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Sample records for aerobic velocity mav

  1. General review of maximal aerobic velocity measurement at laboratory. Proposition of a new simplified protocol for maximal aerobic velocity assessment.

    PubMed

    Berthon, P; Fellmann, N

    2002-09-01

    The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.

  2. Unsteady Lift Generation for MAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-22

    canonical pitch - up , pitch -down wing maneuver, in 39th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA 2009-3687, San Antonio, TX, 22-25 June 2009. [7] C. P. Ellington...unsteady lift generation on three-dimensional flapping wings in the MAV flight regime and, if a leading edge vortex develops at MAV-like Reynolds numbers... wing rotates in a propeller-like motion through a wing stroke angle up to 90 degrees. Unsteady lift and drag force data was acquired throughout the

  3. Energy-Based Design of Reconfigurable Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Flight Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    the project is to understand how to mechanize multi-jointed MAV wings for perching and/or flapping applications and develop an energy-based design...with two-position wings that essentially fold and tuck up alongside the fuselage, in effect, hiding a large part of the planform. Lockheed’s 1/8...midway through the dive and experiences the peak velocity of the maneuver. The MAV starts to pitch up again, though the pitch angle is still negative

  4. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  5. Application of Piezoelectrics to Flapping-Wing MAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widstrand, Alex; Hubner, J. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) are a class of unmanned aerial vehicles that are size-restricted and operate at low velocities and low Reynolds numbers. An ongoing challenge with MAVs is that their flight-related operations are highly constrained by their size and weight, which limits battery size and, therefore, available power. One type of MAV called an ornithopter flies using flapping wings to create both lift and thrust, much like birds and insects do. Further bio-inspiration from bats led to the design of membrane wings for these vehicles, which provide aerodynamic benefits through passive vibration. In an attempt to capitalize on this vibration, a piezoelectric film, which generates a voltage when stressed, was investigated as the wing surface. Two wing planforms with constant area were designed and fabricated. The goal was to measure the wings' flight characteristics and output energy in freestream conditions. Complications with the flapper arose which prevented wind tunnel tests from being performed; however, energy data was obtained from table-top shaker tests. Preliminary results indicate that wing shape affects the magnitude of the charge generated, with a quarter-elliptic planform outperforming a rectangular planform. Funding provided by NSF REU Site Award number 1358991.

  6. Characterization of a TnMAVS protein from Tetraodon nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhiming; Qi, Lin; Chen, Weijian; Dong, Chuanfu; Liu, Zhaoyu; Liu, Dong; Huang, Mengli; Li, Wei; Yang, Gan; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2011-11-01

    A growing family of cellular proteins encoding for caspase activation and the recruitment domain (CARD) plays a crucial role in immunity by sensing viral infections and signaling antiviral immune defenses. We obtained a MAVS-like protein (named TnMAVS) from Tetradon nigroviridis, which contains a CARD domain, a pro-rich domain, and a TM domain similar to human MAVS. A fluorescence assay showed that TnMAVS was located in the cytoplasm and near by the membrane, and not the mitochondria in FHM cells. As such, it was considered as a new member of MAVS. The TnMAVS was highly expressed in the liver and muscle of T. nigroviridis. In the spleen, TnMAVS was down-regulated when the fish was treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or challenged with ISKNV, but was not affected by PGN or LPS. The dual luciferase reporter assay revealed that TnMAVS overexpression resulted in the activation of the interferon-sensitive response element and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, a characteristic TRAF3-associated peptide PVQD was found in the TnMAVS sequence. Co-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that TnMAVS could interact with zfTRAF3 in eukaryotic cells.

  7. Uavrc, a Generic Mav Flight Assistance Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, M.; Mende, M.; Keim, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present our multicopter flight assistance software uavRC, which bears on a distributed system with interchangeable MAV-drivers and a browser-based user interface that can be used on any computer, tablet or smartphone. The software components can be distributed on different computers and are even executable on a Raspberry Pi. The components communicate over a well-defined interface. One module is the browser based user interface, another module is the MAV driver. There are additional modules like a task-scheduler, a path-planer and many more. Currently the software is in beta stage, so there is still a lot of work in progress. With this paper we focus on the software architecture.

  8. Effect of Aerobic versus Resistance Exercise on Pulse Wave Velocity, Intima Media Thickness and Left Ventricular Mass in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Kuk, Jennifer L; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Drant, Stacey; DeGroff, Curt; Lee, SoJung

    2015-11-01

    A cardiovascular comorbidity in obese adolescents is increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated in obese adolescents 1) the risk factors associated with aPWV, cIMT and LVM, and 2) the effects of aerobic (AE) versus resistance (RE) exercise alone (without calorie restriction) on aPWV, cIMT, LVM index (LVMI) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Eighty-one obese adolescents (12-18 yrs, BMI ≥95th percentile) were randomized to 3 months of AE (n = 30), RE (n = 27) or a control group (n = 24). Outcome measures included aPWV, cIMT, LVMI, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and lipids. At baseline, the strongest correlates of aPWV were body weight (r = .31) and diastolic BP (r = .28); of cIMT were body weight (r=0.26) and CRF (r=-0.25); and of LVMI was CRF (r=0.32) after adjusting for sex and race (p < .05 for all). Despite significant reductions in total fat and improvements in CRF in the AE and RE groups, aPWV, cIMT, LVMI, BP, lipids and body weight did not change as compared with controls (p > .05 for all). Interventions of longer duration or together with weight loss may be required to improve these early biomarkers of CVD in obese adolescents.

  9. Predicting maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) from the critical velocity test in female collegiate rowers.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the critical velocity (CV) test and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and develop a regression equation to predict VO2max based on the CV test in female collegiate rowers. Thirty-five female (mean ± SD; age, 19.38 ± 1.3 years; height, 170.27 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 69.58 ± 0.3 1 kg) collegiate rowers performed 2 incremental VO2max tests to volitional exhaustion on a Concept II Model D rowing ergometer to determine VO2max. After a 72-hour rest period, each rower completed 4 time trials at varying distances for the determination of CV and anaerobic rowing capacity (ARC). A positive correlation was observed between CV and absolute VO2max (r = 0.775, p < 0.001) and ARC and absolute VO2max (r = 0.414, p = 0.040). Based on the significant correlation analysis, a linear regression equation was developed to predict the absolute VO2max from CV and ARC (absolute VO2max = 1.579[CV] + 0.008[ARC] - 3.838; standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 0.192 L·min(-1)). Cross validation analyses were performed using an independent sample of 10 rowers. There was no significant difference between the mean predicted VO2max (3.02 L·min(-1)) and the observed VO2max (3.10 L·min(-1)). The constant error, SEE and validity coefficient (r) were 0.076 L·min(-1), 0.144 L·min(-1), and 0.72, respectively. The total error value was 0.155 L·min(-1). The positive relationship between CV, ARC, and VO2max suggests that the CV test may be a practical alternative to measuring the maximal oxygen uptake in the absence of a metabolic cart. Additional studies are needed to validate the regression equation using a larger sample size and different populations (junior- and senior-level female rowers) and to determine the accuracy of the equation in tracking changes after a training intervention.

  10. Long-term pulse wave velocity outcomes with aerobic and resistance training in kidney transplant recipients – A pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H.; Lindup, Herolin; Nugent, Eilish; Goldsmith, David; Macdougall, Iain C.; Greenwood, Sharlene A.

    2017-01-01

    Background This pilot study examined long-term pulse wave velocity (PWV) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) outcomes following a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic or resistance training programme in kidney transplant recipients. Method Single-blind, bi-centre randomised controlled parallel trial. 42 out of 60 participants completed a 9-month follow-up assessment (Aerobic training = 12, Resistance training = 10 and usual care = 20). Participants completed 12 weeks of twice-weekly supervised aerobic or resistance training. Following the 12-week exercise intervention, participants were transitioned to self-managed community exercise activity using motivational interviewing techniques. Usual care participants received usual encouragement for physical activity during routine clinical appointments in the transplant clinic. PWV, VO2peak, blood pressure and body weight were assessed at 12 weeks and 12 months, and compared to baseline. Results ANCOVA analysis, covarying for baseline values, age, and length of time on dialysis pre-transplantation, revealed a significant mean between-group difference in PWV of -1.30 m/sec (95%CI -2.44 to -0.17, p = 0.03) between resistance training and usual care groups. When comparing the aerobic training and usual care groups at 9-month follow-up, there was a mean difference of -1.05 m/sec (95%CI -2.11 to 0.017, p = 0.05). A significant mean between-group difference in relative VO2peak values of 2.2 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.37 to 4.03, p = 0.02) when comparing aerobic training with usual care was revealed. There was no significant between group differences in body weight or blood pressure. There were no significant adverse effects associated with the interventions. Conclusions Significant between-group differences in 9-month follow-up PWV existed when comparing resistance exercise intervention with usual care. A long-term between-group difference in VO2peak was only evident when comparing aerobic intervention with usual care. This pilot study

  11. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. Method: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results: Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Conclusion: Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:27741123

  12. Effects of cognitive stimulation with a self-modeling video on time to exhaustion while running at maximal aerobic velocity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hagin, Vincent; Gonzales, Benoît R; Groslambert, Alain

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed whether video self-modeling improves running performance and influences the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate response. Twelve men (M age=26.8 yr., SD=6; M body mass index=22.1 kg.m(-2), SD=1) performed a time to exhaustion running test at 100 percent maximal aerobic velocity while focusing on a video self-modeling loop to synchronize their stride. Compared to the control condition, there was a significant increase of time to exhaustion. Perceived exertion was lower also, but there was no significant change in mean heart rate. In conclusion, the video self-modeling used as a pacer apparently increased endurance by decreasing perceived exertion without affecting the heart rate.

  13. The Pixhawk Open-Source Computer Vision Framework for Mavs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, L.; Tanskanen, P.; Fraundorfer, F.; Pollefeys, M.

    2011-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and micro air vehicles (MAV) are already intensively used in geodetic applications. State of the art autonomous systems are however geared towards the application area in safe and obstacle-free altitudes greater than 30 meters. Applications at lower altitudes still require a human pilot. A new application field will be the reconstruction of structures and buildings, including the facades and roofs, with semi-autonomous MAVs. Ongoing research in the MAV robotics field is focusing on enabling this system class to operate at lower altitudes in proximity to nearby obstacles and humans. PIXHAWK is an open source and open hardware toolkit for this purpose. The quadrotor design is optimized for onboard computer vision and can connect up to four cameras to its onboard computer. The validity of the system design is shown with a fully autonomous capture flight along a building.

  14. Habitable Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Concept. [Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Layout and Configuration: 6-Crew, Habitable, Nested Tank Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dang, Victor; Rucker, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    NASA's ultimate goal is the human exploration of Mars. Among the many difficult aspects of a trip to Mars is the return mission that would transport the astronauts from the Martian surface back into Mars orbit. One possible conceptual design to accomplish this task is a two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). In order to assess this design, a general layout and configuration for the spacecraft must be developed. The objective of my internship was to model a conceptual MAV design to support NASA's latest human Mars mission architecture trade studies, technology prioritization decisions, and mass, cost, and schedule estimates.

  15. Participatory Video: Toward a Method, Advocacy and Voice (MAV) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitter, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…

  16. Mycobacterium avium MAV2054 protein induces macrophage apoptosis by targeting mitochondria and reduces intracellular bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-In; Whang, Jake; Choi, Han-Gyu; Son, Yeo-Jin; Jeon, Haet Sal; Back, Yong Woo; Park, Hye-Soo; Paik, Seungwha; Park, Jeong-Kyu; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex induces macrophage apoptosis. However, the M. avium components that inhibit or trigger apoptosis and their regulating mechanisms remain unclear. We recently identified the immunodominant MAV2054 protein by fractionating M. avium culture filtrate protein by multistep chromatography; this protein showed strong immuno-reactivity in M. avium complex pulmonary disease and in patients with tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the biological effects of MAV2054 on murine macrophages. Recombinant MAV2054 induced caspase-dependent macrophage apoptosis. Enhanced reactive oxygen species production and JNK activation were essential for MAV2054-mediated apoptosis and MAV2054-induced interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. MAV2054 was targeted to the mitochondrial compartment of macrophages treated with MAV2054 and infected with M. avium. Dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and depletion of cytochrome c also occurred in MAV2054-treated macrophages. Apoptotic response, reactive oxygen species production, and ΔΨm collapse were significantly increased in bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing MAV2054, compared to that in M. smegmatis control. Furthermore, MAV2054 expression suppressed intracellular growth of M. smegmatis and increased the survival rate of M. smegmatis-infected mice. Thus, MAV2054 induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in macrophages, which may be an innate cellular response to limit intracellular M. avium multiplication. PMID:27901051

  17. Interval training at 95% and 100% of the velocity at VO2 max: effects on aerobic physiological indexes and running performance.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Benedito S; Ortiz, Marcelo J; Greco, Camila C; de Mello, Marco T

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two different high-intensity interval training (HIT) programs on selected aerobic physiological indices and 1500 and 5000 m running performance in well-trained runners. The following tests were completed (n=17): (i) incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), running velocity associated with VO2 max (vVO2 max), and the velocity corresponding to 3.5 mmol/L of blood lactate concentration (vOBLA); (ii) submaximal constant-intensity test to determine running economy (RE); and (iii) 1500 and 5000 m time trials on a 400 m track. Runners were then randomized into 95% vVO2 max or 100% vVO2 max groups, and undertook a 4 week training program consisting of 2 HIT sessions (performed at 95% or 100% vVO2 max, respectively) and 4 submaximal run sessions per week. Runners were retested on all parameters at the completion of the training program. The VO2 max values were not different after training for both groups. There was a significant increase in post-training vVO2 max, RE, and 1500 m running performance in the 100% vVO2 max group. The vOBLA and 5000 m running performance were significantly higher after the training period for both groups. We conclude that vOBLA and 5000 m running performance can be significantly improved in well-trained runners using a 4 week training program consisting of 2 HIT sessions (performed at 95% or 100% vVO2 max) and 4 submaximal run sessions per week. However, the improvement in vVO2 max, RE, and 1500 m running performance seems to be dependent on the HIT program at 100% vVO2 max.

  18. [MAVS protein and its interactions with hepatitis A, B and C viruses].

    PubMed

    Wyżewski, Zbigniew; Gregorczyk, Karolina P; Struzik, Justyna; Niemiałtowski, Marek; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia

    2016-01-26

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) transmits activation signal of type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription in the molecular intracellular pathway, which depends on the protein encoded by retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5). MAVS, as a signal molecule, performs an essential function in the development of an antiviral immune response. The molecule of MAVS consists of two domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal end of MAVS contains the caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). CARD is responsible for MAVS interaction with RIG-I and MDA-5, which act as cytosolic sensors detecting foreign viral genetic material in the host cell. After binding to viral RNA, RIG-I or MDA-5 activates MAVS and transmits the signal of IFN type I gene expression. The C-terminal transmembrane domain (TM) of MAVS anchors the protein to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this paper interactions between MAVS and hepatitis virus type A (HAV), type B (HBV) and type C (HCV) are presented. Mechanisms of indirect activation of MAVS by viral DNA and RNA, as well as the strategies of HAV, HBV and HCV for blocking of the intracellular signaling pathway at the level of MAVS, are described.

  19. Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) "Quadrocopter Garmisch 2005"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-20

    Quadrocopter overlapping (fig. 7) • Quadrocopter Garmisch 2005 (fig. 8) This helicopter was designed for the 1st US European MAV Competition...rotor-helicopter (fig. 11): • Carbon fiber plastic framework (fig. 21) • 4 propulsion systems (coreless motor, gearbox, carbon rotor) (fig.12...transmitter (fig. 15) • Removable collision protection system ( carbon fiber plastic ring) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  20. A HILS System for the Simulation of MAV Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    A HILS System for the Simulation of MAV Flight In this research a HILS system in which a small autopilot can experience flight stimuli, such as...pitch, roll, yaw, and GPS is investigated. These stimuli are controlled by a flight simulator hosting an airframe model that the autopilot in question...fly’s. Such a system allows the autopilot to fly the virtual model of the flight simulator while experiencing all flight stimuli as if it is in real

  1. CARD and TM of MAVS of black carp play the key role in its self-association and antiviral ability.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Yan, Chuanzhe; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jun; Wu, Hui; Chen, Tiansheng; Feng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is an adaptor protein of the innate immune system of higher vertebrate. In this paper, the transcription profile of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) in host cells in response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection was identified. EPC cells expressing bcMAVS possessed obviously enhanced antiviral activity against both SVCV and GCRV. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining data demonstrated that bcMAVS molecules were redistributed and formed aggregates on the mitochondria of EPC cells after virus infection. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay in HEK293T cells demonstrated that bcMAVS proteins bound to each other, which suggested that this fish protein owned self-association in vivo. IF assay identified that the transmembrane (TM) domain of bcMAVS was crucial for its mitochondrial localization. Co-IP assays among bcMAVS mutants demonstrated that both N-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and TM domain were indispensible for dimerization of bcMAVS. It was interesting that Truncated-bcMAVS possessed much enhanced interferon-inducing activity and antiviral ability than wild type bcMAVS, which only contains CARD and TM. All the data generated in this study support the idea that oligomerization of bcMAVS on mitochondrion is crucial for the antiviral ability of bcMAVS, which is depend on both CARD and TM domain of this fish MAVS orthologue.

  2. Extrinsic MAVS signaling is critical for Treg maintenance of Foxp3 expression following acute flavivirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Andreia; Garza, Esteban; Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Soerens, Andrew G.; Gale, Michael; Lund, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid spread of flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus, it is critical that we develop a complete understanding of the key mediators of an effective anti-viral response. We previously demonstrated that WNV infection of mice deficient in mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), the signaling adaptor for RNA helicases such as RIG-I, resulted in increased death and dysregulated immunity, which correlated with a failure of Treg expansion following infection. Thus, we sought to determine if intrinsic MAVS signaling is required for participation of Tregs in anti-WNV immunity. Despite evidence of increased Treg cell division, Foxp3 expression was not stably maintained after WNV infection in MAVS-deficient mice. However, intrinsic MAVS signaling was dispensable for Treg proliferation and suppressive capacity. Further, we observed generation of an effective anti-WNV immune response when Tregs lacked MAVS, thereby demonstrating that Treg detection of the presence of WNV through the MAVS signaling pathway is not required for generation of effective immunity. Together, these data suggest that while MAVS signaling has a considerable impact on Treg identity, this effect is not mediated by intrinsic MAVS signaling but rather is likely an effect of the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines generated in MAVS-deficient mice after WNV infection. PMID:28094802

  3. Analytical, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flight Dynamics of Coandă MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djojodihardjo, H.; Ahmed, RI

    2016-11-01

    The paper establishes the basic working relationships among various relevant variables and parameters governing the aerodynamics forces and performance measures of Coandă MAV in hover and translatory motion. With such motivation, capitalizing on the basic fundamental principles, the Fluid Dynamics and Flight Mechanics of semi-spherical Coandă MAV configurations are revisited and analyzed as a baseline. To gain better understanding on the principle of Coandă MAV lift generation, a mathematical model for a spherical Coandă MAV is developed and analyzed from first physical principles. To gain further insight into the prevailing flow field around a Coandă MAV, as well as to verify the theoretical prediction presented in the work, a computational fluid dynamic CFD simulation for a Coandă MAV generic model are elaborated using commercial software FLUENT®. In addition, the equation of motion for translatory motion of Coandă MAV is elaborated. The mathematical model and derived performance measures are shown to be capable in describing the physical phenomena of the flow field of the semi-spherical Coandă MAV. The relationships between the relevant parameters of the mathematical model of the Coandă MAV to the forces acting on it are elaborated subsequently.

  4. The mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 resolves MAVS aggregates during antiviral signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young-Suk; Park, Yong-Yea; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseon; Kim, Song-Hee; Lee, Ho-Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Sun Kim, You; Lee, Youngsoo; Kim, Chul-Joong; Jung, Jae U; Lee, Jong-Soo; Cho, Hyeseong

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria serve as platforms for innate immunity. The mitochondrial antiviral signalling (MAVS) protein forms aggregates that elicit robust type-I interferon induction on viral infection, but persistent MAVS signalling leads to host immunopathology; it remains unknown how these signalling aggregates are resolved. Here we identify the mitochondria-resident E3 ligase, MARCH5, as a negative regulator of MAVS aggregates. March5+/− mice and MARCH5-deficient immune cells exhibit low viral replication and elevated type-I interferon responses to RNA viruses. MARCH5 binds MAVS only during viral stimulation when MAVS forms aggregates, and these interactions require the RING domain of MARCH5 and the CARD domain of MAVS. MARCH5, but not its RING mutant (MARCH5H43W), reduces the level of MAVS aggregates. MARCH5 transfers ubiquitin to Lys7 and Lys500 of MAVS and promotes its proteasome-mediated degradation. Our results indicate that MARCH5 modulates MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling, preventing excessive immune reactions. PMID:26246171

  5. Extrinsic MAVS signaling is critical for Treg maintenance of Foxp3 expression following acute flavivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Andreia; Garza, Esteban; Graham, Jessica B; Swarts, Jessica L; Soerens, Andrew G; Gale, Michael; Lund, Jennifer M

    2017-01-17

    Given the rapid spread of flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus, it is critical that we develop a complete understanding of the key mediators of an effective anti-viral response. We previously demonstrated that WNV infection of mice deficient in mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), the signaling adaptor for RNA helicases such as RIG-I, resulted in increased death and dysregulated immunity, which correlated with a failure of Treg expansion following infection. Thus, we sought to determine if intrinsic MAVS signaling is required for participation of Tregs in anti-WNV immunity. Despite evidence of increased Treg cell division, Foxp3 expression was not stably maintained after WNV infection in MAVS-deficient mice. However, intrinsic MAVS signaling was dispensable for Treg proliferation and suppressive capacity. Further, we observed generation of an effective anti-WNV immune response when Tregs lacked MAVS, thereby demonstrating that Treg detection of the presence of WNV through the MAVS signaling pathway is not required for generation of effective immunity. Together, these data suggest that while MAVS signaling has a considerable impact on Treg identity, this effect is not mediated by intrinsic MAVS signaling but rather is likely an effect of the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines generated in MAVS-deficient mice after WNV infection.

  6. Bio-inspired visual ego-rotation sensor for MAVs.

    PubMed

    Plett, Johannes; Bahl, Armin; Buss, Martin; Kühnlenz, Kolja; Borst, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Flies are capable of extraordinary flight maneuvers at very high speeds largely due to their highly elaborate visual system. In this work we present a fly-inspired FPGA based sensor system able to visually sense rotations around different body axes, for use on board micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). Rotation sensing is performed analogously to the fly's VS cell network using zero-crossing detection. An additional key feature of our system is the ease of adding new functionalities akin to the different tasks attributed to the fly's lobula plate tangential cell network, such as object avoidance or collision detection. Our implementation consists of a modified eneo SC-MVC01 SmartCam module and a custom built circuit board, weighing less than 200 g and consuming less than 4 W while featuring 57,600 individual two-dimensional elementary motion detectors, a 185° field of view and a frame rate of 350 frames per second. This makes our sensor system compact in terms of size, weight and power requirements for easy incorporation into MAV platforms, while autonomously performing all sensing and processing on-board and in real time.

  7. Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) Regulates Interferon (IFN) Induction by MAVS*

    PubMed Central

    Vitour, Damien; Dabo, Stéphanie; Ahmadi Pour, Malek; Vilasco, Myriam; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jacob, Yves; Mezel-Lemoine, Mariana; Paz, Suzanne; Arguello, Meztli; Lin, Rongtuan; Tangy, Frédéric; Hiscott, John; Meurs, Eliane F.

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondria-bound adapter MAVS participates in IFN induction by recruitment of downstream partners such as members of the TRAF family, leading to activation of NF-κB, and the IRF3 pathways. A yeast two-hybrid search for MAVS-interacting proteins yielded the Polo-box domain (PBD) of the mitotic Polo-like kinase PLK1. We showed that PBD associates with two different domains of MAVS in both dependent and independent phosphorylation events. The phosphodependent association requires the phosphopeptide binding ability of PBD. It takes place downstream of the proline-rich domain of MAVS, within an STP motif, characteristic of the binding of PLK1 to its targets, where the central Thr234 residue is phosphorylated. Its phosphoindependent association takes place at the C terminus of MAVS. PLK1 strongly inhibits the ability of MAVS to activate the IRF3 and NF-κB pathways and to induce IFN. Reciprocally, depletion of PLK1 can increase IFN induction in response to RIG-I/SeV or RIG-I/poly(I)-poly(C) treatments. This inhibition is dependent on the phosphoindependent association of PBD at the C terminus of MAVS where it disrupts the association of MAVS with its downstream partner TRAF3. IFN induction was strongly inhibited in cells arrested in G2/M by nocodazole, which provokes increased expression of endogenous PLK1. Interestingly, depletion of PLK1 from these nocodazole-treated cells could restore, at least partially, IFN induction. Altogether, these data demonstrate a new function for PLK1 as a regulator of IFN induction and provide the basis for the development of inhibitors preventing the PLK1/MAVS association to sustain innate immunity. PMID:19546225

  8. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

  9. Image based augmentation of an autonomous VTOL-MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frietsch, N.; Maier, A.; Kessler, C.; Meister, O.; Seibold, J.; Trommer, G. F.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the development of a vision based system for a small-scale VTOL-MAV is presented. The on-board GPS/INS navigation system is augmented by further sensors in order to allow for an autonomous waypoint mode. Especially in urban environments the GPSsignal quality is disturbed by shading and multipath propagation. The investigated vision system based on algorithms analyzing the optical flow is essential to enable the helicopter to reliably hover even in these scenarios. Due to the integration of the vision based navigation information into the navigation filter, GPSsignal outages can be bridged. The necessary height above ground information is estimated from the relative altitude change given by the barometric altimeter and the optical flow.

  10. The attitude control of fixed-wing MAVS in turbulent environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdulghani; Massey, Kevin; Watkins, Simon; Clothier, Reece

    2014-04-01

    The small scale and portability of fixed-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles lend them to many unique applications, however their utility is often limited by ineffective attitude control in turbulent environments. The performance of attitude control systems themselves are affected by a variety of factors. Assessment of this system’s performance needs to be viewed in relation to the MAVs’ unique constraints. Certain aspects and limitations of MAV attitude control related issues are addressed in the literature, but to fully address the degradation of utility, the entire system must be examined. These issues can only be fully addressed when considering them concurrently. There is no framework for defining the attitude control problem explicitly for MAVs. This paper attempts to (1) Define the MAV attitude control problem with respect to the unique constraints imposed by this class of Unmanned Aircraft; (2) Review current design trends of MAVs with respect to vulnerability to atmospheric turbulence.

  11. Design and implementation of a control system for a quadrotor MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawek, Dean

    The quadrotor is a 200 g MAV with rapid-prototyped rotors that are driven by four brushless electric motors, capable of a collective thrust of around 400 g using an 11 V battery. The vehicle is compact with its largest dimension at 188 mm. Without any feedback control, the quadrotor is unstable. For flight stability, the vehicle incorporates a linear quadratic regulator to augment its dynamics for hover. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics are linearized about hover in order to be used in controller formulation. Feedback comes both directly from sensors and a Luenberger observer that computes the rotor velocities. A Simulink simulation uses hardware and software properties to serve as an environment for controller gain tuning prior to flight testing. The results from the simulation generate stabilizing control gains for the on-board attitude controller and for an off-board PC autopilot that uses the Vicon computer vision system for position feedback. Through the combined effort of the on-board and off-board controllers, the quadrotor successfully demonstrates stable hover in both nominal and disturbed conditions.

  12. Alteration of Antiviral Signalling by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signalling Protein (MAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fei; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Hayakari, Ryo; Yoshida, Hidemi; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation is associated with diseases. As a type of genetic variation occurring with certain regularity and frequency, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is attracting more and more attention because of its great value for research and real-life application. Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a common adaptor molecule for retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), which can recognize foreign RNA, including viral RNA, leading to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Therefore, MAVS is thought to be a crucial molecule in antiviral innate immunity. We speculated that genetic variation of MAVS may result in susceptibility to infectious diseases. To assess the risk of viral infection based on MAVS variation, we tested the effects of twelve non-synonymous MAVS coding-region SNPs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database that result in amino acid substitutions. We found that five of these SNPs exhibited functional alterations. Additionally, four resulted in an inhibitory immune response, and one had the opposite effect. In total, 1,032 human genomic samples obtained from a mass examination were genotyped at these five SNPs. However, no homozygous or heterozygous variation was detected. We hypothesized that these five SNPs are not present in the Japanese population and that such MAVS variations may result in serious immune diseases. PMID:26954674

  13. Structural basis for the prion-like MAVS filaments in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; He, Xiaojing; Zheng, Hui; Huang, Lily J; Hou, Fajian; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, Michael Jason; Borkowski, Brian; Zhang, Xuewu; Chen, Zhijian J; Jiang, Qiu-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is required for innate immune responses against RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate antiviral signaling cascades, but the underlying structural mechanism is unknown. Here we report cryo-electron microscopic structures of the helical filaments formed by both the N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) of MAVS and a truncated MAVS lacking part of the proline-rich region and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. Both structures are left-handed three-stranded helical filaments, revealing specific interfaces between individual CARD subunits that are dictated by electrostatic interactions between neighboring strands and hydrophobic interactions within each strand. Point mutations at multiple locations of these two interfaces impaired filament formation and antiviral signaling. Super-resolution imaging of virus-infected cells revealed rod-shaped MAVS clusters on mitochondria. These results elucidate the structural mechanism of MAVS polymerization, and explain how an α-helical domain uses distinct chemical interactions to form self-perpetuating filaments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01489.001 PMID:24569476

  14. Structural basis for the prion-like MAVS filaments in antiviral innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; He, Xiaojing; Zheng, Hui; Huang, Lily J; Hou, Fajian; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, Michael Jason; Borkowski, Brian; Zhang, Xuewu; Chen, Zhijian J; Jiang, Qiu-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is required for innate immune responses against RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate antiviral signaling cascades, but the underlying structural mechanism is unknown. Here we report cryo-electron microscopic structures of the helical filaments formed by both the N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) of MAVS and a truncated MAVS lacking part of the proline-rich region and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. Both structures are left-handed three-stranded helical filaments, revealing specific interfaces between individual CARD subunits that are dictated by electrostatic interactions between neighboring strands and hydrophobic interactions within each strand. Point mutations at multiple locations of these two interfaces impaired filament formation and antiviral signaling. Super-resolution imaging of virus-infected cells revealed rod-shaped MAVS clusters on mitochondria. These results elucidate the structural mechanism of MAVS polymerization, and explain how an α-helical domain uses distinct chemical interactions to form self-perpetuating filaments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01489.001.

  15. Mycobacterium avium MAV2052 protein induces apoptosis in murine macrophage cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-In; Choi, Han-Gyu; Son, Yeo-Jin; Whang, Jake; Kim, Kwangwook; Jeon, Heat Sal; Park, Hye-Soo; Back, Yong Woo; Choi, Seunga; Kim, Seong-Woo; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium and its sonic extracts induce apoptosis in macrophages. However, little is known about the M. avium components regulating macrophage apoptosis. In this study, using multidimensional fractionation, we identified MAV2052 protein, which induced macrophage apoptosis in M. avium culture filtrates. The recombinant MAV2052 induced macrophage apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in macrophages treated with MAV2052. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required for the apoptosis induced by MAV2052. In addition, ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in MAV2052-mediated TNF-α and IL-6 production. ROS-mediated activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-JNK pathway was a major signaling pathway for MAV2052-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MAV2052 bound to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 molecule and MAV2052-induced ROS production, ΔΨm loss, and apoptosis were all significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Altogether, our results suggest that MAV2052 induces apoptotic cell death through TLR4 dependent ROS production and JNK pathway in murine macrophages.

  16. Activation of Type I and III Interferon Response by Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal MAVS and Inhibition by Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Silke; Reuter, Antje; Eberle, Florian; Einhorn, Evelyne; Binder, Marco; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Sensing viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) triggers the innate immune system of the host cell and activates immune signaling cascades such as the RIG-I/IRF3 pathway. Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as IPS-1, Cardif, and VISA) is the crucial adaptor protein of this pathway localized on mitochondria, peroxisomes and mitochondria-associated membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of MAVS leads to the production of type I and type III interferons (IFN) as well as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). To refine the role of MAVS subcellular localization for the induction of type I and III IFN responses in hepatocytes and its counteraction by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), we generated various functional and genetic knock-out cell systems that were reconstituted to express mitochondrial (mito) or peroxisomal (pex) MAVS, exclusively. Upon infection with diverse RNA viruses we found that cells exclusively expressing pexMAVS mounted sustained expression of type I and III IFNs to levels comparable to cells exclusively expressing mitoMAVS. To determine whether viral counteraction of MAVS is affected by its subcellular localization we employed infection of cells with HCV, a major causative agent of chronic liver disease with a high propensity to establish persistence. This virus efficiently cleaves MAVS via a viral protease residing in its nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) and this strategy is thought to contribute to the high persistence of this virus. We found that both mito- and pexMAVS were efficiently cleaved by NS3 and this cleavage was required to suppress activation of the IFN response. Taken together, our findings indicate comparable activation of the IFN response by pex- and mitoMAVS in hepatocytes and efficient counteraction of both MAVS species by the HCV NS3 protease. PMID:26588843

  17. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  18. Pitch, roll, and yaw moment generator for insect-like tailless flapping-wing MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we proposed a control moment generator, which is called Trailing Edge Change (TEC) mechanism, for attitudes change in hovering insect-like tailless flapping-wing MAV. The control moment generator was installed to the flapping-wing mechanism to manipulate the wing kinematics by adjusting the wing roots location symmetrically or asymmetrically. As a result, the mean aerodynamic force center of each wing is relocated and control moments are generated. The three-dimensional wing kinematics captured by three synchronized high-speed cameras showed that the flapping-wing MAV can properly modify the wing kinematics. In addition, a series of experiments were performed using a multi-axis load cell to evaluate the forces and moments generation. The measurement demonstrated that the TEC mechanism produced reasonable amounts of pitch, roll and yaw moments by shifting position of the trailing edges at the wing roots of the flapping-wing MAV.

