughout a 3-h aerobic exercise test on a cycloergometer at 50% of W(max). Diet did not significantly affect GH and cortisol concentrations during exercise but resulted in a significant increase in ghrelin and decrease in leptin concentrations after LF compared with HF diet (area under the curve (AUC) ghrelin LF vs HF: P < 0.03; AUC leptin LF vs HF: P < 0.02, Wilcoxon rank test). These data suggest that acute negative energy balance induced by exercise elicits a hormonal response with opposite changes of ghrelin and leptin. In addition, the hormonal response is modulated by the preceding intake of fat.

  11. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg-1 · min-1) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. Results The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p < 0.05) gains in VO2peak, and VT, versus the CTL and PLA-HIIT group. Both PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT treatment groups demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) improvement over CTL for Tmax, and RCP with no significant difference between the treatment groups. There were no significant differences observed for any measures of body composition. An independent-samples t-test confirmed that there were no significant differences between the training volumes for the PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Conclusions Our

  12. Insulin-resistant subjects have normal angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian S; Mula, Jyothi; Long, Douglas E; Zhu, Beibei; Fry, Christopher S; Westgate, Philip M; Lee, Jonah D; Bennett, Tamara; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, exercise training stimulates angiogenesis and modulates transcription of VEGFA, Angpt1, and Angpt2. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training stimulates vessel growth in human adipose tissue, and it remains unknown whether adipose angiogenesis is mediated by angiopoietin signaling. We sought to determine whether insulin-resistant subjects would display an impaired angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training. Insulin-sensitive (IS, N = 12) and insulin-resistant (IR, N = 14) subjects had subcutaneous adipose and muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies before and after 12 weeks of cycle ergometer training. In both tissues, we measured vessels and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Exercise training did not increase insulin sensitivity in IR Subjects. In skeletal muscle, training resulted in increased vessels/muscle fiber and increased Angpt2:Angpt1 ratio in both IR and IS subjects. However, in adipose, exercise training only induced angiogenesis in IS subjects, likely due to chronic suppression of VEGFA expression in IR subjects. These results indicate that skeletal muscle of IR subjects exhibits a normal angiogenic response to exercise training. However, the same training regimen is insufficient to induce angiogenesis in adipose tissue of IR subjects, which may help to explain why we did not observe improved insulin sensitivity following aerobic training. PMID:26038468

  13. Aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes rat heart and hindleg muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Shahabpour, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Arteriogenesis is a main defense mechanism to prevent heart and local tissues dysfunction in occlusive artery disease. TGF-β and angiostatin have a pivotal role in arteriogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes cardiac and skeletal muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) parallel to upregulation of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin. For this purpose, 4 weeks after LAD occlusion, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (1) sham surgery without MI (sham, n = 10), (2) control-MI (Con-MI, n = 10), (3) l-arginine-MI (La-MI, n = 10), (4) exercise training-MI (Ex-MI, n = 10), and (5) exercise and l-arginine-MI (Ex + La-MI). Exercise training groups running on a treadmill for 10 weeks with moderate intensity. Rats in the l-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % l-arginine. Arteriolar density with different diameters (11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and 76-150 μm), TGF-β, and angiostatin gene expression were measured in cardiac (area at risk) and skeletal (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles. Smaller arterioles decreased in cardiac after MI. Aerobic training and l-arginine increased the number of cardiac arterioles with 11-25 and 26-50 μm diameters parallel to TGF-β overexpression. In gastrocnemius muscle, the number of arterioles/mm(2) was only increased in the 11 to 25 μm in response to training with and without l-arginine parallel to angiostatin downregulation. Soleus arteriolar density with different size was not different between experimental groups. Results showed that 10 weeks aerobic exercise training and l-arginine supplementation promotes arteriogenesis of heart and gastrocnemius muscles parallel to overexpression of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin in MI rats.

  14. Long-term, progressive, aerobic training increases adiponectin in middle-aged, overweight, untrained males and females.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Pooja P; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J; Firek, Anthony F; Hessinger, David A

    2011-04-01

    Adipose tissue secretes the adipokine, adiponectin (ADPN), which increases insulin sensitivity. Because some of the metabolic effects of exercise and ADPN are similar, exercise has been proposed to increase ADPN. However, most short-term (≤3 mos) and constant-effort exercise protocols have not produced increases in ADPN. Furthermore, no direct comparisons of male and female subjects on the effect of exercise on ADPN levels have been reported. We hypothesized that long-term (6 mos), progressive training would increase ADPN levels in both males and females. We recruited middle-aged, untrained males and females to participate in an interventional study employing a marathon training regimen progressing from 9.7 to 88.5 km (6 to 55 miles) per week over 6 mos. At baseline, we matched the mean ages of the male and female groups. We collected and stored fasting plasma samples and recorded body measurements at 0 (baseline) and 6 mos. Stored samples were analysed for insulin, glucose, and ADPN. ADPN increased significantly among both males (from 5.89 ± 2.46 (mean ± SD) to 7.65 ± 3.18 μg/ml; p < 0.05) and females (from 8.48 ± 3.22 to 10.56 ± 4.05 μg/ml; p < 0.05). The extent of the increase in ADPN was similar in the male (40.7 ± 50%; median, 12.1%) and female (27.0 ± 31.1%; median, 22.3%) groups. However, there was no significant reduction in insulin resistance as measured by the HOMA-IR scores in either group. We conclude that long-term, progressive aerobic training increases circulating ADPN levels in middle-aged, untrained males and females. PMID:21271804

  15. The glucoregulatory response to high-intensity aerobic exercise following training in rats with insulin-treated type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Grise, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; Dey, Adwitia; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-06-01

    An acute bout of exercise elicits a rapid, potentially deleterious, reduction in blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In the current study, we examined whether a 10-week aerobic training program could alleviate the rapid exercise-associated reduction in blood glucose through changes in the glucoregulatory hormonal response or increased hepatic glycogen storage in an insulin-treated rat model of T1DM. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided evenly into 4 groups: non-T1DM sedentary (C) (n = 8), non-T1DM exercised (CX) (n = 8), T1DM sedentary (D) (n = 8), and T1DM exercised (DX) (n = 8). Exercise training consisted of treadmill running for 5 days/week (1 h, 27 m/min, 6% grade) for 10 weeks. T1DM was induced by multiple streptozotocin injections (20 mg/kg) followed by implantation of subcutaneous insulin pellets. At week 1, an acute exercise bout led to a significant reduction in blood glucose in DX (p < 0.05), whereas CX exhibited an increase in blood glucose (p < 0.05). During acute exercise, serum epinephrine was increased in both DX and CX (p < 0.05), whereas serum glucagon was increased during recovery only in CX (p < 0.01). Following aerobic training in DX, the exercise-mediated reduction in blood glucose remained; however, serum glucagon increased to the same extent as in CX (p < 0.05). DX exhibited significantly less hepatic glycogen (p < 0.001) despite elevations in glycogenic proteins in the liver (p < 0.05). Elevated serum epinephrine and decreased hepatic adrenergic receptor expression were also evident in DX (p < 0.05). In summary, despite aerobic training in DX, abrupt blood glucose reductions and hepatic glycogen deficiencies were evident. These data suggest that sympathetic overactivity may contribute to deficiencies in hepatic glycogen storage. PMID:27175938

  16. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (P<0.0001) and 4% (P=0.001), respectively in HIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; P<0.0001). Insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) decreased only in HIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance. PMID:27346646

  17. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (P<0.0001) and 4% (P=0.001), respectively in HIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; P<0.0001). Insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) decreased only in HIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance.

  18. Calcineurin-NFAT Signaling and Neurotrophins Control Transformation of Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms in Rat Soleus Muscle in Response to Aerobic Treadmill Training

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenfeng; Chen, Gan; Li, Fanling; Tang, Changfa; Yin, Dazhong

    2014-01-01

    This study elucidated the role of CaN-NFAT signaling and neurotrophins on the transformation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber following aerobic exercise training. To do so, we examined the content and distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber, the activity of CaN and expression of NFATc1 in these fibers, and changes in the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neutrophin-3 (NT-3) in the soleus and striatum following high-and medium-intensity aerobic treadmill training. Specific pathogen-free 2 month old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control group (Con, n = 8), moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (M-Ex, n = 8) and high-intensity aerobic exercise group (H-Ex, n = 8). We used ATPase staining to identify the muscle fiber type I and II, SDS-PAGE to separate and analyze the isoforms MyHCI, MyHCIIA, MyHCIIB and MyHCIIx, and performed western blots to determine the expression of NFATc1, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. CaN activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. In the soleus muscle, 8 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise can induce transformation of MyHC IIA and MyHC IIB to MyHC IIX and MyHC I (p < 0.01), while high-intensity treadmill exercise can induce transform MyHC IIx to MyHC IIB, MyHC IIA and MyHC I (p < 0.01). In comparison to the control group, CaN activity and NFATcl protein level were significantly increased in both the M-Ex and H-Ex groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), with a more pronounced upregulation in the M-Ex group (p < 0.05). Eight weeks of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise induced the expression of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 in the soleus muscle and the striatum (p < 0.01), with the most significant increase in the H-Ex group (p < 0.01). In the rat soleus muscle, (1) CaN–NFATcl signaling contributes to the conversion of MyHC I isoform in response to moderate-intensity exercise; (2) Neurotrophins

  19. The effects of aerobic, resistance, and combination training on insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    AbouAssi, Hiba; Mikus, Catherine R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Bateman, Lori A.; Willis, Leslie H.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Penry, Lorrie E.; Kraus, Erik A.; Huffman, Kim M.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Most health organizations recommend a combination of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT), yet few studies have compared their acute (within 24 h of the last exercise bout) and sustained (after 14 days of no exercise training) effects alone and in combination on glucose metabolism. The present study (Studies Targeting Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise-Aerobic Training and/or Resistance Training) compared the effects of AT, RT, and the combination (AT/RT) on insulin action at both acute and sustained phases. Subjects (N = 196) were 18-70 yr old (mean age = 50 yr), overweight (mean body mass index = 30 kg/m2), sedentary with moderate dyslipidemia, and were randomized into one of three 8-mo exercise groups: 1) RT: 3 days/wk, 8 exercises, 3 sets/exercise, 8–12 repetitions/set; 2) AT: equivalent to ∼19.2 km/wk (12 miles/wk) at 75% peak O2 consumption; 3) AT/RT: the combination of AT and RT. One hundred forty-four subjects completed the intervention. Eighty-eight subjects completed all pre- and postintervention testing visits. Insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and disposition index were measured via a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test with subsequent minimal model analyses. AT/RT resulted in greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function (disposition index), and glucose effectiveness than either AT or RT alone (all P < 0.05). Approximately 52% of the improvement in insulin sensitivity by AT/RT was retained 14 days after the last exercise training bout. Neither AT or RT led to acute or chronic improvement in sensitivity index. In summary, only AT/RT (which required twice as much time as either alone) led to significant acute and sustained benefits in insulin sensitivity. PMID:25882384

  20. Fluid ingestion is more effective in preventing hyperthermia in aerobically trained than untrained individuals during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim; Del Coso, Juan; Ortega, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear if fluid ingestion during exercise in the heat alleviates the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain similarly in aerobically trained and untrained individuals. It is also unknown at what exercise intensity the effects of rehydration are greater. Ten aerobically trained (T) and 10 healthy untrained (UT) subjects ([Formula: see text]O(2peak), 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL O(2)·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) pedalled in a hot, dry environment (36 ± 1 °C; 25% ± 2% relative humidity; airflow, 2.5 m·s(-1)) at 40%, 60%, and 80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) while ingesting fluids (Fluid). The results were compared with those from our previous study [Mora-Rodriguez et al., Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(5): 973-981 (2010)] with no fluid ingestion (No Fluid). Subjects were not heat-acclimated. At 40% [Formula: see text]O(2peak), Fluid reduced rectal temperature (T(RE)) in T and UT (0.31 ± 0.08 and 0.32 ± 0.07 °C; respectively). At 60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak), Fluid reduced T(RE) in T more than in UT (0.30 ± 0.10 °C vs. 0.18 ± 0.10 °C; P < 0.05) but had no effect at 80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) in any group. At similar relative intensity, heart rates (HR) were similar between groups. Fluid lowered heart rate (i.e., HR) similarly in the T and UT at 40% and 60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) (11% and 6%, respectively; P < 0.05) but not at 80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) (P > 0.05). At similar metabolic heat production (i.e., 60% for T vs. 80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) for UT), Fluid lowered T(RE) only in the T individuals (P < 0.05). In summary, rehydration during low- and moderate-intensity exercise reduces T(RE) and HR more than during high-intensity exercise (80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) in T and UT subjects. Fluid replacement is more effective on preventing the rise in T(RE) in T than in UT individuals during moderate-intensity exercise (60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak)), as well as when exercising at a similar heat production rate.

  1. Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089

  2. Aerobic exercise training improves Ca2+ handling and redox status of skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Julio C B; Bacurau, Aline V; Bueno, Carlos R; Cunha, Telma C; Tanaka, Leonardo Y; Jardim, Maira A; Ramires, Paulo R; Brum, Patricia C

    2010-04-01

    Exercise training is known to promote relevant changes in the properties of skeletal muscle contractility toward powerful fibers. However, there are few studies showing the effect of a well-established exercise training protocol on Ca(2+) handling and redox status in skeletal muscles with different fiber-type compositions. We have previously standardized a valid and reliable protocol to improve endurance exercise capacity in mice based on maximal lactate steady-state workload (MLSSw). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training, performed at MLSSw, on the skeletal muscle Ca(2+) handling-related protein levels and cellular redox status in soleus and plantaris. Male C57BL/6J mice performed treadmill training at MLSSw over a period of eight weeks. Muscle fiber-typing was determined by myosin ATPase histochemistry, citrate synthase activity by spectrophotometric assay, Ca(2+) handling-related protein levels by Western blot and reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Trained mice displayed higher running performance and citrate synthase activity compared with untrained mice. Improved running performance in trained mice was paralleled by fast-to-slow fiber-type shift and increased capillary density in both plantaris and soleus. Exercise training increased dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) alpha2 subunit, ryanodine receptor and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger levels in plantaris and soleus. Moreover, exercise training elevated DHPR beta1 subunit and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) 1 levels in plantaris and SERCA2 levels in soleus of trained mice. Skeletal muscle GSH content and GSH:GSSG ratio was increased in plantaris and soleus of trained mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that MLSSw exercise-induced better running performance is, in part, due to increased levels of proteins involved in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) handling, whereas this response is partially dependent on specificity

  3. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss, insulin

  4. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete’s physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (–2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: –4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = –0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = –0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle

  5. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss, insulin

  6. Aerobic Exercise Training Prevents the Onset of Endothelial Dysfunction via Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Reduced Reactive Oxygen Species in an Experimental Model of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Viviane A. V. N.; Couto, Gisele K.; Lazzarin, Mariana C.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estrogen deficiency, arising in postmenopause, promotes endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training on endothelial dependent vasodilation of aorta in ovariectomized rats, specifically investigating the role of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods Female Wistar rats ovariectomized (OVX – n=20) or with intact ovary (SHAM – n=20) remained sedentary (OVX and SHAM) or performed aerobic exercise training on a treadmill 5 times a week for a period of 8 weeks (OVX-TRA and SHAM-TRA). In the thoracic aorta the endothelium-dependent and –independent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. Certain aortic rings were incubated with L-NAME to assess the NO modulation on the ACh-induced vasodilation. The fluorescence to dihydroethidium in aortic slices and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured to evaluate ROS and NO bioavailability, respectively. Results ACh-induced vasodilation was reduced in OVX rats as compared SHAM (Rmax: SHAM: 86±3.3 vs. OVX: 57±3.0%, p<0.01). Training prevented this response in OVX-TRA (Rmax: OVX-TRA: 88±2.0%, p<0.01), while did not change it in SHAM-TRA (Rmax: SHAM-TRA: 80±2.2%, p<0.01). The L-NAME incubation abolished the differences in ACh-induced relaxation among groups. SNP-induced vasodilation was not different among groups. OVX reduced nitrite/nitrate plasma concentrations and increased ROS in aortic slices, training as effective to restore these parameters to the SHAM levels. Conclusions Exercise training, even in estrogen deficiency conditions, is able to improve endothelial dependent vasodilation in rat aorta via enhanced NO bioavailability and reduced ROS levels. PMID:25923465

  7. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Skishahr, Farnaz; Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Babaei, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  8. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  9. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life.

  10. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life. PMID:25438684

  11. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls.

    PubMed

    Nassis, George P; Papantakou, Katerina; Skenderi, Katerina; Triandafillopoulou, Maria; Kavouras, Stavros A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls. Nineteen overweight and obese girls (mean +/- SD: age, 13.1+/-1.8 years; body mass index, 26.8+/-3.9 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; n=15), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, insulin-like growth factor-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels, and blood lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 18.8% (P<.05) as a result of training. The area under the insulin concentration curve (insulin area under the curve) decreased by 23.3% (12781.7+/-7454.2 vs 9799.0+/-4918.6 microU.min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41.4% +/- 4.8%; post-intervention, 40.7%+/-5.2%). The lower limb fat-free mass increased by 6.2% (P<.01) as a result of training, and changes in lower limb fat-free mass were correlated with changes in the insulin area under the curve (r= -.68; P< .01). Serum adiponectin, IL-6, and CRP concentrations did not change (pre-intervention vs post-intervention: adiponectin, 9.57+/-3.01 vs 9.08+/-2.32 microg/mL; IL-6, 1.67+/-1.29 vs 1.65+/-1.25 pg/mL, CRP, 3.21+/-2.48 vs 2.73+/-1.88 mg/L) whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 was lower after training (pre-intervention, 453.8 +/- 159.3 ng/mL; post-intervention, 403.2+/- 155.1 ng/mL; P<.05). In conclusion, 12 weeks of aerobic training improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls without change in body weight, percent body fat, and circulating

  12. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Yi-Jean; Tang, Tze-Chun; Liu, Mei-Fang; Chen, Ming-De

    2016-10-30

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether these exercise-induced cognitive benefits persist beyond the training period. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the immediate and maintenance effects of AE on a wide range of cognitive functions in 75 schizophrenia patients randomized to 12 weeks of either moderate-intensity treadmill exercise or stretching and toning exercise that served as a control. Participants completed assessments of neurocognition and cardiovascular fitness at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the AE group outperformed the controls on processing speed and attention at the end of intervention. The two groups did not differ significantly in any cognitive outcome measured at follow-up; however, improvement over time was noted in certain cognitive domains in AE group. The average effect sizes at follow-up were 0.53 and 0.35 for AE and control groups, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in aerobic fitness at posttest and follow-up, and that fitness level was not related to changes in cognitive performance. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a trend towards beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition over a short follow-up period in favor of AE. PMID:27525830

  13. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Yi-Jean; Tang, Tze-Chun; Liu, Mei-Fang; Chen, Ming-De

    2016-10-30

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether these exercise-induced cognitive benefits persist beyond the training period. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the immediate and maintenance effects of AE on a wide range of cognitive functions in 75 schizophrenia patients randomized to 12 weeks of either moderate-intensity treadmill exercise or stretching and toning exercise that served as a control. Participants completed assessments of neurocognition and cardiovascular fitness at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the AE group outperformed the controls on processing speed and attention at the end of intervention. The two groups did not differ significantly in any cognitive outcome measured at follow-up; however, improvement over time was noted in certain cognitive domains in AE group. The average effect sizes at follow-up were 0.53 and 0.35 for AE and control groups, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in aerobic fitness at posttest and follow-up, and that fitness level was not related to changes in cognitive performance. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a trend towards beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition over a short follow-up period in favor of AE.

