Science.gov

Sample records for aerobic wastewater treatment

  1. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards. PMID:18799262

  2. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

  3. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

  4. [Fluorescence fingerprint transformation of municipal wastewater caused by aerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Cui, Shuo; Xie, Chao-bo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Chen, Mao-fu; Lü, Yan-li

    2011-12-01

    The conventional parameters such as COD and BOD only could represent information about total organic content. Fluorescence spectrum can display organic composition and it is unique for each sample, so it is referred as "fluorescence fingerprint". In the present study transformation of excitation-emission matrix of municipal wastewater with sewage as major components after aerobic treatment was investigated and then the zones of biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters were figured out: the fluorescence at excitation wavelength/emission wavelength of about 280/340 nm and 225/240 nm derived from biodegradable organics and those of the zone of excitation wavelength above 300 nm and the zone of excitation wavelength below 300 nm and emission wavelength above 400 nm were mainly related with non-biodegradable organics. The above-mentioned results indicated that fluorescence fingerprint could be used to evaluate the performance and instruct design and operation of aerobic systems. PMID:22295782

  5. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

  6. Continuous flow aerobic granular sludge reactor for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bumbac, C; Ionescu, I A; Tiron, O; Badescu, V R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the treatment performance and granule progression over time within a continuous flow reactor. A continuous flow airlift reactor was seeded with aerobic granules from a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and fed with dairy wastewater. Stereomicroscopic investigations showed that the granules maintained their integrity during the experimental period. Laser diffraction investigation showed proof of new granules formation with 100-500 μm diameter after only 2 weeks of operation. The treatment performances were satisfactory and more or less similar to the ones obtained from the SBR. Thus, removal efficiencies of 81-93% and 85-94% were observed for chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, respectively. The N-NH(+)(4) was nitrified with removal efficiencies of 83-99% while the nitrate produced was simultaneously denitrified - highest nitrate concentration determined in the effluent was 4.2 mg/L. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen was between 52 and 80% depending on influent nitrogen load (39.3-76.2 mg/L). Phosphate removal efficiencies ranged between 65 and above 99% depending on the influent phosphate concentration, which varied between 11.2 and 28.3 mg/L. PMID:25714645

  7. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  8. Process Control Manual for Aerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is an operations manual for activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment facilities. The stated purpose of the manual is to provide an on-the-job reference for operators of these two types of treatment plants. The overall objective of the manual is to aid the operator in…

  9. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  10. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance. PMID:25851439

  11. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  12. Biodegradation of 14C-dicofol in wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jaime L da M; Silva, Denise P; Martins, Edir M; Langenbach, Tomaz; Dezotti, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Organic micropollutants are often found in domestic and industrial effluents. Thus, it is important to learn their fate, the metabolites generated and their sorption during biological treatment processes. This work investigated the biodegradation of 14C-dicofol organochloride during wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion. The performance of these processes was evaluated by physical-chemical parameters. Radioactivity levels were monitored in both treatments, and residues of dicofol (DCF) and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were quantified by HPLC/UV. The efficiency of the aerobic and anaerobic processes was slightly reduced in the presence of DCF and DBP. After aerobic treatment, only 0.1% of DCF was mineralized, and 57% of radioactivity remained sorbed on biological sludge as DBP. After 18 days of anaerobiosis, only 3% of DCF and 5% of DBP were detected in the sludge. However, 70% of radioactivity remained in the sludge, probably as other metabolites. Dicofol was biodegraded in the investigated process, but not mineralized. PMID:22629645

  13. [Phosphorus removal characteristics by aerobic granules in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yu, Shui-Li; Shi, Wen-Xin; Bao, Rui-Ling; Yi, Xue-Song; Li, Jian-Zheng

    2012-04-01

    COD decreased obviously in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment, however, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were still higher in the effluent which seriously damaged the ecological balance. In this study, aerobic granules cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) were carried out for treating the effluent; phosphorus removal processes and characteristics were discussed as well. The mean diameter of aerobic granules cultivated by multiple carbon sources (acetate, propionate and butyrate) was 1.7 mm. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was 90.9% and the level of phosphorus in effluent was only 1.3 mg x L(-1); TP released per COD consumed was 0.571 and the specific rate of TP released was 5.73 mg x (g x h)(-1). NO3(-) -N usage of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) improved during denitrifying process because the concentration of propionate and butyrate increased in multiple carbon sources which means the phosphorus uptake efficiency increased when per NO3(-) -N consumed. Phosphorus content represented a stronger correlation with magnesium, calcium and ferrum contents in aerobic granules and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the phosphorus adsorption by EPS could enhance phosphorus removal. 61.9% of phosphorus accumulating organisms were denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms in aerobic granules and TP uptake per NO3(-) -N consumed was 1.14 which was higher than that of aerobic granules only cultivated by acetate. PMID:22724155

  14. [Modeling and dynamic simulation of the multimode anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic wastewater treatment process].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Wu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Du, Xing-Zhi; Jiang, Ling-Yan; Xing, Can

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for professional education, process development, design evaluation, operational optimization and automatic control of the wastewater treatment system, and has been extensively applied in numerous full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The ASM2d model was calibrated by the process data, and used to simulate 15 operational test runs of the multimode anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AAO) process. After calibration, the model was capable of simulating the sludge concentrations and effluent data in 15 test runs of the multimode AAO system. The dynamic simulation results showed an overall good agreement between the measured and simulated data, for both effluent data and sludge concentrations, with a good reproduction of dynamic processes in AO test runs. PMID:23798127

  15. Why use a thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor for the treatment of industrial wastewater/liquid waste?

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor (TAMR) for the treatment of high strength wastewaters. The results were obtained from the monitoring of an industrial and a pilot scale plant. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yield was equal to 78% with an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 8-10 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) despite significant scattering of the influent wastewater composition. Total phosphorus (TP) was removed with a rate of 90%, the most important removal mechanism being chemical precipitation (as hydroxyapatite, especially), which is improved by the continuous aeration that promotes phosphorus crystallization. Moreover, surfactants were removed with efficiency between 93% and 97%. Finally, the experimental work showed that thermophilic processes (TPPs) are complementary with respect to mesophilic treatments. PMID:25704477

  16. Bioaugmentation and enhanced formation of microbial granules used in aerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Volodymyr; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2006-04-01

    Microbial aggregates of an aerobic granular sludge can be used for the treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater, but their formation from a microbial activated sludge requires several weeks. Therefore, the aim of this research was the selection of microbial cultures to shorten the granule-forming period from several weeks to a few days. An enrichment culture with the ability to accelerate granulation was obtained by repeating the selection and batch cultivation of fast-settling microbial aggregates isolated from the aerobic granular sludge. Bacterial cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain B and Pseudomonas veronii strain F, with self-aggregation indexes of 65 and 51%, respectively, and a coaggregation index of 58%, were isolated from the enrichment culture. A mixture of these strains with the activated sludge was used as an inoculum in an experimental sequencing batch reactor to start up an aerobic granulation process. Aerobic granules with a mean diameter of 446+/-76 microm were formed in an experiment after 8 days of cultivation, but microbial granules were absent in controls. Considering biosafety issues, K. pneumoniae strain B was excluded from further studies, but P. veronii strain F was selected for larger-scale testing. PMID:16091930

  17. Combined biologic (anaerobic-aerobic) and chemical treatment of starch industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, Vladimir; Epov, Andrey; Gladchenko, Marina; Danilovich, Dmitrii; Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    A combined biologic and chemical treatment of high-strength (total chemical oxygen demand [CODtot] up to 20 g/L), strong nitrogenous (total N up to 1 g/L), and phosphoric (total P up to 0.4 g/L) starch industry wastewater was investigated at laboratory-scale level. As a principal step for COD elimination, upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor performance was investigated at 30 degrees C. Under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of about 1 d, when the organic loading rates were higher than 15 g of COD/(L.d), the CODtot removal varied between 77 and 93%, giving effluents with a COD/N ratio of 4-5:1, approaching the requirements of subsequent denitrification. The activated sludge reactor operating in aerobic-anoxic regime (HRT of about 4 d, duration of aerobic and anoxic phases of 30 min each) was able to remove up to 90% of total nitrogen and up to 64% of COD tot from the anaerobic effluents under 17-20 degrees C. The coagulation experiments with Fe(III) showed that 1.4 mg of resting hardly biodegradable COD and 0.5 mg of phosphate (as P) could be removed from the aerobic effluents by each milligram of iron added. PMID:12794298

  18. Treatment of high strength pharmaceutical wastewaters in a Thermophilic Aerobic Membrane Reactor (TAMR).

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, M C; Abbà, A; Bertanza, G

    2014-10-15

    In the present work we studied the thermophilic biological treatability of high strength liquid wastes from a pharmaceutical industry (rich in organic matter - COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand, nutrients and salinity). Different mixtures (with concentrations of COD, phosphorus and chloride up to 57,000 mg L(-1), 2000 mg L(-1) and 9000 mg L(-1), respectively) were tested. The pilot plant used in this work was designed and built with dimensions comparable to a semi-industrial unit. The results are therefore representative for full-scale applications. During four months of experimentation, the pilot plant (TAMR - Thermophilic Aerobic Membrane Reactor) was operated at 49 ± 1 °C and the organic loading rate was 1.5-5.5 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) with a hydraulic retention time of 5-10 days. Main results are the following: a) extremely high COD removal rate (up to 98%); b) very low sludge production (∼0.016 kgVSS produced kgCOD removed(-1)); c) suitability as a pre-treatment to a conventional (e.g. activated sludge) biological treatment (the studied pharmaceutical industrial wastewaters are discharged into the sewer system for final polishing in a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant) and d) high phosphorus removal (up to 99%). PMID:25000201

  19. A new approach for development of kinetics of wastewater treatment in aerobic biofilm reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S.; Sarkar, S.; Mazumder, D.

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm process is widely used for the treatment of a variety of wastewater especially containing slowly biodegradable substances. It provides resistance against toxic environment and is capable of retaining biomass under continuous operation. Development of kinetics is very much pertinent for rational design of a biofilm process for the treatment of wastewater with or without inhibitory substances. A simple approach for development of such kinetics for an aerobic biofilm reactor has been presented using a novel biofilm model. The said biofilm model is formulated from the correlations between substrate concentrations in the influent/effluent and at biofilm liquid interface along with substrate flux and biofilm thickness complying Monod's growth kinetics. The methodology for determining the kinetic coefficients for substrate removal and biomass growth has been demonstrated stepwise along with graphical representations. Kinetic coefficients like K, k, Y, b t, b s, and b d are determined either from the intercepts of X- and Y-axis or from the slope of the graphical plots.

  20. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueqing; Lefebvre, Olivier; Ng, Kok Kwang; Ng, How Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high total dissolved solids (TDSs) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content was treated through a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. For the anaerobic process, an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was applied, and a COD removal efficiency of 41.3±2.2% was achieved with an organic loading rate of 8.11±0.31gCOD/L/d and a hydraulic retention time of 48h. To evaluate the salinity effect on the anaerobic process, salts in the wastewater were removed by ion exchange resin, and adverse effect of salinity was observed with a TDS concentration above 14.92g/L. To improve the anaerobic effluent quality, the UASB effluent was further treated by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Both the UASB+MBR and UASB+SBR systems achieved excellent organic removal efficiency, with respective COD removal of 94.7% and 91.8%. The UASB+MBR system showed better performance in both organic removal and nitrification. PMID:24355500

  1. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater. PMID:26846248

  2. Alternate anoxic/aerobic operation for nitrogen removal in a membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, G; Andreottola, G

    2011-01-01

    A large pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a conventional denitrification/nitrification scheme for municipal wastewater treatment has been run for one year under two different aeration strategies in the oxidation/nitrification compartment. During the first five months air supply was provided according to the dissolved-oxygen set-point and the system run as a conventional predenitrification MBR; then, an intermittent aeration strategy based on effluent ammonia nitrogen was adopted in the aerobic compartment in order to assess the impact on process performances in terms of N and P removal, energy consumption and sludge reduction. The experimental inferences show a significant improvement of the effluent quality as COD and total nitrogen, both due to a better utilization of the denitrification potential which is a function of the available electron donor (biodegradable COD) and electron acceptor (nitric nitrogen); particularly, nitrogen removal increased from 67% to 75%. At the same time, a more effective biological phosphorus removal was observed as a consequence of better selection of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (dPAO). The longer duration of anoxic phases also reflected in a lower excess sludge production (12% decrease) compared with the standard pre-denitrification operation and in a decrease of energy consumption for oxygen supply (about 50%). PMID:22335118

  3. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits. PMID:24762568

  4. Performances of anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactors for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Adem; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Aktaş, Özgür; Uçar, Deniz; Çınar, Özer; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at comparatively evaluating anaerobic and aerobic MBRs for the treatment of azo-dye containing synthetic wastewater. Also, the filtration performances of AnMBR and AeMBR were compared under similar operating conditions. In both MBRs, high COD removal efficiencies were observed. Although almost complete color removal was observed in AnMBR, only partial (30-50%) color removal was achieved in AeMBR. AnMBR was successfully operated up to 9 L/(m(2)h) (LMH) and no chemical cleaning was required at 4.5 LMH for around 50 days. AeMBR was operated successfully up to 20 LMH. The filtration resistance of AnMBR was generally higher compared to AeMBR although reversible fouling rates were comparable. In both MBRs, offline chemical cleaning with NaOCl and sulfuric acid almost completely removed irreversible fouling and the resistances of chemically cleaned membranes were close to those of new membranes. PMID:26093251