  19. IRTKS negatively regulates antiviral immunity through PCBP2 sumoylation-mediated MAVS degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pengyan; Wang, Shuo; Xiong, Zhen; Ye, Buqing; Huang, Li-Yu; Han, Ze-Guang; Fan, Zusen

    2015-01-01

    RNA virus infection is recognized by the RIG-I family of receptors that activate the mitochondrial adaptor MAVS, leading to the clearance of viruses. Antiviral signalling activation requires strict modulation to avoid damage to the host from exacerbated inflammation. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (IRTKS) participates in actin bundling and insulin signalling and its deficiency causes insulin resistance. However, whether IRTKS is involved in the regulation of innate immunity remains elusive. Here we show that IRTKS deficiency causes enhanced innate immune responses against RNA viruses. IRTKS-mediated suppression of antiviral responses depends on the RIG-I-MAVS signalling pathway. IRTKS recruits the E2 ligase Ubc9 to sumoylate PCBP2 in the nucleus, which causes its cytoplasmic translocation during viral infection. The sumoylated PCBP2 associates with MAVS to initiate its degradation, leading to downregulation of antiviral responses. Thus, IRTKS functions as a negative modulator of excessive inflammation. PMID:26348439

  20. Enterovirus 71 Protease 2Apro Targets MAVS to Inhibit Anti-Viral Type I Interferon Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Xi, Xueyan; Lei, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Sheng; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Its pathogenicity is not fully understood, but innate immune evasion is likely a key factor. Strategies to circumvent the initiation and effector phases of anti-viral innate immunity are well known; less well known is whether EV71 evades the signal transduction phase regulated by a sophisticated interplay of cellular and viral proteins. Here, we show that EV71 inhibits anti-viral type I interferon (IFN) responses by targeting the mitochondrial anti-viral signaling (MAVS) protein—a unique adaptor molecule activated upon retinoic acid induced gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene (MDA-5) viral recognition receptor signaling—upstream of type I interferon production. MAVS was cleaved and released from mitochondria during EV71 infection. An in vitro cleavage assay demonstrated that the viral 2A protease (2Apro), but not the mutant 2Apro (2Apro-110) containing an inactivated catalytic site, cleaved MAVS. The Protease-Glo assay revealed that MAVS was cleaved at 3 residues between the proline-rich and transmembrane domains, and the resulting fragmentation effectively inactivated downstream signaling. In addition to MAVS cleavage, we found that EV71 infection also induced morphologic and functional changes to the mitochondria. The EV71 structural protein VP1 was detected on purified mitochondria, suggesting not only a novel role for mitochondria in the EV71 replication cycle but also an explanation of how EV71-derived 2Apro could approach MAVS. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel strategy employed by EV71 to escape host anti-viral innate immunity that complements the known EV71-mediated immune-evasion mechanisms. PMID:23555247

  1. Dengue Virus Subverts Host Innate Immunity by Targeting Adaptor Protein MAVS

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Wen, Weitao; Yuan, Jie; Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; An, Shu; Dong, Xinhuai; Lin, Cuiji; Yu, Jianchen; Wu, Jueheng; Yang, Yi; Cai, Junchao; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne virus infecting humans and is currently a serious global health challenge. To establish infection in its host cells, DENV must subvert the production and/or antiviral effects of interferon (IFN). The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which DENV suppresses IFN production. We determined that DENV NS4A interacts with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), which was previously found to activate NF-κB and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), thus inducing type I IFN in the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). We further demonstrated that NS4A is associated with the N-terminal CARD-like (CL) domain and the C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain of MAVS. This association prevented the binding of MAVS to RIG-I, resulting in the repression of RIG-I-induced IRF3 activation and, consequently, the abrogation of IFN production. Collectively, our findings illustrate a new molecular mechanism by which DENV evades the host immune system and suggest new targets for anti-DENV strategies. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon (IFN) constitutes the first line of host defense against invading viruses. To successfully establish infection, dengue virus (DENV) must counteract either the production or the function of IFN. The mechanism by which DENV suppresses IFN production is poorly understood and characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the DENV NS4A protein plays an important role in suppressing interferon production through binding MAVS and disrupting the RIG-I–MAVS interaction in mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). Our study reveals that MAVS is a novel host target of NS4A and provides a molecular mechanism for DENV evasion of the host innate immune response. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of DENV and may provide new insights into using NS4A as a therapeutic and/or prevention target. PMID

  2. Design and Prototype Development of a Wireless Power Transmission System for a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    assembled, each consisting of microwave rectifier, antenna and a miniature DC motor . It was demonstrated that a 1.8-Watt, 1.3-GHz microwave signal could...power the DC motor at free space distance of 30 inches from transmitting antenna to prototype MAV. Greater operating distances are proposed by using higher transmitting power and antenna gain.

  3. MAVS Expressed by Hematopoietic Cells Is Critical for Control of West Nile Virus Infection and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rahul; Zhao, Jingxian; Gale, Michael; Diamond, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Innate immune responses, which are critical for control of WNV infection, are initiated by signaling through pathogen recognition receptors, RIG-I and MDA5, and their downstream adaptor molecule, MAVS. Here, we show that a deficiency of MAVS in hematopoietic cells resulted in increased mortality and delayed WNV clearance from the brain. In Mavs−/− mice, a dysregulated immune response was detected, characterized by a massive influx of macrophages and virus-specific T cells into the infected brain. These T cells were polyfunctional and lysed peptide-pulsed target cells in vitro. However, virus-specific T cells in the brains of infected Mavs−/− mice exhibited lower functional avidity than those in wild-type animals, and even virus-specific memory T cells generated by prior immunization could not protect Mavs−/− mice from WNV-induced lethal disease. Concomitant with ineffective virus clearance, macrophage numbers were increased in the Mavs−/− brain, and both macrophages and microglia exhibited an activated phenotype. Microarray analyses of leukocytes in the infected Mavs−/− brain showed a preferential expression of genes associated with activation and inflammation. Together, these results demonstrate a critical role for MAVS in hematopoietic cells in augmenting the kinetics of WNV clearance and thereby preventing a dysregulated and pathogenic immune response. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important cause of mosquito-transmitted encephalitis in the United States. The innate immune response is known to be critical for protection in infected mice. Here, we show that expression of MAVS, a key adaptor molecule in the RIG-I-like receptor RNA-sensing pathway, in hematopoietic cells is critical for protection from lethal WNV infection. In the absence of MAVS, there is a massive infiltration of myeloid cells and virus-specific T cells into the

  4. Death by a Thousand Cuts: Micro-Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    exotic approaches as air suction/injection along the wing surface (which might require micro -valves and micro - pumps ), wall heat transfer, or...AU/AWC/___/2001-4 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DEATH BY A THOUSAND CUTS: MICRO -AIR VEHICLES (MAV) IN THE SERVICE OF AIR FORCE MISSIONS by...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Death by a thousand Cuts: Micro -Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions Contract

  5. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Methodology for Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics on Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Flexible mMAV wing aeroelasticity This is a grand task on a brand new look on the aeroelasticity of mMAV wing. The basic aeroelastic procedure of a...ZONA ZONA ZONA/UM 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note: UM is the University of Michigan 42 9.0 REFERENCES 1. Volkers , D. F

  6. PPM1A silences cytosolic RNA sensing and antiviral defense through direct dephosphorylation of MAVS and TBK1

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Weiwen; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Xia; Wu, Shiying; Zhou, Yao; Meng, Fansen; Fan, Yunyun; Shen, Tao; Xiao, Mu; Xia, Zongping; Zou, Jian; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Pinglong

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic RNA sensing is a prerequisite for initiation of innate immune response against RNA viral pathogens. Signaling through RIG-I (retinoic acid–inducible gene I)–like receptors (RLRs) to TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1)/IKKε (IκB kinase ε) kinases is transduced by mitochondria-associated MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein). However, the precise mechanism of how MAVS-mediated TBK1/IKKε activation is strictly controlled still remains obscure. We reported that protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A; also known as PP2Cα), depending on its catalytic ability, dampened the RLR-IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3) axis to silence cytosolic RNA sensing signaling. We demonstrated that PPM1A was an inherent partner of the TBK1/IKKε complex, targeted both MAVS and TBK1/IKKε for dephosphorylation, and thus disrupted MAVS-driven formation of signaling complex. Conversely, a high level of MAVS can dissociate the TBK1/PPM1A complex to override PPM1A-mediated inhibition. Loss of PPM1A through gene ablation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and mouse primary macrophages enabled robustly enhanced antiviral responses. Consequently, Ppm1a−/− mice resisted to RNA virus attack, and transgenic zebrafish expressing PPM1A displayed profoundly increased RNA virus vulnerability. These findings identify PPM1A as the first known phosphatase of MAVS and elucidate the physiological function of PPM1A in antiviral immunity on whole animals. PMID:27419230

  7. PPM1A silences cytosolic RNA sensing and antiviral defense through direct dephosphorylation of MAVS and TBK1.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Weiwen; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Xia; Wu, Shiying; Zhou, Yao; Meng, Fansen; Fan, Yunyun; Shen, Tao; Xiao, Mu; Xia, Zongping; Zou, Jian; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Pinglong

    2016-07-01

    Cytosolic RNA sensing is a prerequisite for initiation of innate immune response against RNA viral pathogens. Signaling through RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I)-like receptors (RLRs) to TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1)/IKKε (IκB kinase ε) kinases is transduced by mitochondria-associated MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein). However, the precise mechanism of how MAVS-mediated TBK1/IKKε activation is strictly controlled still remains obscure. We reported that protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A; also known as PP2Cα), depending on its catalytic ability, dampened the RLR-IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3) axis to silence cytosolic RNA sensing signaling. We demonstrated that PPM1A was an inherent partner of the TBK1/IKKε complex, targeted both MAVS and TBK1/IKKε for dephosphorylation, and thus disrupted MAVS-driven formation of signaling complex. Conversely, a high level of MAVS can dissociate the TBK1/PPM1A complex to override PPM1A-mediated inhibition. Loss of PPM1A through gene ablation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and mouse primary macrophages enabled robustly enhanced antiviral responses. Consequently, Ppm1a(-/-) mice resisted to RNA virus attack, and transgenic zebrafish expressing PPM1A displayed profoundly increased RNA virus vulnerability. These findings identify PPM1A as the first known phosphatase of MAVS and elucidate the physiological function of PPM1A in antiviral immunity on whole animals.

  8. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    PubMed

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  9. Detection of MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) based on millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noetel, Denis; Johannes, Winfried; Caris, Michael; Hommes, Alexander; Stanko, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present two system approaches for perimeter surveillance with radar techniques focused on the detection of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The main task of such radars is to detect movements of targets such as an individual or a vehicle approaching a facility. The systems typically cover a range of several hundred meters up to several kilometers. In particular, the capability of identifying Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), which pose a growing threat on critical infrastructure areas, is of great importance nowadays. The low costs, the ease of handling and a considerable payload make them an excellent tool for unwanted surveillance or attacks. Most platforms can be equipped with all kind of sensors or, in the worst case, with destructive devices. A typical MAV is able to take off and land vertically, to hover, and in many cases to fly forward at high speed. Thus, it can reach all kinds of places in short time while the concealed operator of the MAV resides at a remote and riskless place.

  10. Extending the Evolutionary Robotics approach to flying machines: an application to MAV teams.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Fabio; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the use of embodied neural networks--developed through Evolutionary Robotics and Multi-Agent Systems methodologies--as autonomous distributed controllers for Micro-unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) teams. The main aim of the research is to extend the range of domains that could be successfully tackled by the Evolutionary Robotics approach. The flying robots realm is an area that has not been yet thoroughly investigated by this discipline. This is due to the lack of an affordable and reliable robotic platform to use for carrying out experiments, and to the difficulty and the high computational load involved in experiments based upon a realistic software simulator for aircraft. We believe that the most recent improvements to the state of the art now permit the investigation of this domain. For demonstrating this point, two different evolutionary computer simulation models are presented in this article. The first model, which uses a simplified 2D test environment, has resulted in controllers evolved with the following capabilities: (1) navigation through unknown environments, (2) obstacle-avoidance, (3) tracking of a movable target, and (4) execution of cooperative and coordinated behaviors based on implicit communication strategies. In order to improve the robustness of these results and their potential use in real MAV teams, a more sophisticated 3D model is presented herein. The results obtained so far using the two models demonstrate the feasibility of the chosen approach for further research on the design of autonomous controllers for MAVs.

  11. Constitutively Active MAVS Inhibits HIV-1 Replication via Type I Interferon Secretion and Induction of HIV-1 Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Issac, Biju; Guirado, Elizabeth; Stone, Geoffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon is known to inhibit HIV-1 replication through the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISG), including a number of HIV-1 restriction factors. To better understand interferon-mediated HIV-1 restriction, we constructed a constitutively active form of the RIG-I adapter protein MAVS. Constitutive MAVS was generated by fusion of full length MAVS to a truncated form of the Epstein Barr virus protein LMP1 (ΔLMP1). Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells contained high levels of type I interferons and inhibited HIV replication in both TZM-bl and primary human CD4+ T cells. Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells also inhibited replication of VSV-G pseudotyped single cycle SIV in TZM-bl cells, suggesting restriction was post-entry and common to both HIV and SIV. Gene array analysis of ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells and trans-activated CD4+ T cells showed significant upregulation of ISG, including previously characterized HIV restriction factors Viperin, Tetherin, MxB, and ISG56. Interferon blockade studies implicated interferon-beta in this response. In addition to direct viral inhibition, ΔLMP1-MAVS markedly enhanced secretion of IFN-β and IL-12p70 by dendritic cells and the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. Based on this immunostimulatory activity, an adenoviral vector (Ad5) expressing ΔLMP1-MAVS was tested as a molecular adjuvant in an HIV vaccine mouse model. Ad5-Gag antigen combined with Ad5-ΔLMP1-MAVS enhanced control of vaccinia-gag replication in a mouse challenge model, with 4/5 animals showing undetectable virus following challenge. Overall, ΔLMP1-MAVS is a promising reagent to inhibit HIV-1 replication in infected tissues and enhance vaccine-mediated immune responses, while avoiding toxicity associated with systemic type I interferon administration. PMID:26849062

  12. The Effects of Different Training Backgrounds on VO2 Responses to All-Out and Supramaximal Constant-Velocity Running Bouts

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; Turnes, Tiago; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of different training backgrounds on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) responses during all-out and supramaximal constant-velocity running exercises, nine sprinters (SPRs) and eight endurance runners (ENDs) performed an incremental test for maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) assessment and two supramaximal running exercises (1-min all-out test and constant-velocity exercise). The V̇O2 responses were continuously determined during the tests (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy). A mono-exponential function was used to describe the V̇O2 onset kinetics during constant-velocity test at 110%MAV, while during 1-min all-out test the peak of V̇O2 (V̇O2peak), the time to achieve the V̇O2peak (tV̇O2peak) and the V̇O2 decrease at last of the test was determined to characterize the V̇O2 response. During constant-velocity exercise, ENDs had a faster V̇O2 kinetics than SPRs (12.7 ± 3.0 vs. 19.3 ± 5.6 s; p < 0.001). During the 1-min all-out test, ENDs presented slower tV̇O2peak than SPRs (40.6 ± 6.8 and 28.8 ± 6.4 s, respectively; p = 0.002) and had a similar V̇O2peak relative to the V̇O2max (88 ± 8 and 83 ± 6%, respectively; p = 0.157). Finally, SPRs was the only group that presented a V̇O2 decrease in the last half of the test (-1.8 ± 2.3 and 3.5 ± 2.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively; p < 0.001). In summary, SPRs have a faster V̇O2 response when maximum intensity is required and a high maximum intensity during all-out running exercise seems to lead to a higher decrease in V̇O2 in the last part of the exercise. PMID:26252001

  13. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  14. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself.

  15. Model Update of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Flexible Wing Frame with Uncertainty Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Waszak, Martin R.; Morgan, Benjamin G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure to update parameters in the finite element model of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) to improve displacement predictions under aerodynamics loads. Because of fabrication, materials, and geometric uncertainties, a statistical approach combined with Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is used to modify key model parameters. Static test data collected using photogrammetry are used to correlate with model predictions. Results show significant improvements in model predictions after parameters are updated; however, computed probabilities values indicate low confidence in updated values and/or model structure errors. Lessons learned in the areas of wing design, test procedures, modeling approaches with geometric nonlinearities, and uncertainties quantification are all documented.

  16. Hepacivirus NS3/4A Proteases Interfere with MAVS Signaling in both Their Cognate Animal Hosts and Humans: Implications for Zoonotic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Anggakusuma; Brown, Richard J P; Banda, Dominic H; Todt, Daniel; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Multiple novel members of the genus Hepacivirus have recently been discovered in diverse mammalian species. However, to date, their replication mechanisms and zoonotic potential have not been explored in detail. The NS3/4A serine protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is critical for cleavage of the viral polyprotein. It also cleaves the cellular innate immune adaptor MAVS, thus decreasing interferon (IFN) production and contributing to HCV persistence in the human host. To investigate the conservation of fundamental aspects of the hepaciviral life cycle, we explored if MAVS cleavage and suppression of innate immune signaling represent a common mechanism employed across different clades of the genus Hepacivirus to enhance viral replication. To estimate the zoonotic potential of these nonhuman hepaciviruses, we assessed if their NS3/4A proteases were capable of cleaving human MAVS. NS3/4A proteases of viruses infecting colobus monkeys, rodents, horses, and cows cleaved the MAVS proteins of their cognate hosts and interfered with the ability of MAVS to induce the IFN-β promoter. All NS3/4A proteases from nonhuman viruses readily cleaved human MAVS. Thus, NS3/4A-dependent cleavage of MAVS is a conserved replication strategy across multiple clades within the genus Hepacivirus Human MAVS is susceptible to cleavage by these nonhuman viral proteases, indicating that it does not pose a barrier for zoonotic transmission of these viruses to humans.

  17. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Fields About the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Unit and Attitude Heading Reference System (IMU/AHRS). The former was motivated by analysis of prototype data that suggested that vortex shedding from...the standard MAVS transducer supports introduced noise into the velocity observations. The new design is optimized for a profiler that orients

  18. Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 potentiates RLR-induced NF-κB signaling by targeting MAVS complex

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongying; Xia, Zhangchuan; Zhou, Yaqin; Yang, Xiaodan; Hao, Hua; Peng, Nanfang; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). MAVS then recruits the adaptor’s tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and TRAF6, which in turn activate IRF3 and NF-κB, respectively, to induce interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory responses. Here we show that the biotin-containing enzyme methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (MCCC1) enhances virus-induced, MAVS-mediated IFN and inflammatory cytokine expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway. MCCC1 knockdown strongly inhibits induction of IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, MCCC1 shows extensive antiviral activity toward RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, human enterovirus 71, and vesicular stomatitis virus. Here, we have elucidated the mechanism underlying MCCC1-mediated inhibition of viral replication. MCCC1 interacts with MAVS and components of the MAVS signalosome and contributes to enhanced production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex and NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα), as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation. This process leads to activation of IFNs and cytokine expression and subsequent activation of IFN-stimulated genes, including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR and myxovirus resistance protein 1. These findings demonstrate that MCCC1 plays an essential role in virus-triggered, MAVS-mediated activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:27629939

  19. Control of Hepatitis C Virus Replication in Mouse Liver-Derived Cells by MAVS-Dependent Production of Type I and Type III Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Anggakusuma; Frentzen, Anne; Gürlevik, Engin; Yuan, Qinggong; Steinmann, Eike; Ott, Michael; Staeheli, Peter; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan; Schmidt, Tobias; Hornung, Veit; Kuehnel, Florian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) efficiently infects only humans and chimpanzees. Although the detailed mechanisms responsible for this narrow species tropism remain elusive, recent evidence has shown that murine innate immune responses efficiently suppress HCV replication. Therefore, poor adaptation of HCV to evade and/or counteract innate immune responses may prevent HCV replication in mice. The HCV NS3-4A protease cleaves human MAVS, a key cellular adaptor protein required for RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune signaling. However, it is unclear if HCV interferes with mouse MAVS function equally well. Moreover, MAVS-dependent signaling events that restrict HCV replication in mouse cells were incompletely defined. Thus, we quantified the ability of HCV NS3-4A to counteract mouse and human MAVS. HCV NS3-4A similarly diminished both human and mouse MAVS-dependent signaling in human and mouse cells. Moreover, replicon-encoded protease cleaved a similar fraction of both MAVS variants. Finally, FLAG-tagged MAVS proteins repressed HCV replication to similar degrees. Depending on MAVS expression, HCV replication in mouse liver cells triggered not only type I but also type III IFNs, which cooperatively repressed HCV replication. Mouse liver cells lacking both type I and III IFN receptors were refractory to MAVS-dependent antiviral effects, indicating that the HCV-induced MAVS-dependent antiviral state depends on both type I and III IFN receptor signaling. IMPORTANCE In this study, we found that HCV NS3-4A similarly diminished both human and mouse MAVS-dependent signaling in human and mouse cells. Therefore, it is unlikely that ineffective cleavage of mouse MAVS per se precludes HCV propagation in immunocompetent mouse liver cells. Hence, approaches to reinforce HCV replication in mouse liver cells (e.g., by expression of essential human replication cofactors) should not be thwarted by the poor ability of HCV to counteract MAVS-dependent antiviral signaling

  20. A functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site in MAVS participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Paz, Suzanne; Vilasco, Myriam; Werden, Steven J; Arguello, Meztli; Joseph-Pillai, Deshanthe; Zhao, Tiejun; Nguyen, Thi Lien-Anh; Sun, Qiang; Meurs, Eliane F; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

    2011-06-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) results in the activation of signaling cascades that culminate with the generation of the type I interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Onset of antiviral and inflammatory responses to viral pathogens necessitates the regulated spatiotemporal recruitment of signaling adapters, kinases and transcriptional proteins to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). We previously demonstrated that the serine/threonine kinase IKKε is recruited to the C-terminal region of MAVS following Sendai or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, mediated by Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys500, resulting in inhibition of downstream IFN signaling (Paz et al, Mol Cell Biol, 2009). In this study, we demonstrate that C-terminus of MAVS harbors a novel TRAF3-binding site in the aa450-468 region of MAVS. A consensus TRAF-interacting motif (TIM), 455-PEENEY-460, within this site is required for TRAF3 binding and activation of IFN antiviral response genes, whereas mutation of the TIM eliminates TRAF3 binding and the downstream IFN response. Reconstitution of MAVS(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts with a construct expressing a TIM-mutated version of MAVS failed to restore the antiviral response or block VSV replication, whereas wild-type MAVS reconstituted antiviral inhibition of VSV replication. Furthermore, recruitment of IKKε to an adjacent C-terminal site (aa 468-540) in MAVS via Lys500 ubiquitination decreased TRAF3 binding and protein stability, thus contributing to IKKε-mediated shutdown of the IFN response. This study demonstrates that MAVS harbors a functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site that participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

  1. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs).

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-02-06

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor's projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances.

  2. A Multi-Sensor Fusion MAV State Estimation from Long-Range Stereo, IMU, GPS and Barometric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Nuske, Stephen; Scherer, Sebastian

    2016-12-22

    State estimation is the most critical capability for MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) localization, autonomous obstacle avoidance, robust flight control and 3D environmental mapping. There are three main challenges for MAV state estimation: (1) it can deal with aggressive 6 DOF (Degree Of Freedom) motion; (2) it should be robust to intermittent GPS (Global Positioning System) (even GPS-denied) situations; (3) it should work well both for low- and high-altitude flight. In this paper, we present a state estimation technique by fusing long-range stereo visual odometry, GPS, barometric and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) measurements. The new estimation system has two main parts, a stochastic cloning EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) estimator that loosely fuses both absolute state measurements (GPS, barometer) and the relative state measurements (IMU, visual odometry), and is derived and discussed in detail. A long-range stereo visual odometry is proposed for high-altitude MAV odometry calculation by using both multi-view stereo triangulation and a multi-view stereo inverse depth filter. The odometry takes the EKF information (IMU integral) for robust camera pose tracking and image feature matching, and the stereo odometry output serves as the relative measurements for the update of the state estimation. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset and our real flight dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed state estimation system, especially for the aggressive, intermittent GPS and high-altitude MAV flight.

  3. A Multi-Sensor Fusion MAV State Estimation from Long-Range Stereo, IMU, GPS and Barometric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu; Nuske, Stephen; Scherer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    State estimation is the most critical capability for MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) localization, autonomous obstacle avoidance, robust flight control and 3D environmental mapping. There are three main challenges for MAV state estimation: (1) it can deal with aggressive 6 DOF (Degree Of Freedom) motion; (2) it should be robust to intermittent GPS (Global Positioning System) (even GPS-denied) situations; (3) it should work well both for low- and high-altitude flight. In this paper, we present a state estimation technique by fusing long-range stereo visual odometry, GPS, barometric and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) measurements. The new estimation system has two main parts, a stochastic cloning EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) estimator that loosely fuses both absolute state measurements (GPS, barometer) and the relative state measurements (IMU, visual odometry), and is derived and discussed in detail. A long-range stereo visual odometry is proposed for high-altitude MAV odometry calculation by using both multi-view stereo triangulation and a multi-view stereo inverse depth filter. The odometry takes the EKF information (IMU integral) for robust camera pose tracking and image feature matching, and the stereo odometry output serves as the relative measurements for the update of the state estimation. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset and our real flight dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed state estimation system, especially for the aggressive, intermittent GPS and high-altitude MAV flight. PMID:28025524

  4. Novel SiL evaluation of an optimal H∞ controller on the stability of a MAV in flight simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Rafael C. B.; Becker, Marcelo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Freschi, Leonardo W.; Montanher, Marcelo P.

    This paper introduces a novel methodology to assist the evaluation of control algorithms for MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) using Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) based flight simulation. The originality of this paper is to use © Microsoft Flight Simulator (MSFS) as the environment to embed both the dynamic and graphic models of © Ascending Technologies Pelican MAV flying robot. The resulting is a reliable model of the Pelican quadrotor. The full duplex communication between the virtual aircraft and the control algorithm is achieved by a custom C++/C software named FVMS (Flight Variables Management System), developed by Aerial Robots Team (ART), which is able to reach (read/write) a great number of flight variables from MSFS. To illustrate the effectiveness of such method, we first completely present FVMS architecture and main features. Later, the synthesis and then the application of the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm and its operation into the FVMS SiL context are explained. Regarding MAVs control evaluation, SiL simulation considerably contributes to save battery time, to ease control synthesis and prototyping and to prevent accidents during tests with the real robot. The final goal is to evaluate the stability of the Pelican platform in hovering tasks in flight simulation focusing on the efficiency of FVMS to properly run the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm. The SiL control of the MAV has proven FVMS capabilities, which may be extended to assist the design of other classes of controllers.

  5. Human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein and inclusion bodies antagonize the innate immune response mediated by MDA5 and MAVS.

    PubMed

    Lifland, Aaron W; Jung, Jeenah; Alonas, Eric; Zurla, Chiara; Crowe, James E; Santangelo, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    Currently, the spatial distribution of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) proteins and RNAs in infected cells is still under investigation, with many unanswered questions regarding the interaction of virus-induced structures and the innate immune system. Very few studies of hRSV have used subcellular imaging as a means to explore the changes in localization of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors or the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, in response to the infection and formation of viral structures. In this investigation, we found that both RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) colocalized with viral genomic RNA and the nucleoprotein (N) as early as 6 h postinfection (hpi). By 12 hpi, MDA5 and MAVS were observed within large viral inclusion bodies (IB). We used a proximity ligation assay (PLA) and determined that the N protein was in close proximity to MDA5 and MAVS in IBs throughout the course of the infection. Similar results were found with the transient coexpression of N and the phosphoprotein (P). Additionally, we demonstrated that the localization of MDA5 and MAVS in IBs inhibited the expression of interferon β mRNA 27-fold following Newcastle disease virus infection. From these data, we concluded that the N likely interacts with MDA5, is in close proximity to MAVS, and localizes these molecules within IBs in order to attenuate the interferon response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific function for hRSV IBs and of the hRSV N protein as a modulator of the innate immune response.

  6. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke. Design A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Databases searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched. Inclusion criteria Design: randomized controlled trials; Participants: individuals with stroke; Interventions: aerobic exercise training aimed at improving aerobic capacity; Outcomes Primary outcomes: aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2), peak workload); Secondary outcomes: walking velocity, walking endurance. Data Analysis The methodological quality was assessed by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were performed for all primary and secondary outcomes. Results Nine articles (seven RCTs) were identified. The exercise intensity ranged from 50% to 80% heart rate reserve. Exercise duration was 20–40 minutes for 3–5 days a week. The total number of subjects included in the studies was 480. All studies reported positive effects on aerobic capacity, regardless of the stage of stroke recovery. Meta-analysis revealed a significant homogeneous standardized effect size (SES) in favour of aerobic exercise to improve peak VO2 (SES, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.15 to 0.69; p=0.001) and peak workload (SES, 0.50; 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.73; p<0.001). There was also a significant homogeneous SES in favour of aerobic training to improve walking velocity (SES, 0.26; 95%CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p=0.008) and walking endurance (SES, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.06to 0.55; p=0.008). Conclusions There is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. PMID:16541930

  7. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  8. Viperin interaction with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) limits viperin-mediated inhibition of the interferon response in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Viperin is an antiviral protein that is upregulated by interferons and by ligands for a variety of innate immune receptors. It possesses diverse capabilities and functions in an array of viral infections. Studies have shown that it appears to be particularly important in defence against RNA viruses, such as West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya viruses, although the specific mechanisms involved are not well understood at the molecular level. Here we identify the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein MAVS as a novel viperin interaction partner, most likely in mitochondria associated membranes, and characterize a more central, overarching role of viperin as a negative regulator of the interferon response, an ability that can be regulated by the viperin-MAVS interaction. This suggests a novel mechanism of viperin action in immune defence against RNA viruses by which it may prevent pathology from excessive immune responses. PMID:28207838

  9. Pyruvate Carboxylase Activates the RIG-I-like Receptor-Mediated Antiviral Immune Response by Targeting the MAVS signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongying; Zhou, Yaqin; Zhu, Shengli; Feng, Jian; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Shi; Peng, Nanfang; Yang, Xiaodan; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    When retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein (RIG-I)-like receptors sense viral dsRNA in the cytosol, RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are recruited to the mitochondria to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and initiate antiviral immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that the biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) plays an essential role in the virus-triggered activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling mediated by MAVS. PC contributes to the enhanced production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PC knockdown inhibits the virus-triggered innate immune response. In addition, PC shows extensive antiviral activity against RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Furthermore, PC mediates antiviral action by targeting the MAVS signalosome and induces IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, which leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1). Our findings suggest that PC is an important player in host antiviral signaling. PMID:26906558

  10. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  11. MicroRNA-22 negatively regulates poly(I:C)-triggered type I interferon and inflammatory cytokine production via targeting mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jing; Duan, Xiaodong; Zohaib, Ali; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Zheng; Zhu, Bibo; Li, Yunchuan; Chen, Huanchun; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating the host immune response. Here we found that miR-22 is induced in glial cells upon stimulation with poly(I:C). Overexpression of miR-22 in the cultured cells resulted in decreased activity of interferon regulatory factor-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B, which in turn led to reduced expression of interferon-β and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, upon stimulation with poly(I:C), whereas knockdown of miR-22 had the opposite effect. We used a combination of bioinformatics and experimental techniques to demonstrate that mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), which positively regulates type I interferon production, is a novel target of miR-22. Overexpression of miR-22 decreased the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the MAVS 3′-untranslated region and led to decreased MAVS mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, ectopic expression of miR-22 inhibitor led to elevated MAVS expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-22 negatively regulates poly(I:C)-induced production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines via targeting MAVS. PMID:27705941

  12. Aeroservoelastic design for closed-loop flight dynamics of a MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, Judson T.