  14. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  15. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  16. Comparative effects of exercise reduction and relaxation training on mood states and Type A scores in habitual aerobic exercisers.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, S; Hughey, A W; Osborne, W L

    1994-12-01

    The comparative effects of exercise reduction and relaxation training on dysphoric mood states and Type A scores in persons who exercise beyond the American College of Sports Medicine's recommended guidelines for cardiovascular fitness were investigated. Using their scores on the Profile of Mood States and the Jenkins Activity Survey, 57 subjects were randomly divided into 3 matched groups based on age, gender, and exercise regimen. Subjects assigned to the control group maintained their current exercise regimen, those in the second group reduced their exercise regimen to include no more than 5 hours of aerobic activity per week, and those in the third group maintained their current exercise regimen and attended 5 1 1/2-hr. relaxation training sessions. Both inventories were administered again after 10 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed no statistically significant differences among group means on the dependent variables. Further research on the use of aerobic exercise and relaxation training as auxiliary treatments for anxiety and depression is recommended. PMID:7870559

  17. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) <120/80 mmHg)] men and women (age 23±1 years) who underwent 30 min of intensity-matched cycling and swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (P<0.05). Trained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (P<0.05). The absence of PEH after swimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (P<0.05)] and a slower return of vagal tone, consistent with a significant increase in HR between modalities at all time points (P<0.05). These results suggest that training may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming.

  18. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih-Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-03-01

    Although exercise regimens vary in content and duration, few studies have compared the caloric expenditure of multiple exercise modalities with the same duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure of single sessions of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise with the same duration. Nine recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 7 years; height: 181.6 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 86.6 ± 7.5 kg) performed the following 4 exercises for 30 minutes: a resistance training session using 75% of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM), an endurance cycling session at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax), an endurance treadmill session at 70% HRmax, and a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on a hydraulic resistance system (HRS) that included repeating intervals of 20 seconds at maximum effort followed by 40 seconds of rest. Total caloric expenditure, substrate use, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Caloric expenditure was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater when exercising with the HRS (12.62 ± 2.36 kcal·min), compared with when exercising with weights (8.83 ± 1.55 kcal·min), treadmill (9.48 ± 1.30 kcal·min), and cycling (9.23 ± 1.25 kcal·min). The average HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with the HRS (156 ± 9 b·min), compared with that using weights (138 ± 16 b·min), treadmill (137 ± 5 b·min), and cycle (138 ± 6 b·min). Similarly, the average RPE was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher with the HRS (16 ± 2), compared with that using weights (13 ± 2), treadmill (10 ± 2), and cycle (11 ± 1). These data suggest that individuals can burn more calories performing an HIIT session with an HRS than spending the same amount of time performing a steady-state exercise session. This form of exercise intervention may be beneficial to individuals who want to gain the benefits of both resistance and cardiovascular training but have limited time to dedicate to exercise.

  19. Maximal and functional aerobic capacity as assessed by two graduated field methods in comparison to laboratory exercise testing in moderately trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Ahmaidi, S; Collomp, K; Caillaud, C; Préfaut, C

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which of the two commonly used field tests, the 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST) or the University of Montreal track test (UM-TT), provides the most accurate assessment of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes. Eleven male subjects aged from 18 to 30 years were studied in triple incremental and continuous running tests carried out until exhaustion both in laboratory and field conditions. They underwent a laboratory treadmill test and completed the outdoor 20-MST and UM-TT. During the three randomly assigned tests, maximal velocity (Vmax), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), and post-exercise peak blood lactate (P[La]) measurements were made. The results indicate a significant difference in the mean Vmax (F = 9.26, p less than 0.001). Vmax determined by the 20-MST revealed a lower value than by treadmill (16.3%) and the UM-TT (19.3%). In contrast, there was no difference with regard to VO2max (F = 2.95, p = 0.06), HRmax (F = 2.72, p = 0.08), and P[La] (F = 2.79, p = 0.07). These results confirm that the UM-TT is a valid field test of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained subjects and suggest that it can be additionally used for exercise prescription.

  20. Heart Rate Recovery and Variability Following Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and there is compelling evidence of autonomic dysfunction in these individuals. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention produces similar results in cardiac autonomic function between…

  1. Acute and chronic cardiovascular response to 16 weeks of combined eccentric or traditional resistance and aerobic training in elderly hypertensive women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Eduardo S; Asano, Ricardo Y; Filho, Irênio G; Lopes, Nilson L; Panelli, Paulo; Nascimento, Dahan da C; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-11-01

    Both aerobic (AT) and resistance training (RT) are recommended as nonpharmacological treatments to prevent hypertension. However, there is a paucity of literature investigating the effects of combined exercise modes (RT combined with AT) in elderly hypertensive women. Thus, our aim was to compare the postexercise hypotension (PEH) response to both protocol models and to assess the correlation between the degree of PEH after acute and chronic training. Furthermore, we also compared several biochemical variables for each training group. Sixty hypertensive older women were randomly assigned into nonexercised control (no systematic exercise training throughout the study), eccentric RT (ERT), and traditional RT (TRT). The training programs consisted of 16 weeks of RT combined with AT. Blood pressure (BP), biochemical profiles, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) were evaluated. There was a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) after both training regimens pre- to posttraining (combined ERT +5% and TRT +7%; p = 0.001 for both). There was a decrease in systolic BP (SBP) (combined ERT -19% and TRT -21%; p = 0.001 for both) and diastolic BP (DBP) (-13% for both; p = 0.001 for both). There was an increase in bench press 1RM (combined ERT +54% and TRT +35%; p = 0.001 for both) and leg press 1RM (combined ERT +52% and TRT +33%; p = 0.001 for both). The magnitude of decrease in SBP after acute exercise was moderately correlated with the drop in SBP after chronic training for the ERT combined with AT group (r = 0.64). Both combined training protocols are effective in promoting benefits in health-related factors (HDL, SBP, DBP, and 1RM). Considering the lower cardiovascular stress experienced during combined ERT, this type of training seems to be the most suitable for elders, deconditioned individuals, and hypertensives. PMID:24845208

  2. Aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes rat heart and hindleg muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Shahabpour, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Arteriogenesis is a main defense mechanism to prevent heart and local tissues dysfunction in occlusive artery disease. TGF-β and angiostatin have a pivotal role in arteriogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes cardiac and skeletal muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) parallel to upregulation of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin. For this purpose, 4 weeks after LAD occlusion, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (1) sham surgery without MI (sham, n = 10), (2) control-MI (Con-MI, n = 10), (3) l-arginine-MI (La-MI, n = 10), (4) exercise training-MI (Ex-MI, n = 10), and (5) exercise and l-arginine-MI (Ex + La-MI). Exercise training groups running on a treadmill for 10 weeks with moderate intensity. Rats in the l-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % l-arginine. Arteriolar density with different diameters (11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and 76-150 μm), TGF-β, and angiostatin gene expression were measured in cardiac (area at risk) and skeletal (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles. Smaller arterioles decreased in cardiac after MI. Aerobic training and l-arginine increased the number of cardiac arterioles with 11-25 and 26-50 μm diameters parallel to TGF-β overexpression. In gastrocnemius muscle, the number of arterioles/mm(2) was only increased in the 11 to 25 μm in response to training with and without l-arginine parallel to angiostatin downregulation. Soleus arteriolar density with different size was not different between experimental groups. Results showed that 10 weeks aerobic exercise training and l-arginine supplementation promotes arteriogenesis of heart and gastrocnemius muscles parallel to overexpression of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin in MI rats. PMID:27121159

  3. Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles. An alternative to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure?

    PubMed

    Dobsák, Petr; Nováková, Marie; Fiser, Bohumil; Siegelová, Jarmila; Balcárková, Pavla; Spinarová, Lenka; Vítovec, Jirí; Minami, Naoyoshi; Nagasaka, Makoto; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Imachi, Kou; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Eicher, Jean-Christophe; Wolf, Jean-Eric

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles could represent a rehabilitation alternative for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Thirty patients with CHF and NYHA class II-III were randomly assigned to a rehabilitation program using either electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles or bicycle training. Patients in the first group (n = 15) had 8 weeks of home-based low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) applied simultaneously to the quadriceps and calf muscles of both legs (1 h/day for 7 days/week); patients in the second group (n = 15) underwent 8 weeks of 40 minute aerobic exercise (3 times a week). After the 8-week period significant increases in several functional parameters were observed in both groups: maximal VO2 uptake (LFES group: from 17.5 +/- 4.4 mL/kg/min to 18.3 +/- 4.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.05; bicycle group: from 18.1 +/- 3.9 mL/kg/min to 19.3 +/- 4.1 mL/kg/min, P < 0.01), maximal workload (LFES group: from 84.3 +/- 15.2 W to 95.9 +/- 9.8 W, P < 0.05; bicycle group: from 91.2 +/- 13.4 W to 112.9 +/- 10.8 W, P < 0.01), distance walked in 6 minutes (LFES group: from 398 +/- 105 m to 435 +/- 112 m, P < 0.05; bicycle group: from 425 +/- 118 m to 483 +/- 120 m, P < 0.03), and exercise duration (LFES group: from 488 +/- 45 seconds to 568 +/- 120 seconds, P < 0.05; bicycle group: from 510 +/- 90 seconds to 611 +/- 112 seconds, P < 0.03). These results demonstrate that an improvement of exercise capacities can be achieved either by classical exercise training or by home-based electrical stimulation. LFES should be considered as a valuable alternative to classical exercise training in patients with CHF.

  4. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  5. Oxygen uptake kinetics and maximal aerobic power are unaffected by inspiratory muscle training in healthy subjects where time to exhaustion is extended.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A M; Cooke, C B

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 4 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would be accompanied by alteration in cardiopulmonary fitness as assessed through moderate intensity oxygen uptake (V(.)O(2)) kinetics and maximal aerobic power (V(.)O(2max)). Eighteen healthy males agreed to participate in the study [training group (Tra) n=10, control group (Con) n=8]. Measurements of spirometry and maximal static inspiratory mouth pressure ( PI(max)) were taken pre- and post-training in addition to: (1) an incremental test to volitional exhaustion, (2) three square-wave transitions from walking to running at a moderate intensity (80% ventilatory threshold) and (3) a maximal aerobic constant-load running test to volitional fatigue for the determination of time to exhaustion ( T(lim)). Training was performed using an inspiratory muscle trainer (Powerbreathe). There were no significant differences in spirometry either between the two groups or when comparing the post- to pre-training results within each group. Mean PI(max) increased significantly in Tra ( P<0.01) and showed a trend for improvement ( P<0.08) in Con. Post-training T(lim) was significantly extended in both Tra [232.4 (22.8) s and 242.8 (20.1) s] ( P<0.01) and Con [224.5 (19.6) and 233.5 (12.7) s] ( P<0.05). Post-training T(lim) was significantly extended in Tra compared to Con ( P<0.05). In conclusion, the most plausible explanation for the stability in V(.)O(2) kinetics and V(.)O(2max) following IMT is that it is due to insufficient whole-body stress to elicit either central or peripheral cardiopulmonary adaptation. The extension of post-training T(lim) suggests that IMT might be useful as a stratagem for producing greater volumes of endurance work at high ventilatory loads, which in turn could improve cardiopulmonary fitness.

  6. Anaerobic and aerobic peak power output and the force-velocity relationship in endurance-trained athletes: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Chamari, K; Ahmaidi, S; Fabre, C; Massé-Biron, J; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the anaerobic peak power output (Pan, peak) declines more than the peak aerobic power (Paer, peak) with increasing age. In addition, the force-velocity (F-v) relationship was studied to determine which of these two factors is primarily responsible for the expected alterations in anaerobic power. The Pan, peak, the maximal F when v is equal to zero (F0) and the maximal v when F is equal to zero (v0) were assessed by F-v test i.e. a brief intense intermittent exercise test using incremental braking forces. The Paer, peak was measured by a maximal increment exercise test. A group of 12 young athletes (YA) and 12 master athletes (MA) mean age 24.8 (SEM 1.3) and 65.1 (SEM 1.2) years, respectively, participated in this study. The YA and MA had similar body masses, heights and endurance training schedules. The results showed that Pan, peak was 42.7% lower in the older subjects, corresponding to mean values of 1089 (SEM 40) compared to 624 (SEM 33) W (t = 8.9, P < 0.001) for YA compared to MA, respectively. The F0 and V0 indices showed values that were lower by 30.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The Paer, peak was 35% lower with mean values of 323 (SEM 12) W for YA compared to 210 (SEM 6) W for MA (t = 8.3, P < 0.001). The mean maximal oxygen uptake was 34.7% lower with 4240 (SEM 160) ml.min-1 for YA compared to 2770 (SEM 120) ml.min-1 for MA (t = 7.2, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Modulation of Circulating Angiogenic Factors and Tumor Biology by Aerobic Training in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lee W.; Fels, Diane R.; West, Miranda; Allen, Jason D.; Broadwater, Gloria; Barry, William T.; Wilke, Lee G.; Masko, Elisabeth; Douglas, Pamela S.; Dash, Rajesh C.; Povsic, Thomas J.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Marcom, P. Kelly; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; Kimmick, Gretchen; Turkington, Timothy G.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training (AET) is an effective adjunct therapy to attenuate the adverse side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with early breast cancer. Whether AET interacts with the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy has received scant attention. We carried out a pilot study to explore the effects of AET in combination with neoadjuvant doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide (AC+AET), relative to AC alone, on: (i) host physiology [exercise capacity (VO2 peak), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BA-FMD)], (ii) host-related circulating factors [circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF)], and (iii) tumor phenotype [tumor blood flow (15O–water PET), tissue markers (hypoxia and proliferation), and gene expression] in 20 women with operable breast cancer. AET consisted of three supervised cycle ergometry sessions/week at 60% to 100% of VO2 peak, 30 to 45 min/session, for 12 weeks. There was significant time × group interactions for VO2 peak and BA-FMD, favoring the AC+AET group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.07, respectively). These changes were accompanied by significant time × group interactions in CEPs and select CAFs [placenta growth factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-2], also favoring the AC+AET group (P < 0.05). 15O–water positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed a 38%decrease in tumor blood flow in the AC+AET group. There were no differences in any tumor tissue markers (P > 0.05). Whole-genome microarray tumor analysis revealed significant differential modulation of 57 pathways (P < 0.01), including many that converge on NF-κB. Data from this exploratory study provide initial evidence that AET can modulate several host- and tumor-related pathways during standard chemotherapy. The biologic and clinical implications remain to be determined. PMID:23842792

  8. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; Pialoux, Vincent; Simon, Germain; Skinner, Sarah; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI) during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time. PMID:26580804

  9. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; Pialoux, Vincent; Simon, Germain; Skinner, Sarah; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI) during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time.

  10. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; Pialoux, Vincent; Simon, Germain; Skinner, Sarah; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI) during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time. PMID:26580804

  11. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes.

  12. Aerobic Interval Training Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats Post-Myocardial Infarction: Roles of Mitochondrial Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Ke; Wang, You-Hua; Sun, Lei; He, Xi; Zhao, Mei; Feng, Zhi-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval training (AIT) can favorably affect cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of AIT on post-myocardial infarction (MI)—associated mitochondrial dysfunctions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AIT on myocardial mitochondria in post-MI rats by focusing on mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission). Mitochondrial respiratory functions (as measured by the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the ratio of ADP to oxygen consumption (P/O)); complex activities; dynamic proteins (mitofusin (mfn) 1/2, type 1 optic atrophy (OPA1) and dynamin-related protein1 (DRP1)); nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α); and the oxidative signaling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and P53 were observed. Post-MI rats exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and adverse mitochondrial network dynamics (reduced fusion and increased fission), which was associated with activated ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and decreased nuclear PGC-1α. After AIT, MI-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was improved (elevated RCR and P/O and enhanced complex I, III and IV activities); in addition, increased fusion (mfn2 and OPA1), decreased fission (DRP1), elevated nuclear PGC-1α and inactivation of the ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling were observed. These data demonstrate that AIT may restore the post-MI mitochondrial function by inhibiting dynamics pathological remodeling, which may be associated with inactivation of ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and increase in nuclear PGC-1α expression. PMID:24675698

  13. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  14. P2×7 Receptor in the Kidneys of Diabetic Rats Submitted to Aerobic Training or to N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Adelson M.; Bergamaschi, Cassia T.; Fernandes, Maria Jose S.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.; Curi, Marcus V.; Ferreira, Alice T.; Araujo, Sergio R. R.; Punaro, Giovana R.; Maciel, Fabiane R.; Nogueira, Guilherme B.; Higa, Elisa M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that N-acetylcysteine supplementation or aerobic training reduced oxidative stress and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. The P2X7 receptor is up-regulated in pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus. This up-regulation is related to oxidative stress and induces tissue apoptosis or necrosis. The aim of the present study is to assess the role of P2X7 receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.v.) and the training was done on a treadmill; N-acetylcysteine was given in the drinking water (600 mg/L). By confocal microscopy, as compared to control, the kidneys of diabetic rats showed increased P2×7 receptor expression and a higher activation in response to 2′(3′)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine5'–triphosphate (specific agonist) and adenosine triphosphate (nonspecific agonist) (all p<0.05). All these alterations were reduced in diabetic rats treated with N-acetylcysteine, exercise or both. We also observed measured proteinuria and albuminuria (early marker of diabetic nephropathy) in DM groups. Lipoperoxidation was strongly correlated with P2X7 receptor expression, which was also correlated to NO•, thus associating this receptor to oxidative stress and kidney lesion. We suggest that P2X7 receptor inhibition associated with the maintenance of redox homeostasis could be useful as coadjuvant treatment to delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24940871

  15. [Effectiveness of two aerobic exercise programs in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Salas-Romero, Rebeca; Sánchez-Muñoz, Verónica; Franco-Sánchez, José Gilberto; Del Villar-Morales, Ariadna; Pegueros-Pérez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of two aerobic exercise programs on the modification of the metabolic syndrome (MS) components and its influence in reducing cardiovascular risk was evaluated in 16 sedentary women (30-66 years old). Patients were randomly divided into two exercise groups: continuous training (CE: 45 minutes at 65-70% of heart rate reserve or HRR) or interval training (IE: 5 x 3 minute intervals at 80-85% HRR with two minutes of active recovery at 65-70% HRR), and each participant gave previous informed consent. The components of MS were assessed according to the criteria for women of the National Cholesterol Education/Third Treatment Adult Panel, and cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and 16 weeks later. Data analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon signed test and the Mann-Whitney U-test (SPSS v. 12.0 Windows: p < 0.05). Both exercise programs were effective in the modification of a number of MS components (triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure), however IE had a higher percentage of patients without MS diagnosis at the end of the study (62.5%). The CE improved the physical fitness by increasing the VO₂peak and METs and decreasing heart rate recovery, which is reflected on the reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  16. Effect of Eight Weekly Aerobic Training Program on Auditory Reaction Time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine the effect of eight weekly aerobic exercises on auditory reaction time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in visual impairments. Forty visual impairment children that have blind 3 classification from the Turkey, experimental group; (age = 15.60 ± 1.10 years; height = 164.15 ± 4.88 cm; weight = 66.60 ± 4.77 kg) for twenty…

  17. The effect of 6 days of sodium phosphate supplementation on appetite, energy intake, and aerobic capacity in trained men and women.