  5. Integrated anaerobic-aerobic fixed-film reactor for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, R; Diez, V

    2005-03-01

    An integrated anaerobic-aerobic fixed-film pilot-scale reactor with arranged media was fed during 166 days with slaughterhouse wastewater. Operation temperature was 25 degrees C and the anaerobic-aerobic volume ratio was decreased from 4:1 to 3:2 and finally to 2:3. Overall organic matter removal efficiencies of 93% were achieved for an average organic loading rate of 0.77 kg COD/m3 d, and nitrogen removal efficiencies of 67% were achieved for nitrogen loading rates of 0.084 kg N/m3 d. The high internal recirculation associated to the air-lift effect linked to the aeration of a part of the reactor section caused high mixing between the anaerobic and aerobic zones, so that most organic matter was removed aerobically. The nitrification process achieved an efficiency of 91% for nitrogen loads of 0.15 kg N/m3 d when the anaerobic-aerobic volume ratio was 2:3 and was limited by dissolved oxygen concentration below 3 mg/l. The influence of the heterotrophic biomass growing in the outer biofilm was checked. Denitrification only implied the 12-34% of the total nitrogen removal and was limited by dissolved oxygen concentration in the anaerobic zone above 0.5 mg/l caused by the mixing regime. Most removed nitrogen was employed in synthesis of heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:15766966

  6. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of a petrochemical wastewater from two aromatic transformation processes by fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B; Ramirez-Camperos, Esperanza; Moeller-Chavez, Gabriela E; García-Sanchez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been employed as the treatment for petrochemical industry wastewaters with high organic matter and aromatic compounds, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The system was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2.7 and 2.2 h in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor, respectively. The degree of fluidization in the beds was 30%. This system showed a high performance on the removal of organic matter and aromatic compounds. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the anaerobic reactor was close to 85% and removals of the COD up to 94% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. High removals of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene were achieved in this study. PMID:23109595

  7. Removal of estrogens in municipal wastewater treatment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: consequences for plant optimization.

    PubMed

    Joss, Adriano; Andersen, Henrik; Ternes, Thomas; Richle, Philip R; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2004-06-01

    The removal of estrogens (estrone E1, estradiol E2, and ethinylestradiol EE2) was studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes equipped for nutrient removal. A biological degradation model is formulated, and kinetic parameters are evaluated with batch experiments under various redox conditions. The resulting model calculations are then compared with sampling campaigns performed on differenttypes of full-scale plant: conventional activated-sludge treatment, a membrane bioreactor, and a fixed-bed reactor. The results show a > 90% removal of all estrogens in the activated sludge processes. (Due to the analytical quantification limit and low influent concentrations, however, this removal efficiency represents only an observable minimum.) The removal efficiencies of 77% and > or = 90% for E1 and E2, respectively, in the fixed-bed reactor represent a good performance in view of the short hydraulic retention time of 35 min. The first-order removal-rate constant in batch experiments observed for E2 varied from 150 to 950 d(-1) for a 1 gSS L(-1) sludge suspension. The removal efficiency of E1 and EE2 clearly depends on the redox conditions, the maximum removal rate occurring under aerobic conditions when E1 was reduced to E2. Sampling campaigns on full-scale plants indicate that the kinetic values identified in batch experiments (without substrate addition) for the natural estrogens may overestimate the actual removal rates. Although this paper does not give direct experimental evidence, it seems that the substrate present in the raw influent competitively inhibits the degradation of E1 and E2. These compounds are therefore removed mainly in activated sludge compartments with low substrate loading. Theoretical evaluation leads us to expect that diffusive mass transfer inside the floc (but not across the laminar boundary layer) appreciably influences the observed degradation rates of E1 and E2, but not of EE2. PMID:15224734

  8. Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

    2013-11-01

    Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

  9. Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Selene; Piscitelli, Daniela; Mattioli, Davide; Casu, Stefania; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study. The MBR system achieved a good COD (90-95%) removal; due to the presence of the anaerobic biofilter, also effective color removal was obtained (70%). The addition of the NF membrane allowed the further improvement in COD (50-80%), color (70-90%) and salt removal (60-70% as conductivity). In particular the NF treatment allowed the almost complete removal of the residual color and a reduction of the conductivity such as to achieve water quality suitable for reuse. PMID:21992723

  10. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor/ Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR) System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    JAFARI, Jalil; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; NABIZADEH, Ramin; FARROKHI, Mehrdad; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR)-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater. Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2–2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3. The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3. Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively. Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewater. PMID:26056640

  11. Performance of aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch bioreactor for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yali; Kang, Xiaorong; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yixing

    2015-08-01

    Lab-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the formation and characteristics of aerobic granular sludge for biological nutrient removal of slaughterhouse wastewater. Experimental results showed that removal performances of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and phosphate were enhanced with sludge granulation, and their removal efficiencies reached 95.1%, 99.3% and 83.5%, respectively. The aerobic granular sludge was matured after 90days cultivation, and protein-like substances were the main components. Simultaneously, the mass ratio of proteins and polysaccharides (PN/PS) was enhanced to 2.5 from 1.7. The granules with particle sizes of 0.6-1.2 and 1.2-1.8mm, accounting for 69.6%, were benefit for the growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrate oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and corresponding specific oxygen demand rates (SOUR) of AOB and NOB were 31.4 and 23.3mgO2/gMLSSh, respectively. PMID:25777064

  12. Microbial community composition of polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating organisms in full-scale wastewater treatment plants operated in fully aerobic mode.

    PubMed

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11-18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5-38.2 mg-C g-VSS(-1) h(-1)). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  13. Integrated biological (anaerobic-aerobic) and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, B

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from simulated (on the basis of cultivation medium from the first separation process) general effluent of baker's yeast production (the average organic loading rates varied from 8.1 to 16 g COD/l/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it suffered from COD-deficiency to fulfil denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass (approximately 10%) of anaerobically untreated general effluent should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic-anoxic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high. PMID:16459801

  14. Aerobic granular sludge formation for high strength agro-based wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Ujang, Zaini; Yahya, Adibah

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment. PMID:21524907

  15. Wastewater treatment from biodiesel production via a coupled photo-Fenton-aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ximena María Vargas; Mejía, Gina Maria Hincapié; López, Kelly Viviana Patiño; Vásquez, Gloria Restrepo; Sepúlveda, Juan Miguel Marín

    2012-01-01

    A coupled system of the photo-Fenton advanced oxidation technique and an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat wastewater from biodiesel production using either palm or castor oil. The photo-Fenton reaction and biological process were evaluated individually and were effective at treating the wastewater; nevertheless, each process required longer degradation times for the wastewater pollutants compared with the coupled system. The proposed coupled photo-Fenton/aerobic SBR system obtained a 90% reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in half of the time required for the biological system individually. PMID:22766873

  16. Treatment of colour industry wastewaters with concomitant bioelectricity production in a sequential stacked mono-chamber microbial fuel cells-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey; Fonseka, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of any microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based system is of vital importance if it is to be utilized for potential field applications. In this study, an integrated MFC-aerobic bioreactor system was investigated for its scalability with the purpose of treating a simulated dye wastewater and industrial wastewaters originated from textile dyebaths and leather tanning. The influent containing real wastewater was fed into the reactor in continuous mode at ambient temperature. Three MFC units were integrated to act in unison as a single module for wastewater treatment and a continuously stirred aerobic bioreactor operating downstream to the MFC module was installed in order to ensure more complete degradation of colouring agents found in the wastewater. Total colour removal in the final effluent exceeded 90% in all experiments where both synthetic (AO-7 containing) and real wastewater were used as the influent feed. The chemical oxygen demand reduction also exceeded 80% in all experiments under the same conditions. The MFC modules connected in parallel configuration allowed obtaining higher current densities than that can be obtained from a single MFC unit. The maximum current density of the MFC stack reached 1150 mA m(-2) when connected in a parallel configuration. The outcome of this work implies that suitably up-scaled MFC-aerobic integrated bioprocesses could be used for colour industry wastewater treatment under industrially relevant conditions with possible prospects of bioelectricity generation. PMID:26212183

  17. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  18. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  19. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    PubMed Central

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  20. The role of stress agents as operating factors in formation and functioning of granular aerobic activated sludge at model domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Kalenov, Sergei V; Zanina, Olga S; Tyupa, Dmitry V; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye

    2014-09-01

    Maintenance of the wastewater treatment plants and increasing the efficiency of existing aerobic biological reactors depend on the stability of activated sludge characteristics under varying wastewater parameters within significant limits and/or influence of some environmental factors. The steady microbial communities observed in biofilms and anaerobic granules of activated sludge can serve as successful samples of formation of the similar aerobic systems. The granular aerobic sludge obtained in the course of our researches is an ideal "plant" on treatment of biogenic pollution at both low and high concentrations. It demonstrates high ability for treatment and stability to adverse factors. To improve aerobic wastewater treatment characteristics, a possibility of using impact of stress conditions upon activated sludge has been studied. Under conditions of fractional hydrogen peroxide addition at diffused lighting, the granular aerobic activated sludge adapted to hydrogen peroxide has been obtained. This sludge has got good sedimentary properties and it differs from the control sample in the species diversity, improved treatment characteristics and also resistance to the stressor. It also endures an impact of one-time hydrogen peroxide addition up to 1.2-1.5 g H2O2/l. The conditions under which the steady aerobic granules of the diameter from 2 to 5 mm were formed with high treatment ability have been chosen. The granules were being stabilized at passages with hydrogen peroxide treatment and they endured up to 2.4-3.0 g/l of one-time H2O2 addition. PMID:24556977

  1. [Effective nitrogen removal in low C/N wastewater with combined aerobic-low DO biofilm treatment process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Rong; Ai, Qi-Feng; Xu, Wen-Lu; Wu, Min-Lin

    2011-10-01

    The municipal wastewater in China is characterized by low ratio of carbon to nitrogen, which is the key restrictive factor for effective biological removal of nitrogen. In this study, the aerobic-low DO biofilm process was used for the nitrogen removal of municipal wastewater. By means of adjusting inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and inflow ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), the performances of nitrification in aerobic biofilm section and denitrification in low-DO section could be improved, the good performance of nitrogen removal was achieved. In order to insure the good effluent quality, especially for ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen indexes, the nitrification and denitrification could be made up in aerobic and low-DO biofilm section respectively due to the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic zone in biofilm. There were 3 stages for the research process. In the first stage, the original C/N, inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section were chosen as 3:1 and 1:1 respectively, then the effects of various HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) values such as (10 + 5) h, (8 + 4) h, (6 + 3) h, (4 + 2) h to nitrogen removal were analyzed. According to the conclusion in the first stage, the original C/N was kept at 3:1, HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h. Then, the effects of various inflow ratios to nitrogen removal were studied in the second stage. In the third stage, when HRT(aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h and inflow ratio was 1:1, the original C/N were adjusted from 2:1, 3:1, 5:1 to 10:1. To conclude, the optimal parameters for nitrogen removal in the biofilm system were as follows: original C/N = 5:1, inflow ratio of aerobic to low-DO section = 1:1, HRT of aerobic and low-DO sections were 10 h and 5 h respectively. As a result, COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could be removed from 254 mg/L to 48 mg/L, 37.2 mg/L to 9.3 mg/L and 48.2 mg/L to 14.8 mg

  2. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor. PMID:25267355

  4. Evaluation of wastewater treatment in a novel anoxic-aerobic algal-bacterial photobioreactor with biomass recycling through carbon and nitrogen mass balances.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cynthia; Domínguez, Jesús M; García, Dimas; Blanco, Saúl; Pérez, Rebeca; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiosis, implemented in an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration with biomass recycling, supported an efficient removal of total organic carbon (86-90%), inorganic carbon (57-98%) and total nitrogen (68-79%) during synthetic wastewater treatment at a hydraulic and sludge retention times of 2 days and 20 days, respectively. The availability of inorganic carbon in the photobioreactor, determined by its supply in the wastewater and microalgae activity, governed the extent of nitrogen removal by assimilation or nitrification-denitrification. Unexpectedly, nitrate production was negligible despite the high dissolved oxygen concentrations, denitrification being only based on nitrite reduction. Biomass recycling resulted in the enrichment of rapidly settling algal flocs, which supported effluent total suspended solid concentrations below the European Union maximum discharge limits. Finally, the maximum nitrous oxide emissions recorded were far below the emission factors reported for wastewater treatment plants, confirming the environmental sustainability of this innovative photobioreactor in terms of global warming impact. PMID:25989093