    Some fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) have high levels of structural flexibility, a property which can change the flight dynamics and control characteristics of the vehicle. However, the exact level of flexibility is typically the result of a trial-and-error approach instead of being part of a rigorous design framework and may result in unknown aeroelastic effects on the flight dynamics. The current research investigates the nature of these aeroservoelastic effects by using a generic MAV configuration. The main parameter of interest is the stiffness of the wing. Bending and torsional stiffness of the wing are independently varied from 1.0 Nm2 to 0.07 Nm2 while the trim conditions, flight dynamics, and structural dynamics are analyzed. Large changes in both the frequencies and damping ratios of the oscillatory flight modes are seen. The bending stiffness mainly affects the lateral-directional flight modes through an increase in the effective dihedral angle due to increased wing tip deflection. The direction and magnitude of the effect varies greatly between modes. Non-traditional mode shapes resulting from decreased bending stiffness are observed in the dutch roll mode and phugoid mode. The effects of torsional stiffness depend on the relative positioning of the elastic axis and center of pressure. When the elastic axis is near the center of pressure, changing torsional stiffness has only minor effects on the flight dynamics. Elastic axis locations which are further away from the center of pressure result in stronger effects from changes in torsional stiffness. In general, the torsional stiffness affects the longitudinal modes more than the lateral directional modes because of the changing angle of attack and pitching moment. Aeroservoelastic effects of wing stiffness on the tracking performance of the aircraft are investigated. For an LQR controller with fixed weightings, the tracking performance decreases as stiffness decreases. Changes in the phugoid mode

  13. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  14. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  15. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  16. Aerobic response to exercise of the fastest land crab.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Herreid, C F

    1983-04-01

    To view the aerobic response to exercise, the ghost crab Ocypode guadichaudii was run in a treadmill respirometer at three velocities (0.13, 0.19, and 0.28 km/h) while oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored. A steady-state VO2 that increased linearly with velocity was attained. VO2 transient periods at the beginning and end of exercise were extremely rapid with half times from 50 to 150 s. The magnitude of oxygen deficit and debt were small and both showed increases with an increase in velocity. Oxygen debt was measured at each velocity after 4-, 10-, and 20-min exercise bouts. No change in the magnitude of oxygen debt was observed with respect to exercise duration. Maximal VO2 was 11.9 times the average resting VO2. Oxygen uptake kinetics have shown only very sluggish and reduced rates in five other more sedentary crab species previously tested. The aerobic response pattern observed in the present study is more comparable to that of exercising mammals and highly aerobic ectothermic vertebrates. This suggests that the ghost crab meets the energy demand of sustained exercise by aerobic ATP production in contrast to many other crab species.

  17. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) †

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G.; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor’s projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances. PMID:26861351

  18. Sequentially-coupled space-time FSI analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kostov, Nikolay

    2014-08-01

    We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.

  19. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  20. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  1. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  2. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Smith, A E; Fukuda, D H; Ryan, E D; Kendall, K L; Cramer, J T; Stout, J

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of creatine (Cr) loading and sex differences on aerobic running performance. 27 men (mean±SD; age: 22.2±3.1 years, ht: 179.5±8.7 cm, wt: 78.0±9.8 kg) and 28 women (age: 21.2±2.1 years, ht: 166.0±5.8 cm, wt: 63.4±8.9 kg) were randomly assigned to either creatine (Cr, di-creatine citrate; n=27) or a placebo (PL; n=28) group, ingesting 1 packet 4 times daily (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Aerobic power (maximal oxygen consumption: VO2max) was assessed before and after supplementation using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill. 4 high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of peak velocity to determine critical velocity (CV). Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.

  3. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  4. Design and characterization of a silicon piezoresistive three-axial force sensor for micro-flapping wing MAV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Truong, Van T.; Lua, Kim B.; Kumar, A. S.; Lim, Tee Tai; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Zhou, Guangya

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the design and electro-mechanical characterizations of a three-axial micro piezoresistive force sensor fabricated by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. This is the first three-axial MEMS micro force sensor applied to the study of Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) aerodynamics. A standard dry etching fabrication process using Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is employed to fabricate the multi-axis sensors. Conventional cross-beam structure is employed. There are eight piezoresistors on the beams, and each of the silicon strain gauge size is 15 μm in width, and between 400 and 500 μm in length. The Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis for confirming the piezoresistors attachment locations is performed. The miniaturized force sensor (11×11 mm2) is attached at the wing base of a micro flapping wing system (MAV, 70×30 mm2 ) by a short pillar. The sensor is designed to detect the dynamic drag force and lift force generated by a single wing under a moderate flapping frequency (5~10Hz) simultaneously. The characterizations are experimentally investigated. The sensor should be stiff enough to withstand the high inertial force (200 millinewton) and also has high resolution to detect the minimal force correctly. Measurements show that the resolution is on the order of a millinewton. High linearity and low hysteresis under normal forces and tangential forces are demonstrated by applying forces from 0 to 0.1 N. The micro flapping wing mechanism and the assembly of wing and sensor are also discussed in this paper.

  5. SARS-coronavirus open reading frame-9b suppresses innate immunity by targeting mitochondria and the MAVS/TRAF3/TRAF6 signalosome.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chong-Shan; Qi, Hai-Yan; Boularan, Cedric; Huang, Ning-Na; Abu-Asab, Mones; Shelhamer, James H; Kehrl, John H

    2014-09-15

    Coronaviruses (CoV) have recently emerged as potentially serious pathogens that can cause significant human morbidity and death. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV was identified as the etiologic agent of the 2002-2003 international SARS outbreak. Yet, how SARS evades innate immune responses to cause human disease remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that a protein encoded by SARS-CoV designated as open reading frame-9b (ORF-9b) localizes to mitochondria and causes mitochondrial elongation by triggering ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of dynamin-like protein 1, a host protein involved in mitochondrial fission. Also, acting on mitochondria, ORF-9b targets the mitochondrial-associated adaptor molecule MAVS signalosome by usurping PCBP2 and the HECT domain E3 ligase AIP4 to trigger the degradation of MAVS, TRAF3, and TRAF 6. This severely limits host cell IFN responses. Reducing either PCBP2 or AIP4 expression substantially reversed the ORF-9b-mediated reduction of MAVS and the suppression of antiviral transcriptional responses. Finally, transient ORF-9b expression led to a strong induction of autophagy in cells. The induction of autophagy depended upon ATG5, a critical autophagy regulator, but the inhibition of MAVS signaling did not. These results indicate that SARS-CoV ORF-9b manipulates host cell mitochondria and mitochondrial function to help evade host innate immunity. This study has uncovered an important clue to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV infection and illustrates the havoc that a small ORF can cause in cells.

  6. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  7. Oropouche Virus Infection and Pathogenesis Are Restricted by MAVS, IRF-3, IRF-7, and Type I Interferon Signaling Pathways in Nonmyeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Pinto, Amelia K.; Richner, Justin M.; Lazear, Helen M.; Lucas, Tiffany; Hyde, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oropouche virus (OROV) is a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family and a prominent cause of insect-transmitted viral disease in Central and South America. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about OROV pathogenesis. To define the host defense pathways that control OROV infection and disease, we evaluated OROV pathogenesis and immune responses in primary cells and mice that were deficient in the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway (MDA5, RIG-I, or MAVS), downstream regulatory transcription factors (IRF-3 or IRF-7), beta interferon (IFN-β), or the receptor for type I IFN signaling (IFNAR). OROV replicated to higher levels in primary fibroblasts and dendritic cells lacking MAVS signaling, the transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7, or IFNAR than in wild-type (WT) cells. In mice, deletion of IFNAR, MAVS, or IRF-3 and IRF-7 resulted in uncontrolled OROV replication, hypercytokinemia, extensive liver damage, and death, whereas WT congenic animals failed to develop disease. Unexpectedly, mice with a selective deletion of IFNAR on myeloid cells (CD11c Cre+ Ifnarf/f or LysM Cre+ Ifnarf/f) did not sustain enhanced disease with OROV or a selective (flox/flox) deletion La Crosse virus, a closely related encephalitic orthobunyavirus. In bone marrow chimera studies, recipient irradiated Ifnar−/− mice reconstituted with WT hematopoietic cells sustained high levels of OROV replication and liver damage, whereas WT mice reconstituted with Ifnar−/− bone marrow were resistant to disease. Collectively, these results establish a dominant protective role for MAVS, IRF-3 and IRF-7, and IFNAR in restricting OROV infection and tissue injury and suggest that IFN signaling in nonmyeloid cells contributes to the host defense against orthobunyaviruses. IMPORTANCE Oropouche virus (OROV) is an emerging arthropod-transmitted orthobunyavirus that causes episodic outbreaks of a debilitating febrile illness in humans in countries of South and

  8. Malformaciones arteriovenosas revisión y análisis descriptivo de 52 mavs tratadas durante el periodo de 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariano; Mezzano, Emilio; Berra, Matias S.; Parés, Herald R.; Olocco, Ricardo V.; Papalini, Francisco R.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el manejo de las Mavs analizando las características clínicas de los pacientes y los resultados postoperatorios. Método de análisis: Realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de 52 pacientes admitidos en el Servicio de neurocirugía para manejo quirúrgico: La información de referencia incluyo síntomas al inicio, diagnostico de admisión, hallazgos neurológicos y hallazgos en estudio por imágenes tales como tomografía cerebral, IRM cerebral y angiografía por sustracción digital. Los hallazgos postoperatorios de interés fueron: Mortalidad, examen neurológico postoperatorio y complicaciones asociadas. Presentamos nuestro análisis estadístico. Resultados: Edad promedio: 37,7 años. Distribución: Hombres: 61,5%. Motivos de consulta más frecuentes: Cefalea 63,5%, evento hemorrágico 59,6%, convulsiones 26,9%. Localización: Supratentorial: 92,9%, Infratentorial: 7,2%. 30,8%, de las Mavs fueron grado 2 y grado 3 Cincuenta por ciento del total presentaron aneurismas, del total de la MAVs, 59,6% debutó con sangrado, 26,9% con Crisis Convulsivas y 13,5% con déficit neurológico. Recibieron tratamiento endovascular previo a cirugía 30,7%. Durante el postoperatorio 23,1% presentaron mejoría clínica, 57,7% no presento modificación, 19,2% empeoraron en el postoperatorio. La mortalidad fue 13,5%. Conclusión: Creemos que el subgrupo de Mavs grados III a V representan una entidad que requiere una compleja toma de decisiones dada la alta incidencia de aneurismas asociados que presentan y su asociación con eventos de sangrado. Nuestra mortalidad postoperatoria coincide con la bibliografía. Palabras clave, Mavs- aneurismas asociados- Acv hemorrágico- convulsiones. PMID:26600984

  9. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  10. Dichloroacetate blocks aerobic glycolytic adaptation to attenuated measles virus and promotes viral replication leading to enhanced oncolysis in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lei; Chen, Aiping; Xia, Mao; Xu, Chun; Yu, Decai; Jiang, Aiqin; Wei, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Targeting reprogrammed energy metabolism such as aerobic glycolysis is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. However, tumors exhibiting low-rate glycolysis or metabolic heterogeneity might be resistant to such treatment. We hypothesized that a therapeutic modality that drove cancer cells to high-rate glycolysis might sensitize cancer cells to interference directed against metabolic flux. In this study, we found that attenuated oncolytic measles virus Edmonston strain (MV-Edm) caused glioblastoma cells to shift to high-rate aerobic glycolysis; this adaptation was blocked by dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of glycolysis, leading to profound cell death of cancer cells but not of normal cells. DCA enhanced viral replication by mitigating mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated innate immune responses. In a subcutaneous glioblastoma (GBM) xenograft mouse model, low-dose MV-Edm and DCA significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. We found that DCA impaired glycolysis (blocking bioenergetic generation) and enhanced viral replication (increasing bioenergetic consumption), which, in combination, accelerated bioenergetic exhaustion leading to necrotic cell death. Taken together, oncolytic MV-Edm sensitized cancer cells to DCA, and in parallel, DCA promoted viral replication, thus, improving oncolysis. This novel therapeutic approach should be readily incorporated into clinical trials. PMID:25575816

  11. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  12. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  13. Influence of an aniline supplement on the stability of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yajie; Jiang, Yixin; Su, Haijia

    2015-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stability of aerobic granules in a toxic environment, this study discussed the influence of an aniline supplement on the properties and microbial community of aerobic granules. In the early stages of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation, an aniline supplement slightly affected the properties of the aerobic granules (strength, growth rate, SVI and so on). This effect was thereafter removed because of a change in the microbial community and the structure of aerobic granules: with the present of aniline, microbes with biodegradation ability appeared and gathered in the aerobic granules and the aerobic granules densified and settled faster as their SVI decreased to 35 mL/g and settling velocity increased to 41.56 m/h. When a synthetic waste water containing acetate as carbon source was used as influent, aniline (10-500 mg/L) could be degraded in 6 h, at a rate as high as 37.5 mg aniline/(L·h), with a removal rate in excess of 90%, while the effluent COD fell below 100 mg/L from the initial about 2000 mg/L. The aerobic granules cultured by acetate were compact, stable and resistant to aniline.

  14. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  15. Effects of dominant somatotype on aerobic capacity trainability

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K; Chtara, M; Feki, Y; Amri, M; Trudeau, F

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between dominant somatotype and the effect on aerobic capacity variables of individualised aerobic interval training. Methods: Forty one white North African subjects (age 21.4±1.3 years; V·o2max = 52.8±5.7 ml kg–1 min–1) performed three exercise tests 1 week apart (i) an incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine V·o2max and V·o2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2); (ii) a VAM-EVAL track test to determine maximal aerobic speed (vV·o2max); and (iii) an exhaustive constant velocity test to determine time limit performed at 100% vV·o2max (tlim100). Subjects were divided into four somatometric groups: endomorphs-mesomorphs (Endo-meso; n = 9), mesomorphs (Meso; n = 11), mesomorphs-ectomorphs (Meso-ecto; n = 12), and ectomorphs (Ecto; n = 9). Subjects followed a 12 week training program (two sessions/week). Each endurance training session consisted of the maximal number of successive fractions for each subject. Each fraction consisted of one period of exercise at 100% of vV·o2max and one of active recovery at 60% of vV·o2max. The duration of each period was equal to half the individual tlim100 duration (153.6±39.7 s). After the training program, all subjects were re-evaluated for comparison with pre-test results. Results: Pre- and post-training data were grouped by dominant somatotype. Two way ANOVA revealed significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction effects (p<0.001) for improvements in vV·o2max, V·o2max expressed classically and according to allometric scaling, and V·o2 at VT2. There were significant differences among groups post-training: the Meso-ecto and the Meso groups showed the greatest improvements in aerobic capacity. Conclusion: The significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction suggests different trainability with intermittent and individualised aerobic training according to somatotype. PMID:16306506

  16. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules.

  17. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  18. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis-a state known as "aerobic glycolysis." Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state.

  19. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  20. Aerobic Metabolism of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Mickelson, M. N.

    1967-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae cultures possess an aerobic pathway for glucose oxidation that is strongly inhibited by cyanide. The products of glucose oxidation by aerobically grown cells of S. agalactiae 50 are lactic and acetic acids, acetylmethylcarbinol, and carbon dioxide. Glucose degradation products by aerobically grown cells, as percentage of glucose carbon, were 52 to 61% lactic acid, 20 to 23% acetic acid, 5.5 to 6.5% acetylmethylcarbinol, and 14 to 16% carbon dioxide. There was no evidence for a pentose cycle or a tricarboxylic acid cycle. Crude cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae 50 possessed a strong reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2) oxidase that is also cyanide-sensitive. Dialysis or ultrafiltration of the crude, cell-free extract resulted in loss of NADH2 oxidase activity. Oxidase activity was restored to the inactive extract by addition of the ultrafiltrate or by addition of menadione or K3Fe(CN)6. Noncytochrome iron-containing pigments were present in cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae. The possible participation of these pigments in the respiration of S. agalactiae is presently being studied. PMID:4291090

  1. Effect of sludge discharge positions on steady-state aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Da-Wen; Liang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of sludge discharge location on the steady-state aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Two SBRs were operated concurrently with the same sludge retention time using sludge discharge ports at: (a) the reactor bottom in R1; and (b) the reactor middle-lower level in R2. Results indicate that both reactors could maintain sludge granulation and stable operation, but the two different sludge discharge methods resulted in significantly different aerobic granule characteristics. Over 30 days, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the two reactors was maintained at similar levels (above 96%), and typical bioflocs were not observed. The average aerobic granule size in R2 was twice that in R1, as settling velocity increased in proportion to size increment. Meanwhile, the production yields of polysaccharide and protein content in R2 were always higher than those in R1. However, due to mass transfer limitations and the presence of anaerobes in the aerobic granule cores, larger granules had a tendency to disintegrate in R2. Thus, we conclude that a sludge discharge port situated at the reactor bottom is beneficial for aerobic granule stability, and enhances the potential for long-term aerobic granule SBR operation.

  2. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  3. Insect Flight and MAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    flight u After 350 million years of evolution , they have probably found good solutions for – Kinematics – Wing design – Control Systems High-Lift...Plane Episyrphus balteatus Hoverflies, dragonflies , small birds and bats rely on dynamic stall on the downstroke (red) for weight support Fling

  4. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  7. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  8. Innate immune responses to rotavirus infection in macrophages depend on MAVS but involve neither the NLRP3 inflammasome nor JNK and p38 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Izabel J M; Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S

    2015-10-02

    Rotavirus infection is a major cause of life-threatening infantile gastroenteritis. The innate immune system provides an immediate mechanism of suppressing viral replication and is necessary for an effective adaptive immune response. Innate immunity involves host recognition of viral infection and establishment of a powerful antiviral state through the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as type-1 interferon (IFN). Macrophages, the front-line cells of innate immunity, produce IFN and other cytokines in response to viral infection. However, the role of macrophages during rotavirus infection is not well defined. We demonstrate here that RRV rotavirus triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines from mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. IFN and antiviral cytokine production was abolished in rotavirus-infected MAVS (-/-) macrophages. This indicates that rotavirus triggers innate immunity in macrophages through RIG-I and/or MDA5 viral recognition, and MAVS signaling is essential for cytokine responses in macrophages. Rotavirus induced IFN expression in both wild type and MDA5 (-/-) macrophages, showing that MDA5 is not essential for IFN secretion following infection, and RIG-I and MDA5 may act redundantly in promoting rotavirus recognition. Interestingly, rotavirus neither stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK nor activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, demonstrating that these components might not be involved in innate responses to rotavirus infection in macrophages. Our results indicate that rotavirus elicits intracellular signaling in macrophages, resulting in the induction of IFN and antiviral cytokines, and advance our understanding of the involvement of these cells in innate responses against rotavirus.

  9. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  10. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  11. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  12. Aerobic glycolysis and lymphocyte transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.; Radik, Judith L.; Ferber, Ernst; Weidemann, Maurice J.

    1978-01-01

    1. The role of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in the transformation of rat thymocytes by concanavalin A has been investigated. Concanavalin A addition doubled [U-14C]glucose uptake by rat thymocytes over 3h and caused an equivalent increased incorporation into protein, lipids and RNA. A disproportionately large percentage of the extra glucose taken up was converted into lactate, but concanavalin A also caused a specific increase in pyruvate oxidation, leading to an increase in the percentage contribution of glucose to the respiratory fuel. 2. Acetoacetate metabolism, which was not affected by concanavalin A, strongly suppressed pyruvate oxidation in the presence of [U-14C]glucose, but did not prevent the concanavalin A-induced stimulation of this process. Glucose uptake was not affected by acetoacetate in the presence or absence of concanavalin A, but in each case acetoacetate increased the percentage of glucose uptake accounted for by lactate production. 3. [3H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA in concanavalin A-treated thymocyte cultures was sensitive to the glucose concentration in the medium in a biphasic manner. Very low concentrations of glucose (25μm) stimulated DNA synthesis half-maximally, but maximum [3H]thymidine incorporation was observed only when the glucose concentration was raised to 1mm. Lactate addition did not alter the sensitivity of [3H]-thymidine uptake to glucose, but inosine blocked the effect of added glucose and strongly inhibited DNA synthesis. 4. It is suggested that the major function of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in transforming lymphocytes is to maintain higher steady-state amounts of glycolytic intermediates to act as precursors for macromolecule synthesis. PMID:310305

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic contribution to Wingate test performance in sprint and middle-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Granier, P; Mercier, B; Mercier, J; Anselme, F; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic contributions to performance during the Wingate test in sprint and middle-distance runners and whether they were related to the peak aerobic and anaerobic performances determined by two commonly used tests: the force-velocity test and an incremental aerobic exercise test. A group of 14 male competitive runners participated: 7 sprinters, aged 20.7 (SEM 1.3) years, competing in 50, 100 and 200-m events and 7 middle-distance runners, aged 20.0 (SEM 1.0) years, competing in 800, 1,000 and 1,500 m-events. The oxygen uptake (VO2) was recorded breath-by-breath during the test (30 s) and during the first 20 s of recovery. Blood samples for venous plasma lactate concentrations were drawn at rest before the start of the test and during the 20-min recovery period. During the Wingate test mean power (W) was determined and three values of mechanical efficiency, one individual and two arbitrary, 16% and 25%, were used to calculate the contributions of work by aerobic (Waer,ind,16%,25%) and anaerobic (Wan,ind,16%,25%) processes. Peak anaerobic power (Wan,peak) was estimated by the force-velocity test and maximal aerobic energy expenditure (Waer,peak) was determined during an incremental aerobic exercise test. During the Wingate test, the middle-distance runners had a significantly greater VO2 than the sprinters (P < 0.001), who had significantly greater venous plasma lactate concentrations (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  15. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  16. Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Force Evaluation in One Single Test Session for Young Swimmers.

    PubMed

    de Barros Sousa, Filipe Antônio; Rodrigues, Natalia Almeida; Messias, Leonardo Henrique Dalcheco; Queiroz, Jair Borges; Manchado-Gobatto, Fulvia Barros; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2017-03-02

    This study aims to propose and validate the tethered swimming lactate minimum test (TSLacmin) estimating aerobic and anaerobic capacity in one single test session, using force as measurement parameter. 6 male and 6 female young swimmers (age=15.7±1.1 years; height=173.3±9.5 cm; weight=66.1±9.5 kg) performed 4 sessions comprising i) an all-out 30 s test and incremental test (TSLacmin); ii) 30 min of tethered swimming at constant intensity (2 sessions); iii) free-swimming time trials used to calculate critical velocity. Tethered swimming sessions used an acquisition system enabling maximum (Fmax) and mean (Fmean) force measurement and intensity variation. The tethered all-out test lasting 30 s resulted in hyperlactatemia of 7.9±2.0 mmol·l(-1). TSLacmin presented a 100% success applicability rate, which is equivalent to aerobic capacity in 75% of cases. TSLacmin intensity was 37.7±7.3 N, while maximum force in the all-out test was 105±27 N. Aerobic and anaerobic TSLacmin parameters were significantly related to free-swimming performance (r=-0.67 for 100 m and r=-0.80 for 200 m) and critical velocity (r=0.80). TSLacmin estimates aerobic capacity in most cases, and both aerobic and anaerobic force parameters are well related to critical velocity and free swimming performance.

  17. Stable aerobic granules in continuous-flow bioreactor with self-forming dynamic membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Li, Yajie; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; He, Liu; Bo, Fu

    2012-10-01

    A novel continuous-flow bioreactor with aerobic granular sludge and self-forming dynamic membrane (CGSFDMBR) was developed for efficient wastewater treatment. Under continuous-flow operation, aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated and characterized with small particle size of about 0.1-1.0mm, low settling velocity of about 15-25 m/h, loose structure and high water content of about 96-98%. To maintain the stability of aerobic granular sludge, strategies based on the differences of settling velocity and particle-size between granular and flocculent sludge were implemented. Moreover, in CGSFDMBR, membrane fouling was greatly relieved. Dynamic membrane was just cleaned once in more than 45 days' operation. CGSFDMBR presented good performance in treating septic tank wastewater, obtaining average COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP removal rates of 83.3%, 73.3%, 67.3% and 60%, respectively, which was more efficient than conventional bioreactors since that carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were simultaneously removed in a single aerobic reactor.

  18. The effects of aerobic training on children's creativity, self-perception, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Herman-Tofler, L R; Tuckman, B W

    1998-10-01

    The article examines whether participation in an aerobic exercise program (AE), as compared with a traditional physical education class (PE), significantly increased children's perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth; increased their figural creativity; and improved aerobic power as measured by an 800-meter run around a track. Further research on the effects of different types of AE is discussed, as well as the need for aerobic conditioning in the elementary school.

  19. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  20. The rise of oxygen and aerobic biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mak A

    2012-01-11

    Analysis of conserved protein folding domains across extant genomes by Kim et al. in this issue of Structure provides insights into the timing of some of the earliest aerobic metabolisms to arise on Earth.

  1. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  2. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  3. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    distribution is unlimited. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report...2211 diamond nanocrystals, REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING...Room 254, Mail Code 8725 New York, NY 10027 -7922 ABSTRACT Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals Report Title We investigate

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Misra, G; Pavlostathis, S G; Perdue, E M; Araujo, R

    1996-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to assess the biotransformation potential of four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and alpha-terpineol) under aerobic conditions at 23 degrees C. Both forest-soil extract and enriched cultures were used as inocula for the biodegradation experiments conducted first without, then with prior microbial acclimation to the monoterpenes tested. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols were readily degraded. The increase in biomass and headspace CO2 concentrations paralleled the depletion of monoterpenes, thus confirming that terpene disappearance was the result of biodegradation accompanied by microbial growth and mineralization. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. A significant fraction of d-limonene-derived carbon was accounted for as non-extractable, dissolved organic carbon, whereas terpineol exhibited a much higher degree of utilization. The rate and extent of monoterpene biodegradation were not significantly affected by the presence of dissolved natural organic matter.

  5. Aerobic catabolism of bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Leppik, R A; Park, R J; Smith, M G

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-eight stable cultures obtained by enrichment on media containing ox bile or a single bile acid were able to utilize one or more bile acids, as well as components of ox bile, as primary carbon sources for growth. All isolates were obligate aerobes, and most (70) were typical (48) or atypical (22) Pseudomonas strains, the remainder (8) being gram-positive actinomycetes. Of six Pseudomonas isolates selected for further study, five produced predominantly acidic catabolites after growth on glycocholic acid, but the sixth, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31752, accumulated as the principal product a neutral steroid catabolite. Optimum growth of Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31752 on ox bile occurred at pH 7 to 8 and from 25 to 30 degrees C. No additional nutrients were required to sustain good growth, but growth was stimulated by the addition of ammonium sulfate and yeast extract. Good growth was obtained with a bile solids content of 40 g/liter in shaken flasks. A near-theoretical yield of neutral steroid catabolites, comprising a major (greater than 50%) and three minor products, was obtained from fermentor growth of ATCC 31752 in 6.7 g of ox bile solids per liter. The possible commercial exploitation of these findings to produce steroid drug intermediates for the pharmaceutical industry is discussed. PMID:7149711

  6. Manufacturing and Evaluation of a Biologically Inspired Engineered MAV Wing Compared to the Manduca Sexta Wing Under Simulated Flapping Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    removed hair follicles - a process performed by carefully blowing compressed air at 85 (a) Anesthetized Hawkmoth (b) Removal of Thoracic Follicles Figure...and tested under simplified flapping conditions by analyzing ‘frozen’ digital images of the de- formed wing by methods of photogrammetry. This...Angular Velocities of the Flappers . . . . . 45 2.7. Comparison of the Angular Accelerations of the Flappers . . . 46 2.8. Regression Test of the

  7. Aerobic granulation with brewery wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Guang; Liu, Xian-Wei; Gong, Wen-Xin; Gao, Bao-Yu; Zhang, Dong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2007-08-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor fed with brewery wastewater. After nine-week operation, stable granules with sizes of 2-7 mm were obtained. With the granulation, the SVI value decreased from 87.5 to 32 mL/g. The granular sludge had an excellent settling ability with the settling velocity over 91 m/h. Aerobic granular sludge exhibited good performance in the organics and nitrogen removal from brewery wastewater. After granulation, high and stable removal efficiencies of 88.7% COD(t), 88.9% NH(4)(+)-N were achieved at the volumetric exchange ratio of 50% and cycle duration of 6h. The average COD(t) and COD(s) of the effluent were 212 and 134 mg/L, respectively, and the average effluent ammonium concentration was less than 14.4 mg/L. Nitrogen was removed due to nitrification and simultaneous denitrification in the inner core of granules.

  8. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  10. Effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-08-01

    The effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on the structure and activity of aerobic granules was studied. Aerobic granular sludge treating abattoir wastewater and achieving high levels of nutrient removal was subjected to 4-5 week starvation under anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Microscopic pictures of granules at the beginning of the starvation period presented a round and compact surface morphology with a much defined external perimeter. Under both starvation conditions, the morphology changed at the end of starvation with the external border of the granules surrounded by floppy materials. The loss of granular compactness was faster and more pronounced under anaerobic/aerobic starvation conditions. The release of Ca(2+) at the onset of anaerobic/aerobic starvation suggests a degradation of extracellular polymeric substances. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was reduced by 20 and 36% during anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation, respectively. When fresh wastewater was reintroduced, the granules recovered their initial morphology within 1 week of normal operation and the nutrient removal activity recovered fully in 3 weeks. The results show that both anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions are suitable for maintaining granule structure and activity during starvation.

  11. Aerobic training-induced improvements in arterial stiffness are not sustained in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Madden, K M; Lockhart, C; Cuff, D; Potter, T F; Meneilly, G S

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. We examined whether a long-term aerobic exercise intervention (6 months) would increase arterial compliance in older adults with hypertension complicated by Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia. A total of 52 older adults (mean age 69.3±0.6 years, 30 males and 22 females) with diet/oral hypoglycemic-controlled T2DM, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (6 months vigorous aerobic exercise, AT group) and a non-aerobic group (6 months of no aerobic exercise, NA group). Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse-wave velocity (PWV) using the Complior device. Aerobic training decreased arterial stiffness as measured by both radial (P=0.001, 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures) and femoral (P=0.002) PWV. This was due to a decrease in arterial stiffness in the AT group after 3 months of training, which was not maintained after 6-month training for either radial (P=0.707) or femoral (P=0.680) PWV. Our findings indicate that in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, short-term improvements in arterial stiffness became attenuated over the long term. PMID:22951625

  12. MicroRNA-125a and -b inhibit A20 and MAVS to promote inflammation and impair antiviral response in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Alan C-Y.; Dua, Kamal; Starkey, Malcolm R.; Haw, Tatt-Jhong; Nair, Prema M.; Nichol, Kristy; Zammit, Nathan; Grey, Shane T.; Baines, Katherine J.; Foster, Paul S.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Wark, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections lead to severe inflammation in the airways. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characteristically have exaggerated airway inflammation and are more susceptible to infections with severe symptoms and increased mortality. The mechanisms that control inflammation during IAV infection and the mechanisms of immune dysregulation in COPD are unclear. We found that IAV infections lead to increased inflammatory and antiviral responses in primary bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs) from healthy nonsmoking and smoking subjects. In pBECs from COPD patients, infections resulted in exaggerated inflammatory but deficient antiviral responses. A20 is an important negative regulator of NF-κB–mediated inflammatory but not antiviral responses, and A20 expression was reduced in COPD. IAV infection increased the expression of miR-125a or -b, which directly reduced the expression of A20 and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), and caused exaggerated inflammation and impaired antiviral responses. These events were replicated in vivo in a mouse model of experimental COPD. Thus, miR-125a or -b and A20 may be targeted therapeutically to inhibit excessive inflammatory responses and enhance antiviral immunity in IAV infections and in COPD.

  13. Fiber Optic Velocity Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Neyer, Barry T.

    1988-04-01

    This paper explores the use of a new velocity measurement technique that has several advantages over existing techniques. It uses an optical fiber to carry coherent light to and from a moving target. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, formed by a gradient index lens and the moving target, produces fringes with a frequency proportional to the target velocity. This technique can measure velocities up to 10 km/s, is accurate, portable, and completely noninvasive.

  14. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  15. Therapeutic aspects of aerobic dance participation.

    PubMed

    Estivill, M

    1995-01-01

    An ethnographic analysis of aerobic dance exercise culture was conducted to determine the impact of the culture on the mind-body connection. After a review of the predominant theories on the relationship between vigorous exercise and elevated mood, aerobic dance participants' experiences are reported to illustrate how cognitive experience and self-esteem may be influenced. Interviews revealed that some participants achieved a pleasantly altered state of consciousness and respite from depression and stress. The relationship of the work ethic to achievement of participant satisfaction is underscored.