    PubMed

    West, Jessica S; Ayton, Tom; Wallman, Karen E; Guelfi, Kym J

    2012-12-01

    Ingestion of an acute dose of phosphate has been shown to attenuate energy intake in the subsequent meal. This raises the question of whether the practice of phosphate supplementation over a number of days by athletes to enhance performance also influences energy intake. This study investigated the effect of 6 d of phosphate supplementation on appetite and energy intake, as well as aerobic capacity, in trained individuals. Twenty participants completed two 6-d phases of supplementation with either sodium phosphate (50 mg/kg of fat-free mass per day) or a placebo in a double-blinded, counterbalanced design. On Days 1, 2, and 6 of supplementation, a laboratory meal was provided to assess appetite and ad libitum energy intake. All other food and drink consumed during each supplementation phase were recorded in a food diary. After the 6 d of supplementation, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) was assessed. There was no difference in energy intake at the laboratory meal after an acute dose (i.e., on Day 1; placebo 2,471 ± 919 kJ, phosphate 2,353 ± 987 kJ; p = .385) or prolonged supplementation with sodium phosphate (p = .581) compared with placebo. Likewise, there was no difference in VO(2peak) with phosphate supplementation (placebo 52.6 ± 5.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), phosphate 53.3 ± 6.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = .483). In summary, 6 d of sodium phosphate supplementation does not appear to influence energy intake. Therefore, athletes supplementing with sodium phosphate can do so without hindering their nutritional status. However, given that phosphate supplementation failed to improve aerobic capacity, the ergogenic benefit of this supplement remains questionable.

  18. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction.

    PubMed

    Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of direction (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p < 0.05). This investigation demonstrates that both SSG and HIT interventions are equally effective in developing the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with CODs in male amateur soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar effect on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat directional changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training. PMID:22130398

  19. A study on macronutrient self-selection after acute aerobic exercise in college females

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Min-Jeong; Cho, Ik-Rae; Won, Yu-Mi; Han, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Kon-Nym; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hee; Chin, Ji-Hyoung; Roh, Jae-Hun; Min, Seung-Hi; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Hyo-Joo; Jang, Kwon; Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kang, Suh-Jung; Shin, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hu-Nyun; Hong, Jae-Seung; Choi, Eun-Hi; An, Nam-Il; Kim, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Mi-Suk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine whether acute aerobic exercise (climbing) is associated with changes in the dietary intake pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Food intake and physical activity data for 15 female college students were sampled for 3 days and categorized according to routine activity or high-intensity activity such as hiking. Nutrient intake based on the data was analyzed using a nutrition program. [Results] Carbohydrate and protein intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before acute aerobic exercise, but lipid intake showed no significant difference. Calorie intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before exercise; however, calorie consumption was significantly increased after exercise. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise causes a decrease in total calories by inducing reduction in carbohydrate and protein intake. Therefore, aerobic exercise is very important for weight (body fat) control since it causes positive changes in the food intake pattern in female students. PMID:27799693

  20. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2 O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dela, Flemming; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Currently, it is not known whether impaired mitochondrial function contributes to human ageing or whether potential impairments in mitochondrial function with age are secondary to physical inactivity. The present study investigated mitochondrial respiratory function and reactive oxygen species emission at a predefined membrane potential in young and older men subjected to 2 weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks of aerobic cycle training. Immobilization increased reactive oxygen species emission and decreased ATP generating respiration. Subsequent aerobic training reversed these effects. By contrast, age had no effect on the measured variables. The results of the present study support the notion that increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production mediates the detrimental effects seen after physical inactivity and that ageing per se does not cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction, defined as increased oxidative stress and lower capacity for energy production, may be seen with ageing and may cause frailty, or it could be that it is secondary to physical inactivity. We studied the effect of 2 weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks of supervised cycle training on mitochondrial function in 17 young (mean ± SEM: 23 ± 1 years) and 15 older (68 ± 1 years) healthy men. Submaximal H2 O2 emission and respiration were measured simultaneously at a predefined membrane potential in isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle using two protocols: pyruvate + malate (PM) and succinate + rotenone (SR). This allowed measurement of leak and ATP generating respiration from which the coupling efficiency can be calculated. The protein content of the anti-oxidants manganese superoxide dismuthase (MnSOD), CuZn superoxide dismuthase, catalase and gluthathione peroxidase 1 was measured by western blotting. Immobilization decreased ATP generating respiration using PM and increased H2 O2 emission using both PM and SR similarly in young

  1. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  2. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular.

  3. The impact of dance-aerobics training on the morpho-motor status in female high-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Viskić-Stalec, Natasa; Stalec, Janez; Katić, Ratko; Podvorac, Durda; Katović, Darko

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of special programmed physical education including dance, aerobics and rhythmic gymnastics on the development of motor and functional abilities and morphological characteristics of female fourth-grade high-schoolers in Zagreb. A total sample of 220 high-schoolers aged 16-18 years were divided into two groups: experimental group of 115 students attending the program composed of dance structures and aerobics, and control group of 105 students attending classic program of physical education. A set of 3 morphological variables, 6 motor variables and one functional variable were applied in both groups on three occasions during an academic year (initial, transient and final measurements). Two-factor analysis of variance (MANOVA repeated measure design) showed the experimental program to significantly influence the development of coordination/agility and specific rhythm coordination, functional aerobic ability, repetitive and explosive strength and flexibility, along with significant reduction of overweight and adipose tissue. Study results clearly indicate that the existing programs of physical education should be revised and replaced by more appropriate ones.

  4. Effects of an Aerobic Rowing Training Regimen in Young Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Ana Maria; Sardinha, Luis Bettencount; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2001-01-01

    Eight young adult males with Down syndrome received a 16-week rowing ergometry training regimen. Following training, no changes in cardiovascular fitness were found but participants did achieve significantly higher levels of work performance on both treadmill and rowing ergometer tests than did a control group. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  5. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  6. The effect of aerobic exercise training on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Yu, Li-Juan; Wang, Chuan; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8weeks at a water velocity of control (3cms(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl)s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4bls(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (P<0.05). The 1 and 2bls(-1) groups showed a significantly higher SGR over the control group (P<0.05). The whole-body fat and protein contents were significantly altered after aerobic exercise training (P<0.05). Furthermore, aerobic exercise training elevated the activity of both trypsin and lipase in the hepatopancreas and intestinal tract of juvenile S. sinensis. The M˙O2max of the 4bls(-1) training group was significantly higher than for the control group. The resting M˙O2 (M˙O2rest) and peak postprandial M˙O2 (M˙O2peak) in the three training groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Time to M˙O2peak was significantly shorter in the 1, 2 and 4bls(-1) training groups compared with the control group, while exercise training showed no effect on SDA (specific dynamic action) duration, factorial metabolic scope, energy expended on SDA and the SDA coefficient when compared to the control group. These data suggest that (1) the optimum water velocity for the growth of juvenile S. sinensis occurred at approximately 2.4bls(-1); (2

  7. Enhancing of Women Functional Status with Metabolic Syndrome by Cardioprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Alsamir Tibana, Ramires; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, João; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; de Toledo Nóbrega, Otávio; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-01-01

    These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4±6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ∼60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65–70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8–12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p = 0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p = 0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p = 0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p = 0.049), MBP (p = 0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p = 0.046), OPG (0.42±0.26 to 0.38±0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3±2.3 µmol/L to 9.1±2.3 µmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6±7.5 to 17.2±12.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p = 0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. Trial Registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - RBR-6gdyvz - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-6gdyvz PMID:25379699

  8. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%). PMID:11990874

  9. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  10. Comparative Study of Aerobic Performance Between Football and Judo Groups in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Triki, Moez; Rebai, Haithem; Shamssain, Mohammed; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Fellmann, Nicole; Zouari, Hela; Zouari, Nouri; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the practice of football and judo on lung function and aerobic performance of prepubertal boys. Methods A total of ninety six prepubertal boys were studied. They assessed a measure of body composition using the skin folds method. They performed lung plethysmography at rest, followed by an incremental exercise test. Results There was no significant difference in baseline spirometry between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] and the VO2 at the ventilatory threshold [VT] were similar between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal minute ventilation [VEmax] of judokas was significantly higher than footballers (P<0.01) and similar at the [VT]. The Heart rate [HR] at [VT] of footballers and judokas was similar and significantly higher than control group (P<0.01). VO2max was significantly related to LM and negatively associated with FM. At the [VT] there was a significant relationship between P[VT] and LM and mainly with VE to VO2 [VT], P[VT] and HR[VT] in all groups. Conclusion Training in football and judo does not affect lung volumes and capacities, VO2max and VO2 at the [VT]. PMID:24427474

  11. Differences in central systolic blood pressure and aortic stiffness between aerobically trained and sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Pierre; Marenco, Patrice; Castagna, Olivier; Smulyan, Harold; Blacher, Jacques; Safar, Michel E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate central (carotid) artery blood pressure (BP) in endurance athletes. Carotid-femoral (= aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV) together with radial and carotid tonometry and pulse wave analysis were performed at rest in 30 endurance athletes and 30 sedentary controls, all males matched for age, height, brachial systolic BP (SBP), and diastolic BP. Whereas brachial BP was similar in the two groups, carotid SBP and pulse pressure (PP) were higher in endurance athletes than in controls irrespective of age (123.1 ± 2.17 vs. 110.2 ± 1.29 mm Hg, and 50.9 ± 1.95 vs. 34.1 ± 1.01 mm Hg; P < .0001 for both). PP amplification evaluated from the brachial/carotid PP ratio was lower in athletes than in controls (1.05 ± 0.04 vs. 1.40 ± 0.02; P < .0001). When compared with controls, athletes had lower PWV (7.81 ± 0.17 vs. 9.8 ± 0.23 m/second; P < .0001), higher reflected wave transit time/left ventricular ejection time ratio (P = .02), and lower heart rate (52.03 ± 1.54 vs. 68.9 ± 1.72 beats/minute; P < .0001). When matched for brachial BP, central SBP and PP were higher in endurance athletes than in sedentary controls. The possible negative pathophysiological impact of increased central BP on the overall favorable effects of training deserves further study.

  12. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Allan; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Pires, Flávio O.; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.; Deslandes, Andrea C.; Santos, Tony M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on mountain biking (MTB) race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO), lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). Methods Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7–10 x [4–6 min—highest sustainable intensity / 4–6 min—CR100 10–15]) and SIT (8–12 x [30 s—all-out intensity / 4 min—CR100 10–15]) protocols were included in the participants’ regular training programs three times per week. Results Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT) in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94). The Cohen’s d effect size (ES) showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56). The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08), with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43). A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases) was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046). Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043) group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5%) with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8%) compared to SIT. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865 PMID:26789124

  13. Effects of 6-week specific low-intensity training on selected aerobic capacity parameters and HSPA1A, HSPB1, and LDHb gene expression in high-level rowers.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, Z; Żychowska, M

    2015-07-06

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of 6-week low-intensity training on changes in indicators of aerobic capacity and on HSPA1A, HSPB1, and LDHb expression in white blood cells in high level rowers. We hypothesized that the type of training would have an impact not only on the adaptation of athletes to the aerobic nature of the exercises, but also on the expression of genes, designated during exercises "until refusal". Nine Polish lightweight male rowers (21.8 ± 3.77 years of age, 74.2 ± 1.7 6 kg, 184.8 ± 4.58 cm) of high level participated in the experiment. To determine the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) at the beginning and end of the 6-week training period, the subjects performed the test "till exhaustion", with increasing load. Directly before and after the test, blood samples were collected from the ulnar vein for isolation of RNA. Consecutively, reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed. A significant influence of applied training on physiological parameters such as VO2max (P = 0.0001), AnT (W/AT) (P = 0.0007), and maximal acid lactate concentration (P = 0.018) as well as on HSPA1A expression (P = 0.0129) in rowers were detected. The 6-week low-intensity aerobic training significantly affected the physiological parameters and HSPA1A expression in the rowers. Therefore, we suggest that the response of leukocytes by activating HSPA1A was dependent on the type of training. The 6-week period proved sufficiently long to of adapting leukocytes in athletes to high intensity exercises.

  14. Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteriology of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Study of 22 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Katoulis, Alexandros C.; Koumaki, Dimitra; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Vrioni, Georgia; Koumaki, Vasiliki; Kontogiorgi, Dimitra; Tzima, Korina; Tsakris, Athanasios; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of unclear etiology. The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of disease remains controversial. Materials and Methods Specimens were obtained from 22 HS patients by direct percutaneous needle aspiration. The collected material was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and sensitivity tests were performed. Results Of the 22 patients, 32% were culture negative and 68% were culture positive. A total of 16 isolates was obtained, 14 aerobic and 2 anaerobic. Aerobic bacteria were present in 86% of the specimens, whereas only anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 7%. The predominant aerobic species were Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The isolated anaerobic bacteria were Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis and Propionibacterium granulosum. Conclusion A variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was isolated from the HS lesions of our patients. In contrast to previous studies, fewer patients were found to be culture positive, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in only 1 of them. More studies are necessary to elucidate the controversial role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:27170935

  15. Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941. PMID:24516645

  16. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  17. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level. PMID:27297837

  18. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  19. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-07-10

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%-90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  20. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25559915

  1. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  2. Studies of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    den Hollander, J.A.; Ugurbil, K.; Brown, T.R.; Bednar, M.; Redfield, C.; Shulman, R.G.

    1986-01-14

    Glucose metabolism was followed in suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using 13C NMR and 14C radioactive labeling techniques and by Warburg manometer experiments. These experiments were performed for cells grown with various carbon sources in the growth medium, so as to evaluate the effect of catabolite repression. The rate of glucose utilization was most conveniently determined by the 13C NMR experiments, which measured the concentration of (1-13C)glucose, whereas the distribution of end products was determined from the 13C and the 14C experiments. By combining these measurements the flows into the various pathways that contribute to glucose catabolism were estimated, and the effect of oxygen upon glucose catabolism was evaluated. From these measurements, the Pasteur quotient (PQ) for glucose catabolism was calculated to be 2.95 for acetate-grown cells and 1.89 for cells grown on glucose into saturation. The Warburg experiments provided an independent estimate of glucose catabolism. The PQ estimated from Warburg experiments was 2.9 for acetate-grown cells in excellent agreement with the labeled carbon experiments and 4.6 for cells grown into saturation, which did not agree. Possible explanations of these differences are discussed. From these data an estimate is obtained of the net flow through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The backward flow through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2-ase) was calculated from the scrambling of the 13C label of (1-13C)glucose into the C1 and C6 positions of trehalose. Combining these data allowed us to calculate the net flux through phosphofructokinase (PFK). For acetate-grown cells we found that the relative flow through PFK is a factor of 1.7 faster anaerobically than aerobically.

  3. Effect of different bicycle body positions on power output in aerobically trained females.

    PubMed

    Hubenig, Lindsay R; Game, Alex B; Kennedy, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Aerodynamic bicycle positioning reduces drag but also reduces power output (PO) in males. The effect of aerodynamic bicycle positioning in trained endurance females is unknown. Eighteen females participants (VO2max 49.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) all with competitive experience performed cycling trials at ventilatory threshold 1 and 2 (VT-1, VT-2) in both an aerodynamic and an upright position. There was a significant difference in PO between the aerodynamic and upright positions at VT-1 (152.7 ± 28.0 Watts and 159.7 ± 33.1 Watts, respectively) but not at VT-2 (191.2 ± 39.1 Watts and 192.4 ± 40.0 Watts, respectively). There were no significant differences in heart rate, oxygen consumption, or cadence between positions at either intensity. At both intensities the individual response was varied and no trends due to years of experience or background (triathlete or cyclist) explained this variability. Therefore, despite the significant mean difference in PO at VT-1, these results indicate that in trained females the effect of aerodynamic positioning is individual.

  4. [Physical activity can influence the course of early arthritis. Both strength training and aerobic exercise provide pain relief and functional improvement].

    PubMed

    Roos, Ewa

    2002-11-01

    There is no causal treatment for osteoarthritis. Instead treatment is aimed at decreasing pain and improving function. The base of osteoarthritis treatment is education and exercise. Exercise, both aerobic exercise and muscular strength training, have positive effects on pain and function. The minimum recommendations of exercise are equivalent to the recommendations of physical activity to obtain or maintain a good general health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective treatment for osteoarthritis pain. However, function is not automatically improved when pain is relieved.

  5. The effectiveness of aerobic training, cognitive behavioural therapy, and energy conservation management in treating MS-related fatigue: the design of the TREFAMS-ACE programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TREFAMS is an acronym for TReating FAtigue in Multiple Sclerosis, while ACE refers to the rehabilitation treatment methods under study, that is, Aerobic training, Cognitive behavioural therapy, and Energy conservation management. The TREFAMS-ACE research programme consists of four studies and has two main objectives: (1) to assess the effectiveness of three different rehabilitation treatment strategies in reducing fatigue and improving societal participation in patients with MS; and (2) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action that underlie treatment effects and MS-related fatigue in general. Methods/Design Ambulatory patients (n = 270) suffering from MS-related fatigue will be recruited to three single-blinded randomised clinical trials (RCTs). In each RCT, 90 patients will be randomly allocated to the trial-specific intervention or to a low-intensity intervention that is the same for all RCTs. This low-intensity intervention consists of three individual consultations with a specialised MS-nurse. The trial-specific interventions are Aerobic Training, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, and Energy Conservation Management. These interventions consist of 12 individual therapist-supervised sessions with additional intervention-specific home exercises. The therapy period lasts 16 weeks. All RCTs have the same design and the same primary outcome measures: fatigue - measured with the Checklist Individual Strength, and participation - measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. Outcomes will be assessed 1 week prior to, and at 0, 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The assessors will be blinded to allocation. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, salivary cortisol, physical fitness, physical activity, coping, self-efficacy, illness cognitions and other determinants will be longitudinally measured in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action. Discussion The TREFAMS-ACE programme is unique in its aim to

  6. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  7. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Exercise Training Trial on Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men: The ARTIIS study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L.; Johnson, William D.; Hendrick, Chelsea; Harris, Melissa; Andrews, Emanuel; Johannsen, Neil; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Church, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of regular physical activity at prescribed intensity levels is a modifiable risk factor for insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. African American men are at increased risk for developing diabetes and most African American men are not meeting the current recommended levels of physical activity. The primary objective of the Aerobic Plus Resistance Training and Insulin Resistance in African American Men (ARTIIS) study is to determine the effectiveness of an exercise training intervention aimed at reducing diabetes risk factors in African American men at risk for developing diabetes. Methods Insufficiently active 35–70 year old African American men with a family history of diabetes were eligible for the study. The 5-month randomized controlled trial assigns 116 men to an exercise training or healthy living control arm. The exercise training arm combines aerobic and resistance training according to the current national physical activity recommendations and is conducted in community (YMCA) facilities. The healthy living arm receives information promoting healthy lifestyle changes. Outcomes Insulin response to an oral glucose load is the primary outcome measure, and changes in physiological parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, body composition, and psychological well-being comprise the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The ARTIIS study is one of the first adequately powered, rigorously designed studies to investigate the effects of an aerobic plus resistance exercise training program and to assess adherence to exercise training in community facilities, in African American men. PMID:25979318

  9. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  10. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  11. [Effect of training on treadmill performance, aerobic capacity and body reactions to acute cold exposure].