  5. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. PMID:26551262

  6. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system based on suspended ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Gu, Li-Peng; Xu, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel suspended ceramsite was prepared, which has high strength, optimum density (close to water), and high porosity. The ceramsite was used to feed a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) arrangement to treat petroleum refinery wastewater for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system was varied from 72 to 18 h. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. Compared with the professional emission standard of China, the effluent concentrations of COD and NH3-N in the system could satisfy grade I at HRTs of 72 and 36 h, and grade II at HRT of 18 h. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0575 g suspended solid/g CODremoved. This work demonstrated that the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system using the suspended ceramsite as bio-carrier could be applied to achieving high wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:23656940

  7. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater. PMID:20705321

  8. Three stages MBR (methanogenic, aerobic biofilm and membrane filtration) for the treatment of low-strength wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Buntner, D; Sánchez Sánchez, A; Garrido, J M

    2011-01-01

    The use of a new three stages MBR process with a first methanogenic UASB stage, a second stage with aerobic biofilm growing on small carrier elements maintained in suspension and third stage with membrane filtration module is presented. The objective of the first methanogenic chamber is to diminish COD of the raw wastewater, producing a biogas rich in methane, and decrease the sludge production. In the second stage, the remaining soluble biodegradable COD is oxidized by heterotrophs. In the third stage, the membrane modules could be operated at higher fluxes than those reported for AnMBR systems, and similar to those obtained in aerobic MBRs. In this sense, the concept of these three stages MBR is to join the advantages of the methanogenic and aerobic membrane bioreactor processes, by reducing energy requirements for aeration, producing biogas with high methane percentage and a permeate with very low COD content. A synthetic wastewater was fed to the three stages MBR. COD in the influent was between 200 and 1,200 mg/L, ammonium ranged from 10 to 35 mg/L and phosphorous concentration was 8 mg/L. OLR in-between 1 and 3 kg COD/(m3 d) and a HRT of 13-21 h were applied. Temperature was between 17.5 and 23.2 degrees C. During the whole operating period the COD removal efficiencies were in the range of 90 and 96% of which in between 40 and 80% was removed in the first methanogenic chamber. Biogas production with methane content between 75 and 80% was observed. With regard to membrane operation, average permeabilities around 150 L/(m2 h bar) were achieved, operating with fluxes of 11-15 L/(m2 h). PMID:22097013

  9. [Development of Chemical Exposure Prediction Model for Aerobic Sewage Treatment Plant for Biochemical Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Shi, Li-li; Feng, Jie; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    Sewage treatment plant (STP) is a key transfer station for chemicals distributed into different environment compartment, and hence models of exposure prediction play a crucial role in the environmental risk assessment and pollution prevention of chemicals. A mass balance model namely Chinese Sewage treatment plant (C-STP(O)) was developed to predict the fate and exposure of chemicals in a conventional sewage treatment plant. The model was expressed as 9 mixed boxes by compartment of air, water, suspended solids, and settled solids. It was based on the minimum input data required on the notification in new chemicals, such as molecular weight, absorption coefficient, vapor pressure, water solubility, ready or inherent biodegradability. The environment conditions ( Temperature = 283 K, wind speed = 2 m x s(-1)) and the classic STP scenario parameters of China, especially the scenario parameters of water quality and sludge properties were adopted in C-STP( 0) model to reflect Chinese characteristics, these parameters were sewage flow of 35 000 m3 x d(-1), influent BOD5 of 0.15 g x L(-1), influent SS of 0.2 kg x m(-3), effluent SS of 0.02 kg x m(-3), BOD5 removal in aerator of 90% sludge density of 1.6 kg x L(3) and organic carbon content of 0.18-0.19. It adopted the fugacity express for mechanism of linear absorption, first-order degradation, Whitman two resistances. An overall interphase transfer constant which was the sum of surface volatilization and stripping was used to assess the volatilization in aerator. The most important and uncertain input value was the biodegradation rate constant, and determination of which required a tier test strategy from ready or inherent biodegradability data to simulate test in STP. An extrapolated criterion of US EPA to derive biodegradation rate constant using the results of ready and inherent biodegradability was compared with that of EU and was recommended. C-STP ( 0 ) was valid to predict the relative emission of volatilization

  10. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  11. Characterization of a halophilic heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium and its application on treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinming; Fang, Hongda; Su, Bing; Chen, Jinfang; Lin, Jinmei

    2015-03-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification was isolated from marine sediments and identified as Vibrio diabolicus SF16. It had ability to remove 91.82% of NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) and 99.71% of NO3(-)-N (136.43 mg/L). The nitrogen balance showed that 35.83% of initial NH4(+)-N (119.77 mg/L) was changed to intracellular nitrogen, and 53.98% of the initial NH4(+)-N was converted to gaseous denitrification products. The existence of napA gene further proved the aerobic denitrification ability of strain SF16. The optimum culture conditions were salinity 1-5%, sodium acetate as carbon source, C/N 10, and pH 7.5-9.5. When an aerated biological filter system inoculated with strain SF16 was employed to treat saline wastewater, the average removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N and TN reached 97.14% and 73.92%, respectively, indicating great potential of strain SF16 for future full-scale applications. PMID:25557251

  12. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  13. Missing aerobic-phase nitrogen: The potential for heterotrophic reduction of autotrophically generated nitrous oxide in a sequencing batch reactor wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Shiskowskii, D M; Mavinic, D S

    2005-08-01

    Several biochemical pathways can induce nitrogen loss from aerated, aerobic wastewater treatment bioreactors. These pathways include "traditional" simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) (i.e. autotrophic nitrification - heterotrophic denitrification), autotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation. An oxygen limitation, often expressed in terms of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, is a common element of these pathways. The presented research investigated the effect of mixed liquor DO concentration and biomass slowly degradable carbon (SDC) utilization rate on the heterotrophic nitrous oxide (N2O) reduction rate, for biomass cultured in an anoxic/aerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Biomass oxygen and SDC availability-limitation, expressed in terms of DO concentration and SDC ultilization rate, respectively, were found to significantly impact the observed heterotrophic N2O reduction rate. The findings support the hypothesis that nitrogen lost from the mixed liquor of an aerobic bioreactor could result from simultaneous autotrophic N2O generation (i.e. autotrophic denitrification) and heterotrophic N2O reduction. The results also support the idea that autotrophic N2O generation could be occurring in a bioreactor, although N2O may not be measurable in the reactor off-gas. Therefore, this autotrophic N2O generation - heterotrophic N2O reduction mechanism provides an alternative explanation to nitrogen loss, when compared to "conventional" SND, where heterotrophic organisms are assumed to reduce autotrophically generated nitrite and nitrate to dinitrogen (N2). In addition, nitrogen loss speculatively attributed to N2 formation via anaerobic ammonia oxidation in oxygen-limited environments, again because of the absence of measurable N2O, may in fact be due to the autotrophic N2O generation - heterotrophic N2O reduction mechanism. PMID:16128383

  14. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system. PMID:26160121

  15. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V

    1997-02-01

    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data. PMID:9077005

  16. Integration of anammox into the aerobic granular sludge process for main stream wastewater treatment at ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, nitrification and removal of COD was studied at ambient temperature (18 °C ± 3) in an anoxic/aerobic granular sludge reactor during 390 days. The reactor was operated in a sequencing fed batch mode and was fed with acetate and ammonium containing medium with a COD/N ratio of 0.5 [g COD/gN]. During influent addition, the medium was mixed with recycled effluent which contained nitrate in order to allow acetate oxidation and nitrate reduction by anammox bacteria. In the remainder of the operational cycle the reactor was aerated and controlled at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.5 mg O(2)/l in order to establish simultaneous nitritation and Anammox. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the dominant Anammox bacterial population shifted toward Candidatus "Brocadia fulgida" which is known to be capable of organotrophic nitrate reduction. The reactor achieved stable volumetric removal rates of 900 [g N(2)-N/m(3)/day] and 600 [g COD/m(3)/day]. During the total experimental period Anammox bacteria remained dominant and the sludge production was 5 fold lower than what was expected by heterotrophic growth suggesting that consumed acetate was not used by heterotrophs. These observations show that Anammox bacteria can effectively compete for COD at ambient temperatures and can remove effectively nitrate with a limited amount of acetate. This study indicates a potential successful route toward application of Anammox in granular sludge reactors on municipal wastewater with a limited amount of COD. PMID:22094002

  17. A novel anoxic-aerobic biofilter process using new composite packing material for the treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, L T; Han, Y

    2016-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of contaminants removal in a continuously two-stage biological process composed of an anoxic biofilter (AF) and an biological aerated filter (BAF). This novel process was developed by introducing new composite packing material (MZF) into bioreactors to treat rural domestic wastewater. A comparative study conducted by the same process with ceramsite as packing material under the same conditions showed that a MZF system with a Fe proportion in the packing material performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (average 91.5%), ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal (average 98.3%), total nitrogen (TN) removal (average 64.8%) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (average 90%). After treatment of the MZF system, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP in effluent were 20.3 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 11.5 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The simultaneously high efficiencies of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal were achieved by the coupling effects of biological and chemical processes in the MZF system. The results of this study showed that the application of MZF might be a favorable choice as packing material in biofilters for treatment of rural domestic wastewater. PMID:27191571

  18. Microbial community structure and diversity in an integrated system of anaerobic-aerobic reactors and a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%-96% for COD, 91%-100% for SO4(2-) and S(2-), 92%-94% for BOD, 56%-82% for total Nitrogen and 2%-90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)--based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  19. Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in an Integrated System of Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors and a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%–96% for COD, 91%–100% for SO42- and S2-, 92%–94% for BOD, 56%–82% for total Nitrogen and 2%–90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) - based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  20. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  1. Novel insights into anoxic/aerobic(1)/aerobic(2) biological fluidized-bed system for coke wastewater treatment by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Ren, Yuan; Feng, Chun-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to investigate the contaminant removal efficiency and fluorescent characteristic variations in a full scale coke wastewater (CWW) treatment plant with a novel anoxic/aerobic(1)/aerobic(2) (A/O(1)/O(2)) process, which combined with internal-loop fluidized-bed reactor. Routine monitoring results indicated that primary contaminants in CWW, such as phenols and free cyanide, were removed efficiently in A/O(1)/O(2) process (removal efficiency reached 99% and 95%, respectively). Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and PARAFAC identified three fluorescent components, including two humic-like fluorescence components (C1 and C3) and one protein-like component (C2). Principal component analysis revealed that C1 and C2 correlated with COD (correlation coefficient (r)=0.782, p<0.01 and r=0.921, p<0.01), respectively) and phenols (r=0.796, p<0.01 and r=0.914, p<0.01, respectively), suggesting that C1 and C2 might be associated with the predominating aromatic contaminants in CWW. C3 correlated with mixed liquor suspended solids (r=0.863, p<0.01) in fluidized-bed reactors, suggesting that it might represent the biological dissolved organic matter. In A/O(1)/O(2) process, the fluorescence intensities of C1 and C2 consecutively decreased, indicating the degradation of aromatic contaminants. Correspondingly, the fluorescence intensity of C3 increased in aerobic(1) stage, suggesting an increase of biological dissolved organic matter. PMID:25065804

  2. Economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic MBR-based (AnMBR-based) technology as compared to aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies. PMID:26473754

  3. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  4. Wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Casaday, J E

    1992-01-01

    Textile rental operators face tough wastewater cleanup challenges in many communities nationwide. Depending on the local POTW regulations and the textile rental company's customer base, wastewater pretreatment isn't always necessary. However, many plants must pretreat or risk being put out of business. In this article, eight manufacturers of wastewater treatment equipment explain their systems to help industry operators comply with POTW limits. PMID:10116442

  5. Application of high OLR-fed aerobic granules for the treatment of low-strength wastewater: performance, granule morphology and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyun; Quan, Xiangchun; Li, Huai

    2013-08-01

    Aerobic granules, pre-cultivated at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.0 kg COD/(m3 x day), were used to treat low-strength wastewater in two sequencing batch reactors at low OLRs of 1.2 and 0.6 kg COD/(m3 x day), respectively. Reactor performance, evolution of granule morphology, structure and microbial community at low OLRs under long-term operation (130 days) were investigated. Results showed that low OLRs did not cause significant damage to granule structure as a dominant granule morphology with size over 540 microm was maintained throughout the operation. Aerobic granules at sizes of about 750 microm were finally obtained at the low OLRs. The granule reactors operated at low OLRs demonstrated effective COD and ammonia removals (above 90%), smaller granule sizes and less biomass. The contents of extracellular polymeric substances in the granules were decreased while the ratios of exopolysaccharide/exoprotein were increased (above 1.0). The granules cultivated at the low OLRs showed a smoother surface and more compact structure than the seeded granules. A significant shift in microbial community was observed but the microbial diversity remained relatively stable. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy observation showed that the live cells were spread throughout the whole granule, while the dead cells were mainly concentrated in the outer layer of the granule, and the proteins, polysaccharides and lipids were mainly located in the central regime of the granule. In conclusion, granules cultivated at high OLRs show potential for treating low-strength organic wastewater steadily under long-term operation. PMID:24520692

  6. Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Muga, Helen E; Mihelcic, James R