  16. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  17. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  18. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  19. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  20. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  1. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  2. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  3. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval, and…

  4. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  5. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  6. Interval versus continuous training with identical workload: physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, G G; Gobatto, C A; Marcos-Pereira, M; Dos Reis, I G M; Verlengia, R

    2015-01-01

    The interval model training has been more recommended to promote aerobic adaptations due to recovery period that enables the execution of elevated intensity and as consequence, higher workload in relation to continuous training. However, the physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations in interval training with identical workload to continuous are still uncertain. The purpose was to characterize the effects of chronic and acute biomarkers adaptations and aerobic capacity in interval and continuous protocols with equivalent load. Fifty Wistar rats were divided in three groups: Continuous training (GTC), interval training (GTI) and control (CG). The running training lasted 8 weeks (wk) and was based at Anaerobic Threshold (AT) velocity. GTI showed glycogen super-compensation (mg/100 mg) 48 h after training session in relation to CG and GTC (GTI red gastrocnemius (RG)=1.41+/-0.16; GTI white gastrocnemius (WG)=1.78+/-0.20; GTI soleus (S)=0.26+/-0.01; GTI liver (L)=2.72+/-0.36; GTC RG=0.42+/-0.17; GTC WG=0.54+/-0.22; GTC S=0.100+/-0.01; GTC L=1.12+/-0.24; CG RG=0.32+/-0.05; CG WG=0.65+/-0.17; CG S=0.14+/-0.01; CG L=2.28+/-0.33). The volume performed by GTI was higher than GTC. The aerobic capacity reduced 11 % after experimental period in GTC when compared to GTI, but this change was insignificant (19.6+/-5.4 m/min; 17.7+/-2.5 m/min, effect size = 0.59). Free fatty acids and glucose concentration did not show statistical differences among the groups. Corticosterone concentration increased in acute condition for GTI and GTC. Testosterone concentration reduced 71 % in GTC immediately after the exercise in comparison to CG. The GTI allowed positive adaptations when compared to GTC in relation to: glycogen super-compensation, training volume performed and anabolic condition. However, the GTI not improved the aerobic performance.

  7. Nonstructural Protein 11 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Suppresses Both MAVS and RIG-I Expression as One of the Mechanisms to Antagonize Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Ke, Hanzhong; Han, Mingyuan; Chen, Ning; Fang, Weihuan; Yoo, Dongwan

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) play a key role in antiviral defense, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to down-regulate the IFN response in virus-infected cells and pigs. In this study, we showed that the overexpression of nsp11 of PRRSV induced a strong suppression of IFN production. Nsp11 suppressed both IRF3 and NF-κB activities when stimulated with a dsRNA analogue and TNF-α, respectively. This suppression was RLR dependent, since the transcripts and proteins of MAVS and RIG-I, two critical factors in RLR-mediated pathway, were both found to be reduced in the presence of overexpressed nsp11. Since nsp11 is an endoribonuclease (EndoU), the structure function relationship was examined using a series of nsp11 EndoU mutant plasmids. The mutants that impaired the EndoU activity failed to suppress IFN and led to the normal expression of MAVS. Seven single amino acid substitutions (4 in subdomain A and 3 in subdomain B) plus one insertion (frame-shift in nsp11) were then introduced into PRRSV infectious cDNA clones to generate nsp11 mutant viruses. Unfortunately, all EndoU knock-out nsp11 mutant viruses appeared replication-defective and no progenies were produced. Three mutations in EndoU subdomain A expressed the N and nsp2/3 proteins but their infectivity diminished after 2 passages. Taken together, our data show that PRRSV nsp11 endoribonuclease activity is critical for both viral replication and IFN antagonism. More importantly, the endoribonuclease activity of nsp11 demonstrates the substrate specificity towards MAVS and RIG-I (transcripts and proteins) over p65 and IRF3 in the context of gene transfection and overexpression. This is likely a mechanism of nsp11 suppression of type I IFN production. PMID:27997564

  8. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  9. Velocity of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a method for the determination of the velocity of sound using a dual oscilloscope on which is displayed the sinusoidal input into a loudspeaker and the signal picked up by a microphone. (GS)

  10. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  11. Whole-field, time resolved velocity measurements of flow structures on insect wings during free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, Kenneth; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2012-11-01

    The development of micro air vehicles (MAVs) that are propelled using flapping flight necessitates an understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics that enable this mode of flight. Flapping flight has been studied using a variety of methods including computational models, experimentation and observation. Until recently, the observation of natural flyers has been limited to qualitative methods such as smoke-line visualization. Advances in imaging technology have enabled the use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to gain a quantitative understanding of the unsteady nature of the flight. Previously published PIV studies performed on insects have been limited to velocities in a single plane on tethered insects in a wind tunnel. We present the three-dimensional, time-resolved velocity fields of flight around a butterfly, using an array of high-speed cameras at 1 kHz through a technique known as 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV). These results are useful in understanding the relationship between wing kinematics and the unsteady aerodynamics generated.

  12. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  13. Effects of Ballates, Step Aerobics, and Walking on Balance in Women Aged 50–75 Years

    PubMed Central

    Clary, Sarah; Barnes, Cathleen; Bemben, Debra; Knehans, Allen; Bemben, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Ballates training (strengthening of the central core musculature by the inception of balance techniques) compared to more traditional exercise programs, such as step aerobics and walking, on balance in women aged 50- 75 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three supervised training groups (1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 13 weeks), Ballates (n = 12), step aerobics (n = 17), or walking (n =15). Balance was measured by four different methods (modified Clinical Test for the Sensory Interaction on Balance - mCTSIB; Unilateral Stance with Eyes Open - US-EO or Eyes Closed - US-EC; Tandem Walk - TW; Step Quick Turn - SQT) using the NeuroCom Balance Master. A 2-way (Group and Trial) repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni Pair-wise Comparisons were used to evaluate changes in the dependent variables used to describe stability and balance (sway velocity, turn sway, speed, and turn time). Measures of static postural stability and dynamic balance were similar for the three groups prior to training. Following the different exercise interventions, sway velocity on firm and foam surfaces (mCTSIB) with eyes closed (p < 0.05) increased for the Ballates group while the other two exercise groups either maintained or decreased their sway velocity following the training, therefore suggesting that these two groups either maintained or improved their balance. There were significant improvements in speed during the TW test (p < 0.01), and turn time (p < 0.01) and sway (p < 0.05) during the SQT test for each of the three groups. In general, all three training programs improved dynamic balance, however, step aerobics and walking programs resulted in be better improvements in postural stability or static balance when compared to the Ballates program. Key Points Exercise training can improve balance Need to consider both static and dynamic aspects of balance individually Improved balance can reduce the risk of fall PMID:24353456

  14. Velocities in Solar Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.

    1996-05-01

    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  15. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%.

  16. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product.

  17. Interferometric phase velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Labelle, J.; Kelley, M. C.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Moore, T.; Arnoldy, R.

    1984-01-01

    Phase velocities of plasma waves near the lower hybrid frequency were measured with an interferometer composed of two spatially separated electron-density probes. The plasma waves were produced in the F-region ionosphere by an argon ion beam. By calculating the normalized cross spectrum of the plasma waves a coherency of .98 was estimated along with a maximum phase difference of pi/3 radians between the two probes. This implies that the wavelength was 6 meters compared to an O(+) gyroradius of 3.8 meters, and that the phase velocity was 45 km/sec compared to an ion-beam velocity of 12.4 km/sec. These numbers compare favorably with recent predictions of a nonresonant mode produced by a dense ion beam.

  18. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  19. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  20. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  1. MSE velocity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimd, C.; Courtois, H.; Koda, J.

    2015-12-01

    A huge velocity survey based on the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer facility (MSE) is proposed, aiming at investigating the structure and dynamics of the cosmic web over 3π steradians up to ˜1 Gpc and at unprecedented spatial resolution, its relationship with the galaxy formation process, and the bias between galaxies and dark matter during the last three billions years. The cross-correlation of velocity and density fields will further allow the probe any deviation from General Relativity by measuring the the linear-growth rate of cosmic structures at precision competitive with high-redshift spectroscopic redshift surveys.

  2. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    SciTech Connect

    House, P.A.

    1984-02-07

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  3. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    SciTech Connect

    House, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an interrotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal application

  4. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  5. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  6. Optimization of hydraulic shear parameters and reactor configuration in the aerobic granular sludge process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Jiaheng; Yu, Haitian; Xu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic shear acts as an important selection pressure in aerobic sludge granulation. The effects of the hydraulic shear rate and reactor configuration on structural characteristics of aerobic granule in view of the hydromechanics. The hydraulic shear analysis was proposed to overcome the limitation of using superficial gas velocity (SGV) to express the hydraulic shear stress. Results showed that the stronger hydraulic shear stress with SGV above 2.4 cm s(-1) promoted the microbial aggregation, and favoured the structural stability of the granular sludge. According to the hydraulic shear analysis, the total shear rate reached (0.56-2.31)×10(5) s(-1) in the granular reactor with a larger ratio of height to diameter (H/D), and was higher than that in the reactor with smaller H/D, where the sequencing airlift bioreactor with smaller H/D had a high total shear rate under the same SGV. Results demonstrated that the granular reactor could provide a stronger hydraulic shear stress which promotes the formation and structural stability of aerobic granules.

  7. Aerobic sludge granulation in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m(3) d(-1) for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g(-1), diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h(-1) were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  8. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation. PMID:24822190

  9. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  10. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  11. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  12. Biotransformation of phytosterols under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Christy M; Giles, Hamilton D; Banerjee, Sujit; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-07-01

    Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols present in pulp and paper wastewater and have been implicated in the endocrine disruption of aquatic species. Bioassays were performed to assess the effect of an additional carbon source and/or solubilizing agent on the aerobic biotransformation of a mixture of three common phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol). The aerobic biotransformation of the phytosterol mixture by a mixed culture developed from a pulp and paper wastewater treatment system was examined under three separate conditions: with phytosterols as the sole added carbon source, with phytosterols and dextrin as an additional carbon source, and with phytosterols added with ethanol as an additional carbon source and solubilizing agent. Significant phytosterol removal was not observed in assays set up with phytosterol powder, either with or without an additional carbon source. In contrast, all three phytosterols were aerobically degraded when added as a dissolved solution in ethanol. Thus, under the experimental conditions of this study, the bioavailability of phytosterols was limited without the presence of a solubilizing agent. The total phytosterol removal rate was linear for the first six days before re-spiking, with a rate of 0.47 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.998). After the second spiking, the total phytosterol removal rate was linear for seven days, with a rate of 0.32 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.968). Following the 7th day, the phytosterol removal rate markedly accelerated, suggesting two different mechanisms are involved in phytosterol biotransformation, more likely related to the production of enzyme(s) involved in phytosterol degradation, induced under different cell growth conditions. β-sitosterol was preferentially degraded, as compared to stigmasterol and campesterol, although all three phytosterols fell below detection limits by the 24th day of incubation.

  13. Aerobic Capacity and Postprandial Flow Mediated Dilation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Miller, James J; Robinson, James H; Olive, Jennifer L

    The consumption of a high-fat meal induces transient vascular dysfunction. Aerobic exercise enhances vascular function in healthy individuals. Our purpose was to determine if different levels of aerobic capacity impact vascular function, as measured by flow mediated dilation, following a high-fat meal. Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery was determined before, two- and four-hours postprandial a high-fat meal in young males classified as highly trained (n = 10; VO2max = 74.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg·min(-1)) or moderately active (n = 10; VO2max = 47.3 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min(-1)). Flow mediated dilation was reduced at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.001) compared to baseline for both groups but was not different between groups at any time point (p = 0.108). Triglycerides and insulin increased at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.05) in both groups. LDL-C was reduced at four-hours (p = 0.05) in highly trained subjects, and two- and four-hours (p ≤ 0.01) in moderately active subjects. HDL-C decreased at two- (p = 0.024) and four-hours (p = 0.014) in both groups. Glucose increased at two-hours postprandial for both groups (p = 0.003). Our results indicate that a high-fat meal results in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in highly trained and moderately active individuals with no difference between groups. Thus, high aerobic capacity does not protect against transient reductions in vascular function after the ingestion of a single high-fat meal compared to individuals who are moderately active.

  14. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  15. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  16. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  17. Aerobic treatment of wine-distillery wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, D.; Valcarcel, M.J.; Perez, L.; de la Ossa, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Waste from food-processing and allied industries is largely made up of organic compounds which can be metabolized by aerobic or anaerobic means. However, these wastes present a series of problems to biological depuration plants, such as the need for prior treatment to establish conditions suitable for the development of the microorganisms responsible for the process; and the long retention time of the biomass if acceptable effluents are to be obtained. Again, the seasonal nature of many of these industries makes for very heterogeneous waste. This means that treatment plant must be versatile and are subject to rapid successions of close-down and start-up interspersed with long intervals of inactivity. All these difficulties oblige the industries in the sector to adapt depurative technology to their particular needs. Wine distilleries fall into this general category. Their waste (called vinasses) is acidic, has a high organic content and varies widely according to the raw matter distilled: wine, lies, etc. This paper studies the start-up of digestors for aerobic treatment of vinasses and the establishment of optimum operating conditions for an adequate depurative performance.

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  19. Energy Velocity Defined by Brillouin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hiroyuki; Hosono, Toshio

    The physical meaning of the energy velocity in lossy Lorentz media is clarified. First, two expressions for the energy velocity, one by Brillouin and another by Diener, are examined. We show that, while Diener's is disqualified, Brillouin's is acceptable as energy velocity. Secondly, we show that the signal velocity defined by Brillouin and Baerwald is exactly identical with the Brillouin's energy velocity. Thirdly, by using triangle-modulated harmonic wave, we show that the superluminal group velocity plays its role as a revelator only after the arrival of the signal traveling at the subluminal energy velocity. In short, nothing moves at the group velocity, and every frequency component of a signal propagates at its own energy velocity.

  20. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  1. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  2. Aerobic Activity--Do Physical Education Programs Provide Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGing, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    High school physical education curricula should concentrate less on sport skill development and competition, and more on health-related fitness and aerobic activity. Results are reported from a study of the type and amount of aerobic exercise provided in 29 high school physical education programs in a large metropolitan area. (IAH)

  3. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  4. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise.

  5. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  6. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  7. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  8. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  9. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  10. Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

    1998-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In

  11. Neutron Velocity Selector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi, Enrico

    This Patent presents a detailed description of the construction and operation of a velocity selector for neutrons with velocities up to 6000÷7000 m/s. This apparatus employs a rotating shutter designed in such a way that neutrons are passed during a portion of each rotation of the shutter, the shutter blocking all neutron radiation at other times. The selector is built up with alternate laminations of a material with high neutron capture cross section (such as, for example, cadmium, boron or gadolinium), and parallel laminations of a material with low capture probability (such as, for example, aluminium, magnesium or beryllium). This is required in order to provide a path through the shutter to the neutrons, which then pass into a ionization chamber. The timing mechanism, adopted to activate or deactivate the neutron detection, and measuring means at given times following each opening or closing of the shutter, is electronic (not mechanic), controlled by a photocell unit. The reference published article for the main topic of the present Patent is [Fermi (1947)].

  12. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  13. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E; Chen, Edward H; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E; Gaathon, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5-50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core-hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed.

  14. Magnesium carbonate precipitate strengthened aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic granules were precipitated internally with magnesium carbonate to enhance their structural stability under shear. The strengthened granules were tested in continuous-flow reactors for 220 days at organic loadings of 6-39 kg/m(3)/day, hydraulic retention times of 0.44-19 h, and temperatures of 10 or 28°C. The carbonate salt had markedly improved the granule strength without significant changes in granule morphology or microbial communities (with persistent strains Streptomyces sp., Rhizobium sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Nitratireductor sp.), or sacrifice in biological activity for organic degradation. MgCO3 precipitated granules could be used in continuous-flow reactor for wastewater treatment at low cost and with easy processing efforts.

  15. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  16. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  17. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  18. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Glucoisosaccharinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Strand, S. E.; Dykes, J.; Chiang, V.

    1984-01-01

    α-Glucoisosaccharinic acid (GISA), a major by-product of kraft paper manufacture, was synthesized from lactose and used as the carbon source for microbial media. Ten strains of aerobic bacteria capable of growth on GISA were isolated from kraft pulp mill environments. The highest growth yields were obtained with Ancylobacter spp. at pH 7.2 to 9.5. GISA was completely degraded by cultures of an Ancylobacter isolate. Ancylobacter cell suspensions consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide in response to GISA addition. A total of 22 laboratory strains of bacteria were tested, and none was capable of growth on GISA. GISA-degrading isolates were not found in forest soils. Images PMID:16346467

  19. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning.

  20. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  1. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, T.J.

    1994-06-07

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment is disclosed. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-nanometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment. 10 figs.

  2. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test versus the Université de Montréal Track Test: relation with a high-intensity intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Gregory; Defontaine, Mathieu; Bosquet, Laurent; Blondel, Nicolas; Moalla, Wassim; Berthoin, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine whether the peak velocity (V(Yo-Yo)) achieved during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo) and the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) determined from the Université de Montréal Track Test (UMTT) could be used interchangeably. The second purpose was to check that the V(Yo-Yo) is related to the intermittent exercise performance, which consisted of repeated 90 m distance runs in 15s performed until exhaustion, alternated with 15s of passive recovery (15/15). Fourteen amateur soccer players performed, in a random order, the 15/15 and two incremental field-tests: the Yo-Yo and the UMTT. The results of this study showed that MAV was significantly correlated to the V(Yo-Yo) (r=0.79, p<0.01). However, the error was not constant, when the V(Yo-Yo) and the MAV values were higher than 16.3 km h(-1), the MAV values tends to be higher than the V(Yo-Yo), while when the V(Yo-Yo) and the MAV values were lower than 16.3 km h(-1), the MAV values tends to be lower than the V(Yo-Yo). MAV and V(Yo-Yo) were significantly correlated to the time to exhaustion of the 15/15 (r=0.74 and r=0.72, respectively) and show that both tests are similarly related to the high-intensity intermittent exercise performance.

  3. Visual control of walking velocity.

    PubMed

    François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles

    2011-06-01

    Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.

  4. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  5. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  6. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  7. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  8. Hydrokinetic canal measurements: inflow velocity, wake flow velocity, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi

    2014-06-11

    The dataset consist of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity measurements in the wake of a 3-meter diameter vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbine deployed in Roza Canal, Yakima, WA, USA. A normalized hub-centerline wake velocity profile and two cross-section velocity contours, 10 meters and 20 meters downstream of the turbine, are presented. Mean velocities and turbulence data, measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) at 50 meters upstream of the turbine, are also presented. Canal dimensions and hydraulic properties, and turbine-related information are also included.

  9. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  10. Particle Velocity Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the velocity of individual food particles within a liquid/solid food mixture that is cooked by an aseptic cooking method whereby the food mixture is heated as it flows through a flowline. At least one upstream and at least one downstream microwave transducer are provided to determine the minimum possible travel time of the fastest food particle through the flowline. In one embodiment, the upstream detector is not required. In another embodiment, a plurality of small dipole antenna markers are secured to a plurality of food particles to provide a plurality of signals as the markers pass the upstream and downstream transducers. The dipole antenna markers may also include a non-linear element to reradiate a harmonic frequency of a transmitter frequency. Upstream and downstream transducers include dipole antennas that are matched to the impedance of the food slurry and a signal transmission cable by various impedance matching means including unbalanced feed to the antennas.

  11. Peculiar cosmological velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    In the first section a gauge-invariant, variations formalism for investigating vector perturbations is set up, suitable for showing that there is no natural way that the usual scalar inflation field could give rise to vorticities. In the last two sections, a vector field A{sub {mu}} is coupled to the Einstein equations with a linearly perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric, constructed to generate first order vector perturbations. A working classical chaotic vector inflation is demonstrated and then quantum fluctuations of the field are used to constrain the cosmological perturbations. In particular, the vector momentum flux, T{sub 0i}, is tracked to the epoch where a radiation-dominated matter exists. Matching conditions using observational constraints of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) gives rise to a peculiar cosmological velocity of the order of 10{sup {minus}100}c. Amplification of this number, e.g., by breaking the conformal invariance of the field, could be used to generate cosmic magnetic fields using a dynamo mechanism.

  12. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  13. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  14. Phylogenetic and Kinetic Diversity of Aerobic Vinyl Chloride-Assimilating Bacteria from Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Nicholas V.; Mattes, Timothy E.; Gossett, James M.; Spain, Jim C.

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic bacteria that grow on vinyl chloride (VC) have been isolated previously, but their diversity and distribution are largely unknown. It is also unclear whether such bacteria contribute to the natural attenuation of VC at chlorinated-ethene-contaminated sites. We detected aerobic VC biodegradation in 23 of 37 microcosms and enrichments inoculated with samples from various sites. Twelve different bacteria (11 Mycobacterium strains and 1 Nocardioides strain) capable of growth on VC as the sole carbon source were isolated, and 5 representative strains were examined further. All the isolates grew on ethene in addition to VC and contained VC-inducible ethene monooxygenase activity. The Mycobacterium strains (JS60, JS61, JS616, and JS617) all had similar growth yields (5.4 to 6.6 g of protein/mol), maximum specific growth rates (0.17 to 0.23 day−1), and maximum specific substrate utilization rates (9 to 16 nmol/min/mg of protein) with VC. The Nocardioides strain (JS614) had a higher growth yield (10.3 g of protein/mol), growth rate (0.71 day−1), and substrate utilization rate (43 nmol/min/mg of protein) with VC but was much more sensitive to VC starvation. Half-velocity constant (Ks) values for VC were between 0.5 and 3.2 μM, while Ks values for oxygen ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 mg/liter. Our results indicate that aerobic VC-degrading microorganisms (predominantly Mycobacterium strains) are widely distributed at sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and are likely to be responsible for the natural attenuation of VC. PMID:12450841

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise under different thermal conditions on human somatosensory processing.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Oshiro, Misaki; Namba, Mari; Shibasaki, Manabu

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on human somatosensory processing recorded by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) under temperate [TEMP, 20°C and 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (HOT, 35°C and 30% RH) environments. Fifteen healthy subjects performed 4 × 15-min bouts of a moderate cycling exercise [mean power output: 156.5 ± 7.7 (SE) W], with a 10-min rest period and received a posterior tibial nerve stimulation at the left ankle before and after each exercise bout; SEPs were recorded in five sessions; 1st (pre), 2nd (post-1st exercise bout), 3rd (post-2nd exercise bout), 4th (post-3rd exercise bout), and 5th (post-4th exercise bout). The peak latencies and amplitudes of the P37, N50, P60, and N70 components at Cz were evaluated. The latencies of P37, N50, P60, and N70 were significantly shorter with the repetition of aerobic exercise, and these shortened latencies were significantly greater in the HOT condition than in the TEMP condition (P37: 3rd, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.01; P60: 4th, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.01; N70: 4th, P < 0.05, and 5th, P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the amplitudes of any SEP component under either thermal condition. These results suggest that the conduction velocity of the ascending somatosensory input was accelerated by increases in body temperature, and aerobic exercise did not alter the strength of neural activity in cortical somatosensory processing.

  16. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  17. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation.

  18. Concomitant aerobic biodegradation of benzene and thiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Dyreborg, S.; Arvin, E.; Broholm, K.

    1998-05-01

    The concomitant aerobic biodegradation of benzene and thiophene was investigated in microcosm experiments using a groundwater enrichment culture. Benzene was biodegraded within 1 d, whereas thiophene could not be biodegraded as the sole source of carbon and energy. Some interesting phenomena were observed when both benzene and thiophene were present. In most cases, removal of thiophene was observed, and the removal occurred concomitantly with the biodegradation of benzene, suggesting that benzene was used as a primary substrate in the cometabolic biodegradation of thiophene. No biodegradation of the two compounds was observed for some combinations of concentrations, suggesting that thiophene could act as an inhibitor to benzene biodegradation. However, this effect could be overcome if more benzene was added to the microcosm. Residual concentrations of benzene and thiophene were observed in some microcosms and the data indicated that the biodegradation of the two compounds stopped when a critical threshold ratio between the concentrations of thiophene and benzene was reached. This ratio varied between 10 and 20. Results from modeling the biodegradation data suggested that thiophene was cometabolized concomitantly with the biodegradation of benzene and that the biodegradation may be described by a modified model based on a traditional model with an inhibition term incorporated.

  19. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  20. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  1. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; ...

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  2. Aerobic nitroreduction of dehydrochloramphenicol by bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Isildar, M; Abou-Khalil, W H; Jimenez, J J; Abou-Khalil, S; Yunis, A A

    1988-06-30

    It has been previously demonstrated that dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), a bacterial metabolite of chloramphenicol, induces DNA single strand breaks in intact cells and is profoundly more cytotoxic than chloramphenicol (CAP). In view of previous observations relating genotoxicity of nitrocompounds to their nitroreduction by the target tissue, we studied the nitroreduction of DH-CAP by human and rabbit bone marrow. Nitroreduction by tissue homogenates was determined by the Bratton Marshall colorimetric assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nitroreduction of DH-CAP by bone marrow cell homogenates was observed under aerobic conditions and the reduction was both cell concentration- and time-dependent. The formation of the amino product aminodehydrochloramphenicol was confirmed by HPLC. Reduction by other tissues including human liver, Raji cells, and HL-60 tumors was also observed. These results suggest that genotoxicity of DH-CAP may be related to its nitroreduction by the target tissue with in situ production of toxic intermediates. Together with previous studies, these observations lend support to the thesis that the p-NO2 group may be the structural feature underlying aplastic anemia from CAP.

  3. Similarity of the Velocity Profile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    su x (with 0 constantb = ) is the empirically derived velocity scale developed by Zagarola and Smits [5] for turbulent boundary layer flow...Zagarola and Smits and others have shown that the velocity scaling factor given by Eq. 5 with sδ as the boundary layer thickness can collapse certain...and Smits , it is important to point out that the fact that the similarity length scale factor and the similarity velocity scale factor must follow

  4. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David

    2010-06-08

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (sigma*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  5. The Relationship Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    GILLEN, ZACHARY M.; WYATT, FRANK B.; WINCHESTER, JASON B.; SMITH, DALTON A.; GHETIA, VIDHI

    2016-01-01

    Research has indicated that combined aerobic and anaerobic training (concurrent training) may improve aerobic performance greater than aerobic training alone. The purpose of this investigation was to establish any associations between aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eleven participants (n = 11, age = 34.1 ± 13 years, VO2max = 58.4 ± 7.8) volunteered for this study. Participants were asked for endurance training experience (4.7 ± 3.7 years) and resistance training experience (4.1 ± 4.6 years). To meet training status, participants were to have a VO2max in the 80th percentile as per ACSM guidelines. The Bruce treadmill test was used to measure aerobic performance. In order to measure anaerobic performance, several tests were completed utilizing a force platform. A Pearson Product R Correlation Coefficient was calculated to determine correlations between variables. The results show significant correlation between VO2max and RFD (r = 0.68). Further analyses utilizing Cohen’s effect size indicated a strong association between VO2max and peak force, as well as running efficiency and peak power, relative peak power, and power endurance. These results indicate an existing possibility that anaerobic performance measures such as RFD may have a positive relationship with aerobic performance measures such as VO2max. Therefore, it may be beneficial to integrate specific training components which focus on improving RFD as a method of improving running performance. PMID:27990224

  6. Aerobic Exercise Preserves Olfaction Function in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Based on anecdotal reports of improved olfaction following aerobic exercise, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise program on olfaction function in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Thirty-eight participants with idiopathic PD were randomized to either an aerobic exercise group (n = 23) or a nonexercise control group (n = 15). The aerobic exercise group completed a 60-minute cycling session three times per week for eight weeks while the nonexercise control group received no intervention. All participants completed the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at baseline, end of treatment, and a four-week follow up. Results. Change in UPSIT scores between the exercise and nonexercise groups from baseline to EOT (p = 0.01) and from baseline to EOT+4 (p = 0.02) favored the aerobic exercise group. Individuals in the nonexercise group had worsening olfaction function over time, while the exercise group was spared from decline. Discussion. The difference in UPSIT scores suggested that aerobic exercise may be altering central nervous system pathways that regulate the physiologic or cognitive processes controlling olfaction in individuals with PD. While these results provide promising preliminary evidence that exercise may modify the disease process, further systematic evaluation is necessary. PMID:27999706

  7. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  8. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  9. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  10. Acute effects of aerobic exercise intensity on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-10-18

    Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg PWV, ankle pulse pressure and BG levels significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the LE trial (P<0·05), but not in the ME trial. Insulin levels and HR significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials (P<0·05). Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, brachial BP and carotid BP did not change from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials. The present findings indicate that aerobic exercise at moderate intensity before glucose ingestion suppresses increases leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

  11. Velocity ratio and its application to predicting velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2003-01-01

    The velocity ratio of water-saturated sediment derived from the Biot-Gassmann theory depends mainly on the Biot coefficient?a property of dry rock?for consolidated sediments with porosity less than the critical porosity. With this theory, the shear moduli of dry sediments are the same as the shear moduli of water-saturated sediments. Because the velocity ratio depends on the Biot coefficient explicitly, Biot-Gassmann theory accurately predicts velocity ratios with respect to differential pressure for a given porosity. However, because the velocity ratio is weakly related to porosity, it is not appropriate to investigate the velocity ratio with respect to porosity (f). A new formulation based on the assumption that the velocity ratio is a function of (1?f)n yields a velocity ratio that depends on porosity, but not on the Biot coefficient explicitly. Unlike the Biot-Gassmann theory, the shear moduli of water-saturated sediments depend not only on the Biot coefficient but also on the pore fluid. This nonclassical behavior of the shear modulus of water-saturated sediment is speculated to be an effect of interaction between fluid and the solid matrix, resulting in softening or hardening of the rock frame and an effect of velocity dispersion owing to local fluid flow. The exponent n controls the degree of softening/hardening of the formation. Based on laboratory data measured near 1 MHz, this theory is extended to include the effect of differential pressure on the velocity ratio by making n a function of differential pressure and consolidation. However, the velocity dispersion and anisotropy are not included in the formulation.

  12. Influence of instructions on perceptually-based ratings.

    PubMed

    Coquart, J B J; Raul, P; Garcin, M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the expected running duration or distance on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and estimated time limit (ETL) values. Thirty-nine males performed an incremental test to measure their maximal aerobic velocity (MAV). Then, the subjects realised a constant velocity test (90 % MAV) to determine their time limit (Tlim) and distance limit (Dlim). Three homogenous groups were made up. Subsequently, all the groups performed 2 similar tests: a test at 90 % MAV for 80 % Tlim and a test at 90 % MAV for 80 % Dlim, each group with different instructions: group 1 (G1) was expected to maintain the velocity for 60 % Tlim (and Dlim), while group 2 (G2) and group 3 (G3) received instructions to maintain this velocity for 80 and 100 % Tlim (and Dlim), respectively. During these tests, RPE and ETL values were collected and compared by using a three-way repeated measures ANOVA. The statistical analysis revealed no significant group or test effect on RPE and ETL (p > .05). As a consequence, in this present study, it seems that the exercise instructions have not influenced significantly the hardness of effort (i.e., RPE) and the subjective estimation of endurance (i.e., ETL).

  13. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  14. High Velocity Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, M. G.; McKee, C. F.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the thermal equilibrium gas temperature of high velocity clouds (HVCs) in the Galactic Halo. Our method accounts for the photoelectric heating from small grains and PAHs, and includes a detailed treatment of the ionization rates and heating due to the soft X-ray background and due to cosmic rays. Phase diagrams (thermal pressure P versus gas density n) are presented for gas with a range of dust/gas ratios (D/G) and a range of metallicities (Z). Variations in D/G affect mainly the photoelectric heating rate, while variations in Z affect both the photoelectric heating and gas cooling. Curves are shown for D/G = 1 (local value) to D/G less than approx. equal to 0.005 and for Z=1 (local value) to Z= 0.005. We find that a two phase medium (CNM + WNM) can be in pressure equilibrium with a hot (T approximately 1-2 x 10(exp 6) K) halo within a range of permitted pressures, P(sup min) to P(sup max). We take halo parameters consistent with observed properties of the soft X-ray background. In general, both P(sup min) and P(sup max) decrease with lower D/G due to a drop in photoelectric heating from grains, while. P(sup min) and P(sup max) increase with lower Z due to a drop in gas coolants. We demonstrate that successful two phase models can be constructed with pressure in the range 10(exp 3) less than approximately equal to P/k less than approximately equal to 10(exp 4) K cm(exp -3) consistent with the thermal pressure in the Galactic disk. In addition, using the observed relation between CNM density and distance in HVCs, (n = 75/fDkpc cm(exp -3); Wakker & Schwarz 1991, AA, 250, 484) we show that our pressure curves constrain the allowed range of HVC heights to be between 0.3 - 16 kpc.

  15. Multi-Velocity Component LDV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laser doppler velocimeter uses frequency shifting of a laser beam to provide signal information for each velocity component. A composite electrical signal generated by a light detector is digitized and a processor produces a discrete Fourier transform based on the digitized electrical signal. The transform includes two peak frequencies corresponding to the two velocity components.