    PubMed

    Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V; Kuznetsova, O V; Son'kin, V D

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold is able to stimulate an increase in the amount of body fat brown or beige, which can manifest itself in increasing lactate utilization during exercise and increase the reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used are: ramp test, regional acute cold exposure, measurement of gas exchange, lactate and glucose in the blood, heart rate, and heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging, statistical methods of results analysis. Workout 10 physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of the persona VO2max for 30 minutes 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in test work duration but VO2max on average changed little. The increase in power of anaerobic threshold was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate in progress of ramp test. Lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, significantly increased work efficiency at a test load. Not revealed noticeable changes in the condition and response to a standard functional tests of autonomic systems, as judged by heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1 minute cooling of the feet in ice water) is not changed after a cycle of training--either in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.), or the dynamics of the skin temperature in areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm the previously expressed (2010) hypothesis about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if under

  12. Effect of twenty minutes of aerobic exercise on in vivo platelet release in moderately trained females: radioimmunoassay of platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Rudmann, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Circulating blood platelets serve an important role in the physiological process of hemostasis. Physical exercise has been documented to result in alterations in many hemostatic parameters including platelet size, number and function. Most published research data support the hypotheses that both hemostasis and fibrinolysis become activated as a consequence of various levels of physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of twenty minutes aerobic exercise on platelet activation in vivo. Platelet activation in vivo is associated with the release of platelet granular contents. Platelet alpha granules contain two platelet specific proteins: platelet factor 4 (PF4) and beta-thromboglobulin (BTG). Elevated plasma levels of these proteins are a specific marker of in vivo platelet activation. Subjects were moderately trained female volunteers between the ages of 22 and 40 years. Subjects were exercised or twenty minutes on a bicycle ergometer at workloads that represented 65 to 75% of their functional capacity. Blood specimens were drawn within five minutes of exercise. Plasma samples from exercise and control subjects were assayed for PF4 and BTG using a sensitive competitive-binding radioimmunoassay procedure. The mean plasma levels of both proteins were significantly greater in the exercising subjects when compared with the non-exercising controls. Data from this study support the following research hypotheses: BTG plasma levels will be significantly higher in exercising subjects than in non-exercising controls, and PF4 plasma levels will be significantly higher in exercising subjects than in non-exercising controls.

  13. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (ps<.003). Results provide direction for prescribing exercise to improve body image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise. PMID:24958656

  14. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (ps<.003). Results provide direction for prescribing exercise to improve body image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise.

  15. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    PubMed

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample.

  16. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    PubMed

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample. PMID:23161338

  17. Low-intensity aerobic interval training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction in aortic-banded miniature swine

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy in response to hypertension or myocardial infarction is a pathological indicator associated with heart failure (HF). A central component of the remodeling process is the loss of cardiomyocytes via cell death pathways regulated by the mitochondrion. Recent evidence has indicated that exercise training can attenuate or reverse pathological remodeling, creating a physiological phenotype. The purpose of this study was to examine left ventricular (LV) function, remodeling, and cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function in aortic-banded (AB) sedentary (HFSED; n = 6), AB exercise-trained (HFTR, n = 5), and control sedentary (n = 5) male Yucatan miniature swine. LV hypertrophy was present in both AB groups before the start of training, as indicated by increases in LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and LV end-systolic dimension (LVESD). Exercise training (15 wk) prevented further increases in LVESV and LVESD (P < 0.05). The heart weight-to-body weight ratio, LV + septum-to-body weight ratio, LV + septum-to-right ventricle ratio, and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were increased in both AB groups postmortem regardless of training status. Preservation of LV function after exercise training, as indicated by the maintenance of fractional shortening, ejection fraction, and mean wall shortening and increased stroke volume, was associated with an attenuation of the increased LV fibrosis (23%) and collagen (36%) observed in HFSED animals. LV mitochondrial dysfunction, as measured by Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition, was increased in HFSED (P < 0.05) but not HFTR animals. In conclusion, low-intensity interval exercise training preserved LV function as exemplified by an attenuation of fibrosis, maintenance of a positive inotropic state, and inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, providing further evidence of the therapeutic potential of exercise in a clinical setting. PMID:20817828

  18. Potential Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Expression of Perilipin 3 in the Adipose Tissue of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Jeffrey D.; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Moro, Cedric; Tchoukalova, Yourka D.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Burk, David H.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reduced adipose tissue lipolysis that can be rescued by aerobic exercise. We aimed to identify differences in gene expression of perilipins and associated targets in adipose tissue in women with PCOS before and after exercise. Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in 8 women with PCOS and 8 women matched for BMI and age with normal cycles. Women with PCOS also completed a 16-week prospective aerobic exercise-training study. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and primary adipose-derived stromal/stem cell cultures were established from women with PCOS before 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training (n=5) and controls (n=5). Gene expression was measured using real time PCR, in vitro lipolysis was measured using radiolabeled oleate, and PLIN3 protein content was measured by western blotting. Results The expression of PLIN1, PLIN3, and PLIN5, along with coatomers ARF1, ARFRP1, and βCOP were ~80% lower in women with PCOS (all p<0.05). Following exercise training, PLIN3 was the only perilipin to increase significantly (p<0.05), along with coatomers ARF1, ARFRP1, βCOP, and Sec23a (all p<0.05). Furthermore, PLIN3 protein expression was undetectable in the cell cultures from women with PCOS vs. controls. Following exercise training, in vitro adipose oleate oxidation, glycerol secretion, and PLIN3 protein expression were increased, along with reductions in triglyceride content and absence of large lipid droplet morphology. Conclusions These findings suggest that PLIN3 and coatomer GTPases are important regulators of lipolysis and triglyceride storage in the adipose tissue of women with PCOS. PMID:25342854

  19. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  20. Effect of training on maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Turner, D L

    1988-07-01

    1. The effects of artificial swim training on maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate, as well as on the capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscles, have been studied in the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula. 2. The artificial training programme resulted in a 27% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, mainly as a result of an increase in muscle capillarity (20% increase in capillary/fibre ratio). In addition, activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, increased (by 42%) and there was a significant transformation of fibre types in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. 3. Altering the duration and nature of the training stimulus, for example flying and diving, can bring about different degrees of muscular adaptation, particularly in oxidative capacity. PMID:3171990

  1. Effect of training on maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, P J; Turner, D L

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of artificial swim training on maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate, as well as on the capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscles, have been studied in the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula. 2. The artificial training programme resulted in a 27% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, mainly as a result of an increase in muscle capillarity (20% increase in capillary/fibre ratio). In addition, activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, increased (by 42%) and there was a significant transformation of fibre types in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. 3. Altering the duration and nature of the training stimulus, for example flying and diving, can bring about different degrees of muscular adaptation, particularly in oxidative capacity. PMID:3171990

  2. Muscle strength, endurance, and aerobic capacity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, C; Broman, G

    1992-01-01

    Isometric/isokinetic muscle strength and isokinetic endurance of the lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity were evaluated in 67 patients (43 female, 24 male; mean age 53 years, range 23-65) with classical/definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of functional class II. Results obtained were compared with those of a healthy reference group matched for age and sex. Disease characteristics of the group with RA were registered and lifestyle characteristics, such as work load, exercise, diet, smoking, and alcohol habits, were reported by both groups. Generally, results showed that the group with RA had decreased functional capacity. Isometric hip and knee muscle strength of the rheumatoid group was reduced to about 75% of normal function, isokinetic knee muscle strength at the velocities of 60 and 180 degrees/s to about 65% and 75% of normal function respectively, isokinetic endurance of the knee muscle groups to about 45%, and aerobic capacity to about 80% of the results obtained for the healthy reference group. Analyses of variance showed that the rheumatoid group, compared with the healthy group, had significantly reduced function on all isometric and isokinetic tests of the extensors and flexors of the knee. Results for isometric hip muscle strength were similar--all tests but one yielding highly significant differences. To avoid unnecessary functional deficits it seems important to include muscular training in rehabilitation programmes for patients with RA.

  3. Increased Skeletal Muscle Capillarization After Aerobic Exercise Training and Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Adults With IGT

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Blumenthal, Jacob B.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Transcapillary transport of insulin is one determinant of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle; thus, a reduction in capillary density (CD) may worsen insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle CD is lower in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance and may be modifiable through aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL). We tested the hypothesis that 6-month AEX+WL would increase CD to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in older adults with IGT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixteen sedentary, overweight-obese (BMI 27–35 kg/m2), older (63 ± 2 years) men and women with IGT underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure insulin sensitivity, oral glucose tolerance tests, exercise and body composition testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies to determine CD before and after 6-month AEX+WL. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity (M) and 120-min postprandial glucose (G120) correlated with CD at baseline (r = 0.58 and r = −0.60, respectively, P < 0.05). AEX+WL increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 18% (P = 0.02) and reduced weight and fat mass 8% (P < 0.02). CD increased 15% (264 ± 11 vs. 304 ± 14 capillaries/mm2, P = 0.01), M increased 21% (42.4 ± 4.0 vs. 51.4 ± 4.3 µmol/kg FFM/min, P < 0.05), and G120 decreased 16% (9.35 ± 0.5 vs. 7.85 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P = 0.008) after AEX+WL. Regression analyses showed that the AEX+WL-induced increase in CD independently predicted the increase in M (r = 0.74, P < 0.01) as well as the decrease in G120 (r = −0.55, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Six-month AEX+WL increases skeletal muscle CD in older adults with IGT. This represents one mechanism by which AEX+WL improves insulin sensitivity in older adults with IGT. PMID:24595633

  4. Mechanisms for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle blood flow capacity: differences with interval sprint training versus aerobic endurance training.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, M H; Roseguini, B

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow capacity (BFC) is increased by exercise training due to structural vascular remodeling (in the form of angiogenesis of capillaries and remodeling of the arterial tree within skeletal muscle) and/or altered control of vascular resistance. Changes in control can be central or the result of changes in reactivity of arteries and arterioles (due to changes in vascular smooth muscle and/or endothelium). The purpose of this review is to evaluate the relative importance of these mechanisms for increased BFC following interval sprint training (IST) and endurance exercise training (ET). Based on the results discussed herein we conclude that the importance of each of these mechanisms varies throughout muscle tissue due to interactions of muscle fiber-type composition and muscle fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The distribution of vascular adaptive changes varies with mode of training. For example, IST has been shown to produce the greatest relative increase in contractile activity in fast-twitch, white, skeletal muscle (i.e. white gastrocnemius muscle (Gw) and Gw muscle exhibits the largest increase in oxidative capacity, capillary density, BFC, and changes in vascular cells with IST. In contrast, ET has been shown to produce the greatest relative increase in contractile activity in red gastrocnemius muscle (Gr), and Gr muscle exhibits the largest increase in oxidative capacity, capillary density, and BFC after ET training. Results demonstrate that the increases in BFC are not mediated solely by structural adaptation. Rather, changes in vascular control predominate in Gr and soleus muscle, while increases in arteriolar and capillary density predominate following IST in Gw. Finally, evidence indicates that ET and IST induce non-uniform changes in smooth muscle and endothelium throughout skeletal muscle arteriolar networks.

  5. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  6. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  7. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  8. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Jossen, Stefanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS) deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET) has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST) would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Methods Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years) took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG]) and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire). MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07), sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38), and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09), as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0.90), as did MSs (ball playing, balance exercise: ds>0.6). Conclusion The pattern of results of this pilot study suggests that regular AET and MST impact positively on sleep, MSs, and mood among children with ASD. PMID:26346856

  9. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  10. Treatability studies of textile wastewater on an aerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FABR): a case study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Thalla Arun; Saravanan, S

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a pilot scale aerobic fluidized bed biofilm process and chemical coagulation for textile wastewater treatment was studied. In order to enhance biological treatment efficiency of textile wastewater, poly urethane cubes were incorporated as a supporting media for attached growth. Fenton's reagent was used as a coagulant in the present study. The fluidized bed biofilm process was operated at four HRTs (3, 4.5, 6 and 8 hour) and the results showed that the COD removal efficiency increased from 69% to 94% when the HRT increased from 3 to 4.5 and there of the removal efficiency remained constant around 94%, even though using relatively low MLSS concentration and short sludge retention time. COD and TDS removals of 94.2% and 93.3% were achieved by overall combined process (FABR+Coagulation aided Sedimentation). After the treatment there is remarkable decrease in colour in addition to COD and TDS.This combined process was highly competitive in comparison to the other similar combined systems. It was concluded that this combined process was successfully employed and much effectively decreased they COD, TDS and color of textile wastewater treatment at pilot scale.

  11. A Study of Training Program Characteristics and Training Program Effectiveness among Organizations Receiving Training Services from External Training Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Jeeyon; Hawley, Joshua D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of training program characteristics on training effectiveness among organizations receiving training services from external training providers. Two surveys were sent to HRD managers and senior managers per company. The results showed that the operational margin of the programs where private…

  12. Ethnographic Study: @ONE Technology Training Project Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Susan; Schiorring, Eva

    This report presents findings from an ethnographic study of technology integration and diffusion in two California community colleges. The study was commissioned to examine whether faculty behavior and student learning outcomes have changed as a result of @ONE instructional technology training and resources. The California Community Colleges…

  13. Laboratory Study of Chemical Speciation of Mercury in Lake Sediment and Water under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Regnell, Olof; Tunlid, Anders

    1991-01-01

    Chemical speciation and partitioning of radiolabeled HgCl2 were studied in model aquatic systems consisting of undisturbed eutrophic lake sediment and water in plastic cylinders. The cylinders were either gradually made anaerobic by a gentle flow of N2-CO2 or kept aerobic by air flow. The proportion of methylated 203Hg was significantly higher, in both water and sediment, in the anaerobic systems than in the aerobic systems. The composition and total concentration of fatty acids originating from bacterial phospholipids, as well as the concentration of vitamin B12, including related cobalamins, were similar in sediments from the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Bacterial cell numbers were, on average, 3.6 times higher in the anaerobic water columns than in the aerobic ones. Volatilization of 203Hg occurred in all systems except in an autoclaved control and was of similar magnitudes in the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Incorporation of 203Hg into the sediment was significantly faster in the aerobic systems than in the anaerobic systems. These results suggest that episodes of anoxia in bottom waters and sediment cause an increase in net mercury methylation and, hence, an increase in bioavailable mercury. PMID:16348444

  14. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi-anaerobic.

  15. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi

  16. Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary inflammation induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Clarice R; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Almeida, Francine M; Lourenço, Juliana D; Abreu, Rodrigo M; Arantes, Petra M M; Lopes, Fernanda Dtqs; Martins, Milton A

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recognized as a stimulator of the immune system, but its effect on bacterial infection has not been extensively evaluated. We studied whether moderate aerobic exercise training prior to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection influences pulmonary inflammatory responses. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Sedentary Untreated (sedentary without infection); Sedentary Infected (sedentary with infection); Trained Untreated (aerobic training without infection); and Trained Infected (aerobic training with infection). Animals underwent aerobic training for 4 wk, and 72 h after last exercise training, animals received a challenge with S. pneumoniae and were evaluated either 12 h or 10 days after instillation. In acute phase, Sedentary Infected group had an increase in respiratory system resistance and elastance; number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL); polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma; and levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) in lung homogenates. Exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in all of these parameters and induced an increase in expression of antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD and MnSOD) in lungs. Trained Infected mice had a significant decrease in the number of colony-forming units of pneumococci in the lungs compared with Sedentary Infected animals. Ten days after infection, Trained Infected group exhibited lower numbers of macrophages in BAL, polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma and IL-6 in lung homogenates compared with Sedentary Infected group. Our results suggest a protective effect of moderate exercise training against respiratory infection with S. pneumoniae. This effect is most likely secondary to an effect of exercise on oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  17. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  18. Responsiveness to exercise training in juvenile dermatomyositis: a twin case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) often present strong exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. However, the role of exercise training in this disease has not been investigated. Purpose this longitudinal case study reports on the effects of exercise training on a 7-year-old patient with JDM and on her unaffected monozygotic twin sister, who served as a control. Methods Both the patient who was diagnosed with JDM as well as her healthy twin underwent a 16-week exercise training program comprising aerobic and strengthening exercises. We assessed one repetition-maximum (1-RM) leg-press and bench-press strength, balance, mobility and muscle function, blood markers of inflammation and muscle enzymes, aerobic conditioning, and disease activity scores. As a result, the healthy child had an overall greater absolute strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning compared to her JDM twin pair at baseline and after the trial. However, the twins presented comparable relative improvements in 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, VO2peak, and time-to-exhaustion. The healthy child had greater relative increments in low-back strength and handgrip, whereas the child with JDM presented a higher relative increase in ventilatory anaerobic threshold parameters and functional tests. Quality of life, inflammation, muscle damage and disease activity scores remained unchanged. Results and Conclusion this was the first report to describe the training response of a patient with non-active JDM following an exercise training regimen. The child with JDM exhibited improved strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning without presenting an exacerbation of the disease. PMID:21106107

  19. Effect of aerobic exercise training and cognitive behavioural therapy on reduction of chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: protocol of the FACTS-2-FSHD trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) muscle function is impaired and declines over time. Currently there is no effective treatment available to slow down this decline. We have previously reported that loss of muscle strength contributes to chronic fatigue through a decreased level of physical activity, while fatigue and physical inactivity both determine loss of societal participation. To decrease chronic fatigue, two distinctly different therapeutic approaches can be proposed: aerobic exercise training (AET) to improve physical capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to stimulate an active life-style yet avoiding excessive physical strain. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-FSHD (acronym for Fitness And Cognitive behavioural TherapieS/for Fatigue and ACTivitieS in FSHD) trial is to study the effect of AET and CBT on the reduction of chronic fatigue as assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength subscale fatigue (CIS-fatigue) in patients with FSHD. Additionally, possible working mechanisms and the effects on various secondary outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial is conducted. A sample of 75 FSHD patients with severe chronic fatigue (CIS-fatigue ≥ 35) will be recruited and randomized to one of three groups: (1) AET + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care or (3) usual care alone, which consists of no therapy at all or occasional (conventional) physical therapy. After an intervention period of 16 weeks and a follow-up of 3 months, the third (control) group will as yet be randomized to either AET or CBT (approximately 7 months after inclusion). Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3 and 6 months follow up. Discussion The FACTS-2-FSHD study is the first theory-based randomized clinical trial which evaluates the effect and the maintenance of effects

  20. A biochemical approach to study the role of the terminal oxidases in aerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Le Laz, Sébastien; Kpebe, Arlette; Bauzan, Marielle; Lignon, Sabrina; Rousset, Marc; Brugna, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The genome of the facultative anaerobic γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 encodes for three terminal oxidases: a bd-type quinol oxidase and two heme-copper oxidases, a A-type cytochrome c oxidase and a cbb 3-type oxidase. In this study, we used a biochemical approach and directly measured oxidase activities coupled to mass-spectrometry analysis to investigate the physiological role of the three terminal oxidases under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Our data revealed that the cbb 3-type oxidase is the major terminal oxidase under aerobic conditions while both cbb 3-type and bd-type oxidases are involved in respiration at low-O2 tensions. On the contrary, the low O2-affinity A-type cytochrome c oxidase was not detected in our experimental conditions even under aerobic conditions and would therefore not be required for aerobic respiration in S. oneidensis MR-1. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that the A-type cytochrome c oxidase is a ccaa 3-type oxidase since an uncommon extra-C terminal domain contains two c-type heme binding motifs. The particularity of the aerobic respiratory pathway and the physiological implication of the presence of a ccaa 3-type oxidase in S. oneidensis MR-1 are discussed.