    2008-08-01

    A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of <5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9 x 10(3) cubic meters (m(3)/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g., slow rate irrigation, rapid infiltration, and overland flow). The economic indicators selected were capital, operation and management, and user costs because they determine the economic affordability of a particular technology to a community. Environmental indicators include energy use, because it indirectly measures resource utilization, and performance of the technology in removing conventional wastewater constituents such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogens. These indicators also determine the reuse potential of the treated wastewater. Societal indicators capture cultural acceptance of the technology through public participation and also measure whether there is improvement in the community from the specific technology through increased job opportunities, better education, or an improved local environment. While selection of a set of indicators is dependent on the geographic and demographic context of a particular community, the overall results of this study show that there are varying degrees of sustainability with each treatment technology. PMID:17467148

  7. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  8. Occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant employing anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic and UV processes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Sui, Qian; Lu, Shu-Guang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Qiu, Zhao-Fu; Miao, Zhou-Wei; Yu, Gang

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including caffeine (CF), N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), carbamazepine, metoprolol, trimethoprim (TMP), and sulpiride in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Shanghai, China were studied in January 2013; besides, grab samples of the influent were also taken every 6 h, to investigate the daily fluctuation of the wastewater influent. The results showed the concentrations of the investigated PPCPs ranged from 17 to 11,400 ng/L in the WWTP. A low variability of the PPCP concentrations in the wastewater influent throughout the day was observed, with the relative standard deviations less than 25 % for most samples. However, for TMP and CF, the slight daily fluctuation still reflected their consumption patterns. All the target compounds except CF and DEET, exhibited poor removal efficiencies (<40 %) by biological treatment process, probably due to the low temperature in the bioreactor, which was unfavorable for activated sludge. While for the two biodegradable PPCPs, CF, and DEET, the anaerobic and oxic tank made contributions to their removal while the anoxic tank had a negative effect to their elimination. The tertiary UV treatment removed the investigated PPCPs by 5-38 %, representing a crucial polishing step to compensate for the poor removal by the biologic treatment process in winter. PMID:24306725

  9. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater. PMID:21322643

  10. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  11. 13C-NMR Assessment of the Pattern of Organic Matter Transformation during Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Autothermal Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Barlett, John; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of biodegradation and the chemical changes occurring in the macromolecular fraction of domestic sludge during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) was monitored and characterised via solid-state 13C-NMR CP-MAS. Major indexes such as aromaticity, hydrophobicity and alkyl/O-alkyl ratios calculated for the ATAD processed biosolids were compared by means of these values to corresponding indexes reported for sludges of different origin such as manures, soil organic matter and certain types of compost. Given that this is the first time that these techniques have been applied to ATAD sludge, the data indicates that long-chain aliphatics are easily utilized by the microbial populations as substrates for metabolic activities at all stages of aerobic digestion and serve as a key substrate for the temperature increase, which in turn results in sludge sterilization. The ATAD biosolids following treatment had a prevalence of O-alkyl domains, a low aromaticity index (10.4%) and an alkyl/O-alkyl ratio of 0.48 while the hydrophobicity index of the sludge decreased from 1.12 to 0.62 during the treatment. These results have important implications for the evolution of new ATAD modalities particularly in relation to dewatering and the future use of ATAD processed biosolids as a fertilizer, particularly with respect to hydrological impacts on the soil behaviour. PMID:19742161

  12. [Application of Micro-aerobic Hydrolysis Acidification in the Pretreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Fu, Xiao-yong; Chen, Xue-min; Qiu, Yan-bo; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    Micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification technology was applied in the reconstruction of ananaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank in a north petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. After put into operation, the monitoring results showed that the average removal rate of COD was 11.7% when influent COD was 490.3-673.2 mg x L(-1), hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 0.2-0.35 mg x L(-1). In addition, the BOD5/COD value was increased by 12.4%, the UV254 removal rate reached 11.2%, and the VFA concentration was increased by 23.0%. The relative molecular weight distribution (MWD) results showed that the small molecule organic matter (< 1 x 10(3)) percentage was increased from 59.5% to 82.1% and the high molecular organic matter ( > 100 x 10(3)) percentage was decreased from 31.8% to 14.0% after micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The aerobic biodegradation batch test showed that the degradation of petrochemical wastewater was significantly improved by the pretreatment of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The COD of influent can be degraded to 102.2 mg x L(-1) by 48h aerobic treatment while the micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification effluent COD can be degraded to 71.5 mg x L(-1) on the same condition. The effluent sulfate concentration of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification tank [(930.7 ± 60.1) mg x L(-1)] was higher than that of the influent [(854.3 ± 41.5) mg x L(-1)], indicating that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was inhibited. The toxic and malodorous gases generation was reduced with the improvement of environment. PMID:26841606

  13. Biological treatment processes for fish processing wastewater--a review.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Pankaj; Viraraghavan, T; Srinivasan, A

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption in a fish-processing industry and high-strength wastewater from such an industry are of great concern world-wide. Liquid effluent regulations are becoming more stringent day by day. Biological treatment is the best option for such a wastewater. Anaerobic processes such as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, anaerobic filter (AF) and anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) reactor can achieve high (80-90%) organics removal and produce biogas. Aerobic processes such as activated sludge, rotating biological contactor, trickling filter and lagoons are also suitable for organics removal. Anaerobic digestion followed by an aerobic process is an optimal process option for fish processing wastewater treatment. PMID:19751972

  14. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  15. Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Santen, Heike; Wallmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers selected efficiency rates and process data of aerobic and anaerobic procedures for the treatment of municipal solid waste and residual waste. Data are exclusively related to mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) procedures for generating waste appropriate for landfilling. The following aspects are regarded: general framework conditions for the application of MBT, efficiency of decomposition and of stabilisation, air and water emissions and energy balances. The presented data can be used for more efficient planning. In comparison to aerobic processes, anaerobic digestion can be ecologically advantageous, particularly with regard to exhaust emissions and energy balances. On the other hand, the wastewater emissions and the wastewater treatment required must be regarded as disadvantageous. Due to the relatively short period of operational history of most anaerobic processes for mechanical-biological waste treatment and thus limited experiences, operational reliability of anaerobic processes is slightly lower. Extensive biological stability of the treated waste for low-emission disposal cannot be reached by anaerobic digestion alone, but only in combination with additional aerobic post-treatment. In connection with the utilisation of renewable energies and the rising relevancy of climate protection, it can be affirmed that anaerobic digestion for the treatment of municipal solid waste has a high potential for further development. PMID:16125060

  16. Treatment of real coal gasification wastewater using a novel integrated system of anoxic hybrid two stage aerobic processes: performance and the role of pure oxygen microbubble.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Shan, Shengdao

    2016-06-01

    A novel integrated system of anoxic-pure oxygen microbubble-activated sludge reactor-moving bed biofilm reactor was employed in treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed the integrated system had efficient performance of pollutants removal in short hydraulic retention time. While pure oxygen microbubble with the flow rate of 1.5 L/h and NaHCO3 dosage ratio of 2:1 (amount NaHCO3 to NH4 (+)-N ratio, mol: mol) were used, the removal efficiencies of COD, total phenols (TPh) and NH4 (+)-N reached 90, 95, and 95 %, respectively, with the influent loading rates of 3.4 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.81 kg TPh/(m(3) d), and 0.28 kg NH4 (+)-N/(m(3) d). With the recycle ratio of 300 %, the concentrations of NO2 (-)-N and NO3 (-)-N in effluent decreased to 12 and 59 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, pure oxygen microbubble significantly improved the enzymatic activities and affected the effluent organic compositions and reduced the foam expansion. Thus, the novel integrated system with efficient, stable, and economical advantages was suitable for engineering application. PMID:26961523

  17. Enhancing aerobic granulation for biological nutrient removal from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Coma, M; Verawaty, M; Pijuan, M; Yuan, Z; Bond, P L

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the enhancement of aerobic granulation and biological nutrient removal maintenance treating domestic wastewater. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were inoculated with either only floccular sludge (100%-floc SBR) or supplemented with 10% crushed granules (90%-floc SBR). Granules developed in both reactors. The 100%-floc SBR achieved 75% of nitrogen and 93% of phosphorus removal at the end of the performance, but some floccular sludge remained in the system. The 90%-floc SBR became fully granulated and finished with 84% and 99% of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, respectively. Regarding biological phosphorus removal, nitrite was identified as an inhibitor of the process. Nitrite levels lower than 5 mg N-NO2-L(-1) were used for anoxic phosphate uptake while higher concentrations inhibited the process. PMID:22050837

  18. Role of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in micropollutant removal from wastewater with aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Lochmatter, Samuel; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Nitrifying wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are more efficient than non-nitrifying WWTPs to remove several micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides. This may be related to the activity of nitrifying organisms, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs), which could possibly co-metabolically oxidize micropollutants with their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). The role of AOBs in micropollutant removal was investigated with aerobic granular sludge (AGS), a promising technology for municipal WWTPs. Two identical laboratory-scale AGS sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBRs) were operated with or without nitrification (inhibition of AMOs) to assess their potential for micropollutant removal. Of the 36 micropollutants studied at 1 μg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater, nine were over 80% removed, but 17 were eliminated by less than 20%. Five substances (bisphenol A, naproxen, irgarol, terbutryn and iohexol) were removed better in the reactor with nitrification, probably due to co-oxidation catalysed by AMOs. However, for the removal of all other micropollutants, AOBs did not seem to play a significant role. Many compounds were better removed in aerobic condition, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic organisms were involved in the degradation. As the AGS-SBRs did not favour the growth of such organisms, their potential for micropollutant removal appeared to be lower than that of conventional nitrifying WWTPs. PMID:26877039

  19. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

  20. PAPERMILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MICROSTRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...

  1. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - AUTOTHERMAL THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a promising technology — autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion — for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...

  3. Protocol for early detection and evaluation of inhibitory wastewater using combined aerobic respirometric and anaerobic batch techniques.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sock-Hoon; Ellis, Timothy G

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the task of treating significant volumes of complex industrial wastewaters, the biological components of municipal wastewater treatment plants are operating under the risk of toxic or inhibitory contaminants from the industrial effluents that may be detrimental to their operation. This might lead to undesirable effluent toxicity and/or result in permit violations. Therefore, there is a need for upset early warning systems that can protect full-scale plants from toxic or inhibitory constituents in the incoming wastewaters. This study focused on the development of a protocol for rapid detection of potentially toxic inhibitory or toxic wastewaters using combined aerobic respirometric and anaerobic batch techniques. Aerobic respirometers equipped with automated data acquisition systems were used as potential early warning devices. The inhibition effect on carbon and nitrogen oxidation was assessed. The degree of inhibition was evaluated as the concentration causing 50% reduction in microbial activity, which was estimated by an inhibition model. Anaerobic toxicity assays were also conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the toxic compounds to anaerobic inocula obtained from a master culture reactor fed with ethanol. The developed protocol for early detection of toxicity was validated using wastewater samples from a biotechnology industry and a food processing industry, and pure chemicals such as furfural and phenol. Varying degrees of sensitivity were observed in the study when different groups of microorganisms, wastewater samples, and chemicals were tested. The comparison of aerobic and anaerobic inhibition suggested the importance of using both aerobic and anaerobic cultures to maximize the necessary sensitivity of the protocol. PMID:16381158

  4. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  5. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  6. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE TWO-ZONE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS AT NORRISTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Economic and practical considerations compel today's designers to investigate alternatives to conventional strategies for wastewater treatment systems. One such alternative is the Two-Zone process, a novel activated sludge process which combines the aerobic biological reactor and...

  8. The use of ozone, ozone plus UV radiation, and aerobic microorganisms in the purification of some agro-industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Gonzalez, Teresa; Garcia, Juan

    2002-08-01

    The oxidation of the pollutant organic matter present in wastewaters generated during different stages in the black table-olive industry was investigated by using ozone alone or combined with UV radiation; by using aerobic microorganisms; and finally, by aerobic degradation of the previously ozonated wastewaters. In the ozonation processes, the removal of substrate (COD) and aromatic compounds, the decreases in BOD5 and pH, and the ozone consumed in the reaction were evaluated. A kinetic study was conducted that led to the evaluation of the stoichiometric ratio for the chemical reaction, as well as the rate constants for the substrate reduction and ozone disappearance. In the single aerobic degradation treatment, the evolution of substrate and biomass was monitored during the process, and a kinetic study was performed by applying the Contois model to the experimental data, giving the specific biokinetic constant, the cell yield coefficient, and the rate constant for the microorganism death phase. Finally, a combined process was performed, consisting in the aerobic degradation of pre-ozonated wastewaters, and the effect of such chemical pretreatment on the substrate removal and kinetic parameters of the later biological stage is discussed. PMID:15328694

  9. Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ≥8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

  10. Choose appropriate wastewater treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Belhateche, D.H.

    1995-08-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment has been slow to develop, and in some respects has not kept up with advances in manufacturing technology. An earlier CEP article outlined a procedure for developing an effective wastewater treatment strategy. This article discusses the various wastewater treatment technologies in more detail and includes tables that compare their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. It also provides guidance on when to apply what type of treatment to which waste streams. This information can help bridge the gap between where the plant needs to be, in terms of effluent quality, and where it is, in terms of wastewater characteristics. Technologies include wet air oxidation, supercritical oxidation, incineration, activated sludge, aerated lagoons, stabilization ponds, trickling filters, fixed-film reactors, and anaerobic degradation.