  16. Instantaneous Velocity Using Photogate Timers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbeck, John

    2010-01-01

    Photogate timers are commonly used in physics laboratories to determine the velocity of a passing object. In this application a card attached to a moving object breaks the beam of the photogate timer providing the time for the card to pass. The length L of the passing card can then be divided by this time to yield the average velocity (or speed)…

  17. Stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly permeable municipal drinking water aquifer.

    PubMed

    Critchley, K; Rudolph, D L; Devlin, J F; Schillig, P C

    2014-12-15

    A preliminary trial of a cross-injection system (CIS) was designed to stimulate in situ denitrification in an aquifer servicing an urban community in southern Ontario. It was hypothesized that this remedial strategy could be used to reduce groundwater nitrate in the aquifer such that it could remain in use as a municipal supply until the beneficial effects of local reduced nutrient loadings lead to long-term water quality improvement at the wellfield. The CIS application involved injecting a carbon source (acetate) into the subsurface using an injection-extraction well pair positioned perpendicular to the regional flow direction, up-gradient of the water supply wells, with the objective of stimulating native denitrifying bacteria. The pilot remedial strategy was targeted in a high nitrate flux zone within an aerobic and heterogeneous section of the glacial sand and gravel aquifer. Acetate injections were performed at intervals ranging from daily to bi-daily. The carbon additions led to general declines in dissolved oxygen concentrations; decreases in nitrate concentration were localized in aquifer layers where velocities were estimated to be less than 0.5m/day. NO3-(15)N and NO3-(18)O isotope data indicated the nitrate losses were due to denitrification. Relatively little nitrate was removed from groundwater in the more permeable strata, where velocities were estimated to be on the order of 18 m/day or greater. Overall, about 11 percent of the nitrate mass passing through the treatment zone was removed. This work demonstrates that stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly conductive aquifer is challenging but achievable. Further work is needed to increase rates of denitrification in the most permeable units of the aquifer.

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  19. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  20. Transverse Velocity Shifts in Protostellar Jets: Rotation or Velocity Asymmetries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Cerqueira, Adriano H.; Riera, Angels

    2016-12-01

    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction that have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could originate from rotation in the flow, or from side-to-side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (˜100-200 km s-1), an asymmetry ≳10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three-dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing, and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts (TVSs). Our analysis indicates that side-to-side velocitiy asymmetries could represent an important contribution to TVSs, being the most important contributor for large jet inclination angles (with respect the the plane of the sky), and cannot be neglected when interpreting the observations.

  1. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, K; Mourot, L; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-12-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic power. In the forest, the elites ran at a slightly higher percentage of their 2-km (∼3%) and 20-m (∼4%) road velocities. Although these differences did not exhibit traditional statistical significance, magnitude-based inferences suggested likely meaningful differences, particularly during 20-m sprinting. Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist in tailoring training and identifying individual strengths and/or weaknesses in an orienteer.

  2. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  3. PPAR-α and PPARGC1A gene variants have strong effects on aerobic performance of Turkish elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Tural, Ercan; Kara, Nurten; Agaoglu, Seydi Ahmet; Elbistan, Mehmet; Tasmektepligil, Mehmet Yalcin; Imamoglu, Osman

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on aerobic performance of elite level endurance athletes. This study was carried out on 170 individuals (60 elite level endurance athletes and 110 sedentary controls). Aerobic performance of athletes and sedentary control groups were defined by maximal oxygen uptake capacity. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using GeneJet Genomic DNA Purification kit. Genotyping of the PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP methods, and statistical evaluations were carried out using SPSS 15.0. Mean age of athletes were 21.38 ± 2.83 (18-29) and control mean age were 25.92 ± 4.88 (18-35). Mean maximal oxygen consumption of athletes were 42.14 ± 7.6 ml/(kg min) and controls were 34.33 ± 5.43 ml/(kg min). We found statistically significant differences between the athlete and control groups with respect to both PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions (p = 0.006, <0.001, respectively) and allele frequencies (<0.001, <0.001, respectively). Additionally, when we examined PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions according to the aerobic performance test parameters, we found a statistically significant association between velocity, time and maximal oxygen consumption and PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotypes (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey examined PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser gene polymorphisms in elite level endurance athletes. Our results suggest that PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genes have strong effect on aerobic performance of elit level athletes.

  4. Reduction of plasma aldosterone and arterial stiffness in obese pre- and stage1 hypertensive subjects after aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Collier, SR; Sandberg, K; Moody, AM; Frechette, V; Curry, CD; Ji, H; Gowdar, R; Chaudhuri, D; Meucci, M

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related hypertension is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), increasing arterial stiffness. Aerobic exercise decreases pulse wave velocity (PWV), therefore a treatment option for hypertension and obesity. Assess RAAS activity and PWV before and after 4 weeks of aerobic training in unmedicated, pre-to-stage-1 hypertensives. Ten obese subjects (52±3.2 years, body mass index=33.5±1.4) performed 30 min of aerobic exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week at 65% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Descriptive characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), PWV, and a blood draw was performed at baseline, following the 4-week control and training interventions. No differences in descriptive characteristics during the control period were observed, however, a significant decrease in plasma aldosterone (ALDO) (255.4±75 to 215.8±66 pg ml−1, P=0.001), SBP (140±12 to 136±10.4 mm Hg; P=0.02), DBP (89±4.2 to 85±6.3 mm Hg; P =0.03) and central PWV (11.2±0.6 to 9.8±0.8 m s−1; P=0.04) was shown pre-to-post exercise training. Four weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training in obese, hypertensives decreases plasma ALDO independently of body weight and is significantly correlated to decreases in PWV reductions. PMID:24785976

  5. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. M.; Shackleton, M.; Furness, A. J.; Bekele, E.; Pearce, J.; Linge, K. L.; Busetti, F.; Spadek, T.; Toze, S.

    2011-03-01

    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12 month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life < 1 day). Lag-times for the start of degradation of these compounds ranged from < 15 to 30 days. While iodipamide was persistent under aerobic conditions, artificial reductive geochemical conditions promoted via the addition of ethanol, resulted in rapid degradation (half life < 1 days). Pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine and oxazepam) and disinfection by-products (NDMA and NMOR) did not degrade under either aerobic or anaerobic aquifer geochemical conditions (half life > 50 days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required.

  6. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  7. Slip velocity and velocity inversion in a cylindrical Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangrak

    2009-03-01

    Velocity inversion in a nanoscale cylindrical Couette flow is investigated with the Navier-Stokes (NS) equation and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation. With general slip boundary conditions in the NS equation, the flow can be classified into five distinct profiles. The condition of velocity inversion is explored in the whole space of four dimensionless variables of beta , slip velocity ratio u('), radius ratio a('), and angular velocity ratio omega('). MD computer simulations are performed to estimate the constitutive coefficient of the slip velocities at the walls. The flow is generated by a rotating inner wall and a stationary outer wall in conformity with the theoretical result. By varying an attraction parameter in the Lennard-Jones potential, the slip velocities can be easily controlled. The theoretical predictions are compared with the simulation results. We find that in the intermediate range of the attraction parameter the two results are quite comparable to some extent, but at both extreme values of the attraction parameter, they are quite different.

  8. Haemoglobin, blood volume, cardiac function, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, N; Warburton, D; Jamnik, V

    1999-02-01

    Alterations in [Hb], which are mediated through changes in arterial oxygen content, and alterations in BV, which are mediated through changes in cardiac output (Q), have a significant effect on both VO2max and aerobic performance. If BV is held constant, a decrease in [Hb] (anaemia) causes a decrease in VO2max and aerobic performance, while an increase in [Hb] (blood doping) causes an increase in VO2max and aerobic performance. If [Hb] is held constant, an increase in BV can cause and increase in both VO2max and aerobic performance, while a decrease in BV can cause a decrease in VO2max and aerobic performance. In addition, an increase in BV can compensate for moderate reductions in [Hb] through increase in Q, allowing VO2max to remain unchanged or even increase. Also, a large portion of the difference in the enhanced cardiovascular function of endurance athletes is due to their high BV and the resultant enhancement of diastolic function. Hence, optimizing both [Hb] and BV is a very important consideration for endurance performance.

  9. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men.

  10. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.

  11. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  12. Horns as particle velocity amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Donskoy, Dimitri M; Cray, Benjamin A

    2011-11-01

    Preliminary measurements and numerical predictions reveal that simple, and relatively small, horns generate remarkable amplification of acoustic particle velocity. For example, below 2 kHz, a 2.5 cm conical horn has a uniform velocity amplification ratio (throat-to-mouth) factor of approximately 3, or, in terms of a decibel level, 9.5 dB. It is shown that the velocity amplification factor depends on the horn's mouth-to-throat ratio as well as, though to a lesser degree, the horn's flare rate. A double horn configuration provides limited additional gain, approximately an increase of up to 25%.

  13. Dendritic Growth Velocities in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Winsa, E. A.

    1994-01-01

    We measured dendritic tip velocities in pure succinonitrile (SCN) in microgravity. using a sequence of telemetered binary images sent to Earth from the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Growth velocities were measured as a function of the supercooling over the range 0.05-1.5 K. Microgravity observations show that buoyancy-induced convection alters the growth kinetics of SCN dendrites at supercooling as high as 1.3 K. Also, the dendrite velocity data measured under microgravity agree well with the Ivantsov paraboloidal diffusion solution when coupled to a scaling constant of sigma(sup *) = 0.0157.

  14. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  15. Robust, automatic GPS station velocities and velocity time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Automation in GPS coordinate time series analysis makes results more objective and reproducible, but not necessarily as robust as the human eye to detect problems. Moreover, it is not a realistic option to manually scan our current load of >20,000 time series per day. This motivates us to find an automatic way to estimate station velocities that is robust to outliers, discontinuities, seasonality, and noise characteristics (e.g., heteroscedasticity). Here we present a non-parametric method based on the Theil-Sen estimator, defined as the median of velocities vij=(xj-xi)/(tj-ti) computed between all pairs (i, j). Theil-Sen estimators produce statistically identical solutions to ordinary least squares for normally distributed data, but they can tolerate up to 29% of data being problematic. To mitigate seasonality, our proposed estimator only uses pairs approximately separated by an integer number of years (N-δt)<(tj-ti )<(N+δt), where δt is chosen to be small enough to capture seasonality, yet large enough to reduce random error. We fix N=1 to maximally protect against discontinuities. In addition to estimating an overall velocity, we also use these pairs to estimate velocity time series. To test our methods, we process real data sets that have already been used with velocities published in the NA12 reference frame. Accuracy can be tested by the scatter of horizontal velocities in the North American plate interior, which is known to be stable to ~0.3 mm/yr. This presents new opportunities for time series interpretation. For example, the pattern of velocity variations at the interannual scale can help separate tectonic from hydrological processes. Without any step detection, velocity estimates prove to be robust for stations affected by the Mw7.2 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, and velocity time series show a clear change after the earthquake, without any of the usual parametric constraints, such as relaxation of postseismic velocities to their preseismic values.

  16. Critical velocity and anaerobic paddling capacity determined by different mathematical models and number of predictive trials in canoe slalom.

    PubMed

    Messias, Leonardo H D; Ferrari, Homero G; Reis, Ivan G M; Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze if different combinations of trials as well as mathematical models can modify the aerobic and anaerobic estimates from critical velocity protocol applied in canoe slalom. Fourteen male elite slalom kayakers from Brazilian canoe slalom team (K1) were evaluated. Athletes were submitted to four predictive trials of 150, 300, 450 and 600 meters in a lake and the time to complete each trial was recorded. Critical velocity (CV-aerobic parameter) and anaerobic paddling capacity (APC-anaerobic parameter) were obtained by three mathematical models (Linear1=distance-time; Linear 2=velocity-1/time and Non-Linear = time-velocity). Linear 1 was chosen for comparison of predictive trials combinations. Standard combination (SC) was considered as the four trials (150, 300, 450 and 600 m). High fits of regression were obtained from all mathematical models (range - R² = 0.96-1.00). Repeated measures ANOVA pointed out differences of all mathematical models for CV (p = 0.006) and APC (p = 0.016) as well as R² (p = 0.033). Estimates obtained from the first (1) and the fourth (4) predictive trials (150 m = lowest; and 600 m = highest, respectively) were similar and highly correlated (r=0.98 for CV and r = 0.96 for APC) with the SC. In summary, methodological aspects must be considered in critical velocity application in canoe slalom, since different combinations of trials as well as mathematical models resulted in different aerobic and anaerobic estimates. Key pointsGreat attention must be given for methodological concerns regarding critical velocity protocol applied on canoe slalom, since different estimates were obtained depending on the mathematical model and the predictive trials used.Linear 1 showed the best fits of regression. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge and considering practical applications, this model is the easiest one to calculate the estimates from critical velocity protocol. Considering this, the abyss between science

  17. Critical Velocity and Anaerobic Paddling Capacity Determined by Different Mathematical Models and Number of Predictive Trials in Canoe Slalom

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Leonardo H. D.; Ferrari, Homero G.; Reis, Ivan G. M.; Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze if different combinations of trials as well as mathematical models can modify the aerobic and anaerobic estimates from critical velocity protocol applied in canoe slalom. Fourteen male elite slalom kayakers from Brazilian canoe slalom team (K1) were evaluated. Athletes were submitted to four predictive trials of 150, 300, 450 and 600 meters in a lake and the time to complete each trial was recorded. Critical velocity (CV-aerobic parameter) and anaerobic paddling capacity (APC-anaerobic parameter) were obtained by three mathematical models (Linear1=distance-time; Linear 2=velocity-1/time and Non-Linear = time-velocity). Linear 1 was chosen for comparison of predictive trials combinations. Standard combination (SC) was considered as the four trials (150, 300, 450 and 600 m). High fits of regression were obtained from all mathematical models (range - R² = 0.96-1.00). Repeated measures ANOVA pointed out differences of all mathematical models for CV (p = 0.006) and APC (p = 0.016) as well as R² (p = 0.033). Estimates obtained from the first (1) and the fourth (4) predictive trials (150 m = lowest; and 600 m = highest, respectively) were similar and highly correlated (r=0.98 for CV and r = 0.96 for APC) with the SC. In summary, methodological aspects must be considered in critical velocity application in canoe slalom, since different combinations of trials as well as mathematical models resulted in different aerobic and anaerobic estimates. Key points Great attention must be given for methodological concerns regarding critical velocity protocol applied on canoe slalom, since different estimates were obtained depending on the mathematical model and the predictive trials used. Linear 1 showed the best fits of regression. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge and considering practical applications, this model is the easiest one to calculate the estimates from critical velocity protocol. Considering this, the abyss between

  18. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  19. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  20. Anaerobic and aerobic treatment of chlorinated, aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.L.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.; Strand, S.E.; Ongerth, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). The anaerobic culture degraded seven of the feed CACs. The specialized aerobic cultures degraded all but three of the highly chlorinated CACs. The sequential system outperformed either of the other systems alone by degrading 10 of the feed CACs: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, plus the anaerobic metabolites: dichloromethane and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene.

  1. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  2. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  4. Vocal parameters of aerobic instructors with and without voice problems.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Virginia; Long, Joanne; Youngblood, Heather Conner; Williford, Henry; Olson, Michelle Scharff

    2002-03-01

    Aerobic instructors frequently experience vocal fatigue and are at risk for the development of vocal fold pathology. Six female aerobic instructors, three with self-reported voice problems and three without, served as subjects. Measures of vocal function (perturbation and EGG) were obtained before and after a 30-minute exercise session. Results showed that the group with self-reported voice problems had greater amounts of jitter, lower harmonic-to-noise ratios, and less periodicity in sustained vowels overall, but no significant differences in measures of perturbation and EGG were found before and immediately after instruction. Measures of vocal parameters showed that subjects with self-reported voice problems projected with relatively greater vocal intensity and phonated for a greater percentage of time across beginning, middle, and ending periods of aerobic instruction than subjects with no reported voice problems.

  5. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Christopher A.; Miller, Brittany M.; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric; Byndloss, Mariana X.; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  6. On optimal velocity during cycling.

    PubMed

    Maroński, R

    1994-02-01

    This paper focuses on the solution of two problems related to cycling. One is to determine the velocity as a function of distance which minimizes the cyclist's energy expenditure in covering a given distance in a set time. The other is to determine the velocity as a function of the distance which minimizes time for fixed energy expenditure. To solve these problems, an equation of motion for the cyclist riding over arbitrary terrain is written using Newton's second law. This equation is used to evaluate either energy expenditure or time, and the minimization problems are solved using an optimal control formulation in conjunction with the method of Miele [Optimization Techniques with Applications to Aerospace Systems, pp. 69-98 (1962) Academic Press, New York]. Solutions to both optimal control problems are the same. The solutions are illustrated through two examples. In one example where the relative wind velocity is zero, the optimal cruising velocity is constant regardless of terrain. In the second, where the relative wind velocity fluctuates, the optimal cruising velocity varies.

  7. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Caram, Laura M. O.; Dourado, Victor Zuniga; de Godoy, Irma; Tanni, Suzana Erico

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years) agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p = 0.004) and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p = 0.008) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p < 0.001). Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p = 0.092), and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe. PMID:28265180

  8. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  9. Influence of the aerobic fitness on time spent at high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake during a high-intensity intermittent running.

    PubMed

    Panissa, V L; Julio, U F; Pinto-E-Silva, C M; Andreato, L V; Schwartz, J; Franchini, E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate absolute and relative (%V.O2max) oxygen uptake (total, during effort and pause), and time spent above 90% of V.O2max during high-intensity intermittent running in subjects with different training status. Fourteen males were evaluated and divided (moderate and high aerobic power) according to their V.O2max obtained in an incremental treadmill test to volitional exhaustion. They were then submitted to high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise (1 min:1 min at maximum velocity attained during the treadmill test, totalling 4 km). A Student's t test for independent data was conducted to identify differences between groups. The moderate aerobic power group spent more time above 90% V.O2max compared to the high aerobic power group (30.2 ±9.1%; 7.3±6%, respectively, P=0.001). Moreover, the moderate aerobic power group presented lower V.O2total (P=0.011), V.O2effort (P=0.007), higher V.O2total (%V.O2), V.O2effort (P<0.001), V.O2pause (V.O2max%) (P=0.006) compared with the high aerobic power group. There was no difference in V.O2pause between groups (P=0.091), the difference between V.O2 effort and pause was greater for the high aerobic power group compared with the moderate group (4.4±2.1; 7.8±2 mL.kg-1.min-1; P=0.009) and the difference between V.O2 effort and pause (%V.O2max) was not different between groups. To conclude, these results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness spent less time above 90% of the V.O2max and that this response can be due to better capacity to recover during the pause.

  10. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction.

  11. Skeletal Maturation and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer Players from Professional Academies.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A S; Valente-dos-Santos, J; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Malina, R M; Fernandes-da-Silva, J; Cesar do Nascimento Salvador, P; De Lucas, R D; Wayhs, M C; Guglielmo, L G A

    2015-11-01

    The contribution of chronological age, skeletal age (Fels method) and body size to variance in peak velocity derived from the Carminatti Test was examined in 3 competitive age groups of Brazilian male soccer players: 10-11 years (U-12, n=15), 12-13 years (U-14, n=54) and 14-15 years (U-16, n=23). Body size and soccer-specific aerobic fitness were measured. Body composition was predicted from skinfolds. Analysis of variance and covariance (controlling for chronological age) were used to compare soccer players by age group and by skeletal maturity status within of each age group, respectively. Relative skeletal age (skeletal age minus chronological age), body size, estimated fat-free mass and performance on the Carminatti Test increased significantly with age. Carminatti Test performance did not differ among players of contrasting skeletal maturity status in the 3 age groups. Results of multiple linear regressions indicated fat mass (negative) and chronological age (positive) were significant predictors of peak velocity derived from the Carminatti Test, whereas skeletal age was not a significant predictor. In conclusion, the Carminatti Test appears to be a potentially interesting field protocol to assess intermittent endurance running capacity in youth soccer programs since it is independent of biological maturity status.

  12. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players.

  13. Playing vs. Nonplaying Aerobic Training in Tennis: Physiological and Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C.; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  14. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  15. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  16. Calibration method helps in seismic velocity interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, C.E.; Davenport, H.A.; Wilhelm, R.

    1997-11-03

    Acoustic velocities derived from seismic reflection data, when properly calibrated to subsurface measurements, help interpreters make pure velocity predictions. A method of calibrating seismic to measured velocities has improved interpretation of subsurface features in the Gulf of Mexico. In this method, the interpreter in essence creates a kind of gauge. Properly calibrated, the gauge enables the interpreter to match predicted velocities to velocities measured at wells. Slow-velocity zones are of special interest because they sometimes appear near hydrocarbon accumulations. Changes in velocity vary in strength with location; the structural picture is hidden unless the variations are accounted for by mapping in depth instead of time. Preliminary observations suggest that the presence of hydrocarbons alters the lithology in the neighborhood of the trap; this hydrocarbon effect may be reflected in the rock velocity. The effect indicates a direct use of seismic velocity in exploration. This article uses the terms seismic velocity and seismic stacking velocity interchangeably. It uses ground velocity, checkshot average velocity, and well velocity interchangeably. Interval velocities are derived from seismic stacking velocities or well average velocities; they refer to velocities of subsurface intervals or zones. Interval travel time (ITT) is the reciprocal of interval velocity in microseconds per foot.

  17. Tangential Velocity Measurement Using Interferometric MTI Radar

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY, ARMIN W.; MILESHOSKY, BRIAN P.; BICKEL, DOUGLAS L.

    2002-11-01

    An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity vector of a target.

  18. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  19. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  1. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schadler, Keri L.; Thomas, Nicholas J.; Galie, Peter A.; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C.; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S.; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27589843

  2. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  3. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  4. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  5. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  6. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  7. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  8. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  9. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  10. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  11. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  12. Waiting to inhale: HIF-1 modulates aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Johnson, Randall S

    2007-04-06

    The hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1 is known to promote anaerobic respiration during low oxygen conditions (hypoxia). In this issue, Fukuda et al. (2007) expand the range of HIF-1's functions by showing that it modulates aerobic respiration as well.

  13. Proteome analysis of aerobically and anaerobically grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Bruckmann, Astrid; Hensbergen, Paul J; Balog, Crina I A; Deelder, André M; Brandt, Raymond; Snoek, I S Ishtar; Steensma, H Yde; van Heusden, G Paul H

    2009-01-30

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. We and others previously found that transcription levels of approximately 500 genes differed more than two-fold when cells from anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared. Here, we addressed the effect of anaerobic growth at the post-transcriptional level by comparing the proteomes of cells isolated from steady-state glucose-limited anaerobic and aerobic cultures. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry we identified 110 protein spots, corresponding to 75 unique proteins, of which the levels differed more than two-fold between aerobically and anaerobically-grown cells. For 21 of the 110 spots, the intensities decreased more than two-fold whereas the corresponding mRNA levels increased or did not change significantly under anaerobic conditions. The intensities of the other 89 spots changed in the same direction as the mRNA levels of the corresponding genes, although to different extents. For some genes of glycolysis a small increase in mRNA levels, 1.5-2 fold, corresponded to a 5-10 fold increase in protein levels. Extrapolation of our results suggests that transcriptional regulation is the major but not exclusive mechanism for adaptation of S. cerevisiae to anaerobic growth conditions.

  14. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  15. Identification of serum analytes and metabolites associated with aerobic capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies aimed at identifying serum markers of cellular metabolism (biomarkers) that are associated at baseline with aerobic capacity (V02 max) in young, healthy individuals have yet to be reported. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to use the standard chemistry screen and untargeted mass ...

  16. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  17. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  18. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  19. Geostatistical Modeling of Pore Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Devary, J.L.; Doctor, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    A significant part of evaluating a geologic formation as a nuclear waste repository involves the modeling of contaminant transport in the surrounding media in the event the repository is breached. The commonly used contaminant transport models are deterministic. However, the spatial variability of hydrologic field parameters introduces uncertainties into contaminant transport predictions. This paper discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to the modeling of spatially varying hydrologic field parameters required as input to contaminant transport analyses. Kriging estimation techniques were applied to Hanford Reservation field data to calculate hydraulic conductivity and the ground-water potential gradients. These quantities were statistically combined to estimate the groundwater pore velocity and to characterize the pore velocity estimation error. Combining geostatistical modeling techniques with product error propagation techniques results in an effective stochastic characterization of groundwater pore velocity, a hydrologic parameter required for contaminant transport analyses.

  20. Signal velocity in oscillator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.

  1. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  2. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  3. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Sciver, Angela; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Brooks, William M.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. Methods and findings This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361 PMID:28187125

  4. Control of aerobic glycolysis in the brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, A M; Verjee, Z H

    1980-09-01

    Protoveratrine-(5 microM) stimulated aerobic glycolysis of incubated rat brain cortex slices that accompanies the enhanced neuronal influx of Na+ is blocked by tetrodotoxin (3 microM) and the local anesthetics, cocaine (0.1 mM) and lidocaine (0.5 mM). On the other hand, high [K+]-stimulated aerobic glycolysis that accompanies the acetylcholine-sensitive enhanced glial uptakes of Na+ and water is unaffected by acetylcholine (2 mM). Experiments done under a variety of metabolic conditions show that there exists a better correlation between diminished ATP content of the tissue and enhanced aerobic glycolysis than between tissue ATP and the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutamine. Whereas malonate (2 mM) and amino oxyacetate (5 mM) suppress ATP content and O2 uptake, stimulate lactate formation, but have little effect on glutamine levels, fluoroacetate (3 mM) suppresses glutamine synthesis in glia, presumably by suppressing the operation of the citric acid cycle, with little effect on ATP content, O2 uptake, and lactate formation. Exogenous citrate (5 mM), which may be transported and metabolized in glia but not in neurons, inhibits lactate formation by cell free acetone-dried powder extracts of brain cortex but not by brain cortex slices. These results suggest that the neuron is the major site of stimulated aerobic glycolysis in the brain, and that under our experimental conditions glycolysis in glia is under lesser stringent metabolic control than that in the neuron. Stimulation of aerobic glycolysis by protoveratrine occurs due to diminution of the energy charge of the neuron as a result of stimulation of the sodium pump following tetrodotoxin-sensitive influx of Na+; stimulation by high [K+], NH4+, or Ca2+ deprivation occurs partly by direct stimulation of key enzymes of glycolysis and partly by a fall in the tissue ATP concentration.

  5. Acute aerobic exercise modulates primary motor cortex inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Ronan A; Coxon, James P; Cirillo, John; Glenny, Helen; Gant, Nicholas; Byblow, Winston D

    2016-12-01

    Aerobic exercise can enhance neuroplasticity although presently the neural mechanisms underpinning these benefits remain unclear. One possible mechanism is through effects on primary motor cortex (M1) function via down-regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The aim of the present study was to examine how corticomotor excitability (CME) and M1 intracortical inhibition are modulated in response to a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Ten healthy right-handed adults were participants. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over left M1 to obtain motor-evoked potentials in the right flexor pollicis brevis. We examined CME, cortical silent period (SP) duration, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI), and late cortical disinhibition (LCD), before and after acute aerobic exercise (exercise session) or an equivalent duration without exercise (control session). Aerobic exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at a workload equivalent to 60 % of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak; heart rate reserve = 75 ± 3 %, perceived exertion = 13.5 ± 0.7). LICI was reduced at 10 (52 ± 17 %, P = 0.03) and 20 min (27 ± 8 %, P = 0.03) post-exercise compared to baseline (13 ± 4 %). No significant changes in CME, SP duration, SICI or LCD were observed. The present study shows that GABAB-mediated intracortical inhibition may be down-regulated after acute aerobic exercise. The potential effects this may have on M1 plasticity remain to be determined.

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  7. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH4/CO2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3-1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0-2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH4+CO2% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  8. Influence of the oxygen uptake slow component on the aerobic energy cost of high-intensity submaximal treadmill running in humans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Maddio, F; Ouattara, S; Jimenez, C; Charpenet, A; Melin, B; Bittel, J

    1998-11-01

    During high-intensity running, the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is characterised by a slow component which delays the attainment of the steady-state beyond the 3rd min of exercise. To assess if the aerobic energy cost of running measured at the 3rd min (C3) adequately reflects the variability of the true aerobic energy cost measured during the steady-state (Css), 13 highly-trained runners completed sessions of square-wave running at intensities above 80% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on a level treadmill. To evaluate the time at which the steady-state VO2 was attained (tss), the VO2 responses were described using a general double-exponential equation and tss was defined as the time at which VO2 was less than 1% below the asymptotic value given by the model. All the subjects achieved a steady state for intensities equal to or greater than 92% VO2max, and 8 out of 13 achieved it at 99% VO2max. In all cases, tss was less than 13 min. For intensities greater than 85% VO2max, Css was significantly higher than C3 and was positively related to %VO2 max (r=0.44; P < 0.001) while C3 remained constant. The C3 only explained moderately the variability of Css (0.39 < r2 < 0.72, depending on the velocity or the (relative intensity at which the relationship was calculated). Moreover, the excess aerobic energy cost of running the (difference between Css and C3) was well predicted by age (0.90 < r2 < 0.93). Therefore, when the aerobic profile of runners is evaluated, it is recommended that their running efficiencies at velocities which reflect their race intensities should be determined, with VO2 data being measured at the true steady-state.

  9. The velocity of climate change.

    PubMed

    Loarie, Scott R; Duffy, Philip B; Hamilton, Healy; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B; Ackerly, David D

    2009-12-24

    The ranges of plants and animals are moving in response to recent changes in climate. As temperatures rise, ecosystems with 'nowhere to go', such as mountains, are considered to be more threatened. However, species survival may depend as much on keeping pace with moving climates as the climate's ultimate persistence. Here we present a new index of the velocity of temperature change (km yr(-1)), derived from spatial gradients ( degrees C km(-1)) and multimodel ensemble forecasts of rates of temperature increase ( degrees C yr(-1)) in the twenty-first century. This index represents the instantaneous local velocity along Earth's surface needed to maintain constant temperatures, and has a global mean of 0.42 km yr(-1) (A1B emission scenario). Owing to topographic effects, the velocity of temperature change is lowest in mountainous biomes such as tropical and subtropical coniferous forests (0.08 km yr(-1)), temperate coniferous forest, and montane grasslands. Velocities are highest in flooded grasslands (1.26 km yr(-1)), mangroves and deserts. High velocities suggest that the climates of only 8% of global protected areas have residence times exceeding 100 years. Small protected areas exacerbate the problem in Mediterranean-type and temperate coniferous forest biomes. Large protected areas may mitigate the problem in desert biomes. These results indicate management strategies for minimizing biodiversity loss from climate change. Montane landscapes may effectively shelter many species into the next century. Elsewhere, reduced emissions, a much expanded network of protected areas, or efforts to increase species movement may be necessary.

  10. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Graham, Marilynn H; Bush, Jill A; Olvera, Norma; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (≥ 95 th body mass index [BMI] percentile) and 16 children who were considered normal weight (<85th BMI percentile) participated in this study. Performance outcomes included test duration (in minutes) and exercise heart rate (HR) (first-stage and peak HR) for each test. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and independent t-tests were used to assess differences in primary outcomes. Mean PACER test duration was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 1.3 minutes for children who were obese and normal weight, respectively. Modified PACER duration was higher than 3 minutes for the obese (3.6 ± 0.6 minutes) and normal weight (5.3 ± 1.2 minutes) groups. Children first-stage HR, expressed as a percent of peak HR, was above the predicted anaerobic threshold during the PACER, but below the anaerobic threshold during the MPACER. Relative first-stage HR was not significantly different between groups for the PACER, but they were significantly different between groups for the MPACER. In conclusion, the MPACER was a better alternative than the PACER for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who were normal weight and obese. When validated, this modified field test could be used to assess aerobic fitness in Hispanic children, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Additionally, the study provides evidence in which physical educators, personal trainers, and others most apt to assess aerobic fitness in children who are obese, should modify tests originally designed for the population who are normal weight.

  11. Spatiotemporal velocity-velocity correlation function in fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canet, Léonie; Rossetto, Vincent; Wschebor, Nicolás; Balarac, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    Turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon in natural and industrial flows. Since the celebrated work of Kolmogorov in 1941, understanding the statistical properties of fully developed turbulence has remained a major quest. In particular, deriving the properties of turbulent flows from a mesoscopic description, that is, from the Navier-Stokes equation, has eluded most theoretical attempts. Here, we provide a theoretical prediction for the functional space and time dependence of the velocity-velocity correlation function of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence from the field theory associated to the Navier-Stokes equation with stochastic forcing. This prediction, which goes beyond Kolmogorov theory, is the analytical fixed point solution of nonperturbative renormalization group flow equations, which are exact in the limit of large wave numbers. This solution is compared to two-point two-times correlation functions computed in direct numerical simulations. We obtain a remarkable agreement both in the inertial and in the dissipative ranges.