  1. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  2. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Functions in Economically Underprivileged Children Aged 7-9 Years: A preliminary Study from South India

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Arpitha; D’Souza, Crystal D.; Sumithra, S.; Avadhani, Sandhya; Subramanya, Chaya Mayasandra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive functions in 7-9 year old school going children hailing from a socio-economically disadvantaged background in Bangalore, India. Ninety eight children (51% boys and 49% girls) were assessed on height, weight, BMI, aerobic fitness (multistage 20 m shuttle test) and cognitive functions (verbal tests: comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, analogies; performance tests: block design, object assembly and coding). Number of shuttles was significantly positively correlated with two of the cognitive tests: comprehension (p=0.01) and block design (p=0.005). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the number of shuttles emerged as an independent predictor of tests of comprehension and block design after adjusting for BMI and gender. The above findings provide preliminary evidence for the association between aerobic fitness and cognitive functions in children from poor socio-economic background. PMID:23675220

  3. A standardized randomized 6-month aerobic exercise-training down-regulated pro-inflammatory genes, but up-regulated anti-inflammatory, neuron survival and axon growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base Library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change≥±2.0, p<0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype.

  4. A Standardized Randomized 6-Month Aerobic Exercise-Training Down-regulated Pro-inflammatory Genes, but Up-regulated Anti-inflammatory, Neuron Survival and Axon Growth-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change ≥ ± 2.0, p < 0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype. PMID:25981742

  5. The effects of a multisite aerobic exercise intervention on asthma morbidity in sedentary adults with asthma: the Ex-asthma study randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Bourbeau, Jean; Ernst, Pierre; Maghni, Karim; Gautrin, Denyse; Labrecque, Manon; Pepin, Veronique; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aerobic exercise can improve cardiovascular fitness and does not seem to be detrimental to patients with asthma, though its role in changing asthma control and inflammatory profiles is unclear. The main hypothesis of the current randomised controlled trial is that aerobic exercise will be superior to usual care in improving asthma control. Key secondary outcomes are asthma quality of life and inflammatory profiles. Design A total of 104 sedentary adults with physician-diagnosed asthma will be recruited. Eligible participants will undergo a series of baseline assessments including: the asthma control questionnaire; the asthma quality-of-life questionnaire and the inflammatory profile (assessed from both the blood and sputum samples). On completion of the assessments, participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation) to either 12-weeks of usual care or usual care plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise will consist of three supervised training sessions per week. Each session will consist of taking a short-acting bronchodilator, 10 min of warm-up, 40 min of aerobic exercise (50–75% of heart rate reserve for weeks 1–4, then 70–85% for weeks 5–12) and a 10 min cool-down. Within 1 week of completion, participants will be reassessed (same battery as at baseline). Analyses will assess the difference between the two intervention arms on postintervention levels of asthma control, quality of life and inflammation, adjusting for age, baseline inhaled corticosteroid prescription, body weight change and pretreatment dependent variable level. Missing data will be handled using standard multiple imputation techniques. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by all relevant research ethics boards. Written consent will be obtained from all participants who will be able to withdraw at any time. Results The result will be disseminated to three groups of stakeholder groups: (1) the scientific and professional community; (2) the research

  6. Aerobic degradation study of three fluoroanilines and microbial community analysis: the effects of increased fluorine substitution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Tian, Bao-Hu; Zhang, Xuan; Ghulam, Abbas; Zheng, Tu-Cai; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    The fate of fluorinated compounds in the environment, especially polyfluorinated aromatics, is a matter of great concern. In this work, 4-Fluoroaniline (4-FA), 2,4-Difluoroanilines (2,4-DFA), and 2,3,4-Trifluoroanilines (2,3,4-TFA), were chosen as the target pollutants to study their biodegradability under aerobic conditions. The required enriched time of the mixed bacterial culture for degrading 4-FA, 2,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA was 26, 51, and 165 days, respectively, which suggested that the longer enrichment time was required with the increase of fluorine substitution. At the initial concentrations of 100-200 mg L(-1), the 4-FA, 2,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA could be degraded completely by the mixed bacterial culture. The maximum specific degradation rates of 4-FA, 2,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA were 22.48 ± 0.55, 15.27 ± 2.04, and 8.84 ± 0.93 mg FA (g VSS h)(-1), respectively. Also, the three FAs enriched cultures showed certain potential of degrading other two FAs. The results from enzyme assay suggested the expression of meta-cleavage pathways during three FAs degradation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that unique bacterial communities were formed after FAs enrichment and these were principally composed of β-Proteobacteria, Oscillatoriophycideae, δ-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, Thermales, Xanthomonadales, Deinococci, Flavobacteriia, and Actinobacteridae. The Shannon-Wiener indexes in three FAs enriched culture decreased with the increase of fluorine substitution, indicating the significant effect of fluorine substitution on the microbial diversity. These findings supply important information on the fate of three FAs under aerobic environment, and the bacterial communities in their degradation systems.

  7. Pentachlorophenol aerobic removal in a sequential reactor: start-up procedure and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Domenica Mosca; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the applicability of a simple technology such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated with suspended biomass, to the aerobic biodegradation of a highly toxic compound, the pentachlorophenol (PCP). An enrichment of a microbial consortium, originated from the biomass of an urban wastewater treatment plant, was performed and 70 days were sufficient to achieve removal efficiencies of ∼90% with the compound fed as only carbon and energy source Once completed the start-up period, the SBR was operated with the acclimatized biomass for 60 days at a feed concentration of PCP in the range of 10-20 mg L(-1). Improved performance was observed at increased influent concentration and the reached removal efficiency for the highest concentrations was stable at values≥90%. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of the acclimated biomass was performed with biodegradation tests carried out in the bioreactor during the reaction phase. The classical and a modified four-parameter forms of the Haldane equation were applied to model the substrate inhibited kinetics. Both models provided reliable predictions with high correlation coefficients (>0.99). The biomass characterization was completed with the evaluation of the growth yield coefficient, Y (0.075 on chemical oxygen demand base) and endogenous respiration rate, b (0.054 d(-1)). The aerobic SBR, operated in the metabolic mode with a mixed culture, showed superior performance in comparison to continuous systems applied in the same range of PCP influent loads and achieved removal rates are suitable for application.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of submaximal aerobic training on a treadmill in Standardbred horses, using a standardized exercise test.

    PubMed

    Bayly, W M; Gabel, A A; Barr, S A

    1983-04-01

    Seven healthy, unexercised, previously trained, adult Standardbred horses were allotted to 2 groups and trained 78 days on a treadmill set at a 7 degree 30' angle. The groups were trained on different schedules, and the effects of training on heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, arteriovenous oxygen difference, systemic blood pressure, and venous lactic acid were determined. Measurements were made at rest, during exercise on the treadmill at rates of 55 m/min, 75 m/min, 100 m/min, and 154 m/min, and at 5 minutes after exercise (standardized exercise test). Heart rate and cardiac output decreased during the training period. Significantly slower heart rates were observed at 55 m/min by day 8, at 100 m/min and 154 m/min by day 36, at 1 minute after exercise by day 57, and at 5 minutes after exercise by day 78 (P less than 0.05). Stroke volume increased with exercise, but not significantly. The arteriovenous oxygen difference increased significantly (P less than 0.05) with each increase in work load. There was no significant increase with training, although an upward trend was recorded. Mean systemic blood pressure did not differ from resting with treadmill rates of 55 m/min, 75 m/min, or 100 m/min. It was greater at 154 m/min, although this was not significant. During exercise, the total peripheral resistance decreased to as little as 30% of its resting value. After exercise, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures and peripheral resistance increased. Marked increases in blood volume and blood viscosity during exercise were closely related to the decrease in peripheral resistance. There was no significant effect of training on blood pressure. Venous lactic acid concentrations at rest were greater than those of the horses on the treadmill at rates of 55 m/min, 75 m/min, and 100 m/min and at 5 minutes after exercise on days 1, 8, and 15. Subsequently, they were not different from resting values. Differences in the effects of the different training programs

  9. Influence of mechanical disintegration on the microbial growth of aerobic sludge biomass: A comparative study of ultrasonic and shear gap homogenizers by oxygen uptake measurements.

    PubMed

    Divyalakshmi, P; Murugan, D; Sivarajan, M; Saravanan, P; Lajapathi Rai, C

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant incorporates physical, chemical and biological processes to treat and remove the contaminants. The main drawback of conventional activated sludge process is the huge production of excess sludge, which is an unavoidable byproduct. The treatment and disposal of excess sludge costs about 60% of the total operating cost. The ideal way to reduce excess sludge production during wastewater treatment is by preventing biomass formation within the aerobic treatment train rather than post treatment of the generated sludge. In the present investigation two different mechanical devices namely, Ultrasonic and Shear Gap homogenizers have been employed to disintegrate the aerobic biomass. This study is intended to restrict the multiplication of microbial biomass and at the same time degrade the organics present in wastewater by increasing the oxidative capacity of microorganisms. The disintegrability on biomass was determined by biochemical methods. Degree of inactivation provides the information on inability of microorganisms to consume oxygen upon disruption. The soluble COD quantifies the extent of release of intra cellular compounds. The participation of disintegrated microorganism in wastewater treatment process was carried out in two identical respirometeric reactors. The results show that Ultrasonic homogenizer is very effective in the disruption of microorganisms leading to a maximum microbial growth reduction of 27%. On the other hand, Shear gap homogenizer does not favor the sludge growth reduction rather it facilitates the growth. This study also shows that for better microbial growth reduction, floc size reduction alone is not sufficient but also microbial disruption is essential.

  10. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. Method: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results: Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Conclusion: Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:27741123

  11. Fasting Leptin Is a Metabolic Determinant of Food Reward in Overweight and Obese Individuals during Chronic Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M.; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in food reward have been implicated in exercise-induced compensatory eating behaviour. However, the underlying mechanisms of food reward, and the physiological correlates of exercise-induced changes in food reward, are unknown. Methods. Forty-six overweight and obese individuals completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Body composition, food intake, and fasting metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week six, and postintervention. On separate days, the reward value of high-and-low-fat food (explicit liking and implicit wanting) was also assessed at baseline, week six, and postintervention. Results. Following the intervention, FM, FFM, and VO2peak improved significantly, while fasting leptin decreased. However, food intake or reward did not change significantly. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that FM (P = 0.022) and FFM (P = 0.046) were associated with explicit liking for high-fat food, but implicit wanting was associated with FM only (P = 0.005). Fasting leptin was associated with liking (P = 0.023) and wanting (P = 0.021) for high-fat food. Furthermore, a greater exercise-induced decline in fasting leptin was associated with increased liking (P = 0.018). Conclusion. These data indicate that food reward has a number of physiological correlates. In particular, fasting leptin appears to play an active role in mediating food reward during exercise-induced weight loss. PMID:24734042

  12. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  13. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  14. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  15. A Conceptual Study of Visual Training Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aik, Chong-Tek

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a research study to investigate the effects of two visual training methods on the productivity of new workers on an assembly line at a wood products plant in Indonesia. Suggests that such a study would be useful to the managers in deciding what types of training would be most appropriate. (Contains 23 references.) (CAK)

  16. Community-Based Training-Detraining Intervention in Older Women: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Douda, Helen T; Kosmidou, Konstantina V; Smilios, Ilias; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2015-10-01

    This five-year follow-up nonrandomized controlled study evaluated community-based training and detraining on body composition and functional ability in older women. Forty-two volunteers (64.3 ± 5.1 years) were divided into four groups: aerobic training, strength training, combined aerobic and strength, and control. Body composition and physical fitness were measured at baseline, after nine months of training and after three months of detraining every year. After five years of training, body fat decreased, and fat free mass, strength, and chair test performance increased (p < .05) in all training groups. Training-induced favorable adaptations were reversed during detraining but, eventually, training groups presented better values than the control group even after detraining. Thus, nine months of annual training, during a five-year period, induced favorable adaptations on body composition, muscular strength, and functional ability in older women. Three months of detraining, however, changed the favorable adaptations and underlined the need for uninterrupted exercise throughout life.

  17. TEMPO TVC for the enumeration of aerobic mesophilic flora in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Erin S; Bird, Patrick M; Torontali, Marianne K; Agin, James R; Goins, David G; Johnson, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The automated system for enumeration of total viable count (TVC) in foods, TEMPO TVC, uses a dehydrated culture medium and an enumeration card containing 48 wells across 3 different dilutions for the automatic determination of the most probable number (MPN). The alternative method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to AOAC Method 966.23 for determination of aerobic plate count for nondairy products and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Standard Plate Count for dairy products. Five food types, raw ground beef, raw ground chicken, cooked whitefish fillets, bagged lettuce, and milk, were analyzed for TVC by 14 collaborating laboratories throughout the United States and Canada. Three lots of naturally contaminated food products representing a wide range of counts were tested for each of the 5 food types. The study demonstrated that the overall repeatability, reproducibility, and mean log counts of the TEMPO TVC method were statistically comparable to those of the 2 standard methods at the 5% level.

  18. Are H-reflex and M-wave recruitment curve parameters related to aerobic capacity?

    PubMed

    Piscione, Julien; Grosset, Jean-François; Gamet, Didier; Pérot, Chantal

    2012-10-01

    Soleus Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude is affected by a training period and type and level of training are also well known to modify aerobic capacities. Previously, paired changes in H-reflex and aerobic capacity have been evidenced after endurance training. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between H- and M-recruitment curve parameters and aerobic capacity collected on a cohort of subjects (56 young men) that were not involved in regular physical training. Maximal H-reflex normalized with respect to maximal M-wave (H(max)/M(max)) was measured as well as other parameters of the H- or M-recruitment curves that provide information about the reflex or direct excitability of the motoneuron pool, such as thresholds of stimulus intensity to obtain H or M response (H(th) and M(th)), the ascending slope of H-reflex, or M-wave recruitment curves (H(slp) and M(slp)) and their ratio (H(slp)/M(slp)). Aerobic capacity, i.e., maximal oxygen consumption and maximal aerobic power (MAP) were, respectively, estimated from a running field test and from an incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Maximal oxygen consumption was only correlated with M(slp), an indicator of muscle fiber heterogeneity (p < 0.05), whereas MAP was not correlated with any of the tested parameters (p > 0.05). Although higher H-reflex are often described for subjects with a high aerobic capacity because of endurance training, at a basic level (i.e., without training period context) no correlation was observed between maximal H-reflex and aerobic capacity. Thus, none of the H-reflex or M-wave recruitment curve parameters, except M(slp), was related to the aerobic capacity of young, untrained male subjects.

  19. Defects in mitochondrial efficiency and H2O2 emissions in obese women are restored to a lean phenotype with aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Asante, Albert; Lanza, Ian R; Robinson, Matthew M; Johnson, Matthew L; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Amols, Mark H; Irving, Brian A; Nair, K S

    2015-06-01

    The notion that mitochondria contribute to obesity-induced insulin resistance is highly debated. Therefore, we determined whether obese (BMI 33 kg/m(2)), insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome had aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology compared with lean, insulin-sensitive women (BMI 23 kg/m(2)). Maximal whole-body and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were not different between obese and lean women. However, obese women exhibited lower mitochondrial coupling and phosphorylation efficiency and elevated mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emissions compared with lean women. We further evaluated the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on obesity-related impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial energetics in the fasted state and after a high-fat mixed meal. Exercise training reversed obesity-related mitochondrial derangements as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency and decreased mtH2O2 production. A concomitant increase in catalase antioxidant activity and decreased DNA oxidative damage indicate improved cellular redox status and a potential mechanism contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. mtH2O2 emissions were refractory to a high-fat meal at baseline, but after exercise, mtH2O2 emissions increased after the meal, which resembles previous findings in lean individuals. We demonstrate that obese women exhibit impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the form of decreased efficiency and impaired mtH2O2 emissions, while exercise effectively restores mitochondrial physiology toward that of lean, insulin-sensitive individuals.

  20. Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Reinhardt, Ralf K; Thöne, Jan; Hille, Katrin; Schneider, Matthias; Härtel, Sascha; Weidemann, Wolfgang; Bös, Klaus; Spitzer, Manfred

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness can serve as a means to enhance cognitive functioning by modulating particular aspects of brain functioning. However, mechanisms underlying this modulating effect remain widely unresolved. To examine the impact and to clarify the mechanisms of physical fitness training in a young and healthy population, it was investigated whether an increase in fitness would result in improvements in executive control processes and positive and negative affect. Moreover, genotype of the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was determined to elucidate dopamine tuning efficiency and its association with performance in the applied cognitive tasks. Seventy-five individuals participated and underwent an incremental fitness test to assess physical fitness. An exercising group subsequently engaged in a 17 weeks running training consisting of three running sessions at moderate to high, individually adjusted intensities. Associated with increased fitness improved cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were observed, whereas working memory remained unaffected. In runners, Val/Val participants improved cognitive performance to a greater extent compared to individuals carrying a Met allele. From the present results it is concluded that an increase in physical fitness provides a means to improve cognitive functioning via dopaminergic modulation.

  1. Aerobic MTBE biodegradation: an examination of past studies, current challenges and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Deeb, R A; Scow, K M; Alvarez-Cohen, L

    2000-01-01

    With the current practice of amending gasoline with up to 15% by volume MTBE, the contamination of groundwater by MTBE has become widespread. As a result, the bioremediation of MTBE-impacted aquifers has become an active area of research. A review of the current literature on the aerobic biodegradation of MTBE reveals that a number of cultures from diverse environments can either partially degrade or completely mineralize MTBE. MTBE is either utilized as a sole carbon and energy source or is degraded cometabolically by cultures grown on alkanes. Reported degradation rates range from 0.3 to 50 mg MTBE/g cells/h while growth rates (0.01-0.05 g MTBE/g cells/d) and cellular yields (0.1-0.2 g cells/g MTBE) are generally low. Studies on the mechanisms of MTBE degradation indicate that a monooxygenase enzyme cleaves the ether bond yielding tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and formaldehyde as the dominant detectable intermediates. TBA is further degraded to 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol, 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid, 2-propanol, acetone, hydroxyacteone and eventually, carbon dioxide. The majority of these intermediates are also common to mammalian MTBE metabolism. Laboratory studies on the degradation of MTBE in the presence of gasoline aromatics reveal that while degradation rates of other gasoline components are generally not inhibited by MTBE, MTBE degradation could be inhibited in the presence of more easily biodegradable compounds. Controlled field studies are clearly needed to elucidate MTBE degradation potential in co-contaminant plumes. Based on the reviewed studies, it is likely that a bioremediation strategy involving direct metabolism, cometabolism, bioaugmentation, or some combination thereof, could be applied as a feasible and cost-effective treatment method for MTBE contamination.