  11. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  12. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. PMID:25300545

  13. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of coloured textile effluents using sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C B; Carliell, C M; Wheatley, A D

    2002-04-01

    Conventional biological wastewater treatment plants do not easily degrade the dyes and polyvinyl alcohols (PVOH) in textile effluents. Results are reported on the possible advantages of anaerobic/aerobic cometabolism in sequenced redox reactors. A six phase anaerobic/aerobic sequencing laboratory scale batch reactor was developed to treat a synthetic textile effluent. The wastewater included PVOH from desizing and an azo dye (Remazol Black). The reactor removed 66% of the applied total organic carbon (load F: M 0.15) compared to 76% from a control reactor without dye. Colour removal was 94% but dye metabolites caused reactor instability. Aromatic amines from the anaerobic breakdown of the azo dyes were not completely mineralised by the aerobic phase. Breakdown of PVOH by the reactor (20-30%) was not as good as previous reports with entirely aerobic cultures. The anaerobic cultures were able to tolerate the oxygen and methane continued to be produced but there was a deterioration in settlement. PMID:12092574

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

  15. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. PMID:26776150

  16. Bacteriophage biocontrol in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jassim, Sabah A A; Limoges, Richard G; El-Cheikh, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Waterborne bacterial pathogens in wastewater remains an important public health concern, not only because of the environmental damage, morbidity and mortality that they cause, but also due to the high cost of disinfecting wastewater by using physical and chemical methods in treatment plants. Bacteriophages are proposed as bacterial pathogen indicators and as an alternative biological method for wastewater treatment. Phage biocontrol in large scale treatment requires adaptive and aggressive phages that are able to overcome the environmental forces that interfere with phage-host interactions while targeting unwanted bacterial pathogens and preventing biofilms and foaming. This review will shed light on aspects of using bacteriophage programming technology in wastewater plants to rapidly target and reduce undesirable bacteria without harming the useful bacteria needed for biodegradation. PMID:26941243

  17. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    PubMed

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment. PMID:19135363

  18. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

  19. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater. PMID:27221291

  20. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  1. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  2. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  3. WINERY WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been prepared to fulfill a Research, Development and Demonstration Grant. The grant was awarded to investigate a method of treatment for winery wastewaters. In brief - the grapes are harvested in the fall and are immediately pressed of their juice. The juice is fe...

  4. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  5. Activity and growth of anammox biomass on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laureni, Michele; Weissbrodt, David G; Szivák, Ilona; Robin, Orlane; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Joss, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    Direct treatment of municipal wastewater (MWW) based on anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria holds promise to turn the energy balance of wastewater treatment neutral or even positive. Currently, anammox processes are successfully implemented at full scale for the treatment of high-strength wastewaters, whereas the possibility of their mainstream application still needs to be confirmed. In this study, the growth of anammox organisms on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (MWW(pre-treated)), amended with nitrite, was proven in three parallel reactors. The reactors were operated at total N concentrations in the range 5-20 mg(N)∙L(-1), as expected for MWW. Anammox activities up to 465 mg(N)∙L(-1)∙d(-1) were reached at 29 °C, with minimum doubling times of 18 d. Lowering the temperature to 12.5 °C resulted in a marked decrease in activity to 46 mg(N)∙L(-1)∙d(-1) (79 days doubling time), still in a reasonable range for autotrophic nitrogen removal from MWW. During the experiment, the biomass evolved from a suspended growth inoculum to a hybrid system with suspended flocs and wall-attached biofilm. At the same time, MWW(pre-treated) had a direct impact on process performance. Changing the influent from synthetic medium to MWW(pre-treated) resulted in a two-month delay in net anammox growth and a two to three-fold increase in the estimated doubling times of the anammox organisms. Interestingly, anammox remained the primary nitrogen consumption route, and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-targeted amplicon sequencing analyses revealed that the shift in performance was not associated with a shift in dominant anammox bacteria ("Candidatus Brocadia fulgida"). Furthermore, only limited heterotrophic denitrification was observed in the presence of easily biodegradable organics (acetate, glucose). The observed delays in net anammox growth were thus ascribed to the acclimatization of the initial anammox population or/and the development of a side

  6. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  7. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  8. Micropollutants removal in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor and in an aerobic conventional treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Abargues, M R; Robles, A; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2012-01-01

    The paper expresses an attempt to tackle the problem due to the presence of micropollutants in wastewater which may be able to disrupt the endocrine system of some organisms. These kinds of compounds are ubiquitously present in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this paper is to compare the fate of the alkylphenols-APs (4-(tert-octyl)) phenol, t-nonylphenol and 4-p-nonylphenol and the hormones (estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) pilot plant and in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (CTP). The obtained results are also compared with the results obtained in a previous study carried out in an aerobic MBR pilot plant. The results showed that the APs soluble concentrations in the SAMBR effluent were always significantly higher than the CTP ones. Moreover, the analyses of the suspended fraction revealed that the AP concentrations in the SAMBR reactor were usually higher than in the CTP reactor, indicating that under anaerobic conditions the APs were accumulated in the digested sludge. The aerobic conditions maintained both in the CTP system and in the aerobic MBR favoured the APs and hormones degradation, and gave rise to lower concentrations in the effluent and in the reactor of these systems. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the degradation of APs under aerobic conditions was enhanced working at high solid retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) values. PMID:22643422

  9. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids. PMID:27620110

  10. Comparison of different wastewater treatments for removal of selected endocrine-disruptors from paper mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Balabanič, Damjan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd; Blanco, Angeles

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that have the ability to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). One of the main reasons for concern is the possible effect of EDCs on human health. EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, and one of the most significant sources is industrial wastewater. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment performance of different wastewater treatment procedures (biological treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation processes) for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and seven selected EDCs (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, bisphenol A and nonylphenol) from wastewaters from a mill producing 100 % recycled paper. Two pilot plants were running in parallel and the following treatments were compared: (i) anaerobic biological treatment followed by aerobic biological treatment, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO), and (ii) anaerobic biological treatment followed by membrane bioreactor and RO. Moreover, at lab-scale, four different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton reaction, photo-Fenton reaction, photocatalysis with TiO(2), and ozonation) were applied. The results indicated that the concentrations of selected EDCs from paper mill wastewaters were effectively reduced (100 %) by both combinations of pilot plants and photo-Fenton oxidation (98 %), while Fenton process, photocatalysis with TiO(2) and ozonation were less effective (70 % to 90 %, respectively). PMID:22571523

  11. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. PMID:24973730

  12. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  13. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

  14. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  15. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

  16. The effect of treatment stages on the coking wastewater hazardous compounds and their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Zi-yang; Fan, Qing-lan; Yuan, Xiao-ying; Guo, Dong-sheng

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the change of hazardous materials in coking wastewater at different treatment stages (anaerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic/photo degradation, anaerobic/aerobic/ozone oxidation treatment) and the effects of them on the development of maize embryos and the activity of amylase and protease in maize seeds. Moreover the interaction of refractory organic matters in the wastewater at different treatment stages with amylase and protease also were determined in vitro. The results show that the biodegradable and the refractory organic compounds in the wastewater both can affect maize embryo development (germination inhibition rate is 19.3% for biodegradable organic compounds). As the treatment stage preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the development of the maize embryo (for germination inhibition rates change from 49.3% to 24.6%) and on enzymatic activity (inhibition rates change from 63.9% to 22.4% for amylase) decreases gradually, but the photo-degradation treatment to anaerobic/aerobic effluent can increase its toxicity. The changes in the ability of the refractory organic compounds to bind with enzyme proteins, combined with the analysis of the organic components by GC/MS, show that in the process of coking wastewater treatment no new toxic chemicals were produced. PMID:23022415

  17. Impact of methanogenic pre-treatment on the performance of an aerobic MBR system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Buntner, D; Garrido, J M

    2013-03-01

    The combination of anaerobic treatment with an aerobic MBR as a polishing step is an alternative to treat some industrial wastewater and/or urban wastewaters generated in warm climate countries. In this work a pilot-scale UASB reactor and an aerobic MBR as a polishing step was operated. The impact of the methanogenic stage on membrane fouling was studied. Operating fluxes of 11-18 L m(-2) h(-1) and permeabilities of 100-250 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) were reported. It was demonstrated that the recirculation of aerobic biomass to the anaerobic stage provoked a release of biopolymers due to the hydrolysis of aerobic biomass in these conditions. Depending on biomass concentration in membrane chamber, the presence of biopolymers worsened membrane performance. Fouling rate was three times higher when biomass concentration decreased from 8 to 2 g L(-1), with similar concentrations of biopolymers present. Moreover, the presence of plastic support in the aerobic stage was shown to improve membrane performance, decreasing the concentrations of the studied fouling indicators. Carbohydrate fraction of soluble microbial products, biopolymer clusters (BPC) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) concentrations were studied as possible fouling indicators for this system. A strong correlation between both colloidal fraction of BPC (cBPC) and TEP with membrane fouling rate was observed. PMID:23245539

  18. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  19. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  20. Nutrient removal and lipid production by Coelastrella sp. in anaerobically and aerobically treated swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Luo, Le; He, Huijun; Yang, Chunping; Wen, Shan; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Mengjie; Zhou, Zili; Lou, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Coelastrella sp. QY01, a microalgae species isolated from a local pond, was identified and used for the treatment of anaerobically and aerobically treated swine wastewater (AnATSW). Microalgal growth characteristics, nutrient removal and lipid accumulation of QY01 cultivated in the initial concentration of AnATSW ranged from 63 to 319mg NH3-N/L were examined. The specific growth rate of QY01 cultivated in cultures ranged from 0.269 to 0.325day(-1) with a biomass productivity from 42.77 to 57.46mgL(-1)day(-1). Removal rates for NH3-N, TP and inorganic carbon in AnATSW at the various nutrient concentrations ranged from 90% to 100%, from 90% to 100% and from 74% to 78%, respectively. The lipid content of QY01 ranged from 22.4% to 24.8%. The lipid productivity was positive correlation with the biomass productivity. 40% AnATSW was optimal for QY01 cultivation, in which nutrient removal and productivity of biomass and lipid were maximized. PMID:27236400

  1. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the passive technologies being used for animal wastewater treatment is constructed wetlands. We have investigated swine lagoon wastewater treatment in both continuous marsh and marsh-pond-marsh (MPM) type constructed wetlands for their nitrogen treatment efficiency, ammonia volatilization, de...

  3. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  4. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:22105133

  5. Nitritation and denitritation of domestic wastewater using a continuous anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A(2)O) process at ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Lei; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen

    2010-11-01

    In a continuous anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A(2)O) process treating domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures, nitritation was achieved through a combination of short aerobic actual hydraulic retention time (AHRT) and low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.3-0.5mg/L). The nitrite accumulation rate was about 90% and ammonia removal efficiency was over 95%. With respect to total nitrogen removal, nitritation-denitritation at low DO levels of 0.3-0.5mg/L was essentially equal to the complete nitrification-denitrification at DO levels of 1.5-2.5mg/L with the addition of external carbon sources. Regardless of low DO operation, sludge bulking did not occur since the sludge volume index was below 150ml/g. Real-time PCR assays showed that in response to complete and partial nitrification modes, the numbers of ammonia oxidizing bacteria population were 5.28x10(9)cells/g MLVSS and 3.95x10(10)cells/g MLVSS, respectively. Achievement of nitritation-denitritation is highly beneficial to the treatment of domestic wastewater in terms of lower carbon requirements and reduced aeration costs. PMID:20579871

  6. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Treatment Technology Evaluation and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assess the effectiveness of a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR) to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from wastewater. This technology could provide an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods.