  12. Preliminary study on aerobic granular biomass formation with aerobic continuous flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianto, Andik; Soewondo, Prayatni; Handajani, Marissa; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi

    2017-03-01

    A paradigm shift in waste processing is done to obtain additional benefits from treated wastewater. By using the appropriate processing, wastewater can be turned into a resource. The use of aerobic granular biomass (AGB) can be used for such purposes, particularly for the processing of nutrients in wastewater. During this time, the use of AGB for processing nutrients more reactors based on a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Studies on the use of SBR Reactor for AGB demonstrate satisfactory performance in both formation and use. SBR reactor with AGB also has been applied on a full scale. However, the use use of SBR reactor still posses some problems, such as the need for additional buffer tank and the change of operation mode from conventional activated sludge to SBR. This gives room for further reactor research with the use of a different type, one of which is a continuous reactor. The purpose of this study is to compare AGB formation using continuous reactor and SBR with same operation parameter. Operation parameter are Organic Loading Rate (OLR) set to 2,5 Kg COD/m3.day with acetate as substrate, aeration rate 3 L/min, and microorganism from Hospital WWTP as microbial source. SBR use two column reactor with volumes 2 m3, and continuous reactor uses continuous airlift reactor, with two compartments and working volume of 5 L. Results from preliminary research shows that although the optimum results are not yet obtained, AGB can be formed on the continuous reactor. When compared with AGB generated by SBR, then the characteristics of granular diameter showed similarities, while the sedimentation rate and Sludge Volume Index (SVI) characteristics showed lower yields.

  13. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  14. The effect of aerobic exercise training on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Yu, Li-Juan; Wang, Chuan; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8weeks at a water velocity of control (3cms(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl)s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4bls(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (P<0.05). The 1 and 2bls(-1) groups showed a significantly higher SGR over the control group (P<0.05). The whole-body fat and protein contents were significantly altered after aerobic exercise training (P<0.05). Furthermore, aerobic exercise training elevated the activity of both trypsin and lipase in the hepatopancreas and intestinal tract of juvenile S. sinensis. The M˙O2max of the 4bls(-1) training group was significantly higher than for the control group. The resting M˙O2 (M˙O2rest) and peak postprandial M˙O2 (M˙O2peak) in the three training groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Time to M˙O2peak was significantly shorter in the 1, 2 and 4bls(-1) training groups compared with the control group, while exercise training showed no effect on SDA (specific dynamic action) duration, factorial metabolic scope, energy expended on SDA and the SDA coefficient when compared to the control group. These data suggest that (1) the optimum water velocity for the growth of juvenile S. sinensis occurred at approximately 2.4bls(-1); (2

  15. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  16. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  17. Solar-wind velocity decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geranios, A.

    1980-08-01

    A model is developed to account for the solar wind electron and proton temperature decreases observed following the passage of an interplanetary shock wave and during the velocity decrease of a solar wind stream. The equations of mass and energy conservation are solved for a fully ionized, electrically neutral plasma expanding radially and spherically symmetrically, taking into account the heat flux from the solor corona to the plasma along the open magnetic field lines, and the electron thermal conductivity. An analytical relationship between the temperature and the velocity of the solar wind plasma is obtained which is found to be in agreement with experimental measurements made by the Vela 5 and 6 and IMP 6 satellites from August 1969-May 1974. It is thus proposed that the observed low plasma temperatures are due to the fact that the temperature decrease of the expanding plasma exceeds the heat gain due to thermal conduction from the corona.

  18. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Toshihiko; Zhang, Xin; Matsuo, Takayuki; Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-02-01

    The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions.

  19. Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattuck, Mark

    2004-03-01

    Imagine a world where gravity is so strong that if an ice cube is tilted the shear forces melt the surface and water avalanches down. Further imagine that the ambient temperature is so low that the water re-freezes almost immediately. This is the world of granular flows. As a granular solid is tilted the surface undergoes a sublimation phase transition and a granular gas avalanches down the surface, but the inelastic collisions rapidly remove energy from the flow lowering the granular temperature (kinetic energy per particle) until the gas solidifies again. It is under these extreme conditions that we attempt to uncover continuum granular flow properties. Typical continuum theories like Navier-Stokes equation for fluids follow the space-time evolution of the first few moments of the velocity distribution. We study continuously avalanching flow in a rotating two-dimensional granular drum using high-speed video imaging and extract the position and velocities of the particles. We find a universal near Gaussian velocity distribution throughout the flowing regions, which are characterized by a liquid-like radial distribution function. In the remaining regions, in which the radial distribution function develops sharp crystalline peaks, the velocity distribution has a Gaussian peak but is much broader in the tails. In a companion experiment on a vibrated two-dimensional granular fluid under constant pressure, we find a clear gas-solid phase transition in which both the temperature and density change discontinuously. This suggests that a low temperature crystal and a high temperature gas can coexist in steady state. This coexistence could result in a narrower, cooler, Gaussian peak and a broader, warmer, Gaussian tail like the non-Gaussian behavior seen in the crystalline portions of the rotating drum.

  20. Anamet anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Frostell, B.

    1982-01-01

    The process, consisting of a closed anaerobic tank reactor with side mounted agitator and electric heaters to control temperature at 35-37 degrees, an external solids separator for recycle of anaerobic sludge, an open aerobic tank reactor with an air sparger at the bottom, and a conical settling clarifier to separate and recycle aerobic sludge, decreased the COD from 3-89 to 0.10-18 and the BOD5 from 1.4-26 to 0.03-0.30 g O2/L in dairy, vegetable cannery, beet sugar, wheat starch, mixed pulp and paper, citric acid, and rum distillery wastewater. Recoveries of CH4-containing gas produced by the process were 69-107% of theory. Total excess sludge production was only 0.05 kg/kg COD added or 0.06 kg/kg COD removed.

  1. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  2. Aerobic biotransformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, B.H.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Respirometric mineralization studies of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted with microorganisms isolated from a site contaminated with munitions waste in Illinois. Nine aerobic bacterial species were isolated under a carbon- and nitrogen-limited condition and tentatively identified as: one Pseudomonas species; one Enterobacter species; and seven Alcaligenes species. Experiments were performed using each of the nine organisms individually and with a consortium of all nine bacterial species. The aerobic microorganisms were cultured in a sterile nutrient solution with glucose and 20 mg/L TNT. Mineralization was determined using uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-TNT in a respirometer that trapped the evolved CO{sub 2}. Biodegradation behavior was characterized based on oxygen consumption, distribution of {sup 14}C activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of TNT and its transformation products.

  3. High velocity collisions of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald F.; Mattson, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are a unique class of material with highly functionalizable surfaces and exciting applications. With a large surface-to-volume ratio and potentially high surface tension, shocked nanoparticles might display unique materials behavior. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity NP collisions under a variety of conditions. NPs composed of diamond-C, cubic-BN, and diamond-Si were considered with particle sizes up to 3.5 nm diameter. Additional simulations involved NPs that were destabilized by incorporating internal strain. The initial spherical NP structures were carved out of bulk crystals while the NPs with internal strain were constructed as a dense core (compressive strain) encompassed by a thin shell (tensile strain). Both on-axis and off-axis collisions were simulated at 10 km/s relative velocity. The amount of internal strain was artificially increased by creating a dense inner core with bond lengths compressed up to 8%. Collision dynamics, shock propagation, and fragmentation will be analyzed, but the simulation are ongoing and results are not finalized. The effect of material properties, internal strain, and collision velocity will be discussed.

  4. BENCAP, LLC: CAPSULE VELOCITY TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, Brian

    2005-09-07

    Ben Cap, LLC, has a technology that utilizes bebtonite to plug wells. The bentonite is encapsulated in a cardboard capsule, droped down to the bottom of the well where it is allowed to hydrate, causing the bentonite to expand and plug the well. This method of plugging a well is accepted in some, but not all states. This technology can save a significant amount of money when compared to cementing methods currently used to plug and abandon wells. The test objective was to obtain the terminal velocity of the capsule delivery system as it drops through a column of water in a wellbore. Once the terminal velocity is known, the bentonite swelling action can be timed not to begin swelling until it reaches the bottom of the well bore. The results of the test showed that an average speed of 8.93 plus or minus 0.12 ft/sec was achieved by the capsule as it was falling through a column of water. Plotting the data revealed a very linear function with the capsules achieving terminal velocity shortly after being released. The interference of the capsule impacting the casing was not readily apparent in any of the runs, but a siginal sampling anomaly was present in one run. Because the anomaly was so brief and not present in any of the other runs, no solid conclusions could be drawn. Additional testing would be required to determine the effects of capsules impacting a fluid level that is not at surface.

  5. Measurement of retinal blood velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W., Jr.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    A fundus camera was modified to illuminate the retina of a rabbit model with low power laser light in order to obtain laser speckle images. A fast-exposure charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to capture laser speckle images of the retina. Image acquisition was synchronized with the arterial pulses of the rabbit to ensure that all images are obtained at the same point in the cardiac cycle. The rabbits were sedated and a speculum was inserted to prevent the eyelid from closing. Both albino (New Zealand; pigmented (Dutch belted) rabbits were used in the study. The rabbit retina is almost avascular. The measurements are obtained for choroidal tissue as well as retinal tissue. Because the retina is in a region of high metabolism, blood velocity is strongly affected by blood oxygen saturation. Measurements of blood velocity obtained over a wide range of O II saturations (58%-100%) showed that blood velocity increases with decreasing O II saturation. For most experiments, the left eye of the rabbit was used for laser measurements whereas the right eye served as a control. No observable difference between pre- and post-experimented eye was noted. Histological examinations of retinal tissue subjected to repeated laser measurements showed no indication of tissue damage.

  6. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  7. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 ± 3.2 years; 167.6 ± 6.4 cm; 65.0 ± 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise.

  8. Physiological adaptation in noncompetitive rock climbers: good for aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Rodio, Angelo; Fattorini, Luigi; Rosponi, Alessandro; Quattrini, Filippo M; Marchetti, Marco

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation aimed to establish whether noncompetitive rock climbing fulfills sports medicine recommendations for maintaining a good level of aerobic fitness. The physiological profile of 13 rock climbers, 8 men (age, 43 +/- 8 years) and 5 women (age, 31 +/- 8 years) was assessed by means of laboratory tests. Maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VT) were assessed using a cycloergometer incremental test. During outdoor rock face climbing, VO2 and heart rate (HR) were measured with a portable metabolimeter and the relative steady-state values (VO2 and HR during rock climbing) were computed. Blood lactate was measured during recovery. All data are presented as mean +/- SD. VO2 was 39.1 +/- 4.3 mL.kg.min in men and 39.7 +/- 5 mL.kg.min in women, while VT was 29.4 +/- 3.0 mL.kg.min in men and 28.8 +/- 4.6 mL.kg.min in women. The VO2 during rock climbing was 28.3 +/- 1.5 mL.kg.min in men and 27.5 +/- 3.7 mL.kg.min in women. The HR during rock climbing was 144 +/- 16 b.min in men and 164 +/- 13 b.min in women. The aerobic profile was classified from excellent to superior in accordance with the standards of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). The exercise intensity (VO2 during rock climbing expressed as a percentage of VO2peak) was 70 +/- 6% in men and 72 +/- 8% in women. Moreover, the energy expenditure was 1000-1500 kcal per week. In conclusion, noncompetitive rock climbing has proved to be a typical aerobic activity. The intensity of exercise is comparable to that recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine to maintain good cardiorespiratory fitness.

  9. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  10. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  11. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  12. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  13. Degradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil, Prajeesh; Vijaya Nadaraja, Anupama; Bhasi, Arya; Khan, Sudheer; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2012-07-01

    Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyl diphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent present in a number of house hold consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from different inoculum sources. Biodegradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic (denitrifying and sulphate reducing conditions), and anaerobic conditions was studied in batch cultures with isolated pure strains and enrichment consortium developed. Under aerobic conditions, the isolated strains tolerated triclosan up to 1 g/L and degraded the compound in inorganic-mineral-broth and agar media. At 10 mg/L level triclosan, 95 ± 1.2% was degraded in 5 days, producing phenol, catechol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol as the degradation products. The strains were able to metabolize triclosan and its degradation products in the presence of monooxygenase inhibitor 1-pentyne. Under anoxic/anaerobic conditions highest degradation (87%) was observed in methanogenic system with acetate as co-substrate and phenol, catechol, and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were among the products. Three of the isolated strains tolerating 1 g/L triclosan were identified as Pseudomonas sp. (BDC 1, 2, and 3).

  14. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  15. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  16. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  17. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  18. Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    PubMed

    Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P < 0.05), and left ventricular mass was 51% and 32% greater (P < 0.05) in canoeists than in the sedentary and moderately trained participants, respectively. There were no differences in left ventricular chamber dimension, suggesting that the kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals.

  19. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects. PMID:27757381

  20. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  2. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  3. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  4. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  5. Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Cai, Ang; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Chao; Ni, Yongjiong

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). COD and ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 94% and 99%, respectively. The diameter, settling velocity and SVI10 of granules ranged from 2 to 5 mm, 80 to 110 m/h and about 40 mL/g, respectively. Freezing microtome images, DO concentration profiles by microelectrode, distribution of bacteria and EPS by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) show that the aerobic granules have a three-layer structure. Each layer has different thickness, character, bacteria, and DO transfer rate. A hypothesis for granule structure is proposed: the first layer, the surface of the granule, is composed mostly of heterotrophic organisms for organic matter removal, with a thickness range from 150 to 350 μm; the second layer, mostly composed of autotrophic organisms for ammonia nitrogen removal, with a thickness range from 250 to 450 μm; the third layer, located in the core of the granule, has mostly an inorganic composition and contains pores and channels. PMID:24577284

  6. Studies on the "Aerobic" Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Purification, Crystallization, and Physical Properties of the Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Klein, Harold P.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the purification of a stable acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) from aerobic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. The steps include differential centrifugation, solubilization of the bound enzyme from the crude mitochondrial fraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, crystallization to constant specific activity from ammonium sulfate solutions followed by Bio-Gel A-1.5 m column chromatography. The resulting enzyme preparation is homogeneous as judged by chromatography on Bio-Gel columns, QAE-Sephadex A-50 anion exchange columns, analytical ultracentrifugal studies, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sedimentation velocity runs revealed a single symmetric peak with an s(sub (20,w)) value of 10.6. The molecular weight of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, is 250,000 +/- 500. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the molecular weight of the single polypeptide chain is 83,000 +/- 500. The purified enzyme is inhibited by palmityl-coenzyme A with a Hill interaction coefficient, n, of 2.88. These studies indicate that the ACS of aerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of three subunits of identical or nearly identical size.

  7. Aerobic granulation of aggregating consortium X9 isolated from aerobic granules and role of cyclic di-GMP.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Yang, Xue; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Xin-Yue; Yang, Qiaoli; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    This study monitored the granulation process of an aggregating functional consortium X9 that was consisted of Pseudomonas putida X-1, Acinetobacter sp. X-2, Alcaligenes sp. X-3 and Comamonas testosteroni X-4 in shaken reactors. The growth curve of X9 was fit using logistic model as follows y=1.49/(1+21.3*exp(-0.33x)), the maximum specific cell growth rate for X9 was 0.33 h(-1). Initially X9 consumed polysaccharides (PS) and secreted proteins (PN) to trigger granulation. Then X9 grew in biomass and formed numerous micro-granules, driven by increasing hydrophobicity of cell membranes and of accumulated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In later stage the intracellular cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) was at high levels for inhibiting bacteria swarming motility, thereby promotion formation of large aerobic granules. The findings reported herein advise the way to accelerate granule formation and to stabilize operation in aerobic granular reactors.

  8. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: a role of group velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2013-03-01

    We consider a free motion of a quantum particle. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity.

  9. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  10. Satellite-tracked cumulus velocities. [for determining wind velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Pearl, E. W.; Shenk, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research indicates that extreme caution must be exercised in converting cloud velocities into winds. The motion of fair-weather cumuli obtained by tracking their shadows over Springfield, Missouri revealed that the standard deviation in the individual cloud motion is several times the tracking error. The motion of over-ocean cumuli near Barbados clearly indicated the complicated nature of cumulus velocities. Analysis of whole-sky images obtained near Tampa, Florida failed to show significant continuity and stability of cumulus plumes, less than 0.3 mile in diameter. Cumulus turrets with 0.3 to 2 mile in size appear to be the best target to infer the mean wind within the subcloud layers. Cumulus or stratocumulus cells consisting of x number of turrets do not always move with wind. The addition and deletion of turrets belonging to a specific cell appear to be the cause of the erratic motion of a tracer cell. It may by concluded that the accuracy of wind estimates is unlikely to be better than 2m/sec unless the physical and dynamical characteristics of cumulus motion is futher investigated.

  11. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  12. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  13. Velocities of Zodiacal Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2005-09-01

    Ipatov et al. (2005, LPSC, 1266) compared the observational plots of the zodiacal light spectrum near the solar Mg Iλ 5184 absorption line (Reynolds, Madsen and Moseley, ApJ, 2004, 612, 1206-1213) with the spectrum obtained by analyzing computer simulation results of the distribution of dust particles which migrated from different sources (Ipatov et al., Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 2004, v. 1017, 66-80). Now we compare the rotation curves, i.e., plots of velocities of Mg I line (at zero inclination) versus elongations ǎrepsilon (measured eastward from the Sun). The comparison of the observed rotation curves with the models for dust particles of different sizes (hence for different values of the ratio between the radiation pressure force and gravitational force β ) started from asteroids, comets (2P/Encke, 10P/Tempel 2, 39P/Oterma), and trans-Neptunian objects allowed to make some conclusions about sources of zodiacal dust particles. The rotation curves obtained for different scattering functions were similar for 30<ǎrepsilon<330 deg. For asteroidal dust particles and particles originating from comets 39P and 10P, rotation curves are relatively close to each other at β <0.2. For 2P particles the difference between the rotation curves obtained at different β was considerable in case of the particles produced at aphelion. For asteroidal dust particles modeled rotation curves differed from the observed ones, and for ǎrepsilon<240o modeled velocities were smaller by several km/s; for 10P and 39P particles they were smaller than those for observations at ǎrepsilon<160o and 60<ǎrepsilon<150o, respectively, but for 39P particles the difference was smaller than that for asteroidal and 10P particles. For trans-Neptunian particles the rotation curves were in agreement with the observations at ǎrepsilon<180o, but modeled velocities were smaller than observational velocities at 200<ǎrepsilon<250o. The rotation curves corresponding to particles originating

  14. Assessing Enhanced Anaerobic and Intrinsic Aerobic Biodegradation of Trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, K. S.; Ely, R. L.; Martin, J. P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Kauffman, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    Biodegradation of chloroethenes can proceed either anaerobically or aerobically; however, the techniques for monitoring the two pathways are quite different. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN, a combination of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) is being employed for restoration of a large plume of contaminated groundwater. During stimulation of anaerobic biodegradation of TCE through lactate addition, several assessment tools have proven effective for various objectives. Monitoring TCE and its lesser chlorinated degradation products provides a straightforward assessment tool for the occurrence of degradation. It does not, however, provide information regarding the potential for reductive dechlorination, nor progress from less suitable to more suitable conditions. A technique for obtaining this information is monitoring redox-sensitive geochemical parameters such as dissolved iron, sulfate, methane, and oxidation-reduction potential. This approach was demonstrated by the strong correlation of steps in the reductive dechlorination pathway to redox conditions at the TAN site. Yet another tool is required to determine adequacy of conditions for efficient dechlorination. Dechlorination efficiency appears to be dependent upon the predominant electron donor utilization (or fermentation) process occurring at any given time, an observation consistent with thermodynamic considerations. Thus, monitoring of added electron donor and intermediate product concentrations can help determine an efficient operations strategy. One final tool demonstrated at the TAN site was monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios. As TCE was dechlorinated, a clear fractionation occurred from cis-dichloroethene to vinyl chloride, and from vinyl chloride to ethene. This fractionation provides a clear signature of reductive dechlorination. Assessment of aerobic biodegradation of chloroethenes at TAN is more challenging because

  15. Enhanced formation of aerobic granular sludge with yellow earth as nucleating agent in a sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. L.; Zhang, S. L.; Zou, Z. C.; Wang, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced formation of aerobic granulation was investigated by adding yellow earth as a nucleating agent in a sequencing batch reactor with a constant setting time of 10 min. As a result, granules with an average diameter over 1 mm were obtained on the 4th day. The mature granules behaved better than the seed sludge in the water content, specific gravity, sludge volume index, settling velocity, and specific oxygen uptake rate. The yellow earth stimulated the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances, especially proteins. Both chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen had a removal rate over 90%, and more than 80% of the total inorganic nitrogen was removed even under aeration conditions due to simultaneous denitrification. The enhancement effects of the yellow earth might be based on the unique physicochemical characteristics and short settling time. A settling time of 10 min or more turned out not to be a prerequisite for a rapid granulation process.

  16. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREV<≧VREVE, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < tREV ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE

  17. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-10

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at

  18. Measuring mean velocities with Pogo

    SciTech Connect

    Rossby, T.; Fontaine, J.; Hummon, J. )

    1991-10-01

    Pogo is a sample technique for measuring water transport between the surface and some preselected depth. Equipped with a 12-kHz pinger for tracking and range measurements, a xenon flasher for nighttime relocation, and a VHF beacon for daytime recovery, it has been used over 200 times in the Gulf Stream to measure volume transport and to provide a reference velocity (transport) for geostrophic calculations from pairs of hydrographic stations. This note gives a brief technical description of Pogo and how it is used. Loran C was used for navigation in this study, but with the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Pogo can be used worldwide. 6 refs.

  19. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  20. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  1. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Christopher J.; Prato, L.; Mahmud, Naved I.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Beichman, Charles A. E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2011-07-10

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s{sup -1} precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M{sub JUP} exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  2. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  3. Sedimentation Velocity: A Classical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Correia, John J; Stafford, Walter F

    2015-01-01

    Here we give an overview of the history of sedimentation velocity analysis focusing on seminal and fundamental contributions that derived from early ultracentrifugation studies. We introduce the concepts of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and outline the derivation of the Svedberg and the Lamm equations and the requirements for including both hydrodynamic and thermodynamic nonideality. We introduce the phenomenological equations for coupled flows as developed from the principles of nonequilibrium or irreversible thermodynamics and derive a form of the Lamm equation that incorporates cross-diffusion coefficients and coupled gradient terms. We give an historical overview of solutions to the Lamm equation including Fujita-MacCosham solutions and Claverie finite-element numerical solutions and discuss the software that have implemented these solutions. We discuss the three major optical systems (absorbance, interference, and fluorescence) and recently developed multiwavelength systems. We also suggest a number of experimental practices and guidelines for optimizing the determination of s and D and discuss the appropriate centerpiece components and their utility. This chapter complements other recent reviews submitted by the authors (Correia, Lyons, Sherwood, & Stafford, 2015; Stafford, 2015) and should be considered an effort to revive the importance of irreversible thermodynamics in the understanding and analysis of sedimentation velocity ultracentrifugation data.

  4. Pyrotechnic deflagration velocity and permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Begeal, D R; Stanton, P L

    1982-01-01

    Particle size, porosity, and permeability of the reactive material have long been considered to be important factors in propellant burning rates and the deflagration-to-detonation transition in explosives. It is reasonable to assume that these same parameters will also affect the deflagration velocity of pyrotechnics. This report describes an experimental program that addresses the permeability of porous solids (particulate beds), in terms of particle size and porosity, and the relationship between permeability and the behavior of pyrotechnics and explosives. The experimental techniques used to acquire permeability data and to characterize the pyrotechnic burning are discussed. Preliminary data have been obtained on the burning characteristics of titanium hydride/potassium perchlorate (THKP) and boron/calcium chromate (BCCR). With THKP, the velocity of a pressure wave (from hot product gases) in the unburned region shows unsteady behavior which is related to the initial porosity or permeability. Simultaneous measurements with pressure gauges and ion gauges reveal that the pressure wave precedes the burn front. Steady burning of BCCR was observed with pressure gauge diagnostics and with a microwave interferometry technique.

  5. Velocity gradients and microturbulence in Cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Variations of the microturbulent velocity with phase and height in the atmosphere were reported in classical Cepheids. It is shown that these effects can be understood in terms of variations of the velocity gradient in the atmospheres of these stars.

  6. Inexpensive Time-of-Flight Velocity Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Glen E.; Wild, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a circuit designed to measure time-of-flight velocity and shows how to use it to determine bullet velocity in connection with the ballistic pendulum demonstration of momentum conservation. (Author/GA)

  7. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  8. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGES

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  9. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  10. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  11. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  12. Differential effects of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid on the aerobic thermosensitivity of yeast cells grown under aerobic and anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Christos; Curran, Brendan P G

    2010-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in aerobically-grown cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increases and ascorbic acid decreases cellular thermosensitivity, as determined by the inducibility of a heat shock (HS)-reporter gene. In this work, we reveal that the aerobic thermosensitivity of anaerobically-grown yeast cells also increases in the presence of H(2)O(2), albeit differentially between cells with two different lipid profiles. In comparison to aerobically-grown fermenting cells treated with the same H(2)O(2) concentration, both these types of anaerobically-grown cells were found to be considerably less sensitive to aerobic heat shock and considerably more thermotolerant. Paradoxically, and in contrast to ascorbate-pretreated aerobically-grown yeast cells, when anaerobically-grown cells were heat-shocked aerobically in the presence of the same ascorbic acid concentration, they exhibited increased thermosensitivity and decreased intrinsic thermotolerance with respect to their untreated counterparts. These findings are discussed with respect to what is currently known about the redox and physiological status of yeast cells grown aerobically and cells reoxygenated following anoxic growth.

  13. Methyl Anthranilate, an Inhibitor for the Germination of Spores of Aerobic Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Chandan; Srinivasan, V. R.

    1969-01-01

    Methylanthranilate inhibited the germination of spores of aerobic bacilli without affecting growth and sporulation. The inhibition of germination could not be reversed by removal of methylanthranilate. PMID:4979580

  14. Removal of Pesticides and Inorganic Contaminants in Anaerobic and Aerobic Biological Contactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation contains data on the removal of pesticides (acetochlor, clethodim, dicrotophos), ammonia, nitrate, bromate and perchlorate through aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes.

  15. A single aerobic exercise session accelerates movement execution but not central processing.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kit B; Sage, Michael D; Staines, W Richard; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E

    2017-03-27

    Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task. This study examined how a single session of aerobic exercise influences speed of processing and movement execution during a flanker task using electromyography to partition response time into reaction time and movement time, respectively. Movement time decreased during aerobic exercise regardless of flanker congruence but returned to pre-exercise levels immediately after exercise. Reaction time during incongruent flanker trials decreased over time in both an aerobic exercise and non-exercise control condition indicating it was not specifically influenced by exercise. This disparate influence of aerobic exercise on movement time and reaction time indicates the importance of partitioning response time when examining the influence of aerobic exercise on speed of processing. The decrease in reaction time over time independent of aerobic exercise indicates that interpreting pre-to-post exercise changes in behavior requires caution.

  16. Aerobic granules: microbial landscape and architecture, stages, and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2014-06-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In "old" granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters "rooting" from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation.

  17. Aerobic Granules: Microbial Landscape and Architecture, Stages, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In “old” granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters “rooting” from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  18. Light quality and quantity regulate aerobic methane emissions from plants.

    PubMed

    Martel, Ashley B; Qaderi, Mirwais M

    2017-03-01

    Studies have been mounting in support of the finding that plants release aerobic methane (CH4 ), and that these emissions are increased by both short-term and long-term environmental stress. It remains unknown whether or not they are affected by variation in light quantity and quality, whether emissions change over time, and whether they are influenced by physiological parameters. Light is the primary energy source of plants, and therefore an important regulator of plant growth and development. Both shade-intolerant sunflower and shade-tolerant chrysanthemum were investigated for the release of aerobic CH4 emissions, using either low or high light intensity, and varying light quality, including control, low or normal red:far-red ratio (R:FR), and low or high levels of blue, to discern the relationship between light and CH4 emissions. It was found that low levels of light act as an environmental stress, facilitating CH4 release from both species. R:FR and blue lights increased emissions under low light, but the results varied with species, providing evidence that both light quantity and quality regulate CH4 emissions. Emission rates of 6.79-41.13 ng g(-1) DW h(-1) and 18.53-180.25 ng g(-1) DW h(-1) were observed for sunflower and chrysanthemum, respectively. Moreover, emissions decreased with age as plants acclimated to environmental conditions. Since effects were similar in both species, there may be a common trend among a number of shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species. Light quantity and quality are influenced by factors including cloud covering, so it is important to know how plants will be affected in the context of aerobic CH4 emissions.

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  20. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly.

  1. Electrokinetic Flow Control and Propulsion for MAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vehicle (pdf) Electroaerodynamic Coanda Effect – Cylinder Wake Flow Control Experiments to Active Cylinder Wake Flow Control Using Electric Field Actuators...flow separation at the leading edge - Compact geometry (low aspect-ratio below 2) gives rise to strong 3D effects Nonlinear lift characteristics and...Additional Electrode Pair at Trailing Edge has Effect of Jet Flap. - Lift Enhancement at alpha = 19° is 127% - Drag Coefficient decreases by 18% Increase of

  2. Aerodynamic Investigation of Smart Flying Wing MAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-03

    with Interdigitated Electrodes , Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 8, 1997, pp. 903-919. [7] Roy, A., Numerical Investigation...operating conditions. AFC consists of unidirectional PZT fibres embedded into epoxy matrix and a separate electrode layer with an inter-digital pattern (Bent

  3. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  4. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  5. Flow velocities of Alaskan glaciers.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Evan W; Forster, Richard R; Larsen, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    Our poor understanding of tidewater glacier dynamics remains the primary source of uncertainty in sea level rise projections. On the ice sheets, mass lost from tidewater calving exceeds the amount lost from surface melting. In Alaska, the magnitude of calving mass loss remains unconstrained, yet immense calving losses have been observed. With 20% of the global new-water sea level rise coming from Alaska, partitioning of mass loss sources in Alaska is needed to improve sea level rise projections. Here we present the first regionally comprehensive map of glacier flow velocities in Central Alaska. These data reveal that the majority of the regional downstream flux is constrained to only a few coastal glaciers. We find regional calving losses are 17.1 Gt a(-1), which is equivalent to 36% of the total annual mass change throughout Central Alaska.

  6. Velocity coherence in dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Barranco, Joseph A.; Wilner, David J.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1997-02-01

    At the meeting, we presented a summary of two papers which support the hypothesis that the molecular clouds which contain star-forming low-mass dense cores are self-similar in nature on size scales larger than an inner scale, Rcoh, and that within Rcoh, the cores are ``coherent,'' in that their filling factor is large and they are characterized by a very small, roughly constant, mildly supersonic velocity dispersion. We expect these two papers, by Barranco & Goodman [1] and Goodman, Barranco, Wilner, & Heyer, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal within the coming year. Here, we present a short summary of our results. The interested reader is urged to consult the on-line version of this work at cfa-www.harvard.edu/~agoodman/vel_coh.html [2].

  7. Rotation Velocities of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Dreizler, S.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.

    White dwarfs are the compact remnants of low and intermediate mass stars (M < 8Msolar). Due to the conservation of angular momentum white dwarfs should be very fast rotators, if a significant fraction of the angular momentum of the progenitor stars were preserved. The existence of sharp NLTE cores of the hydrogen Hα line in high resolution spectra (obtained at the Keck observatory) of DA white dwarfs allowed us to determine (projected) rotational velocities v sin i for white dwarfs. Among those of our targets lying close to the ZZ Ceti instability many show evidence for extra broadening similar to rotation, whereas stars at higher temperatures (and therefore younger ones) rotate more slowly or not at all. Our result based on a large sample is in accordance with previous results presented by Koester et al. (1998). We discuss possible explanations for this astonishing result.

  8. Velocity visualization in gaseous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Hiller, B.; Hassa, C.; Booman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques yielding simultaneous, multiple-point measurements of velocity in reacting or nonreacting flow fields have the potential to significantly impact basic and applied studies of fluid mechanics. This research program is aimed at investigating several candidate schemes which could provide such measurement capability. The concepts under study have in common the use of a laser source (to illuminate a column, a grid, a plane or a volume in the flow) and the collection of light at right angles (from Mie scattering, fluorescence, phosphorescence or chemiluminescence) using a multi-element solid-state camera (100 x 100 array of photodiodes). The work will include an overview and a status report of work in progress with particular emphasis on the method of Doppler-modulated absorption.

  9. VELOCITY INDICATOR FOR EXTRUSION PRESS

    DOEpatents

    Digney, F.J. Jr.; Bevilacqua, F.

    1959-04-01

    An indicator is presented for measuring the lowspeed velocity of an object in one direction where the object returns in the opposite direction at a high speed. The indicator comprises a drum having its axis of rotation transverse to the linear movement of the object and a tape wound upon the drum with its free end extending therefrom and adapted to be connected to the object. A constant torque is applied to the drum in a direction to wind the tape on the drum. The speed of the tape in the unwinding direction is indicated on a tachometer which is coupled through a shaft and clutch means to the drum only when the tape is unwinding.

  10. Degradation of toxaphene in water during anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    LacayoR, M; van Bavel, B; Mattiasson, B

    2004-08-01

    The degradation of technical toxaphene in water with two kinds of bioreactors operating in sequence was studied. One packed bed reactor was filled with Poraver (foam glass particles) running at anaerobic conditions and one suspended carrier biofilm reactor working aerobically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen, total toxaphene and specific toxaphene isomers were measured. After 6 weeks approx. 87% of the total toxaphene was degraded reaching 98% by week 39. The majority of the conversion took place in the anaerobic reactor. The concentrations of toxaphene isomers with more chlorine substituents decreased more rapidly than for isomers with less chlorine substituents.