  2. In Hispanic, obese adolescents, a controlled aerobic exercise program teduced visceral and hepatic fat and improved insulin sensitivity, while resistance training only increased lean body mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern. Aerobic and/or resistance exercise are potential strategies to improve metabolism, but data are scarce on the effects of well-controlled exercise programs in adolescents. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk controlled aerobic o...

  3. Illness, Injury, and Correlates of Aerobic Exercise and Walking: A Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A sample of Californians was surveyed to explore differences in aerobic exercise and walking behavior among healthy subjects and subjects with illness/injury serious enough to limit physical activity. Results indicate different patterns of determinants of exercise within various illness/injury groups. This implies interventions to increase…

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    PubMed Central

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E.; Adams, Swann A.; Hébert, James R.; Hardin, James W.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men aged 20−88 years and who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) during 1974−2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974−2003). 283 digestive system cancer deaths occurred during a mean 17-year of observation. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 person-yrs according to low, moderate, and high CRF groups were 6.8, 4.0, and 3.3 for digestive system cancer (trend p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of cancer, personal history of diabetes, hazard ratios for overall digestive cancer deaths (95% confidence interval) for those in the middle and upper 40% of the distribution of CRF relative to those in the lowest 20% were 0.66 (0.49, 0.88) and 0.56 (0.40, 0.80), respectively. Being fit (the upper 80% of CRF) was associated with a lower risk of mortality from colon (0.61 [0.37, 1.00]), colorectal (0.58 [0.37, 0.92]), and liver cancer (0.28 [0.11, 0.72]), compared with being unfit (the lowest 20% of CRF). These findings support a protective role of CRF against total digestive tract, colorectal, and liver cancer deaths in men. PMID:19293313

  5. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-04-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  6. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, M.

    2000-01-01

    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  7. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  8. Effect of preceding resistance exercise on metabolism during subsequent aerobic session.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Rashti, Stefanie L; Tranchina, Christopher P; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Hoffman, Jay R

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the acute effect of prior resistance training of varying intensities on energy expenditure and substrate utilization during subsequent aerobic exercise. Eleven males and 21 females completed three experimental trials consisting of (1) aerobic exercise only (C), (2) aerobic exercise preceded by a high-intensity resistance training (HI), and (3) aerobic exercise preceded by a low-intensity resistance training (LO). Resistance training produced an equal volume between HI and LO and consisted of six exercises with each performed for three sets of eight repetitions at 90% of 8-RM in HI and three sets of 12 repetitions at 60% of 8-RM in LO. Aerobic exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO(2)peak for 20 min in all trials. Oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbohydrate and fat oxidation were determined throughout each aerobic exercise session. Fat oxidation rate was higher (P < 0.05) in HI than either LO or C in both males and females. VO2 was also higher (P < 0.05) in HI than either LO or C in females. In males, although between-trial differences in VO2 did not reach statistical significance, they were consistent with the trend seen in females. No differences in carbohydrate oxidation rates were observed across the three trials in either gender group. It appears that in training that combines both aerobic and resistance exercises, performing a comparatively higher intensity resistance exercise first would augment fat utilization and energy expenditure during subsequent aerobic exercise.

  9. Defects in Mitochondrial Efficiency and H2O2 Emissions in Obese Women Are Restored to a Lean Phenotype With Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Asante, Albert; Lanza, Ian R.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Johnson, Matthew L.; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Amols, Mark H.; Irving, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The notion that mitochondria contribute to obesity-induced insulin resistance is highly debated. Therefore, we determined whether obese (BMI 33 kg/m2), insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome had aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology compared with lean, insulin-sensitive women (BMI 23 kg/m2). Maximal whole-body and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were not different between obese and lean women. However, obese women exhibited lower mitochondrial coupling and phosphorylation efficiency and elevated mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emissions compared with lean women. We further evaluated the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on obesity-related impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial energetics in the fasted state and after a high-fat mixed meal. Exercise training reversed obesity-related mitochondrial derangements as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency and decreased mtH2O2 production. A concomitant increase in catalase antioxidant activity and decreased DNA oxidative damage indicate improved cellular redox status and a potential mechanism contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. mtH2O2 emissions were refractory to a high-fat meal at baseline, but after exercise, mtH2O2 emissions increased after the meal, which resembles previous findings in lean individuals. We demonstrate that obese women exhibit impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the form of decreased efficiency and impaired mtH2O2 emissions, while exercise effectively restores mitochondrial physiology toward that of lean, insulin-sensitive individuals. PMID:25605809

  10. A study of the thermal decomposition of adulterated cocaine samples under optimized aerobic pyrolytic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gostic, T; Klemenc, S; Stefane, B

    2009-05-30

    The pyrolysis behaviour of pure cocaine base as well as the influence of various additives was studied using conditions that are relevant to the smoking of illicit cocaine by humans. For this purpose an aerobic pyrolysis device was developed and the experimental conditions were optimized. In the first part of our study the optimization of some basic experimental parameters of the pyrolysis was performed, i.e., the furnace temperature, the sampling start time, the heating period, the sampling time, and the air-flow rate through the system. The second part of the investigation focused on the volatile products formed during the pyrolysis of a pure cocaine free base and mixtures of cocaine base and adulterants. The anaesthetics lidocaine, benzocaine, procaine, the analgesics phenacetine and paracetamol, and the stimulant caffeine were used as the adulterants. Under the applied experimental conditions complete volatilization of the samples was achieved, i.e., the residuals of the studied compounds were not detected in the pyrolysis cell. Volatilization of the pure cocaine base showed that the cocaine recovery available for inhalation (adsorbed on traps) was approximately 76%. GC-MS and NMR analyses of the smoke condensate revealed the presence of some additional cocaine pyrolytic products, such as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), benzoic acid (BA) and carbomethoxycycloheptatrienes (CMCHTs). Experiments with different cocaine-adulterant mixtures showed that the addition of the adulterants changed the thermal behaviour of the cocaine. The most significant of these was the effect of paracetamol. The total recovery of the cocaine (adsorbed on traps and in a glass tube) from the 1:1 cocaine-paracetamol mixture was found to be only 3.0+/-0.8%, versus 81.4+/-2.9% for the pure cocaine base. The other adulterants showed less-extensive effects on the recovery of cocaine, but the pyrolysis of the cocaine-procaine mixture led to the formation of some unique pyrolytic products

  11. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  12. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    PubMed

    Stothart, Cary R; Simons, Daniel J; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking) interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning) for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains). These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  13. Effects of non-specific vs individualized exercise training protocols on aerobic, anaerobic and strength performance in severely obese subjects during a short-term body mass reduction program.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Resnik, M; Galvani, C; Sartorio, A

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare aerobic, anaerobic and strength performance changes induced by two short-term (3-week) body mass reduction programs based on the same low-calory diet (1200-1500 kcal/day), nutritional education and psychological counseling, but entailing different exercise training protocols. An individualized, low-volume and moderate-intensity exercise training (IET) was contrasted with a non-specific, high-volume, low-intensity exercise training (NET). Thirty obese in-patients (12 males, 18 females; mean age +/- SD: 33.9 +/- 9.4 yr, range: 19-51yr; mean BMI: 40.5 +/- 3.8 kg/m2, range: 35.3-51.4 kg/m2) were randomly divided in two gender-matched groups of 15 subjects each undergoing a different exercise training protocol. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) determined with a submaximal indirect test on a bicycle ergometer, lower limb maximum power output (W(max)) determined with the jumping method, global motor capabilities determined by analysis of locomotor pattern during a short (8 m) running, maximum strength (1-RM) of upper and lower limb muscle groups determined with isotonic machines were tested before and after the program. Adherence to an individual exercise activity and maintenance of body weight (bw) loss were evaluated with a telephonic interview 6 months after the completion of the program. In both groups a significant (p < 0.001) and comparable weight loss was observed (IET: -4.27%; NET: -4.17%). In both groups VO2max and W(max) increased significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) when expressed relatively to body mass, while in absolute terms they were significantly (p < 0.001) improved only in IET group. 1-RM in all tested muscle groups was significantly increased in both IET and NET subjects (p < 0.001-0.01), but improvements were significantly greater in IET as compared with NET (p < 0.05-0.001). The analysis of locomotor pattern during the short running indicated that IET subjects significantly improved their global motor

  14. Aerobic methane oxidation in a coastal environment with seasonal hypoxia - a time series study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Bethke, Christina; Schweers, Johanna; Bange, Hermann; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2014-05-01

    In the coastal ocean, methane is generally produced in anoxic sediments from where it can migrate through the water column to the atmosphere. A significant amount of methane is consumed along this passage by a series of microbial filter systems. Over the last 15 years, researchers focused on the first filter in marine sediments, the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Comparably little is known about the second filter, the aerobic methane oxidation (MOx), which is mediated by bacteria and takes place in the oxic water column. MOx is particularly important in shallow coastal environments that account for more than 75 % of the global oceanic methane emissions. Key environmental factors possibly controlling MOx in these systems are subjected to strong temporal variations since coastal regions are highly dynamic systems. We will present results from a time-series study on methane cycling in the water column of a coastal inlet in the southwestern Baltic Sea (Eckernförde Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station, 54°31.823 N, 10°02.764 E, 28m water depth; www.bokniseck.de). Results from monthly samplings for the last 8 years revealed year-round methane seepage from the seafloor and methane supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) of surface waters. Seasonal stratification during the summer months leads to intermittent oxygen depletion (hypoxic to anoxic) in bottom waters in late summer to early fall. The frequency of these low-oxygen events increased over the last 20 years. In addition to oxygen fluctuations, bottom water salinity can vary strongly (17-24 psu) due to regular inflows of salty North Sea water through the Kattegat. Over the course of one and a half years, we investigated MOx rates, the methanotrophic community, methane concentrations and physicochemical parameters of the water column on a quarterly basis. Albeit methane concentrations were high throughout the water column (20-120 nM), methane turnover showed a clear spatial pattern. That

  15. The Long Island City Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island City Business Development Corp., NY.

    In an effort to promote economic development in the Long Island City (New York) area, a study was conducted of the training and human resource needs of local manufacturing firms and the demographic characteristics of the local labor force. Specifically, the study sought to examine company needs, highlight programs available to address those needs,…

  16. Staff Study on Cost and Training Effectiveness of Proposed Training Systems. TAEG Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Equipment Center, Orlando, FL. Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.

    A study began the development and initial testing of a method for predicting cost and training effectiveness of proposed training programs. A prototype Training Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness Prediction (TECEP) model was developed and tested. The model was a method for optimization of training media allocation on the basis of fixed training…

  17. Education, Training and Contexts: Studies and Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    This volume provides an overview of some of the outstanding features of the work of the Norwegian sociologist and comparative educationist, Jon Lauglo. After an introduction, "'It Ain't Necessarily So!': Theories and Observations in Jon Lauglo's World of Education and Training" (Se-Yung Lim and Klaus Schaack), essays and studies are presented in…

  18. Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

    A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…

  19. Energy Education Training Center--Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, George R.; And Others

    Presented are findings and recommendations of a study conducted to determine the need for an Energy Education Training Center in the Columbia Plateau region of Oregon and Washington. Four sections comprise this report: (1) service area, (2) service population, (3) problem definition, and (4) proposed solution, the EETC. Information summarized in…

  20. Cooperative Training in Telecommunications: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Margaret; Straw, Ronnie

    1987-01-01

    The authors present two case studies of collaborative efforts between the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and the Communications Workers of America to provide inservice training that enhances productivity, competitiveness, and individual career development. The effort was facilitated by the quality-of-worklife process. (CH)

  1. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  2. Study of the comparative activity of piperacillin/tazobactam with currently available antibiotics against 8206 aerobic isolates

    PubMed Central

    Forward, Kevin R; Low, Donald E; Laverdiere, Michel; Rennie, Robert; Simor, Andrew E; Franks, Patricia A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the activity of piperacillin-tazobactam with piperacillin and other parenterally administered antibiotics against aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci isolated from across Canada, and to determine the prevalence of resistance mediated by extended-spectrum cephalosporinases. METHODS: Sixty-one laboratories participated. Disk diffusion testing was performed in accordance with methods outlined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Susceptibilities were performed on 8206 strains. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibilities to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). RESULTS: Piperacillin-tazobactam was active against 92% of the strains, piperacillin against 81% and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against 88%. Few differences were observed in the relative susceptibility of strains from teaching or community hospitals, from different anatomic sites or from different regions of the country. Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli tested tended to be more susceptible to all the agents than was recently reported in a similar American study. Only 43% of Enterococcus faecium were susceptible to ampicillin and 42% to piperacillin piperacillin with and without tazobactam. Only two enterococcal strains were resistant to vancomycin, and 19 had intermediate zone sizes. Of the 10 strains of E coli and eight strains of K pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to extended spectrum cephalosporins, only one demonstrated typical ESBL activity. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian aerobic Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli remain highly susceptible to many currently available antibiotics. The findings confirm a broad spectrum of activity of piperacillin-tazobactam and indicate that the pattern of susceptibility is quite uniform from different body sites, in both teaching and community hospitals, and across the country. PMID:22514487

  3. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  4. Mechanistic Studies of Wacker-Type Intramolecular Aerobic Oxidative Amination of Alkenes Catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2/Pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; Liu, Guosheng; Popp, Brian V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Wacker-type oxidative cyclization reactions have been the subject of extensive research for several decades, but few systematic mechanistic studies of these reactions have been reported. The present study features experimental and DFT computational studies of Pd(OAc)2/pyridine-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes. The data support a stepwise catalytic mechanism that consists of (1) steady-state formation of a PdII-amidate-alkene chelate with release of one equivalent of pyridine and AcOH from the catalyst center, (2) alkene insertion into a Pd–N bond, (3) reversible β-hydride elimination, (4) irreversible reductive elimination of AcOH, and (5) aerobic oxidation of palladium(0) to regenerate the active trans-Pd(OAc)2(py)2 catalyst. Evidence is obtained for two energetically viable pathways for the key C–N bond-forming step, featuring a pyridine-ligated and a pyridine-dissociated PdII species. Analysis of natural charges and bond lengths of the alkene-insertion transition state suggest that this reaction is best described as an intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the amidate ligand on the coordinated alkene. PMID:21250706

  5. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  6. Studies on the "Aerobic" Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Purification, Crystallization, and Physical Properties of the Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Klein, Harold P.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the purification of a stable acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) from aerobic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. The steps include differential centrifugation, solubilization of the bound enzyme from the crude mitochondrial fraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, crystallization to constant specific activity from ammonium sulfate solutions followed by Bio-Gel A-1.5 m column chromatography. The resulting enzyme preparation is homogeneous as judged by chromatography on Bio-Gel columns, QAE-Sephadex A-50 anion exchange columns, analytical ultracentrifugal studies, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sedimentation velocity runs revealed a single symmetric peak with an s(sub (20,w)) value of 10.6. The molecular weight of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, is 250,000 +/- 500. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the molecular weight of the single polypeptide chain is 83,000 +/- 500. The purified enzyme is inhibited by palmityl-coenzyme A with a Hill interaction coefficient, n, of 2.88. These studies indicate that the ACS of aerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of three subunits of identical or nearly identical size.

  7. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  8. Estimating the effects of a conversion from submerged to aerobic rice: a case study on a district basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienzner, Michele; Facchi, Arianna; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Several studies report that the water use efficiency of irrigated rice can greatly improve at the field scale if continuously submerged rice is replaced with aerobic rice. However, the effects of a massive conversion on the groundwater resources of larger domains are much less investigated, even though several authors agree that a consequent drop of the groundwater table may have repercussions on the potential gains. Therefore, a case study was developed in order to assess the effects of replacing all the flooded rice fields (status quo) with aerobic rice (scenario) on both the groundwater level and the irrigation requirements at the scale of an irrigation district. The investigated area is the San Giorgio di Lomellina-East district (Lombardia, Italy). Data available comprise: soil type (sandy soil according to the USDA classification), land cover of the status quo (200 ha of flooded rice, 105 ha of maize and 76 ha of non-irrigated crops), groundwater level measurements by a piezometer within the area, flow rates in the irrigation channels and meteorological data. First, the monthly percolations in the status quo were estimated by considering: i) percolations from flooded rice fields computed as the residual term of the district water balance, ii) percolations from fields with maize and non-irrigated crops obtained by parameterizing and running the model SWAP (boundary conditions given by the average groundwater level of the status quo), iii) percolation from the irrigation channels considering the efficiency of the irrigation network. Then, an autoregressive model with exogenous input was calibrated in order to relate the district percolations and the groundwater levels in the status quo (P-GWL model). Finally, a set of SWAP simulation with increasing groundwater levels was run for each land use (i.e. aerobic rice, maize and non-irrigated crops) so as to find, within the set, the combination percolation-groundwater level which best responds to the P-GWL model. The

  9. Differences in Preseason Aerobic Fitness Screening in Professional and Pre-professional Modern Dancers.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Codman, Emma; Hash-Campbell, Dana; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2016-03-01

    The aerobic demands of today's dance repertoire warrant understanding of the current cardiorespiratory fitness of dancers. The purpose of this study was to compare aerobic fitness levels of professional and pre-professional modern dancers and determine change over time. A retrospective analysis of four groups, two professional, and two pre-professional, was conducted in preseason annual screens, occurring before the professional dancers' rehearsal period and the students' academic training. Resting (HRrest), peak (HRpeak), and recovery (HRrecov) heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) were compared in 577 dancers, using an accelerated 3-minute step test. Smoking, asthma, and aerobic and cross training rates between groups were also compared. A 4 (group) X 2 (gender) MANOVA design determined differences between groups and genders in all dependent variables (p < 0.05). Using a repeated measures ANOVA design, we compared a subgroup over 3 years and one pre-professional group over 4 years. There were differences between groups in systolic BP and all HR variables (p < 0.001). Professional dancers reflected better cardiorespiratory fitness than pre-professional dancers. There were differences between groups in aerobic and cross training activities but no differences in smoking incidence or asthma rates. Pre-professional dancers demonstrated improvement in aerobic fitness over time (p = 0.006) while professionals did not change. Professional dancers display better aerobic fitness, which may reflect their performance demands. Wellness programs appear to enhance fitness in pre-professional dance students over time. Additional aerobic training is recommended for pre-professional modern dance students to prepare them for the performance demands of a professional career. PMID:27025448

  10. Instructor Based Training Versus Computer Based Training--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmskold, Lennart; Ortengren, Roland; Carlson, Blair E.; Nylen, Per

    2007-01-01

    This article describes two studies conducted to compare assembly performance and learning rate between computer based training and traditional training of skilled assembly operators. The studies were performed with pre-series production parts from a car cockpit and they were integrated as part of the overall training activities during a new…

  11. Automation impact study of Army Training Management

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, T.F.; Schuller, C.R.; McCallum, M.C.; Underwood, J.A.; Bettin, P.J.; King, J.L.; Melber, B.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Seaver, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of this impact study were to identify the potential cost savings associated with automated Army Training Management (TM), and to perform a cost-benefit analysis for an Army-wide automated TM system. A subsidiary goal was to establish baseline data for an independent evaluation of a prototype Integrated Training Management System (ITMS), to be tested in the fall of 1988. A structured analysis of TM doctrine was performed for comparison with empirical data gathered in a job analysis survey of selected units of the 9ID (MTZ) at Ft. Lewis, Washington. These observations will be extended to other units in subsequent surveys. The survey data concerning staffing levels and amount of labor expended on eight distinct TM tasks were analyzed in a cost effectiveness model. The main results of the surveys and cost effectiveness modelling are summarized. 18 figs., 47 tabs.