  7. A novel application of an anaerobic membrane process in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    You, H S; Tseng, C C; Peng, M J; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Peng, S H

    2005-01-01

    The applications of membrane processes in anaerobic biological wastewater treatment still have some limitations due to severe membrane scaling and fouling, although they have been proven to achieve superior COD removal and biomass retention. An innovative anaerobic membrane process for wastewater treatment was conducted to control the membrane scaling problems. The process comprises an anaerobic reactor, an aerobic reactor, and a membrane separation tank. Anaerobic sludge from a full-scale UASB reactor treating food wastewater was inoculated to anaerobic and aerobic reactor to purify synthetic wastewater consisting of glucose and sodium acetate. The anaerobic reactor was operated in a sludge bed type without three-phase separator. The aerobic reactor can eliminate residual organics from the anaerobic reactor effluent using facultative microorganisms. To provide solid-liquid separation, hollow fiber ultrafiltration module was submerged in the separation tank. The results clearly show that the anaerobic membrane process combined methanogenic and aerobic COD reduction is a stable system. No fatal scaling was found after two months of operation even without chemical cleaning for the membrane. It was also found that inorganic precipitates formed in the aerobic reactor were reduced due to CO2 stripping in aerobic reactor. Another important finding was that the inorganic precipitates were entrapped into facultative aerobes floc. The ash/SS ratio of aerobes floc increased from 0.17 to 0.55 after 50 days of operation, which confirms this phenomenon. Based on our investigation, the new process can control scaling effectively to extend the membrane application in anaerobic treatment. PMID:16003960

  8. Fate of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the wastewater from six textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Rui-Jing; Wen, Wei-Bin; Chen, Chang-Min; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and isopropylbenzene (BTEXSI) from 6 textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants (TDWTPs) were investigated in this study. The practical capacities of the 6 representative plants, which used the activated sludge process, ranged from 1200 to 26000 m(3) d(-1). The results indicated that BTEXSI were ubiquitous in the raw textile dyeing wastewater, except for isopropylbenzene, and that toluene and xylenes were predominant in raw wastewaters (RWs). TDWTP-E was selected to study the residual BTEXSI at different stages. The total BTEXSI reduction on the aerobic process of TDWTP-E accounted for 82.2% of the entire process. The total BTEXSI concentrations from the final effluents (FEs) were observed to be below 1 μg L(-1), except for TDWTP-F (2.12 μg L(-1)). Volatilization and biodegradation rather than sludge sorption contributed significantly to BTEXSI removal in the treatment system. BTEXSI were not found to be the main contaminants in textile dyeing wastewater. PMID:25930124

  9. Development of an ecologically sustainable wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokendra; Ranjan, Rajiv; Sabumon, P C

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed mainly for the development of a wastewater treatment system incorporating enhanced primary treatment, anaerobic digestion of coagulated organics, biofilm aerobic process for the removal of soluble organics and disinfection of treated water. An attempt was also made to study the reuse potential of treated water for irrigation and use of digested sludge as soil conditioner by growing marigold plants. Ferric chloride dose of 30 mg/l was found to be the optimum dose for enhanced primary treatment with removals of COD and BOD to the extent of 60% and 77%, respectively. Efficient anaerobic digestion of ferric coagulated sludge was performed at 7 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Upflow aerobic fixed film reactor (UAFFR) was very efficient in removals of COD/BOD in the organic loading rate (OLR) range of 0.25 to 3 kg COD/m(3)/day with COD and BOD removals in the range 65-90 and 82-96, respectively. Photo-oxidation followed by disinfection saved 50% of chlorine dose required for disinfection of treated effluent and treated water was found to be suitable for irrigation. The result also indicated that anaerobically digested sludge may be an excellent soil conditioner. From the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that the developed wastewater treatment system is an attractive ecologically sustainable alternative for sewage treatment from institutional/industrial/residential campuses. PMID:18653930

  10. Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.E.; Sullivan, P.F.; Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J.; Adams, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.

  11. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  12. Monitoring the effects of wastewater treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater disposal in coastal waters causes widespread environmental problems. Secondary treatment is expected to reduce the adverse effects of insufficiently treated wastewater. The environmental impact of sewage disposal via 18 wastewater treatment plants was analysed using the benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods (BOPA) index. In previous studies this index proved to be an effective tool for monitoring sewage pollution. The impact of these discharges was highly related to treatment level, which ranged from pre-treatment to biological, as well as to flow rates and outfall position. Locations affected by pre-treated wastewater showed environmental degradation, especially marked near outfalls with higher flow rates. At most locations, biologically treated wastewater did not cause a significant impact and an improvement in ecological integrity was detected after this secondary treatment had been implemented. The impact of discharge was highly related to chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids and nutrient concentrations, which are all lower in biologically treated wastewater. A 'moderate' ecological status was observed not only near sewage outfalls with high wastewater flow rates (>1,500,000 m(3)/month) with a COD over 200 mg/l but also near those with lower flow rates but with a COD over 400 mg/l. To reduce the impact of sewage disposal, it is necessary to carry out adequate treatment, have site outfalls deep enough, and implement water recycling. PMID:26801153

  13. Bioaugmentation treatment of PV wafer manufacturing wastewater by microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Chen, Maoxia; He, Xin; Xiao, Zili; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater of silicon photovoltaic (PV) battery manufacturing contained polyethylene glycol (PEG) and detergents, which possessed the characteristics of high content of organics and low bioavailability, and then resulted in high treatment costs. To address the difficulties of existing treatment facilities in stably meeting discharge standards, eight tons of microbial culture (consisting of Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp.) were added into the aerobic treatment unit. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the microbial culture in small-scale biological wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the operating conditions for engineering applications were optimized. The application study showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 95.0% when the pH value was 7, the gas-water ratio was 28:1, the reflux ratio was 50%, which indicated an increase of 51.2% contrasting with the situation without bioaugmentation. The volume load of the treatment facilities after augmentation increased by 127.9% and could tolerate the COD shock load reached 2,340 mg·L(-1). At last, the effluence met the class I standard of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). PMID:26287834

  14. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

  15. Concentrations and fate of sugars, proteins and lipids during domestic and agro-industrial aerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Dominique; Choubert, Jean-Marc; le Pimpec, Paul; Heduit, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the composition and the fate of sugars, lipids, proteins, amino acids under aerobic conditions for 13 domestic and 4 agro-industrial wastewaters, sampled before and after treatment. The rates of aerobic degradation were moreover studied with a 21-day continuous aeration batch test. It is shown that the sum of the biochemical forms represented 50 to 85% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD). Lipids represented the half of the identified COD; sugars and proteins correspond to a quarter of the identified COD. Aerobic processes provided an increase of the relative fractions for proteins, whereas the ones of lipids decreased and sugars fraction remains stable. For the wastewaters released from cheese dairy (lipid-rich) and slaughterhouses (protein/lipid-rich), the dissolved phase after biological treatment is composed of proteins whereas the particulate one is composed of lipids. After the 21-day test, the concentration in proteins was nearby 10 mg/L. The results should be used for operations of WWTP to detect when a dysfunction is about to occur. They can be used to predict the concentrations in the treated water when upgrading an existing municipal plant that will admit agro-industrial discharge. PMID:21866767

  16. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  17. Modelling of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pinzón Pardo, A L; Brdjanovic, D; Moussa, M S; López-Vázquez, C M; Meijer, S C F; Van Straten, H H A; Janssen, A J H; Amy, G; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2007-11-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and Dutch calibration guidelines (STOWA) were evaluated in the modelling of an activated sludge system treating effluents from a large oil refinery. The plant was designed to remove suspended solids, organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater at an average water temperature of 34 degrees C. The plant consists of three tanks in series; the first two tanks operate in on-off aeration mode with pure oxygen for N-removal, whilst extra methanol is added for the denitrification, and the third tank is maintained as constantly aerobic. Calibration was performed based on a simplified influent characterisation and extra batch experiments (nitrification and denitrification). With the adjustment of only four parameters the model proved capable of describing the performance of the plant concerning both the liquid phase and the biomass. The model was further used to analyse possible modifications in the plant layout and optimize operational conditions in order to reduce operating costs. Modelling results indicated reduction in methanol dosage by implementing an idle time between aerobic and anoxic phases. In this way, surplus methanol was prevented from entering during the aerobic period. Moreover, simulations showed that the most cost-effective option regarding the denitrification process was a combined pre-post-denitrification scheme, without the need for enlarging existing basins. It can be concluded that although ASM3 and STOWA guidelines were originally developed for domestic wastewater application at a temperature range of 10 to 20 degrees C, they proved well capable of describing the performance of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant operating at 34 degrees C. Moreover, the plant model proved useful for optimization of the plant performance regarding operational costs. PMID:18290537

  18. Greenhouse gas production in wastewater treatment: process selection is the major factor.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Hartley, K

    2003-01-01

    Many practical design and operating decisions on wastewater treatment plants can have significant impacts on the overall environmental performance, in particular the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main factor in this regard is the use of aerobic or anaerobic treatment technology. This paper compares the GHG production of a number of case studies with aerobic or anaerobic main and sludge treatment of domestic wastewater and also looks at the energy balances and economics. This comparison demonstrates that major advantages can be gained by using primarily anaerobic processes as it is possible to largely eliminate any net energy input to the process, and therefore the production of GHG from fossil fuels. This is achieved by converting the energy of the incoming wastewater pollutants to methane which is then used to generate electricity. This is sufficient to power the aerobic processes as well as the mixing etc. of the anaerobic stages. In terms of GHG production, the total output (in CO2 equivalents) can be reduced from 2.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for fully aerobic treatment to 1.0 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for primarily anaerobic processes. All of the CO2 produced in the anaerobic processes comes from the wastewater pollutants and is therefore greenhouse gas neutral, whereas up to 1.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) originates from power generation for the fully aerobic process. This means that considerably more CO2 is produced in power generation than in the actual treatment process, and all of this is typically from fossil fuels, whereas the energy from the wastewater pollutants comes primarily from renewable energy sources, namely agricultural products. Even a change from anaerobic to aerobic sludge treatment processes (for the same aerobic main process) has a massive impact on the CO2 production from fossil fuels. An additional 0.8 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) is produced by changing to aerobic sludge digestion, which equates for a typical 100,000 EP plant to an additional

  19. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  20. Full scale performance of the aerobic granular sludge process for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Pronk, M; de Kreuk, M K; de Bruin, B; Kamminga, P; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, aerobic granular sludge technology has been scaled-up and implemented for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment under the trade name Nereda(®). With full-scale references for industrial treatment application since 2006 and domestic sewage since 2009 only limited operating data have been presented in scientific literature so far. In this study performance, granulation and design considerations of an aerobic granular sludge plant on domestic wastewater at the WWTP Garmerwolde, the Netherlands were analysed. After a start-up period of approximately 5 months, a robust and stable granule bed (>8 g L(-1)) was formed and could be maintained thereafter, with a sludge volume index after 5 min settling of 45 mL g(-1). The granular sludge consisted for more than 80% of granules larger than 0.2 mm and more than 60% larger than 1 mm. Effluent requirements (7 mg N L(-1) and 1 mg P L(-1)) were easily met during summer and winter. Maximum volumetric conversion rates for nitrogen and phosphorus were respectively 0.17 and 0.24 kg (m(3) d)(-1). The energy usage was 13.9 kWh (PE150·year)(-1) which is 58-63 % lower than the average conventional activated sludge treatment plant in the Netherlands. Finally, this study demonstrated that aerobic granular sludge technology can effectively be implemented for the treatment of domestic wastewater. PMID:26233660

  1. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

  2. RAPID INFILTRATION WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid infiltration treatment performance of three infiltration basins receiving primary treated municipal wastewater is evaluated for optimum total nitrogen control using a series of manual operational techniques and by remote control computer operation of a sprinkler system. Thr...

  3. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  4. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  5. Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jing; Liu, Junxin

    2013-08-01

    In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing, two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted. The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments: shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition, whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition. Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds, but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway. The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, n: number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition, then the anoxic, finally to the aerobic condition, while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions. Under every operational condition, long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity, followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs, whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition. In addition, introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials. PMID:24520688

  6. Biological treatment of printing ink wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Shi, H; Qian, Y

    2003-01-01

    Printing ink wastewater is usually very difficult to treat biologically and its chemical oxygen demand (COD) far exceeds standards of discharge. The COD in wastewater is usually 3,000 to 8,000 mg/L after flocculation and sedimentation. Herein, a strain of bacterium was isolated from the sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. and utilized to treat printing ink wastewater. The application of bacteria to degrade printing ink in wastewater is discussed in this paper. The influence of N and P sources on COD removal, and COD removal in combination with glucose was also discussed. More than 85 per cent of the COD could be removed using the proposed biological process. A novel internal airlift loop bioreactor with bacteria immobilized onto ceramic honeycomb support was used for the wastewater treatment. PMID:12578205

  7. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  8. Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    1999-01-01

    The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2−, NO3−, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 μm below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 μm), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate. PMID:10543829

  9. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  10. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in WWTP. Information is given on extracellular polymeric substances production as factor that is key for formation of spatial structures of microorganisms. Additionally, we discuss data on microbial groups including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, Anammox bacteria, and phosphate- and glycogen-accumulating bacteria in full-scale aerobic systems that was obtained with the use of molecular techniques, including high-throughput sequencing, to shed light on dependencies between the microbial ecology of biomass and the overall efficiency and functional stability of wastewater treatment systems. Sludge bulking in WWTPs is addressed, as well as the microbial composition of consortia involved in antibiotic and micropollutant removal. PMID:26931606

  11. Sorption and Release of Organics by Primary, Anaerobic, and Aerobic Activated Sludge Mixed with Raw Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215–230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

  12. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

  13. Photo-Fenton processes assisted by solar light used as preliminary step to biological treatment applied to winery wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Mosteo, R; Ormad, M P; Ovelleiro, J L

    2007-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are difficult to treat by conventional biological processes, because they are seasonal and experience substantial flow variations. Photocatalytic advanced oxidation is a promising technology for wastewaters containing high amounts of organic matter. In this research work, solar assisted photo-Fenton processes of both heterogeneous and homogeneous phase are used in the pre-treatment of winery wastewaters. The results of these experiments have confirmed the suitability of the photo-Fenton processes, due to these treatments achieving purification levels of up to 50% (measured as total organic carbon). The intermediate effluents are treated adequately by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process), due to the decrease in organic matter concentration present in winery wastewaters. The possibility of a combined photo-Fenton process, based on the use of sunlight, and aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge) is suggested. PMID:17849982

  14. A steady-state model for aerobic biological treatment: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    McHarg, W.H. )

    1993-12-01

    In the aerobic biological treatment of wastewater, microorganisms use oxygen to decompose organic contaminants. Carbon dioxide, water and biosolids -- or sludge -- are the primary products. After a predetermined time in the reactor or aeration basin, the sludge is either removed from the process or sent to a clarifier, where it settles. Some of this sludge is recycled back to the aeration basin to initiate further oxidation, and some is removed from the process. In many aerobic processes, the average retention time of the sludge in the aeration basin -- called the sludge age -- is the main design parameter. However, other parameters, such as the rate of oxygen transfer rates and the capacity of the clarifier can affect the quality of the effluent. A simple mathematical model can be used to calculate these parameters.