  11. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759

  12. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-degrading bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NAV2, excretes an emulsifier which is capable of emulsifying the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. This emulsifier is not denatured by phenol. PMID:16347928

  13. Development of a Specific Anaerobic Field Test for Aerobic Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  14. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings.

  15. Skin temperature modifies the impact of hypohydration on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, R W; Cheuvront, S N; Palombo, L J; Ely, B R; Sawka, M N

    2010-07-01

    This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient temperature (T(a)). Our hypothesis was that 4% hypohydration would impair aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress. Thirty-two men [22 +/- 4 yr old, 45 +/- 8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak))] were divided into four matched cohorts (n = 8) and tested at one of four T(a) in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HYPO, -4% body mass) conditions. Subjects completed 30 min of preload exercise (cycle ergometer, 50% Vo(2 peak)) followed by a 15 min self-paced time trial. Time-trial performance (total work, change from EU) was -3% (P = 0.1), -5% (P = 0.06), -12% (P < 0.05), and -23% (P < 0.05) in 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C T(a), respectively. During preload exercise, skin temperature (T(sk)) increased by approximately 4 degrees C per 10 degrees C T(a), while core (rectal) temperature (T(re)) values were similar within EU and HYPO conditions across all T(a). A significant relationship (P < 0.05, r = 0.61) was found between T(sk) and the percent decrement in time-trial performance. During preload exercise, hypohydration generally blunted the increases in cardiac output and blood pressure while reducing blood volume over time in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C T(a). Our conclusions are as follows: 1) hypohydration degrades aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress; 2) when T(sk) is >29 degrees C, 4% hypohydration degrades aerobic performance by approximately 1.6% for each additional 1 degrees C T(sk); and 3) cardiovascular strain from high skin blood flow requirements combined with blood volume reductions induced by hypohydration

  16. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Scott; Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m(2)] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m(2)). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (VO(2max)). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) VO(2max), ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the VO(2max) of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality.

  17. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  18. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  19. [Evaluation of normal aerobic skin flora (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Crémieux, A; Cazac, J L

    1980-01-01

    This work attempts the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the bacterial population from two different areas: elbow and groin. Bacteria are recovered using the method of Williamson and Kligman modified by Fleurette and Transy. Aerobic flora is determined from bacterial counts on various media. Results show a density of 475 to 630 bacteria/cm2 for elbow, and 1.9 to 2.4 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 for groin (geometric and arithmetic mean, respectively). Percentages of different species and types are calculated, and skin population is represented by a circular diagram.

  20. Temperature and salt effects on settling velocity in granular sludge technology.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Bassin, J P; Kleerebezem, R; van der Lans, R G J M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-08-01

    Settling velocity is a crucial parameter in granular sludge technology. In this study the effects of temperature and salt concentrations on settling velocities of granular sludge particles were evaluated. A two-fold slower settling velocity for the same granules where observed when the temperature of water decreases from 40 °C to 5 °C. Settling velocities also decreased with increasing salt concentrations. Experiments showed that when granules were not pre-incubated in a solution with increased salt concentration, they initially floated. The time dependent increase in mass and hence in settling speed of a granule due to salt diffusion into the granule was dependent on the granule diameter. The time needed for full salt equilibrium with the bulk liquid took 1 min for small particles from the top of the sludge bed and up to 30 min for big granules from the bottom of the sludge bed. These results suggest that temperature and salt concentration are important parameters to consider in the design, start-up and operation of granular sludge reactors and monitoring of these parameters will aid in a better control of the sludge management in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge technology. The observations also give an explanation for previous reports which were suggesting that a start-up of granular sludge reactors is more difficult at low temperatures.

  1. Temperature and salt effects on settling velocity in granular sludge technology.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Bassin, J P; Kleerebezem, R; van der Lans, R G J M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-10-15

    Settling velocity is a crucial parameter in granular sludge technology. In this study the effects of temperature and salt concentrations on settling velocities of granular sludge particles were evaluated. A two-fold slower settling velocity for the same granules was observed when the temperature of water decreases from 40 °C to 5 °C. Settling velocities also decreased with increasing salt concentrations. Experiments showed that when granules were not pre-incubated in a solution with increased salt concentration, they initially floated. The time dependent increase in mass and hence in settling speed of a granule due to salt diffusion into the granule was dependent on the granule diameter. The time needed for full salt equilibrium with the bulk liquid took 1 min for small particles from the top of the sludge bed and up to 30 min for big granules from the bottom of the sludge bed. These results suggest that temperature and salt concentration are important parameters to consider in the design, start-up and operation of granular sludge reactors and monitoring of these parameters will aid in a better control of the sludge management in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge technology. The observations also give an explanation for previous reports which were suggesting that a start-up of granular sludge reactors is more difficult at low temperatures.

  2. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  3. The fundamental definition of ``radial velocity''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegren, Lennart; Dravins, Dainis

    2003-04-01

    Accuracy levels of metres per second require the fundamental concept of ``radial velocity'' for stars and other distant objects to be examined, both as a physical velocity, and as measured by spectroscopic and astrometric techniques. Already in a classical (non-relativistic) framework the line-of-sight velocity component is an ambiguous concept, depending on whether, e.g., the time of light emission (at the object) or that of light detection (by the observer) is used for recording the time coordinate. Relativistic velocity effects and spectroscopic measurements made inside gravitational fields add further complications, causing wavelength shifts to depend, e.g., on the transverse velocity of the object and the gravitational potential at the source. Aiming at definitions that are unambiguous at accuracy levels of 1 m s-1, we analyse different concepts of radial velocity and their interrelations. At this accuracy level, a strict separation must be made between the purely geometric concepts on one hand, and the spectroscopic measurement on the other. Among the geometric concepts we define kinematic radial velocity, which corresponds most closely to the ``textbook definition'' of radial velocity as the line-of-sight component of space velocity; and astrometric radial velocity, which can be derived from astrometric observations. Consistent with these definitions, we propose strict definitions also of the complementary kinematic and astrometric quantities, namely transverse velocity and proper motion. The kinematic and astrometric radial velocities depend on the chosen spacetime metric, and are accurately related by simple coordinate transformations. On the other hand, the observational quantity that should result from accurate spectroscopic measurements is the barycentric radial-velocity measure. This is independent of the metric, and to first order equals the line-of-sight velocity. However, it is not a physical velocity, and cannot be accurately transformed to a

  4. Characteristics of alcohol dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora.

    PubMed

    Nosova, T; Jousimies-Somer, H; Kaihovaara, P; Jokelainen, K; Heine, R; Salaspuro, M

    1997-05-01

    We have recently proposed the existence of a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation [i.e., ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) of intestinal bacteria resulting in high intracolonic levels of reactive and toxic acetaldehyde]. The aim of this in vitro study was to characterize further ADH activity of some aerobic bacteria, representing the normal human colonic flora. These bacteria were earlier shown to possess high cytosolic ADH activities (Escherichia coli IH 133369, Klebsiella pneumoniae IH 35385, Klebsiella oxytoca IH 35339, Pseudomonas aeruginosa IH 35342, and Hafnia alvei IH 53227). ADHs of the tested bacteria strongly preferred NAD as a cofactor. Marked ADH activities were found in all bacteria, even at low ethanol concentrations (1.5 mM) that may occur in the colon due to bacterial fermentation. The Km for ethanol varied from 29.9 mM for K. pneumoniae to 0.06 mM for Hafnia alvei. The inhibition of ADH by 4-methylpyrazole was found to be of the competitive type in 4 of 5 bacteria, and Ki varied from 18.26 +/- 3.3 mM for Escherichia coli to 0.47 +/- 0.13 mM for K. pneumoniae. At pH 7.4, ADH activity was significantly lower than at pH 9.6 in four bacterial strains. ADH of K. oxytoca, however, showed almost equal activities at neutral pH and at 9.6. In conclusion, NAD-linked alcohol dehydrogenases of aerobic colonic bacteria possess low apparent Km's for ethanol. Accordingly, they may oxidize moderate amounts of ethanol ingested during social drinking with nearly maximal velocity. This may result in the marked production of intracolonic acetaldehyde. Kinetic characteristics of the bacterial enzymes may enable some of them to produce acetaldehyde even from endogenous ethanol formed by other bacteria via alcoholic fermentation. The microbial ADHs were inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole by the same competitive inhibition as hepatic ADH, however, with nearly 1000 times lower susceptibility. Individual variations in human colonic flora may thus

  5. Effects of aerobic fitness on oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity swimming.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana F; Alves, Francisco B; Bruno, Paula M; Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to characterise both the VO2 kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between VO2 kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), first ventilatory threshold (VT), and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO(2 max)) and (2) two square-wave transitions from rest to heavy-intensity exercise, to determine their VO2 kinetics. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of freestyle swimming using a swimming snorkel. VO2 kinetics was modelled with two exponential functions. The mean values for the incremental test were 56.0 ± 6.0 ml min(-1) kg(-1), 1.45 ± 0.08 m s(-1); and 42.1 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) for VO2 max, vVO(2 max) and VT, respectively. For the square-wave transition, the time constant of the primary phase (sp) averaged 17.3 ± 5.4 s and the relevant slow component (A'sc) averaged 4.8 ± 2.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) [representing 8.9% of the end-exercise VO2 (%A'sc)]. sp was correlated with vVO(2 max) (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), but not with either VO2max (r = 0.05, ns) or VT (r = 0.14, ns). The %A' sc did not correlate with either VO2max (r = -0.14, ns) or vVO(2 max) (r = 0.06, ns), but was inversely related with VT (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). This study was the first to describe the VO2 kinetics in heavy-intensity swimming using specific swimming exercise and appropriate methods. As has been demonstrated in cycling, faster VO2 kinetics allow higher aerobic power outputs to be attained. The slow component seems to be reduced in swimmers with higher ventilatory thresholds.

  6. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  7. Effects of aerobic conditioning in lupus fatigue: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robb-Nicholson, L C; Daltroy, L; Eaton, H; Gall, V; Wright, E; Hartley, L H; Schur, P H; Liang, M H

    1989-12-01

    Fatigue, a complex symptom, significantly affects the quality of life in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To understand this phenomenon, 23 patients with SLE and fatigue were studied. Standardized tests of depression (NIMH), fatigue, exercise tolerance (ETT) on a bicycle ergometer, and SLE activity were obtained. At baseline, SLE patients had significantly lower maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) than normals (p less than 0.005). Adjusted for age and sex, SLE patients perform at 54% of their expected maximum VO2, which is similar to published data from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Depression by NIMH was not correlated with VO2 max or length of time on ETT. Fatigue measured by Profile of Mood States (POMS) was correlated with ETT time (r = 0.476, p less than 0.025) and with VO2 max (r = -0.402, p less than 0.07). After an 8-week aerobic conditioning programme the experimental group increased their aerobic capacity by 19% in contrast to 8% in controls. This change correlated with decreased fatigue as measured by visual analogue scales. Exercise did not exacerbate disease, and only two of 16 experimental subjects experienced transient joint symptoms during exercise.

  8. Rapid growth rates of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Koblízek, Michal; Masín, Michal; Ras, Josephine; Poulton, Alex J; Prásil, Ondrej

    2007-10-01

    We analysed bacteriochlorophyll diel changes to assess growth rates of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the euphotic zone across the Atlantic Ocean. The survey performed during Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise 16 has shown that bacteriochlorophyll in the North Atlantic Gyre cycles at rates of 0.91-1.08 day(-1) and in the South Atlantic at rates of 0.72-0.89 day(-1). In contrast, in the more productive equatorial region and North Atlantic it cycled at rates of up to 2.13 day(-1). These results suggest that bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria in the euphotic zone of the oligotrophic gyres grow at rates of about one division per day and in the more productive regions up to three divisions per day. This is in striking contrast with the relatively slow growth rates of the total bacterial community. Thus, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs appear to be a very dynamic part of the marine microbial community and due to their rapid growth, they are likely to be larger sinks for dissolved organic matter than their abundance alone would predict.

  9. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth.

  10. Toxic effects of butyl elastomers on aerobic methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea I.; Blees, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Large quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane are liberated into the water column of marine and lacustrine environments where it may be consumed by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.The reliable quantification of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates is consequently of paramount importance for estimating methane budgets and to understand the controls on water column methane cycling. A widely used set of methods for measuring MOx rates is based on the incubation of water samples during which the consumption of methane is monitored, for instance with radio-tracer assays. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber stoppers because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases at the relevant time scales. We tested the effect of different stopper materials (unmodified- and halogenated butyl rubber) on MOx activity in environmental samples and in cultures of methane oxidising bacteria. MOx rates in samples sealed with unmodified butyl rubber were > 75% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber seals, suggesting inhibiting/toxic effects associated with the use of unmodified butyl elastomers. To further explore the cause of these effects, we analysed aqueous extracts of the different stoppers. Halogenated butyl rubber stoppers appeared to bleed off comparably little amounts of organics. In stark contrast, extracts of unmodified butyl rubber were contaminated with various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes, phenylalkanes and benzuothiazoles. We also found tetramethylthiourea, a scavenger of active oxygen species, which may inhibit the MOx pathway.

  11. Microbiological aspects of aerobic thermophilic treatment of swine waste.

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, R; Gagnon, C; Bisaillon, J G; Ishaque, M

    1990-01-01

    A thermophilic strain (D2) identified as a Bacillus sp. was isolated from an aerobic digestor of swine waste after several months of operation at 55 degrees C. Aerobic thermophilic batch treatment of swine waste inoculated with strain D2 was studied in a 4-liter fixed-bed reactor. Stabilization of the waste was achieved in less than 30 h when the original chemical oxygen demand (COD) was between 15 and 20 g/liter or in less than 48 h when the COD was around 35 g/liter. When the COD was higher than 30 g/liter, the pH of the waste reached 9.2 to 9.5 during the treatment, and periodic adjustment of the pH to 8.5 was necessary to maintain the activity of the biofilm. In this reactor, ammoniacal nitrogen was completely eliminated by desorption in less than 72 h of incubation. The different packing materials used resulted in similar rates of degradation of organic matter. The thermophilic treatment was also efficient in the 75-liter digestor, and stabilization was achieved in approximately 50 h. A bank of 22 thermophilic bacterial strains originating from different environments and adapted to the thermophilic treatment of swine waste was established. This thermophilic treatment allows, in one step, rapid stabilization of the waste, elimination of the bad smell, and complete elimination of ammonia nitrogen by stripping. PMID:2339880

  12. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  13. Group aquatic aerobic exercise for children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's diagnoses included autism spectrum disorder, myelomeningocele, cerebral palsy, or other developmental disability. More than half of the children ambulated independently without aids. Children swam laps and participated in relay races and games with a focus of maintaining a defined target heart rate zone. The strengthening component consisted of exercises using bar bells, aquatic noodles, and water resistance. The following outcomes were measured: half-mile walk/run, isometric muscle strength, timed floor to stand 3-meter test, and motor skills. Complaints of pain or injury were systematically collected. Significant improvements in the half-mile walk/run were observed, but not for secondary outcomes of strength or motor skills. The mean program attendance was 80%, and no injury was reported. Children with disabilities may improve their cardiorespiratory endurance after a group aquatic aerobic exercise program with a high adult:child ratio and specific goals to maintain training heart rates.

  14. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  15. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  16. Optimizing aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Slininger, P J; Bothast, R J

    1985-01-01

    When cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B-199 (ATCC 8724) were grown aerobically on a rich glycerol medium and then suspended in buffer supplemented with semicarbazide and glycerol, aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) ensued. Depending on conditions, 0.38 to 0.67 g of 3-HPA were formed per gram of glycerol consumed. This means that up to 83.8% of the carbon invested as glycerol could potentially be recovered as the target product, 3-HPA. Production of 3-HPA was sensitive to the age of cells harvested for resuspension and was nonexistent if cells were cultivated on glucose instead of glycerol as the sole carbon source. Compared with 24- and 72-h cells, 48-h cells produced 3-HPA at the highest rate and with the greatest yield. The cell biomass concentration present during the fermentation was never particularly critical to the 3-HPA yield, but initial fermentation rates and 3-HPA accumulation displayed a linear dependence on biomass concentration that faded when biomass exceeded 3 g/liter. Fermentation performance was a function of temperature, and an optimum initial specific 3-HPA productivity occurred at 32 degrees C, although the overall 3-HPA yield increased continuously within the 25 to 37 degrees C range studied. The pH optimum based on fermentation rate was different from that based on overall yield; 8 versus 7, respectively. Initial glycerol concentrations in the 20 to 50 g/liter range optimized initial 3-HPA productivity and yield. PMID:3911907

  17. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  18. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  19. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency.

  20. Aerobic fitness, hippocampal viscoelasticity, and relational memory performance.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Johnson, Curtis L; Daugherty, Ana M; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F; Cohen, Neal J; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-03-30

    The positive relationship between hippocampal structure, aerobic fitness, and memory performance is often observed among children and older adults; but evidence of this relationship among young adults, for whom the hippocampus is neither developing nor atrophying, is less consistent. Studies have typically relied on hippocampal volumetry (a gross proxy of tissue composition) to assess individual differences in hippocampal structure. While volume is not specific to microstructural tissue characteristics, microstructural differences in hippocampal integrity may exist even among healthy young adults when volumetric differences are not diagnostic of tissue health or cognitive function. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique for measuring viscoelastic tissue properties and provides quantitative measures of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that individual differences in hippocampal viscoelasticity are related to performance on a relational memory task; however, little is known about health correlates to this novel measure. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between hippocampal viscoelasticity and cardiovascular health, and their mutual effect on relational memory in a group of healthy young adults (N=51). We replicated our previous finding that hippocampal viscoelasticity correlates with relational memory performance. We extend this work by demonstrating that better aerobic fitness, as measured by VO2max, was associated with hippocampal viscoelasticity that mediated the benefits of fitness on memory function. Hippocampal volume, however, did not account for individual differences in memory. Therefore, these data suggest that hippocampal viscoelasticity may provide a more sensitive measure to microstructural tissue organization and its consequences to cognition among healthy young adults.

  1. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN.

  2. Effects of muscle strengthening versus aerobic exercise program in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Ciğdem; Karasel, Seide Alev; Akgün, Berrin; El, Ozlem; Alper, Serap

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic training with a muscle-strengthening program in patients with fibromyalgia. Thirty women with fibromyalgia were randomized to either an aerobic exercise (AE) program or a strengthening exercise (SE) program for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the intensity of fibromyalgia-related symptoms, tender point count, fitness (6-min walk distance), hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale, and short-form health survey (SF-36). There were significant improvements in both groups regarding pain, sleep, fatigue, tender point count, and fitness after treatment. HAD-depression scores improved significantly in both groups while no significant change occurred in HAD-anxiety scores. Bodily pain subscale of SF-36 and physical component summary improved significantly in the AE group, whereas seven subscales of SF-36, physical component summary, and mental component summary improved significantly in the SE group. When the groups were compared after treatment, there were no significant differences in pain, sleep, fatigue, tender point count, fitness, HAD scores, and SF-36 scores. AE and SE are similarly effective at improving symptoms, tender point count, fitness, depression, and quality of life in fibromyalgia.

  3. [Stability control of aerobic granules using an innovative reactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Fan; Li, Sheng; Xie, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2012-06-01

    Uncontrolled variation of diameter and density of aerobic granules frequently resulted in instability and thus brought about operation failure. An innovative reactor was therefore developed for the control of diameter and density of aerobic granules. There were two ways to select the sludge, one was the short settling time select the big and dense granules in the reactor, and the other was the hydro cyclone that washed out the big and compact granules preventing big and compact fourthly growth in the reactor. By these means, the diameter of granules could maintained in the range of 300-1 000 microm for a long time, consequently, the long term stability could be obtained. According to the kinetic analysis, it was found that the energy maintenance coefficient was 0.08-0.10, which was much higher than the conventional granular system (0.06), and the ratio of the COD used for maintenance to the influent was higher than the conventional one. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonia were 92% and 60%, respectively.

  4. Butyrate production under aerobic growth conditions by engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Naoya; Vangnai, Alisa S; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2017-01-11

    Butyrate is an important industrial platform chemical. Although several groups have reported butyrate production under oxygen-limited conditions by a native producer, Clostridium tyrobutylicum, and by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, efforts to produce butyrate under aerobic growth conditions have met limited success. Here, we constructed a novel butyrate synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic growth conditions in E. coli, by modifying the 1-butanol synthetic pathway reported previously. The pathway consists of phaA (acetyltransferase) and phaB (NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) from Ralstonia eutropha, phaJ ((R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae, ter (trans-enoyl-CoA reductase) from Treponema denticola, and endogenous thioesterase(s) of E. coli. To evaluate the potential of this pathway for butyrate production, culture conditions, including pH, oxygen supply, and concentration of inorganic nitrogen sources, were optimized in a mini-jar fermentor. Under the optimal conditions, butyrate was produced at a concentration of up to 140 mM (12.3 g/L in terms of butyric acid) after 54 h of fed-batch culture.

  5. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gestational age groups (24-27, 28-31, 32-35 and 36-40 weeks). Student's t and Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests were used, respectively, to analyze numerical and categorical variables. Results No significant variations were found between pre- and post-exercise values of fetal heart rate (FHR), number of fetal body movements (FM) or accelerations (A), FM/A ratio or the presence of decelerations. Variability in FHR was significantly higher following exercise only in pregnancies of 24-27 weeks. Conclusions Moderate physical activity in water was not associated with any significant alterations in fetal cardiotocography patterns, which suggests no adverse effect on the fetus. PMID:20807417

  6. Critical period of weed control in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, A

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return.

  7. Aerobic sugar metabolism in the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Merico, Annamaria; Capitanio, Daniele; Vigentini, Ileana; Ranzi, Bianca Maria; Compagno, Concetta

    2003-12-01

    Despite the importance of some Zygosaccharomyces species as agents causing spoilage of food, the carbon and energy metabolism of most of them is yet largely unknown. This is the case with Zygosaccharomyces bailii. In this study the occurrence of the Crabtree effect in the petite-negative yeast Z. bailii ATCC 36947 was investigated. In this yeast the aerobic ethanol production is strictly dependent on the carbon source utilised. In glucose-limited continuous cultures a very low level of ethanol was produced. In fructose-limited continuous cultures ethanol was produced at a higher level and its production increased with the dilution rate. As a consequence, on fructose the onset of respiro-fermentative metabolism caused a reduction in biomass yield. An immediate aerobic alcoholic fermentation in Z. bailii was observed during the transition from sugar limitation to sugar excess, both on glucose and on fructose. The analysis of some key enzymes of the fermentative metabolism showed a high level of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Z. bailii growing on fructose. At high dilution rates, the activities of glucose- and fructose-phosphorylating enzymes, as well as of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, were higher in cells during growth on fructose than on glucose.

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene by microorganisms that degrade aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.J.; Chang, C.Y.; Lee, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) at an initial concentration of 80 mg/L with and without the presence of an aromatic compound was conducted with a series of batch reactors. The target aromatic compounds were benzene, toluene, and catechol. The aromatics-acclimated microorganisms were used as the cell source for the batch study. The results indicated that the presence of an aromatic compound was required to initiate the aerobic biodegradation of TCE by the aromatic-utilizing microorganisms. The addition of benzene or toluene initiated the removal of TCE. However, TCE removal was not proportional to the initial concentration of the aromatic compounds. The presence of an aromatic compound at an initial concentration of 5 mg/L resulted in better TCE removal in comparison with that at 1 or 20 mg/L. TCE removal was still significant after the depletion of the aromatic compound, but at a lower rate. The presence of catechol, an intermediate of the biodegradation of an aromatic compound, did not initiate the biodegradation of TCE by the catechol-utilizing microorganisms.

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise on patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salek, A K; Khan, M M; Ahmed, S M; Rashid, M I; Emran, M A; Mamun, M A

    2005-07-01

    Sixty eight adult patients of fibromyalgia were included in this prospective study from the Outpatient Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka during the period of January 2003 to June 2003. Study samples were assigned into two treatment groups: Group A (n = 38) with exercise by static bicycle and aerobic walking in addition to tricyclic antidepressant and analgesic and Group B (n = 30) was non exercise group, treated with tricyclic antidepressant and analgesic only. The total duration of treatment was 16 weeks. Pre-treatment (week 0) and post treatment (week 16) evaluation was performed in both groups. Evaluation parameters included pain grade, number of trigger points, occurrence of arousal at night, frequency of micturition and global evaluation by the physician. After 16 weeks, mean improvement of exercise group and non exercise group was 48% and 39% respectively but this difference was not statistically significant. Therefore, from this study it was observed that aerobic exercise showed no significant benefit to fibromyalgia patients.

  10. Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later.

    PubMed

    Chaddock, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Pontifex, Matthew B; Johnson, Christopher R; Raine, Lauren B; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobically fit children outperform less fit peers on cognitive control challenges that involve inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether, compared with less fit children, more fit 9- and 10-year-old pre-adolescents exhibit superior performance on a modified compatible and incompatible flanker task of cognitive control at the initial time of fitness testing and approximately one year later. We found that more fit children demonstrated increased flanker accuracy at both test sessions, coupled with a superior ability to flexibly allocate strategies during task conditions that required different amounts of cognitive control, relative to less fit children. More fit children also gained a speed benefit at follow-up testing. Structural MRI data were also collected to investigate the relationship between basal ganglia volume and task performance. Bilateral putamen volumes of the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus volumes predicted flanker performance at initial and follow-up testing one year later. The present findings suggest that childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia volumes relate to cognitive control at the time of fitness testing and may play a role in cognitive performance in the future. We hope that this research will encourage public health and educational changes that will promote a physically active lifestyle in children.

  11. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  12. Aerobic biomineralization of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, A.; de Bruin, W.; Jumelet, J.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.; Zehnder, A.J.

    1988-02-01

    The factors identified to be important for the aerobic biodegradation of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) in a soil slurry are temperature, auxiliary carbon source, substrate concentration, and soil inhomogeneities. Temperatures in the range of 20 to 30/sup 0/C were determined to be most favorable for biodegradation of alpha-HCH. No alpha-HCH biodegradation was detected at temperatures below 4/sup 0/C and above 40/sup 0/C. The addition of auxiliary organic carbon compounds showed repressive effects on alpha-HCH biomineralization. Increased oxygen partial pressures reduced the repressive effects of added auxiliary organic carbon compounds. A linear relationship between alpha-HCH concentration and its conversion rate was found in a Lineweaver-Burk plot. Inhomogeneities such as clumping of alpha-HCH significantly affected its biodegradation. Inhomogeneity as an influence on biodegradation has not drawn sufficient attention in the past, even though it certainly has affected both laboratory studies and the application of biotechnological methods to clean up contaminated sites. On the basis of metabolites detected during degradation experiments, the initial steps of aerobic alpha-HCH bioconversion in a soil slurry are proposed.

  13. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks.

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  15. Cavity Enhanced Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siller, Brian; Mills, Andrew; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2010-06-01

    Velocity modulation spectroscopy has traditionally been used with a unidirectional multipass White cell to obtain several passes through a plasma in order to obtain strong signals from the absorption of ions, but the total number of passes allowed by this type of setup is limited to ˜8. By placing an optical cavity around an N_2^+ plasma and locking the cavity to a Ti:Sapphire laser, the effective number of passes has been increased to several hundred. Demodulating the signal from the transmitted light at twice the plasma frequency (due to the symmetric nature of the cavity) gives a 2nd derivative lineshape for ions and a Gaussian lineshape for excited neutrals. N_2^+ and N_2^* have been observed to be 78° out of phase with one another. The different lineshapes and phases allow for discrimination and separation of the ion and neutral signals. The high intensity laser light within the cavity causes the transitions to saturate, which allows for the observation of lamb dips; this opens the door to sub-Doppler spectroscopy, as well as to studies of ion-neutral collisional rate coefficients.

  16. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.

    1998-02-01

    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  17. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  18. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations.

  19. [Isolation and identification of electrochemically active microorganism from micro-aerobic environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Yue; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Zhao, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Extracellular electron transfer of electrochemically active microorganism plays vital role in biogeochemical cycling of metals and carbon and in biosynthesis of bioenergy. Compared to anaerobic anode, micro-aerobic anode captures more energy from microbial fuel cell. However, most of previous researches focused on functioning bacteria in anaerobic anode, functioning bacteria in micro-aerobic anode was rarely studied. Herein, we used the traditional aerobic screening technology to isolate functioning bacteria from a micro-aerobic anode. Three pure cultures Aeromonas sp. WS-XY2, Citrobacter sp. WS-XY3 and Bacterium strain WS-XY4 were obtained. WS-XY2 and WS-XY3 were belonged to Proteobacteria, whereas WS-XY4 was possibly a new species. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry analysis demonstrated all of them showed the electrochemical activity by direct extracellular electron transfer, and micro-aerobic anode could select bacteria that have similar electrochemical activity to proliferate on the anode. We further conclude that functioning bacteria in micro-aerobic anode are more efficient than that of anaerobic anode may be the reason that micro-aerobic anode has better performance than anaerobic anode. Therefore, a thorough study of functioning bacteria in micro-aerobic anode will significantly promote the energy recovery from microbial fuel cell.

  20. Noise Levels during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. Noise levels were measured…

  1. Aerobic condition increases carotenoid production associated with oxidative stress tolerance in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that a part of lactic acid bacteria can produce carotenoid, little is known about the regulation of carotenoid production. The objective of this study was to determine whether aerobic growth condition influences carotenoid production in carotenoid-producing Enterococcus gilvus. Enterococcus gilvus was grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its growth was slower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. The decrease in pH levels and production of lactic acid were also lower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, the amount of carotenoid pigments produced by E. gilvus was significantly higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. Further, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression level of carotenoid biosynthesis genes crtN and crtM when E. gilvus was grown under aerobic conditions was 2.55-5.86-fold higher than when it was grown under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, after exposure to 16- and 32-mM H2O2, the survival rate of E. gilvus grown under aerobic conditions was 61.5- and 72.5-fold higher, respectively, than when it was grown under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic growth conditions significantly induced carotenoid production and the expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in E. gilvus, resulting in increased oxidative stress tolerance.

  2. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivi...

  3. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  4. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  5. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  6. Disturbance of aerobic metabolism accompanies neurobehavioral changes induced by nickel in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Min-Di; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yan; Xiong, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiao; Lu, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    The oral ingestion of soluble nickel compounds leads to neurological symptoms in humans. Deficiencies in aerobic metabolism induced by neurotoxic stimulus can cause an energy crisis in the brain that results in a variety of neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we focused on the aerobic metabolic states to investigate whether disturbance of aerobic metabolism was involved in nickel-induced neurological effects in mice. Mice were orally administered nickel chloride, and neurobehavioral performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze and open field tests at different time points. Aerobic metabolic states in the cerebral cortex were analyzed at the same time points at which neurobehavioral changes were evident. We found that nickel exposure caused deficits in both spatial memory and exploring activity in mice and that nickel was deposited in their cerebral cortex. Deficient aerobic metabolism manifested as decreased O2 consumption and ATP concentrations, lactate and NADH accumulation, and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the activity of prototypical iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) containing enzymes that are known to control aerobic metabolism, including complex I and aconitase, and the expression of ISC assembly scaffold protein (ISCU) were inhibited following nickel deposition. Overall, these data suggest that aerobic metabolic disturbances, which accompanied the neurobehavioral changes, may participate in nickel-induced neurologic effects. The inactivation of ISC containing metabolic enzymes may result in the disturbance of aerobic metabolism. A better understanding of how nickel impacts the energy metabolic processes may provide insight into the prevention of nickel neurotoxicity.

  7. Aerobic Requirements for Moving Handweights through Various Ranges of Motion While Walking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auble, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the aerobic metabolic requirements of normal walking with and without 1-, 2-, and 3-pound handweights among nine adult males indicated that walking while moving handweights through large ranges of motion provides a combined upper and lower body aerobic stimulus that is sufficient for endurance training for persons with poor to…

  8. Correlations between aerobic capacity, pulmonary and cognitive functioning in the older women.

    PubMed

    Kara, B; Pinar, L; Uğur, F; Oğuz, M

    2005-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity and increases brain blood flow and oxygenation. Exercise also stimulates the reticular activating system and leads to a centrally excited state thereby makes the brain active and alert. In the present study, an aerobic exercise program consisting of submaximal level calisthenic exercises was devised for relatively healthy women between 60 and 80 years old, attending a solidarity center for the aged for daily activities. The effects of exercise on aerobic fitness, and the correlations between aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions and cognition were evaluated. Following a general health examination, 45 female volunteers fulfilling the international criteria of exercising standards for the aged were included in the program. The rhythmic and entertaining calisthenic exercises were performed by the older women for four months, three days a week, 40 or 50 minutes a day. Tests for aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions, and some neuropsychologic performances were carried out during the sedentary period and after the exercise program. The results revealed significant improvements in aerobic capacity, pulmonary functions, and some of the cognitive functions after the 4-month exercise program. We found strong relationships between aerobic capacities and cognitive functioning. Overall, the subjects expressed their happiness and well being on every occasion, during and after the exercise program.