  12. Language and number: a bilingual training study.

    PubMed

    Spelke, E S; Tsivkin, S

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of a specific language in human representations of number. Russian-English bilingual college students were taught new numerical operations (Experiment 1), new arithmetic equations (Experiments 1 and 2), or new geographical or historical facts involving numerical or non-numerical information (Experiment 3). After learning a set of items in each of their two languages, subjects were tested for knowledge of those items, and new items, in both languages. In all the studies, subjects retrieved information about exact numbers more effectively in the language of training, and they solved trained problems more effectively than untrained problems. In contrast, subjects retrieved information about approximate numbers and non-numerical facts with equal efficiency in their two languages, and their training on approximate number facts generalized to new facts of the same type. These findings suggest that a specific, natural language contributes to the representation of large, exact numbers but not to the approximate number representations that humans share with other mammals. Language appears to play a role in learning about exact numbers in a variety of contexts, a finding with implications for practice in bilingual education. The findings prompt more general speculations about the role of language in the development of specifically human cognitive abilities.

  13. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive

  14. Mechanism of the Aerobic Homocoupling of Phenylboronic Acid on Au₂₀⁻: A DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Karanjit, Sangita; Ehara, Masahiro; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of the gold nanocluster-catalyzed aerobic homocoupling of arylboronic acids has been elucidated by means of DFT calculations with Au20(-) as a model cluster for the Au:[poly(N-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one)] catalyst. We found that oxygen affects the adsorption of phenylboronic acid and, by lowering the energy barrier, a water molecule enhances dissociation of the C-B bond, which is probably the rate-determining step. The key role of oxygen is in activating the surface of the gold cluster by generating Lewis acidic sites for adsorption and activation of the phenylboronic acid, leading to the formation of biphenyl through a superoxo-like species. Moreover, the oxygen adsorbed on the Au nanocluster can act as an oxidant for phenylboronic acid, giving phenol as a byproduct. As shown by NBO analysis, the basic aqueous reaction medium facilitates the reductive elimination process by weakening the Au-C bond, thereby enhancing the formation of biphenyl. The coupling of phenyl and reductive elimination of biphenyl occur at the top or facet site with low-energy-barrier through spillover of phenyl group on Au NC. The present findings are useful for the interpretation or design of other coupling reactions with Au NC.

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  16. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  17. Comparative studies on heavy metal uptake by plants from anaerobically and aerobically digested sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, K.T.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to compare and contrast the effects of cropland application of varying quantities of anaerobically and aerobically digested sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, on the uptake of certain heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb by six different types of plants (bean, tomato, carrot, cucumber, cantaloupe and sweet corn) grown on the sludge-applied soil and the accumulation of these metals in the sludge-amended soil. The main aspects of the study were the evaluation of 1) the extent of bioconcentration of heavy metals by the different kinds of plants, and 2) the availability of the metals from soil to plants, following sludge application. Field investigations involving plot-scale gardening were conducted using the two types of sludge, at application rates of 0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.6 and 70.4 tons/acre. At application rates of 17.6 and 70.4 tons/acre, delays in germination of seeds were observed in some instances, with no apparent adverse effects on the plant's later stages of life and the yield produced. The uptake of heavy metals from sludge-amended soil by plants did not increase in direct proportion to the increase in rate of sludge application and plant species differ considerably in their uptake of heavy metals from soil which received the same amount of sludge. In general, plants grown on anaerobically digested sludge-applied soil showed higher uptake of heavy metals than those grown on aerobically digested sludge. Among the plants investigated, sweet corn was identified to be the low accumulator of heavy metals in the edible part of the plant.

  18. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Men, Wei-Wei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Fan, Ming-Xia; Ji, Liu; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  19. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  20. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise.

  1. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  2. Getting the Words Out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)

  3. Day Care Training in Alabama: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddowes, E. Anne; Martin, Kathleen

    This study reports information gathered from 82 of the 1,056 child care workers who participated in the Alabama Statewide Day Care Training Project, the first comprehensive training program for child care providers in the state. The project sponsored training workshops in four regions of the state and included correspondence study as an option.…

  4. Reductions in pre-season training loads reduce training injury rates in rugby league players

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate if reductions in pre-season training loads reduced the incidence of training injuries in rugby league players, and to determine if the reductions in training loads compromised the improvements in physical fitness obtained during the pre-season preparation period. Methods: A total of 220 sub-elite rugby league players participated in this 3 year prospective study. Players underwent measurements of speed, muscular power, and maximal aerobic power before and after three 4 month (December to March) pre-season preparation periods (2001–2003). A periodised skills and conditioning program was implemented, with training loads progressively increased in the general preparatory phase of the season (December to February) and reduced slightly in March in preparation for the competitive phase of the season. Training loads were calculated by multiplying the training session intensity by the duration of the training session. Following the initial season (2001), training loads were reduced through reductions in training duration (2002) and training intensity (2003). The incidence of injury was prospectively recorded over the three pre-season periods. Results: The training loads for the 2002 and 2003 pre-season periods were significantly lower (p<0.001) than those in 2001. The incidence of injury was significantly higher in the 2001 pre-season than the 2002 and 2003 pre-season periods. The increases in maximal aerobic power progressively improved across the three seasons with a 62–88% probability that the 2002 and 2003 pre-season improvements in maximal aerobic power were of greater physiological significance than the 2001 pre-season improvements in maximal aerobic power. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that reductions in pre-season training loads reduce training injury rates in rugby league players and result in greater improvements in maximal aerobic power. PMID:15562171

  5. Perspectives on Aerobic and Strength Influences on Military Physical Readiness: Report of an International Military Physiology Roundtable.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Knapik, Joseph J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Baumgartner, Neal; Groeller, Herbert; Taylor, Nigel A S; Duarte, Antonio F A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Jones, Bruce H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness training of military recruits is an enduring focus of armies. This is important for safe and effective performance of general tasks that anyone may have to perform in a military setting as well as preparation for more specialized training in specific job specialties. Decades of studies on occupationally specific physical requirements have characterized the dual aerobic and strength demands of typical military tasks; however, scientifically founded strategies to prepare recruits with a good mix of these 2 physiologically opposing capabilities have not been well established. High levels of aerobic training can compromise resistance training gains and increase injury rates. Resistance training requires a greater commitment of time and resources as well as a greater understanding of the science to produce true strength gains that may be beneficial to military performance. These are critical issues for modern armies with increased demands for well-prepared soldiers and fewer injury losses. The actual physical requirements tied to metrics of success in military jobs are also under renewed examination as women are increasingly integrated into military jobs previously performed only by men. At the third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance, a roundtable of 10 physiologists with military expertise presented comparative perspectives on aerobic and strength training. These topics included the physiological basis of training benefits, how to train effectively, how to measure training effectiveness, considerations for the integration of women, and the big perspective. Key discussion points centered on (a) the significance of findings from research on integrated training, (b) strategies for effective strength development, and

  6. Why is toilet training occurring at older ages? A study of factors associated with later training.

    PubMed

    Blum, Nathan J; Taubman, Bruce; Nemeth, Nicole

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that children are completing toilet training much later than the preceding generation. Our objective was to identify factors associated with later toilet training. Children between 17 and 19 months of age (n=406) were enrolled in the study. At enrollment, parents completed the Parenting Stress Index and the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale. Follow-up parent interviews were conducted every 2 to 3 months until children completed daytime toilet training. Information obtained at follow-up interviews included steps parents were taking to toilet train their child, child toilet training behaviors, presence and frequency of constipation, birth of a sibling, and child care arrangements. In a stepwise linear regression model predicting age at completion of toilet training, 3 factors were consistently associated with later training: initiation of toilet training at an older age, presence of stool toileting refusal, and presence of frequent constipation. Models including these variables explained 25% to 39% of the variance in age at completion of toilet training. In conclusion, a later age at initiation of toilet training, stool toileting refusal, and constipation may explain some of the trend toward completion of toilet training at later ages.

  7. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan E.; Gilchrist, Michael; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Attached is a preliminary outline of the study. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  8. Advancing videotape parent training: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the specific effects of adding a broader based, videotape treatment component (ADVANCE) to a basic videotape parent skills training program (GDVM). ADVANCE treatment trains parents to cope with interpersonal distress through improved communication, problem solving, and self-control skills. Seventy-eight families with a child diagnosed as oppositional-defiant or conduct-disordered were randomly assigned to either GDVM alone or GDVM plus ADVANCE. Parent reports of child adjustment and parent distress, assessment of child's knowledge of social skills, as well as independent observations of mother-and father-child interactions and communication and of problem solving between parents were obtained at pre- and post-GDVM and at post-ADVANCE. Both groups significantly improved at short-term follow-up. ADVANCE produced additional significant improvements in parents' communication, problem-solving skills, and consumer satisfaction, as well as children's increased knowledge of prosocial solutions. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:8063985

  9. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  10. Characterization of aerobically fit individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Iris A; Farias-Godoy, Alejandra; Isserow, Saul; Myers, Jonathan; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    With an ageing population there is an increased prevalence of individuals living with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Characteristics of older aerobically fit individuals with previously diagnosed CVD have not been studied. Therefore, our knowledge is limited as to how, or if, aerobically fit individuals with CVD attempt to adapt their physical activity and the intensity of their training programmes. The objective of this paper is to characterise the physical activity habits and behaviours of older aerobically fit individuals with CVD. We identified 28 aerobically fit patients with CVD from those who completed a minimum of 15 and 12 min of the Bruce treadmill protocol for men and women, respectively. Consenting participants responded to questionnaires regarding physical activity levels, competitive event participation and self-monitoring since diagnosis of heart disease. Average age and treadmill time of participants were 56 and 49 years and 15.6 and 13.0 min for males and females, respectively. Data were obtained regarding recent medical history (medical diagnoses, surgeries/procedures). Despite the majority of individuals participating in the same or more activity since their diagnosis, 25% indicated that their condition limited their activity and 39% reported having symptoms during activity. Nearly all participants (93%) indicated that they monitored their heart rate during exercise. However, only 14% of participants stated that their physician advised them on how to exercise safely. It is necessary for physicians and cardiac rehabilitation programmes to be involved in safe and effective exercise programming to allow individuals to return to sport after CVD. PMID:24433153

  11. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups

  12. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  13. Spacelab mission dependent training parametric resource requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogden, D. H.; Watters, H.; Steadman, J.; Conrad, L.

    1976-01-01

    Training flows were developed for typical missions, resource relationships analyzed, and scheduling optimization algorithms defined. Parametric analyses were performed to study the effect of potential changes in mission model, mission complexity and training time required on the resource quantities required to support training of payload or mission specialists. Typical results of these analyses are presented both in graphic and tabular form.

  14. Commercial Training Markets and the FE Sector: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A case study approach was used to analyze the commercial training markets for further education (FE) colleges in Sheffield, England. The following aspects of training supply and demand in Sheffield were examined: regional employment market (occupational structure and economic outlook); size, value, and segmentation of the training market;…

  15. Speech-in-Speech Recognition: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify aspects of speech-in-noise recognition that are susceptible to training, focusing on whether listeners can learn to adapt to target talkers ("tune in") and learn to better cope with various maskers ("tune out") after short-term training. Listeners received training on English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise…

  16. The Management of Training in Multinational Corporations: Comparative Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Case studies of British and Australian multinational corporations in the food and drink industry investigated how training and development are managed. Competency-based education and industry boards are important elements in both countries. Lack of a training culture in the industry and little innovation in training were observed. (SK)

  17. Sense of Well-Being in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Aerobic Exercise Program in a Mature Forest-A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    López-Pousa, Secundino; Bassets Pagès, Glòria; Monserrat-Vila, Sílvia; de Gracia Blanco, Manuel; Hidalgo Colomé, Jaume; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Most patients with fibromyalgia benefit from different forms of physical exercise. Studies show that exercise can help restore the body's neurochemical balance and that it triggers a positive emotional state. So, regular exercise can help reduce anxiety, stress, and depression. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise when walking in two types of forests, young and mature, and to assess anxiety, sleep, pain, and well-being in patients with fibromyalgia. Secondary objectives included assessing (i) whether there were differences in temperature, sound, and moisture, (ii) whether there was an improvement in emotional control, and (iii) whether there was an improvement in health (reduction in pain) and in physical and mental relaxation. Patients and Methods. A study involving walking through two types of forests (mature and young) was performed. A total of 30 patients were randomly assigned to two groups, mature and young forests. The participants were administered the following tests: the Spanish version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) at baseline and the end-point of the study, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after each walk, and a series of questions regarding symptomatic evolution. Several physiological parameters were registered. Results. FIQR baseline and end-point scores indicated a significant decrease in the symptomatic subscale of the FIQ (SD = 21.7; z = -2.4; p = 0.041). The within-group analysis revealed that differences were significant with respect to days of intense pain, insomnia, and days of well-being only in the group assigned to the mature forest, not in the group assigned to the young forest. No differences were found with respect to anxiety. Conclusions. Although the main aim of this research was not achieved, as the results revealed no differences between the groups in the two forest types, authors could confirm that an aerobic exercise program

  18. Sense of Well-Being in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Aerobic Exercise Program in a Mature Forest-A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    López-Pousa, Secundino; Bassets Pagès, Glòria; Monserrat-Vila, Sílvia; de Gracia Blanco, Manuel; Hidalgo Colomé, Jaume; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Most patients with fibromyalgia benefit from different forms of physical exercise. Studies show that exercise can help restore the body's neurochemical balance and that it triggers a positive emotional state. So, regular exercise can help reduce anxiety, stress, and depression. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise when walking in two types of forests, young and mature, and to assess anxiety, sleep, pain, and well-being in patients with fibromyalgia. Secondary objectives included assessing (i) whether there were differences in temperature, sound, and moisture, (ii) whether there was an improvement in emotional control, and (iii) whether there was an improvement in health (reduction in pain) and in physical and mental relaxation. Patients and Methods. A study involving walking through two types of forests (mature and young) was performed. A total of 30 patients were randomly assigned to two groups, mature and young forests. The participants were administered the following tests: the Spanish version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) at baseline and the end-point of the study, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after each walk, and a series of questions regarding symptomatic evolution. Several physiological parameters were registered. Results. FIQR baseline and end-point scores indicated a significant decrease in the symptomatic subscale of the FIQ (SD = 21.7; z = -2.4; p = 0.041). The within-group analysis revealed that differences were significant with respect to days of intense pain, insomnia, and days of well-being only in the group assigned to the mature forest, not in the group assigned to the young forest. No differences were found with respect to anxiety. Conclusions. Although the main aim of this research was not achieved, as the results revealed no differences between the groups in the two forest types, authors could confirm that an aerobic exercise program

  19. Sense of Well-Being in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Aerobic Exercise Program in a Mature Forest—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    López-Pousa, Secundino; Bassets Pagès, Glòria; Monserrat-Vila, Sílvia; de Gracia Blanco, Manuel; Hidalgo Colomé, Jaume; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Most patients with fibromyalgia benefit from different forms of physical exercise. Studies show that exercise can help restore the body's neurochemical balance and that it triggers a positive emotional state. So, regular exercise can help reduce anxiety, stress, and depression. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise when walking in two types of forests, young and mature, and to assess anxiety, sleep, pain, and well-being in patients with fibromyalgia. Secondary objectives included assessing (i) whether there were differences in temperature, sound, and moisture, (ii) whether there was an improvement in emotional control, and (iii) whether there was an improvement in health (reduction in pain) and in physical and mental relaxation. Patients and Methods. A study involving walking through two types of forests (mature and young) was performed. A total of 30 patients were randomly assigned to two groups, mature and young forests. The participants were administered the following tests: the Spanish version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) at baseline and the end-point of the study, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after each walk, and a series of questions regarding symptomatic evolution. Several physiological parameters were registered. Results. FIQR baseline and end-point scores indicated a significant decrease in the symptomatic subscale of the FIQ (SD = 21.7; z = −2.4; p = 0.041). The within-group analysis revealed that differences were significant with respect to days of intense pain, insomnia, and days of well-being only in the group assigned to the mature forest, not in the group assigned to the young forest. No differences were found with respect to anxiety. Conclusions. Although the main aim of this research was not achieved, as the results revealed no differences between the groups in the two forest types, authors could confirm that an aerobic exercise program

  20. Teacher Training and Multiculturalism: National Studies. Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Raul, Ed.

    This book presents outcomes of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) studies on teacher training in eight countries (Bolivia, the Czech Republic, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritius, Poland, Senegal, and Tunisia) representing different levels of development and different regions of the world but who are facing a common…

  1. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects. PMID:27757381

  2. Aerobic fitness ecological validity in elite soccer players: a metabolic power approach.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Impellizzeri, Franco; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between match metabolic power (MP) categories and aerobic fitness in elite-level male soccer players. Seventeen male professional soccer players were tested for VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), VO2 at ventilatory threshold (VO2VT and %VO2VT), and speed at a selected blood lactate concentration (4 mmol·L(-1), V(L4)). Aerobic fitness tests were performed at the end of preseason and after 12 and 24 weeks during the championship. Aerobic fitness and MP variables were considered as mean of all seasonal testing and of 16 Championship home matches for all the calculations, respectively. Results showed that VO2max (from 0.55 to 0.68), MAS (from 0.52 to 0.72), VO2VT (from 0.72 to 0.83), %VO2maxVT (from 0.62 to 0.65), and V(L4) (from 0.56 to 0.73) were significantly (p < 0.05 to 0.001) large to very large associated with MP variables. These results provide evidence to the ecological validity of aerobic fitness in male professional soccer. Strength and conditioning professionals should consider aerobic fitness in their training program when dealing with professional male soccer players. The MP method resulted an interesting approach for tracking external load in male professional soccer players.