  15. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2015-04-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  16. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.

    1992-05-01

    The broad range of processing conditions involved in direct biomass liquefaction lead to a variety of product properties. The aqueous byproduct streams have received limited analyses because priority has been placed on analysis of the complex organic liquid product. The range of organic contaminants carried in the aqueous byproducts directly correlates with the quantity and quality of contaminants in the liquid oil product. The data in the literature gives a general indication of the types and amounts of components expected in biomass liquefaction wastewater; however, the data is insufficient to prepare a general model that predicts the wastewater composition from any given liquefaction process. Such a model would be useful in predicting the amount of water that would be soluble in a given oil and the level of dissolved water at which a second aqueous-rich phase would separate from the oil. Both biological and thermochemical processes have proposed for wastewater treatment, but no treatment process has been tested. Aerobic and anaerobic biological systems as well as oxidative and catalytic reforming thermochemical systems should be considered.

  17. Electrocoagulation treatment of oil-containing wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Pazenko, T.Ya.; Khalturina, T.I.; Kolova, A.F.; Rubailo, I.S.

    1986-05-10

    A high degree of purification is achieved by the use of electrolysis for removing emulsified oils from wastewaters. Purification during electrolysis of oil-containing wastewaters occurs as the result of electroflotation, electrocoagulation, and electrophoresis. It is reported by Kharlamova and Tedoradze that most of the oil is removed by electrocoagulation. The authors have therefore studied the influence of various factors on electrocoagulation treatment and determined the kinetic parameters of anodic behavior of aluminum during removal and emulsified oils.

  18. Tracing the limits of organic micropollutant removal in biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Falås, Per; Wick, Arne; Castronovo, Sandro; Habermacher, Jonathan; Ternes, Thomas A; Joss, Adriano

    2016-05-15

    Removal of organic micropollutants was investigated in 15 diverse biological reactors through short and long-term experiments. Short-term batch experiments were performed with activated sludge from three parallel sequencing batch reactors (25, 40, and 80 d solid retention time, SRT) fed with synthetic wastewater without micropollutants for one year. Despite the minimal micropollutant exposure, the synthetic wastewater sludges were able to degrade several micropollutants present in municipal wastewater. The degradation occurred immediately after spiking (1-5 μg/L), showed no strong or systematic correlation to the sludge age, and proceeded at rates comparable to those of municipal wastewater sludges. Thus, the results from the batch experiments indicate that degradation of organic micropollutants in biological wastewater treatment is quite insensitive to SRT increases from 25 to 80 days, and not necessarily induced by exposure to micropollutants. Long-term experiments with municipal wastewater were performed to assess the potential for extended biological micropollutant removal under different redox conditions and substrate concentrations (carbon and nitrogen). A total of 31 organic micropollutants were monitored through influent-effluent sampling of twelve municipal wastewater reactors. In accordance with the results from the sludges grown on synthetic wastewater, several compounds such as bezafibrate, atenolol and acyclovir were significantly removed in the activated sludge processes fed with municipal wastewater. Complementary removal of two compounds, diuron and diclofenac, was achieved in an oxic biofilm treatment. A few aerobically persistent micropollutants such as venlafaxine, diatrizoate and tramadol were removed under anaerobic conditions, but a large number of micropollutants persisted in all biological treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that certain improvements in biological micropollutant removal can be achieved by combining different

  19. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  20. A small scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system under Swedish conditions.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Larsdotter, K; Gumaelius, L; la Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G

    2003-01-01

    A treatment plant using conventional biological treatment combined with hydroponics and microalgae is constructed in a greenhouse in the area of Stockholm, Sweden. The treatment plant is built for research purposes and presently treats 0.559 m3 of domestic wastewater from the surrounding area per day. The system uses anoxic pre-denitrification followed by aerobic tanks for nitrification and plant growth. A microalgal step further reduces phosphorus, and a final sand filter polishes the water. During a three week period in July 2002 the treatment capacity of this system was evaluated with respect to removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen. 90% COD removal was obtained early in the system. Nitrification and denitrification was well established with total nitrogen reduction of 72%. Phosphorus was removed by 47% in the process. However, higher phosphorus removal values are expected as the microalgal step will be further developed. The results show that acceptable treatment can be achieved using this kind of system. Further optimisation of the system will lead to clean water as well as valuable plants to be harvested from the nutrient rich wastewater. PMID:14753532

  1. Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, R. A.; And Others

    This manual for the development of emergency operating plans for municipal wastewater treatment systems was compiled using information provided by over two hundred municipal treatment systems. It covers emergencies caused by natural disasters, civil disorders and strikes, faulty maintenance, negligent operation, and accidents. The effects of such…

  2. Seasonal and wastewater stream variation of trace organic compounds in a dairy processing plant aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Michael W; Wild, Karl; Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-09-01

    Bioreactors are often an integral part of dairy factory efforts to reduce the biological oxygen demand of their wastewater. In this study, infeed, mixed liquor and supernatant samples of an aerobic bioreactor used by a dairy factory in South-Eastern Australia were analyzed for nutrients and organic compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and physicochemical analyses. Despite different concentrations of organic inputs into the bioreactor, nutrients and trace organic compounds were reduced significantly (i.e. average concentration of trace organic compounds: infeed=1681 μg/L; mixed liquor=257 μg/L; supernatant=23 μg/L). However, during one sampling period the bioreactor was adversely affected by the organic loading. Trace organic compounds in the samples were predominantly fatty acids associated with animal products. The analyses suggest that it is possible to trace a disruptive input (i.e. infeed with high organic carbon concentrations) into an aerobic bioreactor by measuring concentrations of fatty acids or ammonia. PMID:21704516

  3. Stable partial nitritation for low-strength wastewater at low temperature in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Isanta, Eduardo; Reino, Clara; Carrera, Julián; Pérez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Partial nitritation for a low-strength wastewater at low temperature was stably achieved in an aerobic granular reactor. A bench-scale granular sludge bioreactor was operated in continuous mode treating an influent of 70 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) to mimic pretreated municipal nitrogenous wastewater and the temperature was progressively decreased from 30 to 12.5 °C. A suitable effluent nitrite to ammonium concentrations ratio to a subsequent anammox reactor was maintained stable during 300 days at 12.5 °C. The average applied nitrogen loading rate at 12.5 °C was 0.7 ± 0.3 g N L(-1) d(-1), with an effluent nitrate concentration of only 2.5 ± 0.7 mg N-NO3(-) L(-1). The biomass fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the granular sludge decreased from 19% to only 1% in 6 months of reactor operation at 12.5 °C. Nitrobacter spp. where found as the dominant NOB population, whereas Nitrospira spp. were not detected. Simulations indicated that: (i) NOB would only be effectively repressed when their oxygen half-saturation coefficient was higher than that of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; and (ii) a lower specific growth rate of NOB was maintained at any point in the biofilm (even at 12.5 °C) due to the bulk ammonium concentration imposed through the control strategy. PMID:26001281

  4. Increasing algal biofuel production using Nannocholropsis oculata cultivated with anaerobically and aerobically treated swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Fen; Teng, Jui-Chin; Lin, Yun-Huin; Hwang, Sz-Chwun John

    2013-04-01

    For mass production of Nannocholropsis oculata, a cheap nutrition source such as swine wastewater is required. The use of a combination of anaerobically/aerobically treated swine wastewater (AnATSW) was compared to artificial 3×f/2 medium in terms of algal growth rate and oil content. For microalgae cultured in 0-50% (v/v) AnATSW, a biomass of 0.94-3.22 g L(-1) was reached in 5 days. For microalgae cultured in 3×f/2 medium with vitamins, the lipid productivity was 0.122 g L(-1) d(-1) although its oil content reached 48.9%. Culturing N. oculata in 0-50% AnATSW resulted in an optimal lipid productivity of 0.035-0.177 g L(-1) d(-1). Only vitamins improved algal production of more oxidatively stable compositions of unsaturated oils. These oils were similar to the chemical structure of rapeseed oil based on analysis of the bis-allylic-position-equivalent value (30.64-46.13) and the iodine value (90.5-117.46). These oils were similar to coal based on the calculated low-heating-value of 17.6-22.9 MJ/kg. PMID:23422305

  5. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  6. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  7. Production integrated treatment of textile wastewater by closing raw material cycles.

    PubMed

    Krull, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for the in-house treatment of partial wastewater flows and the recycling of treated process water into the textile finishing process was developed in order to recycle effluents from textile finishing industry and feed them back into the production process. The method is based on a two-stage biological anaerobic-aerobic process to split colouring wastewater agents and to degrade organic substances contained in the water as well as a chemical stage to remove the remaining color of the water with the help of ozone. In the framework of a research and development project a demonstration plant for a treatment capacity of 1440 m3 per working day was installed and started in a textile finishing company. At the plant, a wastewater flow and a recycling flow are treated separately in two different treatment lanes. Approximately 40% of the total wastewater flows, i.e. 576 m3/d are treated in the wastewater lane, and a maximum of 60% of total wastewater, i.e. 864 m3/d are treated in the recycling lane. Thanks to the preliminary treatment of wastewater flows, which are discharged into the municipal sewage works, a reduction of average COD levels in the sewage works effluents could be achieved. PMID:16459804

  8. Municipal wastewater treatment by a periodic biofilter with granular biomass.

    PubMed

    Di Iaconi, C; Del Moro, G; Lopez, A; De Sanctis, M; Ramadori, R

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the results obtained during an experimental campaign aimed at transferring aerobic granulation to a demonstrative SBBGR system (i.e., a submerged biofilter that operates in a "fill and draw" mode) for the treatment of municipal wastewater by financial support of the European Commission, within the framework of Life-Environment Programme (PERBIOF Project; www.perbiof-europe.com). The results show that following the generation of granular biomass during the start-up period, the SBBGR was able to remove 80-90% of COD, total suspended solids and ammonia occurring in primary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant even when the minimum hydraulic residence time (i.e., 4 h) was investigated. The process was characterised by a sludge production almost one magnitude order lower than commonly reported for conventional treatment plants. The granular biomass was characterised by a high density (i.e., 150 gTSS/L(biomass)) that allowed a biomass concentration as high as 35 kgTSS/m(3)(bed) to be achieved. Proteobacteria were found as main microbial components of the granular biomass by applying Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). No significant changes in microbial composition were observed during reactor operation. PMID:19092218

  9. Aerobic granulation of protein-rich granules from nitrogen-lean wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-You; Ju, Sheau-Pyng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Proteins (PN)-rich granules are stable in structure in long-term reactor operations. This study proposed to cultivate PN-rich granules with PN/polysaccharides (PS) >20 from nitrogen lean wastewater, with ammonia-nitrogen as sole nitrogen source at chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N of 153.8. The yielded granules can sustain their structural stability in sequencing batch reactor mode for sufficient treatment of wastewaters up to 7000mg/L COD and with COD/N<500 and in continuous-flow reactor for successful 216-d treatment of wastewaters up to organic loading rate (OLR) of 39kg/m(3)-d. The produced granules were enriched with Firmicutes and β-proteobacteria as dominating strains. More than 58% of the nitrogen fed in the nitrogen-lean wastewater is converted to the PN in the granules. The replacement of ammonia by nitrate as sole nitrogen source led to granules enriched with γ-proteobacteria which are easily deteriorated at low OLR. PMID:27394992

  10. Treatment of potato farm wastewater with sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Bosak, V K; VanderZaag, A C; Crolla, A; Kinsley, C; Chabot, D; Miller, S S; Gordon, R J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined sand filtration as a component of a potato farm wastewater treatment system. Two different sand filter designs, saturated flow and unsaturated flow, were evaluated at three different loading rates: 34, 68, and 136 L m(-2) d(-1). Filter design had a significant effect, with unsaturated flow sand filters having significantly (p < .05) better total suspended solids (TSS) removal (89%) than saturated flow sand filters did (79%). Loading rate also had a significant (p < .05) effect, given that the lowest loading rate had higher mass removal for TSS than the higher loading rates did. Overall, all sand filters removed TSS, 5-d biochemical oxygen demand, and total phosphorus well (62-99%). Total nitrogen removal was twice as high in unsaturated flow filters (53%) than in saturated flow filters (27%), because of the recurring cycle of aerobic and anaerobic conditions during sand saturation and drying in unsaturated flow sand filters. PMID:26806787