  9. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  10. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  11. Cardiac Frequency and Caloric Cost of Aerobic Dancing in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Deborah J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of cardiac frequency during aerobic dancing indicated that it can sustain an elevated cardiac frequency in most cases. The caloric cost of aerobic dancing is approximately 50 percent greater than an equal duration of barre and center-floor exercise by elite ballet dancers. (JD)

  12. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  13. Validation of the FAST skating protocol to predict aerobic power in ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Nicholas J; Montelpare, William J; Nystrom, Murray; Plyley, Michael; Faught, Brent E

    2007-08-01

    Few studies have reported a sport-specific protocol to measure the aerobic power of ice hockey players using a predictive process. The purpose of our study was to validate an ice hockey aerobic field test on players of varying ages, abilities, and levels. The Faught Aerobic Skating Test (FAST) uses an on-ice continuous skating protocol on a course measuring 160 feet (48.8 m) using a CD to pace the skater with a beep signal to cross the starting line at each end of the course. The FAST incorporates the principle of increasing workload at measured time intervals during a continuous skating exercise. Step-wise multiple regression modelling was used to determine the estimate of aerobic power. Participants completed a maximal aerobic power test using a modified Bruce incremental treadmill protocol, as well as the on-ice FAST. Normative data were collected on 406 ice hockey players (291 males, 115 females) ranging in age from 9 to 25 y. A regression to predict maximum aerobic power was developed using body mass (kg), height (m), age (y), and maximum completed lengths of the FAST as the significant predictors of skating aerobic power (adjusted R2 = 0.387, SEE = 7.25 mL.kg-1.min-1, p < 0.0001). These results support the application of the FAST in estimating aerobic power among male and female competitive ice hockey players between the ages of 9 and 25 years.

  14. We Huff and Puff: The Parameters and the Program of Aerobics for Children under Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    In today's society, young children have few experiences with aerobic activities, a pattern of exercise traditionally reserved for adults. This paper discusses how aerobic exercises can be used in a preschool environment, arguing that such activities are best presented using a thematic approach so that young children can form impressions about…

  15. [Aerobic capacity and quality of life in school children from 8 to 12].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga Lopez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a powerful physiological indicator of the overall health status. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between aerobic capacity and quality of life in a sample of 298 (159 girls) school children aged 8-12 years. Aerobic capacity was tested using the Course-Navette test. Quality of life was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index scale. Males showed higher performance in the Course-Navette test and highest values of VO2max (P<.001 for both). ANOVA statistical analysis showed that the quality of life was significantly higher in school children with increased level of aerobic capacity compared to those with a low level (P=.001). Children with high aerobic capacity showed higher quality of life scores in relation to their peers with low scores (P<.001). As for the females, significant differences were found among those with high aerobic capacity level and their peers low levels (P<.031). The results of this study suggest that school children with higher level of aerobic capacity show better results in the quality of life index. Long-term intervention studies are needed to verify if an aerobic capacity development programme may upgrade the quality of life of children and adolescents.

  16. Carbon offsets from improved swine manure management using aerobic treatment technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic treatment of manure is an accepted manure management system under protocols adopted through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from replacement of anaerobic lagoons with aerobic treatme...

  17. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  18. The Effect of Four Instructional Formats on Aerobic Fitness of Junior-High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ron W.; Karp, Grace Goc

    2006-01-01

    The low level of fitness in junior-high school students is an area of great concern. An important, but misunderstood, part of the physical education curriculum is the development of aerobic fitness. What is the best way to go about developing aerobic fitness? Four groups of primarily Caucasian (79.9%) Grade 8 and 9 students (n = 144), attending a…

  19. Co(salophen)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of p-Hydroquinone: Mechanism and Implications for Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, Colin W.; Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-03-30

    Macrocyclic metal complexes and p-benzoquinones are commonly used as co-catalytic redox mediators in aerobic oxidation reactions. In an effort to gain insight into the mechanism and energetic efficiency of these reactions, we investigated Co(salophen)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone. Kinetic and spectroscopic data suggest that the catalyst resting-state consists of an equilibrium between a CoII(salophen) complex, a CoIII-superoxide adduct, and a hydrogen-bonded adduct between the hydroquinone and the CoIII–O2 species. The kinetic data, together with density functional theory data, suggest that the turnover-limiting step features proton-coupled electron transfer from a semi-hydroquinone species and a CoIII-hydroperoxide intermediate. Additional experimental and computational data suggest that a coordinated H2O2 intermediate oxidizes a second equivalent of hydroquinone. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The NSF provided partial support for the EPR instrumentation (NSF CHE-0741901).

  20. Computing discharge using the index velocity method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  1. Controls on sonic velocity in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Eberli, Gregor P.

    1993-06-01

    Compressional and shear-wave velocities ( V p and V s) of 210 minicores of carbonates from different areas and ages were measured under variable confining and pore-fluid pressures. The lithologies of the samples range from unconsolidated carbonate mud to completely lithified limestones. The velocity measurements enable us to relate velocity variations in carbonates to factors such as mineralogy, porosity, pore types and density and to quantify the velocity effects of compaction and other diagenetic alterations. Pure carbonate rocks show, unlike siliciclastic or shaly sediments, little direct correlation between acoustic properties ( V p and V s) with age or burial depth of the sediments so that velocity inversions with increasing depth are common. Rather, sonic velocity in carbonates is controlled by the combined effect of depositional lithology and several post-depositional processes, such as cementation or dissolution, which results in fabrics specific to carbonates. These diagenetic fabrics can be directly correlated to the sonic velocity of the rocks. At 8 MPa effective pressure V p ranges from 1700 to 6500 m/s, and V s ranges from 800 to 3400 m/s. This range is mainly caused by variations in the amount and type of porosity and not by variations in mineralogy. In general, the measured velocities show a positive correlation with density and an inverse correlation with porosity, but departures from the general trends of correlation can be as high as 2500 m/s. These deviations can be explained by the occurrence of different pore types that form during specific diagenetic phases. Our data set further suggests that commonly used correlations like “Gardner's Law” ( V p-density) or the “time-average-equation” ( V p-porosity) should be significantly modified towards higher velocities before being applied to carbonates. The velocity measurements of unconsolidated carbonate mud at different stages of experimental compaction show that the velocity increase due to

  2. Physiological Responses During the Time Limit at 100% of the Peak Velocity in the Carminatti's Test in Futsal Players.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Leandro Teixeira; da Silva, Juliano Fernandes; Teixeira, Anderson Santiago; Salvador, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento; Dittrich, Naiandra; Carminatti, Lorival José; Nascimento, Lucas Loyola; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during the time limit at the intensity of the peak velocity of the Carminatti's test (T-CAR). Ten professional futsal players (age, 27.4 ± 5.8 years, body mass, 78.8 ± 8.5 kg, body height, 175.8 ± 6.8 cm, body fat mass, 14.1 ± 2.6%) took part in the study. The players performed three tests, with an interval of at least 48 hours, as follows: the T-CAR to determine the peak velocity and the maximal heart rate; an incremental treadmill protocol to determine the maximal physiological responses; and a time limit running test at the peak velocity reached in the T-CAR. During the last two tests, a portable gas analyzer was used for direct measurement of cardiorespiratory variables. It was shown that the peak velocity was not significantly different from the maximal aerobic speed achieved in the laboratory (p = 0.213). All athletes reached their maximum oxygen uptake during the time limit test. The maximum oxygen uptake achieved during the time limit test was not different from that observed in the laboratory condition (51.1 ± 4.7 vs. 49.6 ± 4.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively, p = 0.100). In addition, Bland and Altman plots evidenced acceptable agreement between them. On average, athletes took ~140 s to achieve maximum oxygen uptake and maintained it for ~180 s. Therefore, the peak velocity intensity can be used as an indicator of maximal aerobic power of futsal athletes and the time limit can be used as a reference for training prescription.

  3. DHA system mediating aerobic and anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol in Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIB 418.

    PubMed Central

    Forage, R G; Lin, E C

    1982-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIB 418, the pathways normally responsible for aerobic growth on glycerol and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (the glp system) are superrepressed. However, aerobic growth on glycerol can take place by the intervention of the NAD-linked glycerol dehydrogenase and the ATP-dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase of the dha system normally inducible only anaerobically by glycerol or dihydroxyacetone. Conclusive evidence that the dha system is responsible for both aerobic and anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol was provided by a Tn5 insertion mutant lacking dihydroxyacetone kinase. An enzymatically coupled assay specific for this enzyme was devised. Spontaneous reactivation of the glp system was achieved by selection for aerobic growth on sn-glycerol 3-phosphate or on limiting glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source. However, the expression of this system became constitutive. Aerobic operation of the glp system highly represses synthesis of the dha system enzymes by catabolite repression. Images PMID:6284704

  4. Complete remediation of PCE contaminated unsaturated soils by sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioventing.

    PubMed

    Mihopoulos, P G; Suidan, M T; Sayles, G D

    2001-01-01

    Bioventing principles have been applied to completely dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene vapors in the unsaturated zone in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic pattern. The aerobic step yields trans-DCE and VC as PCE reductive dechlorination byproducts, while TCE and cis-DCE are observed as intermediates. The aerobic step results in rapid oxidation of the VC and trans-DCE to carbon dioxide. Hydrogen was delivered in the gas phase as a reducing agent for the anaerobic step at levels of 1%, and oxygen at 4.2% was used as an electron acceptor in the aerobic step. PCE and VC half lives in the anaerobic and aerobic steps respectively, where less than 10 min.

  5. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  6. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  7. Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.

  8. Tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer within Zemax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    Techniques are described for tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer system within Zemax, including: how to set up and verify the tolerancing model, performance metrics and tolerance operands used, as well as post- Zemax analysis methods. Use of the tolerancing model for various analyses will be discussed, such as: alignment sensitivity, radial velocity sensitivity, and sensitivity of the optical system to temperature changes. Tolerance results from the Keck Planet Finder project (a precision radial velocity spectrometer of asymmetric white pupil design) will be shown.

  9. Velocity selection in coupled-map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Nita; Puri, Sanjay

    1993-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of velocity selection for traveling wave fronts in a class of coupled-map lattices, derived by discretizations of the Fisher equation [Ann. Eugenics 7, 355 (1937)]. We find that the velocity selection can be understood in terms of a discrete analog of the marginal-stability hypothesis. A perturbative approach also enables us to estimate the selected velocity accurately for small values of the discretization mesh sizes.

  10. General instability criterion of laminar velocity distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollmien, W

    1936-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a stability investigation on symmetrical velocity profiles in a channel and of boundary-layer profiles. The effect of friction was assumed to be vanishing and did not occur in the stability consideration so far as it had been resorted to for preparatory asymptotic considerations. Proceeding on very general premises as regards the form of the velocity distribution, a proof was deduced of the elementary theorem that velocity profiles with inflection points are unstable.

  11. Ultrasonic velocity meter used in stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayard, L.D.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Many streams and canals in Florida are affected by tides or control structures and experience very low flow velocities at times. For example, the St. Johns River in northeastern Florida is affected by tides for about 140 miles upstream from its mouth and many canals in the Miami area of southeastern Florida are controlled by manmade structures and other elements that cause a variable backwater effect and very low flow velocities. For these conditions, it becomes necessary to obtain a continuous index of mean velocity as well as stage in order to compute discharge. Point-velocity sensing systems have been used to relate point velocity to mean velocity but their usefulness commonly is limited because of the lack of an exact relation. The ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM) provides an alternative approach to measuring a velocity index that can be related to mean velocity; one that provides an integrated velocity at a prescribed elevation across a stream. Six stations in the tidal-affected lower St. Johns River basin are presently equipped with UVM's. Measuring sections are as narrow as 100 feet and as wide as 900 feet. Multiple acoustic paths are used to measure wide sections in a straight reach of river; crossing paths are used to measure sections in a bend of the river. Because of low velocity and variable backwater conditions, flow also is measured with UVM's in 11 canals in the Miami area that drain into The Everglades. At some of the canal sites transducers have been permanently mounted and a 'portable' UVM module is used to obtain instantaneous velocity readings.

  12. Velocity analysis for transversely isotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhalifah, T.; Tsvankin, I.

    1994-08-01

    The main difficulty in extending seismic processing to anisotropic media is the recovery of anisotropic velocity fields from surface reflection data. Velocity analysis for transversely isotropic (TI) media can be done by inverting the dependence of P-wave moveout velocities on the ray parameter. P-wave NMO velocity in homogeneous TI media with a vertical symmetry axis depends just on the zero-dip value V{sub nmo} and a new effective parameter {eta} that reduces to the difference between Thomsen parameters {epsilon} and {delta} in the limit of weak anisotropy. It is possible to obtain {eta} and reconstruct the NMO velocity as a function of ray parameter using moveout velocities for two different dips. Moreover, V{sub nmo}(0) and {eta} determine not only the NMO velocity, but also also long-spread (nonhyperbollic) P-wave moveout for horizontal reflectors and time-migration impulse response. Inversion of dip-moveout information allows performance of all time-processing steps in TI media using only surface P-wave data. Isotropic time-processing methods remain entirely valid for elliptical anisotropy ({epsilon} = {delta}). Accurate time-to-depth conversion, however, requires the vertical velocity V{sub P0} be resolved independently. If I-P0 is known, then allisotropies {epsilon} and {delta} can be found by inverting two P-wave NMO velocities corresponding to a horizontal and a dipping reflector. If no information is available, all three parameters (V {sub P0}, {epsilon}, and {delta}) can be obtained by combining inversion results with shear-wave information. such as the P-SV or SV-SV wave NMO velocities for a horizontal reflector. Generalization of Tsvankin`s single-layer NMO equation for layered anisotropic media with a dipping reflector provides a basis for extending anisotropic velocity analysis to vertically inhomogeneous media. The influence of a stratified overburden on moveout velocity can be stripped through a Dix-type differentiation procedure.

  13. Global horizontal shear velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T. M.; Priestley, K. F.; Debayle, E.; Chapman, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    Rayleigh wave data have been used extensively to produce various SV-wave tomographic models of the upper mantle. Love wave data are more difficult to deal with resulting in fewer SH-wave tomographic models. The models also do not incorporate higher mode information which can place better constraints on the model. We have assembled a large, horizontal component data set and have inverted these seismogram in the 4-13 mHz band including higher mode information. We use a version of the automated waveform inversion technique modified for Love waves. We have explored the effects of various crustal models and because of the greater sensitivity of Love waves to the crustal structure, at present, we limit our inversion to this lower frequency band. Due to the higher mode Love waves having similar group velocities between the periods of 50-100 s for oceanic paths, interference occurs which partition techniques have difficulties dealing with. The modified technique used here does not require partitioning the data and can help extract the data more easily at these period bands. We present a new VSH and Xi model for the upper mantle. High VSH extending to about 250 km depth occurs beneath the cratons and Tibet; Low VSH occurs beneath the mid-ocean ridges, the back arc basins and beneath the Afar hotspot. The Xi model shows that VSH is greater by approximately 3% at 100km and rapidly drops to zero at around 300 km depth where the mantle becomes isotropic. At 250 km depth, there are regions where SV is greater than SH, suggesting more vertical flow beneath mid-ocean ridges at these depths.

  14. Effects of horizontal velocity variations on ultrasonic velocity measurements in open channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Use of an ultrasonic velocity meter to determine discharge in open channels involves measuring the velocity in a line between transducers in the stream and relating that velocity to the average velocity in the stream. The standard method of calculating average velocity in the channel assumes that the velocity profile in the channel can be represented by the one-dimensional von Karman universal velocity profile. However, the velocity profile can be described by a two-dimensional equation that accounts for the horizontal velocity variations induced by the channel sides. An equation to calculate average velocity accounts for the two-dimensional variations in velocity within a stream. The use of this new equation to calculate average velocity was compared to the standard method in theoretical trapezoidal cross sections and in the L-31N and Snapper Creek Extension Canals near Miami, Florida. These comparisons indicate that the two-dimensional variations have the most significant effect in narrow, deep channels. Also, the two-dimensional effects may be significant in some field situations and need to be considered when determining average velocity and discharge with an ultrasonic velocity meter.

  15. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.

    PubMed

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P

    1992-01-01

    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  16. Three-dimensional velocity measurements using LDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhave, Preben

    The design requirements for and development of an LDA that measures the three components of the fluid velocity vector are described. The problems encountered in LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows, multivariate response, velocity bias, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and dynamic range, are discussed. The use of the fringe and/or the reference beam methods to measure the three velocity components, and the use of color, frequency shift, and polarization to separate three velocity projections are examined. Consideration is given to the coordinate transformation, the presentation of three-dimensional LDA data, and the possibility of three-dimensional bias correction. Procedures for conducting three-dimensional LDA measurements are proposed.

  17. Velocity profiles in laminar diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Margle, Janice M.

    1986-01-01

    Velocity profiles in vertical laminar diffusion flames were measured by using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Four fuels were used: n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, and ethyl alcohol. The velocity profiles were similar for all the fuels, although there were some differences in the peak velocities. The data compared favorably with the theoretical velocity predictions. The differences could be attributed to errors in experimental positioning and in the prediction of temperature profiles. Error in the predicted temperature profiles are probably due to the difficulty in predicting the radiative heat losses from the flame.

  18. On Animating 2D Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex

    2000-01-01

    A velocity field. even one that represents a steady state flow implies a dynamical system. Animated velocity fields is an important tool in understanding such complex phenomena. This paper looks at a number of techniques that animate velocity fields and propose two new alternatives, These are texture advection and streamline cycling. The common theme among these techniques is the use of advection on some texture to generate a realistic animation of the velocity field. Texture synthesis and selection for these methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are also discussed in conjunction with several examples.

  19. On Animating 2D Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A velocity field, even one that represents a steady state flow, implies a dynamical system. Animated velocity fields is an important tool in understanding such complex phenomena. This paper looks at a number of techniques that animate velocity fields and propose two new alternatives. These are texture advection and streamline cycling. The common theme among these techniques is the use of advection on some texture to generate a realistic animation of the velocity field. Texture synthesis and selection for these methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are also discussed in conjunctions with several examples.

  20. Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2014-08-29

    The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed.

  1. Aerobic biological treatment of leachates from municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Andrés, P; Gutierrez, F; Arrabal, C; Cortijo, M

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to improve chemical oxygen demand (COD) elimination by secondary biological treatment from leachate of municipal solid waste landfill. This effluent was a supernatant liquid obtained after physicochemical processes and coagulating with Al3+ followed by ammoniacal stripping. First, respirometric assays were carried out to determine the substrate biodegradability. Specific sludge respiration rate (R(s)) vs. concentration of substrate (S), showed an increasing specific rate of assimilation of substrate (Rs), which reached the highest value, when the substrate concentration (COD) was between 75 and 200 mg O2 L(-1). Second, continuous experiments were made in an aerobic digester to test the previous respirometric data and the results showed removal efficiency of COD between 83 and 69%, and a substrate assimilation rate between 1.3 and 3.1 g COD g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1).

  2. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  3. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.

  4. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  5. Aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: Environmental selection and diversification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria oxidize reduced inorganic compounds to sulfuric acid. Lithotrophic sulfur oxidizer use the energy obtained from oxidation for microbial growth. Heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers obtain energy from the oxidation of organic compounds. In sulfur-oxidizing mixotrophs energy are derived either from the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are usually located within the sulfide/oxygen interfaces of springs, sediments, soil microenvironments, and the hypolimnion. Colonization of the interface is necessary since sulfide auto-oxidizes and because both oxygen and sulfide are needed for growth. The environmental stresses associated with the colonization of these interfaces resulted in the evolution of morphologically diverse and unique aerobic sulfur oxidizers.

  6. Marine oscillatoria (Trichodesmium): explanation for aerobic nitrogen fixation without heterocysts.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, E J; Price, C C

    1976-03-26

    Nitrogen fixation in marine Oscillatoria appears to be associated with differentiated cells located in the center of the colony. These central cells exhibit reduced pigmentation relative to peripherally located cells and do not incorporate 14CO2 in photosynthesis. Central cells apparently do not produce O2 which would deactivate nitrogenase. When central cells are exposed to O2 via disruption of the colonies, N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) decreases sharply even though individual trichomes remain intact. Disruption of colonies in the absence of O2 does not cause reduced nitrogenase activity. In the sea, turbulence from wave action apparently separates trichomes allowing O2 to enter thus decreasing nitrogenase activity. These observations explain how Oscillatoria is able to fix N2 without heterocysts in an aerobic environment and why it blooms virtually always occur in calm seas.

  7. Aerobic Exercise in People with Schizophrenia: Neural and Neurocognitive Benefits.

    PubMed

    Vakhrusheva, Julia; Marino, Brielle; Stroup, T Scott; Kimhy, David

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning. There is also evidence that AE is able to significantly increase serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which are implicated in neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and cognitive improvement. Finally, evidence suggests that AE plays a significant role in improving overall cognition, including improvements in processing speed, working memory, and visual learning. The authors discuss the implications of the findings and provide recommendations for future research and areas of inquiry.

  8. The relationship between aerobic exercise and cognition: is movement medicinal?

    PubMed

    Lojovich, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    Each year approximately 1.5 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injuries often resulting in difficulties in memory and executive function that limit independence. Aerobic exercise not only has been found to impact cardiovascular systems but has also shown benefits to brain function itself and specifically in the domain of memory and learning. Recent evidence is shedding light on the mechanisms possibly impacting cognitive performance following the participation in exercise. Literature has demonstrated increased hemodynamics within the brain, changes in neurotransmitters, and increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor that stimulates neurogenesis, and resistance to further injury. This review article explores the current literature and the possibility of exercise acting as an adjunct treatment to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation.

  9. Optimizing aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, P.J.; Bothast, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    Chemical oxidation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) leads to acrylic acid, an industrially important polymerizable monomer currently derived from petroleum. As the availability of petroleum declines, 3-HPA may become attractive as a product to be obtained through fermentation of glycerol, a renewable resource. When cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B-199 (ATCC 8724) were grown aerobically on a rich glycerol medium and then suspended in buffer supplemented with semicarbazide and glycerol, aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) ensued. Depending on conditions, 0.38 to 0.67 g of 3-HPA were formed per gram of glycerol consumed. This means that up to 83.8% of the carbon invested as glycerol could potentially be recovered as the target product, 3-HPA. Production of 3-HPA was sensitive to the age of cells harvested for resuspension and was nonexistent if cells were cultivated on glucose instead of glycerol as the sole carbon source. Compared with 24- and 72-h cells, 48-h cells produced 3-HPA at the highest rate and with the greatest yield. The cell biomass concentration present during the fermentation was never particularly critical to the 3-HPA yield, but initial fermentation rates and 3-HPA accumulation displayed a linear dependence on biomass concentration that faded when biomass exceeded 3 g/liter. Fermentation performance was a function of temperature, and an optimum initial specific 3-HPA productivity occurred at 32/sup 0/C, although the overall 3-HPA yield increased continuously within the 25 to 37/sup 0/C range studied. The pH optimum based on fermentation rate was different from that based on overall yield; 8 versus 7, respectively. Initial glycerol concentrations in the 20 to 50 g/liter range optimized initial 3-HPA productivity and yield.

  10. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Flávio O.; dos Anjos, Carlos A. S.; Covolan, Roberto J. M.; Pinheiro, Fabiano A.; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D.; Magalhães, Fernando H.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  11. Aerobic glycolysis tunes YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Enzo, Elena; Santinon, Giulia; Pocaterra, Arianna; Aragona, Mariaceleste; Bresolin, Silvia; Forcato, Mattia; Grifoni, Daniela; Pession, Annalisa; Zanconato, Francesca; Guzzo, Giulia; Bicciato, Silvio; Dupont, Sirio

    2015-01-01

    Increased glucose metabolism and reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis are a hallmark of cancer cells, meeting their metabolic needs for sustained cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming is usually considered as a downstream consequence of tumor development and oncogene activation; growing evidence indicates, however, that metabolism on its turn can support oncogenic signaling to foster tumor malignancy. Here, we explored how glucose metabolism regulates gene transcription and found an unexpected link with YAP/TAZ, key transcription factors regulating organ growth, tumor cell proliferation and aggressiveness. When cells actively incorporate glucose and route it through glycolysis, YAP/TAZ are fully active; when glucose metabolism is blocked, or glycolysis is reduced, YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity is decreased. Accordingly, glycolysis is required to sustain YAP/TAZ pro-tumorigenic functions, and YAP/TAZ are required for the full deployment of glucose growth-promoting activity. Mechanistically we found that phosphofructokinase (PFK1), the enzyme regulating the first committed step of glycolysis, binds the YAP/TAZ transcriptional cofactors TEADs and promotes their functional and biochemical cooperation with YAP/TAZ. Strikingly, this regulation is conserved in Drosophila, where phosphofructokinase is required for tissue overgrowth promoted by Yki, the fly homologue of YAP. Moreover, gene expression regulated by glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells is strongly associated in a large dataset of primary human mammary tumors with YAP/TAZ activation and with the progression toward more advanced and malignant stages. These findings suggest that aerobic glycolysis endows cancer cells with particular metabolic properties and at the same time sustains transcription factors with potent pro-tumorigenic activities such as YAP/TAZ. PMID:25796446

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils.

  13. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  14. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  15. A cycle ergometer test of maximal aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Myles, W S; Toft, R J

    1982-01-01

    An indirect test of maximal aerobic power (IMAP) was evaluated in 31 healthy male subjects by comparing it with a direct treadmill measurement of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), with the prediction of VO2 max from heart rate during submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer using Astrand's nomogram, with the British Army's Basic Fitness Test (BFT, a 2.4 km run performed in boots and trousers), and with a test of maximum anaerobic power. For the IMAP test, subjects pedalled on a cycle ergometer at 75 revs X min-1. The workload was 37.5 watts for the first minute, and was increased by 37.5 watts every minute until the subject could not continue. Time to exhaustion was recorded. Predicted VO2 max and times for BFT and IMAP correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with the direct VO2 max: r = 0.70, r = 0.67 and r = 0.79 respectively. The correlation between direct VO2 max and the maximum anaerobic power test was significant (p less than 0.05) but lower, r = 0.44. Although lactate levels after direct VO2 max determination were significantly higher than those after the IMAP test, maximum heart rates were not significantly different. Submaximal VO2 values measured during the IMAP test yielded a regression equation relating VO2 and pedalling time. When individual values for direct and predicted VO2 max and times for BFT and IMAP were compared with equivalent standards, the percentages of subjects able to exceed the standard were 100, 65, 87, and 87 respectively. These data demonstrate that the IMAP test provides a valid estimate of VO2 max and indicate that it may be a practical test for establishing that an individual meets a minimum standard.

  16. Aerobic glycolysis tunes YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Enzo, Elena; Santinon, Giulia; Pocaterra, Arianna; Aragona, Mariaceleste; Bresolin, Silvia; Forcato, Mattia; Grifoni, Daniela; Pession, Annalisa; Zanconato, Francesca; Guzzo, Giulia; Bicciato, Silvio; Dupont, Sirio

    2015-05-12

    Increased glucose metabolism and reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis are a hallmark of cancer cells, meeting their metabolic needs for sustained cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming is usually considered as a downstream consequence of tumor development and oncogene activation; growing evidence indicates, however, that metabolism on its turn can support oncogenic signaling to foster tumor malignancy. Here, we explored how glucose metabolism regulates gene transcription and found an unexpected link with YAP/TAZ, key transcription factors regulating organ growth, tumor cell proliferation and aggressiveness. When cells actively incorporate glucose and route it through glycolysis, YAP/TAZ are fully active; when glucose metabolism is blocked, or glycolysis is reduced, YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity is decreased. Accordingly, glycolysis is required to sustain YAP/TAZ pro-tumorigenic functions, and YAP/TAZ are required for the full deployment of glucose growth-promoting activity. Mechanistically we found that phosphofructokinase (PFK1), the enzyme regulating the first committed step of glycolysis, binds the YAP/TAZ transcriptional cofactors TEADs and promotes their functional and biochemical cooperation with YAP/TAZ. Strikingly, this regulation is conserved in Drosophila, where phosphofructokinase is required for tissue overgrowth promoted by Yki, the fly homologue of YAP. Moreover, gene expression regulated by glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells is strongly associated in a large dataset of primary human mammary tumors with YAP/TAZ activation and with the progression toward more advanced and malignant stages. These findings suggest that aerobic glycolysis endows cancer cells with particular metabolic properties and at the same time sustains transcription factors with potent pro-tumorigenic activities such as YAP/TAZ.

  17. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  18. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Contribute to Prediction of Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Sather, Tom M.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Alford, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Several investigations have suggested that orthostatic tolerance may be inversely related to aerobic fitness (VO (sub 2max)). To test this hypothesis, 18 males (age 29 to 51 yr) underwent both treadmill VO(sub 2max) determination and graded lower body negative pressures (LBNP) exposure to tolerance. VO(2max) was measured during the last minute of a Bruce treadmill protocol. LBNP was terminated based on pre-syncopal symptoms and LBNP tolerance (peak LBNP) was expressed as the cumulative product of LBNP and time (torr-min). Changes in heart rate, stroke volume cardiac output, blood pressure and impedance rheographic indices of mid-thigh-leg initial accumulation were measured at rest and during the final minute of LBNP. For all 18 subjects, mean (plus or minus SE) fluid accumulation index and leg venous compliance index at peak LBNP were 139 plus or minus 3.9 plus or minus 0.4 ml-torr-min(exp -2) x 10(exp 3), respectively. Pearson product-moment correlations and step-wise linear regression were used to investigate relationships with peak LBNP. Variables associated with endurance training, such as VO(sub 2max) and percent body fat were not found to correlate significantly (P is less than 0.05) with peak LBNP and did not add sufficiently to the prediction of peak LBNP to be included in the step-wise regression model. The step-wise regression model included only fluid accumulation index leg venous compliance index, and blood volume and resulted in a squared multiple correlation coefficient of 0.978. These data do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance as measured by LBNP is lower in individuals with high aerobic fitness.

  19. Production velocity of sea spray droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Edgar L.; Jones, Kathleen F.; Fairall, Christopher W.

    2010-12-01

    The sea spray generation function dF/dr0 predicts the rate at which droplets of initial radius r0 are produced at the sea surface. Because this function is not readily measurable in the marine environment, however, it is often inferred from measurements of the near-surface droplet concentration, C(r0), through an assumed velocity scale, the effective spray production velocity. This paper proceeds in reverse, though: It uses a reliable estimate of dF/dr0 and 13 sets of measurements of C(r0) over the ocean to calculate the implied effective production velocity, Veff, for droplets with initial radii r0 from 5 to 300 μm. It then compares these Veff values with four candidate expressions for this production velocity: the dry-deposition velocity, VDh; the mean wind speed at the significant wave amplitude (A1/3), ? the standard deviation in vertical droplet velocity, σwd; and laboratory measurements of the ejection velocity of jet droplets, Vej. The velocity scales ? and Vej agree best with the implied Veff values for 20 ≤ r0 ≤ 300 μm. The deposition velocity, VDh, which is the velocity most commonly used in this application, agrees worst with the Veff values. For droplets with r0 less than about 20 μm, the analysis also rejects the main hypothesis: that dF/dr0 and C(r0) can be related through a velocity scale. These smaller droplets simply have residence times that are too long for spray concentrations to be in local equilibrium with the spray production rate.

  20. Warm-up for sprint swimming: race-pace or aerobic stimulation? A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Teixeira, Ana M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2016-10-27

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different warm-up intensities on 100m swimming performance in a randomized controlled trial. Thirteen competitive swimmers performed two 100m freestyle time-trials on separate days after either control or experimental warm-up, in a randomized design. The control warm-up included a typical race-pace set (4x25m), while the experimental warm-up included an aerobic set (8x50m at 98-102% of critical velocity). Cortisol, testosterone, blood lactate ([La]), oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, core (Tcore and Tcorenet) and tympanic temperatures, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Stroke length (SL), stroke frequency (SF), stroke index (SI), and propelling efficiency (ηp) were assessed for each 50m lap. We found that VO2, heart rate and Tcorenet were higher after experimental warm-up (d>0.73), but only the positive effect for Tcorenet was maintained until the trial. Performance was not different between conditions (d=0.07). Experimental warm-up was found to slow SF (mean change±90% CL=2.06±1.48%) and increase SL (1.65±1.40%) and ηp (1.87±1.33%) in the first lap. After the time-trials, this warm-up had a positive effect on Tcorenet (d=0.69) and a negative effect on [La] (d=0.56). While the warm-ups had similar outcomes in the 100m freestyle, performance was achieved through different biomechanical strategies. SL and efficiency were higher in the first lap after the experimental warm-up, while SF was higher after control warm-up. Physiological adaptations were observed mainly through an increased Tcore after experimental warm-up. In this condition, the lower [La] after the trial suggests lower dependency on anaerobic metabolism.