  3. The effects of long-term aerobic conditioning on +Gz tolerance.

    PubMed

    Whinnery, J E; Parnell, M J

    1987-03-01

    Aerobic conditioning programs for aircrews of high performance fighter type aircraft are very important in assuring optimum fitness and health. The aerobic conditioning resulting from running alters the physiologic state of the individual, and whether or not this alteration affects +Gz tolerance is unknown. In this study, 27 long-term (2 years of running) aerobically conditioned subjects were tested for gradual (1 G x 15 s-1) and rapid onset (1 G x s-1) +Gz tolerance. Maximum VO2 and percent body fat measurements were also performed and correlated to the +Gz-tolerance measurements. Although beneficial for optimum health and fitness, increased aerobic condition (VO2max) resulting from long-term running was not found to enhance +Gz-tolerance. No relationship was observed between aerobic condition and +Gz tolerance. An increased susceptibility to motion sickness was found to be associated with long-term aerobic conditioning. Certain individuals were found to be predisposed to cardiac rate and rhythm disturbances (A-V dissociation and transient asystole) which could potentially alter +Gz-tolerance. Optimum physical conditioning programs for aircrew of fighter aircraft have yet to be determined and implemented. Specificity of exercise training and assurance of the absence of exaggerated cardiovascular response to +Gz stress resulting from physiologic alteration of autonomic tone are critical to the design of optimum conditioning programs for fighter aircraft aircrews. PMID:3579801

  4. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  5. The Effects of Vascular Occlusion Training on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Energy Expenditure When Coupled With Cardiovascular Training

    PubMed Central

    SPRICK, JUSTIN; LLOYD, RICHARD; ELDRIDGE, JAMES

    2015-01-01

    Vascular occlusion training is a novel training modality that has received considerable attention in the exercise science literature. The current study is the first of its kind to look at the effects of vascular occlusion training on substrate utilization when combined with aerobic training. This study examined the effects of pairing a vascular occlusion training protocol with a bout of submaximal aerobic exercise on energy expenditure (EE) and fuel use during exercise. Subjects performed a 20 minute bout of sub-maximal aerobic exercise either exclusively, or after performing a body weight squat protocol either with or without vascular occlusion. Peak lactate concentrations, EE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were all measured. A repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to look at differences among groups and interactions among protocols. The results suggest no difference in peak lactate (7.29 mmol/dl vs. 10.17 mmol/dl; F=0.946; p>0.05) or EE (92.09 Kcals vs 93.48 Kcals; F=0.898 p>0.05) among protocols. However, there does appear to be a shift in substrate utilization towards fatty acid oxidation by performing either a vascular occlusion training protocol (mean RER= 0.836) or a protocol of body weight squats (mean RER= 0.823) prior to aerobic training in comparison to performing aerobic training alone (mean RER= 0.881). There were, however, no significant differences between the occlusion protocol and the body weight squat protocol prior to the aerobic training. These results suggest that while there are no differences in overall caloric expenditure between protocols, performing either a resistance training protocol or a vascular occlusion training protocol shifts substrate utilization in favor of fatty acid oxidation over the oxidation of carbohydrates. PMID:27182413

  6. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  7. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  8. A MODEL LOCAL CIVIL DEFENSE TRAINING PLAN, AN ORGANIZATION AND TRAINING DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRICTSON, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DETAILED AND COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION OF LOCAL CIVIL DEFENSE TRAINING INCLUDES A SURVEY OF CIVIL DEFENSE OPERATIONS UNDERTAKEN TO DEFINE A MODEL LOCAL TRAINING PLAN. SPECIFIC LOCAL CIVIL DEFENSE OFFICES WERE SELECTED FOR INTENSIVE STUDY AND DATA COLLECTION. UTILIZING THE DATA OBTAINED AND FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES DERIVED FROM THE FEDERAL CIVIL…

  9. A comparative study of aerobic capacity and fitness in three different horse breeds (Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian).

    PubMed

    Castejón, F; Rubio, D; Tovar, P; Vinuesa, M; Riber, C

    1994-11-01

    Aerobic capacity and fitness was studied in three different horse breeds (Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian) using a four-level exercise test of gradually increasing intensity (15, 20, 25 and 30 km/h). The lactate concentration at the first three exercise levels was significantly lower for Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses relative to Andalusian horses, but similar for the three breeds at the last level. Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses reached a higher rate than Andalusian horses at plasma lactate concentration of 2 mmol/l (VLA2) and 4 mmol/l (VLA4). Andalusian horses exhibited a significantly lower heart rate at rest than the other two breeds, but the differences virtually disappeared at 15 km/h. At 20 km/h, Andalusian horses reached a higher heart rate than Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses; at 25 km/h, however, their heart rate only exceeded that of Anglo-Arabian horses. Finally, no significant differences between breeds were observed at 30 km/h. No differences between breeds as regards heart rate were found if this was expressed as a function of lactate plasma concentrations of 2 mmol/l (HRLA2) and 4 mmol/l (HRLA4). At a heart rate of 150 (VHR150) and 200 beta/min (VHR200), Andalusian horses achieved the lowest speeds.

  10. A study of predominant aerobic microflora of black bears (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in northwestern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Goatcher, L J; Barrett, M W; Coleman, R N; Hawley, A W; Qureshi, A A

    1987-11-01

    Swab specimens were obtained from nasal, rectal, and preputial or vaginal areas of 37 grizzly and 17 black bears, captured during May to June of 1981 to 1983, to determine the types and frequency of predominant aerobic microflora. Bacterial genera most frequently isolated from bears were Escherichia, Citrobacter, Hafnia, Proteus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus species, comprising about 65% of the isolates. Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, and Gluconobacter/Acetobacter were also isolated but at lower frequencies (less than 5%). Comparison of bacterial generic composition using similarity quotient values showed no appreciable differences between grizzly and black bear flora. Also, no outstanding differences in bacterial generic composition were observed among grizzly bear samples; however, differences were noted among black bear samples. Fungal genera most commonly encountered included Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Sporobolomyces, and Candida. In general, the microflora of both bear types were marked by generic diversity and random distribution. The majority of microorganisms isolated from the plant samples in the study area were also found in bear samples. This observation and the presence of certain water and soil bacteria in samples from bears suggest that the predominant microflora of both grizzly and black bears were transient and probably influenced by their foraging habits and surrounding environments.

  11. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Millet, Grégoire P.; Torre, Antonio La

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key Points Elite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level. LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance. Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp. PMID:25177197

  12. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R; Millet, Grégoire P; La Torre, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key PointsElite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level.LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance.Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp.

  13. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R; Millet, Grégoire P; La Torre, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key PointsElite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level.LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance.Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp. PMID:25177197

  14. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION REMEDY SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (KU FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and L...

  15. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  16. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youths

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English were included published in the last 15 years. It was selected from 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measured with HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting at least 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, and they were published between the years of 2002-2011. The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 males and 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 years except one study, in which the age range was 13-30 years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia, Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt and France. Four studies were aerobic-based, four were combined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and one compared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Available studies had insufficient evidence that any type of exercise or combined training would clearly improve the glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Only three (two aerobic-based and one combined) studies could provide a significant positive change in glycemic control. CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise has several other valuable physiological and health benefits that justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatric diabetes treatment and care. PMID:25897363

  17. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. To address this issue, 49 non-anxious adults were randomly assigned to either attentional training toward or training away from threat using a modified version of the dot probe task. Behavioral measures of attentional biases were also generated pre- and post-training using the dot probe task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were generated to threat and non-threat face pairs and probes during pre- and post-training assessments. Effects of training on behavioral measures of the threat bias were significant, but only for those participants showing pre-training biases. Attention training also influenced early spatial attention, as measured by post-training P1 amplitudes to cues. Results illustrate the importance of taking pre-training attention biases in non-anxious individuals into account when evaluating the effects of attention training and tracking physiological changes in attention following training. PMID:22083026

  18. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants A multi-racial/ethnic cohort (N=1,567; 39% male), age 18–35y, participated in the study. Methods Subjects underwent 30-weeks of exercise training, 3-days/week, for 40-min at 65–85% of age- and gender-predicted maximum heart rate reserve. Multiple measures of body size/composition, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained. Results A total of 1,567 participants, (39% male), age 18–35 y, participated in the TIGER Study. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in participants was 48.0%/19.3% in non-Hispanic Whites, 55.3%/ 24.2% in Hispanic Whites, 54.9%/25.4% in African Americans, and 38.3%/11.3% in Asians. Average within-semester retention was 68%, but overall retention (30 weeks, two semesters) was 20%. Conclusions The TIGER Study represents an efficacious strategy for introducing college-aged individuals to regular aerobic exercise. PMID:20670924

  19. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  20. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry TC Method for Enumeration of Total Aerobic Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Jewell, Keith; Green, Becky; Limbum, Rob; Fernandez, Maria Cristina; Salfinger, Yvonne; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to extend the matrix claim for the Nissui Compact Dry Total Count (TC), Performance Tested Method(s)(SM) (PTM) Certification No. 010404, to cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized whole milk. The method was originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Method(s)(SM) Program for raw meat products. The Compact Dry TC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet that is rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. A total aerobic colony count can be determined in the sample following 48 h of incubation. Matrix extension studies were conducted by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology Limited), Chipping Campden, UK. Single-laboratory data were collected for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Fourteen laboratories participated in the collaborative study. The Compact Dry TC was tested at two time points, 48 ± 3 h and 72 ± 3 h and compared with the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method at the time of the study, ISO 4833:2003 (this standard is withdrawn and has been replaced by: ISO 4833-1:2013 and ISO 4833-2:2013), Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms-Colony-count technique at 30°C. The data were logarithmically transformed and evaluated for repeatability (plus reproducibility for pasteurized milk), RSD of repeatability (plus RSD of reproducibility for milk), r(2), and mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI). A CI outside of (-0.5 to 0.5) on the log10 mean difference was used as the criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. No significant differences were found between the Compact Dry TC 48 and 72 h time points, with the exception of one contamination level of cooked chicken and one contamination level of dry milk

  1. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry TC Method for Enumeration of Total Aerobic Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Jewell, Keith; Green, Becky; Limbum, Rob; Fernandez, Maria Cristina; Salfinger, Yvonne; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to extend the matrix claim for the Nissui Compact Dry Total Count (TC), Performance Tested Method(s)(SM) (PTM) Certification No. 010404, to cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized whole milk. The method was originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Method(s)(SM) Program for raw meat products. The Compact Dry TC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet that is rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. A total aerobic colony count can be determined in the sample following 48 h of incubation. Matrix extension studies were conducted by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology Limited), Chipping Campden, UK. Single-laboratory data were collected for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Fourteen laboratories participated in the collaborative study. The Compact Dry TC was tested at two time points, 48 ± 3 h and 72 ± 3 h and compared with the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method at the time of the study, ISO 4833:2003 (this standard is withdrawn and has been replaced by: ISO 4833-1:2013 and ISO 4833-2:2013), Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms-Colony-count technique at 30°C. The data were logarithmically transformed and evaluated for repeatability (plus reproducibility for pasteurized milk), RSD of repeatability (plus RSD of reproducibility for milk), r(2), and mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI). A CI outside of (-0.5 to 0.5) on the log10 mean difference was used as the criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. No significant differences were found between the Compact Dry TC 48 and 72 h time points, with the exception of one contamination level of cooked chicken and one contamination level of dry milk

  2. A multicenter two by two factorial trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise for Gulf War veterans' illnesses: design of a veterans affairs cooperative study (CSP #470).

    PubMed

    Guarino, P; Peduzzi, P; Donta, S T; Engel, C C; Clauw, D J; Williams, D A; Skinner, J S; Barkhuizen, A; Kazis, L E; Feussner, J R

    2001-06-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) Study #470 is a 2 x 2 factorial trial designed to evaluate the hypothesis that both cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and aerobic exercise will significantly improve physical function in participants with Gulf War veterans' illnesses (GWVI), and that adding CBT to aerobic exercise will provide further incremental benefit. One thousand three hundred fifty-six veterans will be randomized to one of four treatment arms: CBT plus aerobic exercise plus usual and customary care, aerobic exercise plus usual and customary care, CBT plus usual and customary care, or usual and customary care alone. The study duration is 2.5 years with 1.5 years of intake and 1 year of follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of veterans improved more than seven units on the physical component summary (PCS) scale of the Short Form Health Survey for Veterans (SF-36V) measured 12 months after randomization. This generic quality-of-life measure was chosen because there is no disease-specific measure for GWVI and the symptoms of GWVI span a wide range of physical manifestations that are related to the domains covered by the PCS scale. Sample size was determined to detect all six pairwise comparisons between the four treatment arms with 90% power and a Bonferroni adjustment for an overall type I error of 0.05 or 0.05/6 = 0.0083. CSP #470 was initiated in May 1999 in 18 VA and two Department of Defense medical centers. To date this represents the largest randomized trial designed to evaluate treatments for individuals with unexplained physical symptoms. This paper will focus on the rationale and unique features of the study design. Control Clin Trials 2001;22:310-332

  3. Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1 year following weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Brock, David W; Byrne, Nuala M; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Del Corral, Pedro; Gower, Barbara A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect aerobic and resistance exercise training has on gain of visceral fat during the year following weight loss. After being randomly assigned to aerobic training, resistance training, or no exercise training, 45 European-American (EA) and 52 African-American (AA) women lost 12.3 +/- 2.5 kg on a 800 kcal/day diet. Computed tomography was used to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, whereas total fat and regional fat (leg, arm, and trunk) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry after weight loss and 1 year following the weight loss. Because not all the subjects adhered to the 2 time/week 40 min/day exercise training during the 1-year follow-up, subjects were divided into five groups for analysis: aerobic adherers, aerobic nonadherers, resistance adherers, resistance nonadherers, and no exercise. No significant differences were observed between the aerobic training and resistance training adherers for any variable. However, the aerobic (3.1 kg) and resistance (3.9 kg) exercise adherers gained less weight than any of the other three groups (all >6.2 kg). In addition, the two exercise adherence groups did not significantly increase visceral fat (<0.8%) as compared with the 38% increase for the two nonadhering exercise groups and the 25% for the nonexercise group. In conclusion, as little as 80 min/week aerobic or resistance training had modest positive effects on preventing weight regain following a diet-induced weight loss. More importantly, both aerobic and resistance training prevented regain of potentially harmful visceral fat.

  4. Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1-year following weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Brock, David W.; Byrne, Nuala M; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Coral, Pedro Del; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect aerobic and resistance exercise training has on gain of visceral fat during the year following weight loss. After being randomly assigned to aerobic training, resistance training, or no exercise training, 45 European-American and 52 African-American women lost 12.3±2.5 kg on a 800 kcal/day diet. Computed tomography was used to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue while total fat and regional fat (leg, arm, and trunk) were measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry after weight loss and one year following the weight loss. Since not all the subjects adhered to the 2 time/week 40 minutes/day exercise training during the one year follow-up, subjects were divided into five groups for analysis; aerobic adherers, aerobic non-adherers, resistance adherers, resistance non-adherers and no exercise. No significant differences were observed between the aerobic training and resistance training adherers for any variable. However, the aerobic (3.1 kg) and resistance (3.9 kg) exercise adherers gained less weight than any of the other 3 groups (all more than 6.2 kg). In addition, the two exercise adherence groups did not significantly increase visceral fat (< 0.8%) as compared with the 38% increase for the two non-adhering exercise groups and the 25% for the non-exercise group. In conclusion, as little as 80 minutes/week aerobic or resistance training had modest positive effects on preventing weight regain following a diet induced weight loss. More importantly, both aerobic and resistance training prevented regain of potentially harmful visceral fat. PMID:19816413

  5. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Maia, R C A; Sousa, L E; Santos, R A S; Silva, M E; Lima, W G; Campagnole-Santos, M J; Alzamora, A C

    2015-11-01

    Exercise training (Ex) has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP), reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150-180 g) underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM) and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED) group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks). Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT) activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension. PMID:26270472

  6. Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

  7. Effects of Short Term Camp Periods on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Parameters in Ice Hockey National Team Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted for determining the effects of trainings, applied to athletes during short term camp period, on their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Measurements were made by the participation of 28 volunteer male ice hockey national team players. During the 15-day camp period, 10-minute running and stretching for warming and then…

  8. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  9. Studies on microbial chromate reduction by Pseudomonas sp. in aerobic continuous suspended growth cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, R.; Veeramani, H. . Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering)

    1994-03-15

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium was studied in three bench-scale continuous stirred tank reactors. The inoculum was a culture of Pseudomonas sp., capable of giving 83% to 87% chromate reduction in 72-h batch assays with 60 mg Cr(6) L[sup [minus]1] in synthetic medium. The continuous culture studies were conducted for about 100 days using synthetic feed containing different levels of chromate at 28 to 30 C and pH 6.8. The feed rate was varied over the range 0.5 to 1 L d[sup [minus]1] to obtain hydraulic retention time of 36 to 72 h. Chromate reduction efficiency was 81% to 91% and 100% for influent (Cr(6)) concentrations of 15 to 124 and 5 mg L[sup [minus]1], respectively, with a hydraulic retention time of 72 h.

  10. [The study of mycolytic properties of aerobic spore-forming bacteria producing extracellular chitinases].

    PubMed

    Aktuganov, G E; Melent'ev, A I; Galimzianova, N F; Shirokov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The mycolytic activity of 27 strains of antagonistic bacilli belonging to two taxonomic groups (18 strains of Bacillus subtilis and 9 strains of Paenibacillus ehimensis) capable of induced synthesis of chitinolytic enzymes was studied. Most of the B. subtilis strains neither displayed visible mycolytic effects on the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana in vitro, nor produced chitinases in the presence of an auto-claved mycelium. On the contrary, P. ehimensis strains grown under conditions favorable for induction of chitinases and other hydrolases exhibited a pronounced lytic effect on B. sorokiniana and actively grew by utilizing mycelium as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Comparison of the mycolytic activities of extracellular hydrolases in the studied strains demonstrated low correlation between chitinase production and the ability of the strains to degrade the cell walls of B. sorokiniana. Characterization of enzyme profiles in the studied strains revealed that beta-1,3-glucanase was a more significant factor than chitinase for determining the mycolytic potential of bacteria and their ability to utilize the mycelium of phytopathogenic fungi as a growth substrate.

  11. A Self-determination Theory approach to the study of body image concerns, self-presentation and self-perceptions in a sample of aerobic instructors.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2007-03-01

    This study examined motivational predictors of body image concerns, self-presentation and self-perceptions using Self-determination Theory as a guiding framework. Aerobic instructors (N = 149) completed questionnaires measuring general need satisfaction, exercise motivational regulations, body image concerns, social physique anxiety and self-perceptions. Introjected regulation predicted all outcome variables in the expected direction. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted physical self-worth. Further, autonomy need satisfaction negatively predicted body image concerns. Finally, differences existed in need satisfaction, introjected regulation, self-perceptions and social physique anxiety between those at risk of developing eating disorders and those not at risk. The results underline the importance of overall and exercise-specific feelings of self-determination in dealing with body image concerns and low self-perceptions of aerobics instructors.

  12. A Study of Enlisted Training and Education in Applied Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriner, Karl Leonard

    The study concludes that the primary reason for present programs of enlisted training and education in oceanography is to support Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). There is a significant lack of courses, schools, and self-study material available to enlisted personnel on the subject of oceanography. Through more extensive training the aviation ASW…

  13. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have