  11. On-site wastewater treatment using unsaturated absorbent biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Jowett, E.C.; McMaster, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new type of single-pass aerobic biofilter is being developed as an alternative to the conventional septic tile bed and for treatment of wastewater in general. The Waterloo Biofilter uses absorbent Inter media that combine long retention times, separate flowpaths for wastewater and air, and large surface areas, thereby enabling loading rates 10 times greater than that for solid particle filter media. Although absorbent sphagnum peat and coarse sand plug readily at loading rates of 50 to 80 cm d{sup -1}, absorbent plastic particles provide consistent treatment with no plugging problems. The latest field trial removes 97.8% BOD{sub 7}, 96.1% TSS, and 99.5% fecal conform bacteria with 12 to 16{degrees}C wastewater loaded at 49 cm d{sup -1}. Surge Bows up to 204 cm d{sup -1} over several days are handled with little effect on effluent quality. In laboratory column experiments, removal of fecal coliforms averages >99.99% at 80 cm d{sup -1} loading, and >99.999% at 10 cm d{sup -1} after a 10- to 14-d acclimatization period. Ammonium is thoroughly oxidized to NO{sub 3}{sup -} with typically <2.5 mg L{sup - 1} NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N in the effluent. Overall treatment improves with forced air flow compared with natural convection. Cold influent and plugging by freezing are the main causes of poor treatment. This biofilter could find general application in renovating polluted water, including water for domestic consumption in developing regions of the world. 29 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. HEALTH EFFECTS OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data obtained as part of a comprehensive community health study conducted during 1965-1971 were utilized to examine the incidence of acute illness in a population surrounding an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and a control location in Tecumseh, Michigan. Study partic...

  13. MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

  14. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  15. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mumtaz; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ali, Arshad; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three different aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater collected from Taxila (Pakistan). A physical model of treatment plant was constructed and was operated for six experimental runs with each species of macrophyte. Every experimental run consist of thirty days period. Regular monitoring of influent and effluent concentrations were made during each experimental run. For the treatment locally available macrophyte species i.e. water hyacinth, duckweed & water lettuce were selected to use. To evaluate the treatment performance of each macrophyte, BOD5, COD, and Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) were monitored in effluent from model at different detention time of every experimental run after ensuring steady state conditions. The average reduction of effluent value of each parameter using water hyacinth were 50.61% for BOD5, 46.38% for COD, 40.34% for Nitrogen and 18.76% for Phosphorus. For duckweed the average removal efficiency for selected parameters were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus and for Water Lettuce the average removal efficiency were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus. The mechanisms of pollutant removal in this system include both aerobic and anaerobic microbiological conversions, sorption, sedimentation, volatilization and chemical transformations. The rapid growth of the biomass was measured within first ten days detention time. It was also observed that performance of macrophytes is influenced by variation of pH and Temperature. A pH of 6-9 and Temperature of 15-38°C is most favorable for treatment of wastewater by macrophytes. The option of macrophytes for treatment of Municipal sewage under local environmental conditions can be explored by further verifying the removal efficiency under variation of different environmental conditions. Also this is need of time that macrophyte

  16. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three different aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater collected from Taxila (Pakistan). A physical model of treatment plant was constructed and was operated for six experimental runs with each species of macrophyte. Every experimental run consist of thirty days period. Regular monitoring of influent and effluent concentrations were made during each experimental run. For the treatment locally available macrophyte species i.e. water hyacinth, duckweed & water lettuce were selected to use. To evaluate the treatment performance of each macrophyte, BOD5, COD, and Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) were monitored in effluent from model at different detention time of every experimental run after ensuring steady state conditions. The average reduction of effluent value of each parameter using water hyacinth were 50.61% for BOD5, 46.38% for COD, 40.34% for Nitrogen and 18.76% for Phosphorus. For duckweed the average removal efficiency for selected parameters were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus and for Water Lettuce the average removal efficiency were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus. The mechanisms of pollutant removal in this system include both aerobic and anaerobic microbiological conversions, sorption, sedimentation, volatilization and chemical transformations. The rapid growth of the biomass was measured within first ten days detention time. It was also observed that performance of macrophytes is influenced by variation of pH and Temperature. A pH of 6-9 and Temperature of 15-38°C is most favorable for treatment of wastewater by macrophytes. The option of macrophytes for treatment of Municipal sewage under local environmental conditions can be explored by further verifying the removal efficiency under variation of different environmental conditions. Also this is need of time that macrophyte

  17. Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Bornare, J B; Adhyapak, U S; Minde, G P; Kalyan Raman, V; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S

    2015-01-01

    Compared with conventional wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer several advantages including high biodegradation efficiency, excellent effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, it has some limitations on account of its energy intensive operation. In recent years, there has been growing interest in use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) due to their potential advantages over aerobic systems, which include low sludge production and energy generation in terms of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a submerged AnMBR for the treatment of synthetic wastewater having 4,759 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD removal efficiency was over 95% during the performance evaluation study. Treated effluent with COD concentration of 231 mg/l was obtained for 25.5 hours hydraulic retention time. The obtained total organic carbon concentrations in feed and permeate were 1,812 mg/l and 89 mg/l, respectively. An average biogas generation and yield were 25.77 l/d and 0.36 m3/kg COD, respectively. Evolution of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) as a function of time was studied and an average TMP of 15 kPa was found suitable to achieve membrane flux of 12.17 l/(m2h). Almost weekly back-flow chemical cleaning of the membrane was found necessary to control TMP within the permissible limit of 20 kPa. PMID:26038930

  18. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  19. Small sewage treatment system with an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Jun, H B; Hong, S P; Kwon, J C

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system that could improve nitrogen and BOD5 removal efficiency as well as generate less solid using an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic biofiltration system. Wastewater temperature was in the range of 14-25 degrees C, and hydraulic residual times were 12 h for each reactor. The upflow anaerobic digester equipped with anoxic filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the aerobic filter to induce denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. In the subsequent aerobic filter, residual organic carbon and ammonia might be oxidized and finally nitrate formed. In the anaerobic reactor, about 71% of influent TCOD was removed by sedimentation of the un-filterable COD at the recycle ratio of 300%. Another 20% of influent TCOD was removed in the anoxic filter by denitrification of the recycled nitrate. After 100 days operation, solid reduction and nitrification efficiency were about 30% and 95%, respectively. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (T-N) were above 94% and 70% at the recycle ratio of 300%, respectively. Total wasted solid from the system after 100 days operation was about 316 g, which was only 44% of the solid generated from a controlled activated sludge system operated at sludge retention time of 8 days. PMID:14753539

  20. Metagenomic Profiling of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Mobile Genetic Elements in a Tannery Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; Miao, Yu; Shi, Peng; Liu, Bo; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns. PMID:24098424

  1. Ecology of the Microbial Community Removing Phosphate from Wastewater under Continuously Aerobic Conditions in a Sequencing Batch Reactor▿

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Johwan; Schroeder, Sarah; Beer, Michael; McIlroy, Simon; Bayly, Ronald C.; May, John W.; Vasiliadis, George; Seviour, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    All activated sludge systems for removing phosphate microbiologically are configured so the biomass is cycled continuously through alternating anaerobic and aerobic zones. This paper describes a novel aerobic process capable of decreasing the amount of phosphate from 10 to 12 mg P liter−1 to less than 0.1 mg P liter−1 (when expressed as phosphorus) over an extended period from two wastewaters with low chemical oxygen demand. One wastewater was synthetic, and the other was a clarified effluent from a conventional activated sludge system. Unlike anaerobic/aerobic enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) processes where the organic substrates and the phosphate are supplied simultaneously to the biomass under anaerobic conditions, in this aerobic process, the addition of acetate, which begins the feed stage, is temporally separated from the addition of phosphate, which begins the famine stage. Conditions for establishing this process in a sequencing batch reactor are detailed, together with a description of the changes in poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and poly(P) levels in the biomass occurring under the feed and famine regimes, which closely resemble those reported in anaerobic/aerobic EBPR processes. Profiles obtained with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were very similar for communities fed both wastewaters, and once established, these communities remained stable over prolonged periods of time. 16S rRNA-based clone libraries generated from the two communities were also very similar. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/microautoradiography and histochemical staining revealed that “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” bacteria were the dominant poly(P)-accumulating organisms (PAO) in both communities, with the phenotype expected for PAO. FISH also identified large numbers of betaproteobacterial Dechloromonas and alphaproteobacterial tetrad-forming organisms related to Defluviicoccus in both communities, but while these organisms assimilated

  2. Catalytic thermal treatment of desizing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) was investigated for the reduction of COD and color of the desizing wastewater under moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions using various catalysts. The experimental runs were performed in a glass reactor equipped with a vertical condenser. The homogeneous copper sulfate catalyst was found to be the most active in comparison to other catalysts under similar operating conditions. A removal of about 71.6% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 87.2% color of desizing wastewater was obtained with a catalyst concentration of 4 kg/m(3) at pH 4. The initial pH value of the wastewater showed a pronounced effect on the precipitation process. During the thermolysis, copper gets leached to the aqueous phase, the residue obtained after the treatment is rich in copper and it can be blended with organic manure for use in agricultural fields. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal oxidation of the solid residue obtained after thermolysis gets oxidized at a higher temperature range than that of the residue obtained from the desizing wastewater. The results lead to the conclusion that thermochemical precipitation is a very fast (instantaneous) process and would need a very small reactor vessel in comparison to other processes. PMID:17459578

  3. Application of a combined process of moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Shin, W S; Kim, Y H; Han, Myung Ho; Choi, S J

    2006-01-01

    A combined process consisted of a Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation was investigated for textile wastewater treatment. The pilot scale MBBR system is composed of three MBBRs (anaerobic, aerobic-1 and aerobic-2 in series), each reactor was filled with 20% (v/v) of polyurethane-activated carbon (PU-AC) carrier for biological treatment followed by chemical coagulation with FeCl2. ln the MBBR process, 85% of COD and 70% of color (influent COD = 807.5 mg/L and color = 3,400 PtCo unit) were removed using relatively low MLSS concentration and short hydraulic retention time (HRT = 44 hr). The biologically treated dyeing wastewater was subjected to chemical coagulation. After coagulation with FeCl2, 95% of COD and 97% of color were removed overall. The combined process of MBBR and chemical coagulation has promising potential for dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:17163056

  4. Determination of phosphite in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolong; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Chao, Han; Qiu, Huimin

    2015-02-01

    Phosphite (HPO3(2-), +3), a reduced P species in the P biogeochemical cycle, was monitored in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) that uses an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A(2)/O-MBR) technology for treating mixed wastewater (56% industrial wastewater and 44% domestic wastewater) from June 2013 to May 2014. Wastewater samples were collected from influent after having gone through the fine grille, anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, and aerobics tank, respectively. The final stage yielded effluent. Results confirmed the presence of phosphite in the MWTP ranging from 4.62 ± 1.00 μg P L(-1) to 34.30 ± 3.49 μg P L(-1) in influent and from 1.15 ± 0.5 μg P L(-1) to 4.42 ± 0.9 μg P L(-1) in effluent. Phosphite accounted for approximately 0.15% to 2.27% of total soluble phosphorus (TSP). During the A(2)/O-MBR process, the average removal of phosphite was 82.41 ± 7.45%. The anaerobic biological treatment removed the most phosphite from wastewater in this study. Spatially, phosphite concentrations decreased gradually as the wastewater treatment process progressed. Seasonally, the phosphite concentrations in spring and winter were higher than those in summer and autumn. The phosphite concentration in effluent was of the same order of magnitude as that in nearby natural water, which suggested MWTP effluent may be an important phosphite contributor to the natural water. PMID:25564363

  5. EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

  6. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePlus

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  7. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in biosorption of dye wastewater using aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Wang, Bingfeng; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Han, Fei; Wang, Xiaodong; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biosorption of dye wastewater was evaluated using aerobic granular sludge as biosorbent. Based on the experimental data, the removal efficiencies of methylene blue (MB) by EPS and Sludge were 9.38 and 80.72%, respectively, implying that EPS made a certain contribution for MB removal. The adsorption rates of EPS, Sludge, and total Sludge+EPS for MB were better fitted with pseudo-second order kinetic model, and the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data agreed well with Langmuir model. The interaction between EPS and MB was explored by a combined three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) and synchronous fluorescence spectra. 3D-EEM indicated that protein- and humic acid-like substances were the main peaks of EPS, and gradually quenched with increased MB concentrations. According to synchronous fluorescence spectra, the main fluorescence quenching was caused by tryptophan residues, and the type belonged to a combined dynamic and static quenching. PMID:25746473

  8. Simultaneous Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification by Chryseobacterium sp. R31 Isolated from Abattoir Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Pradyut; Pramanik, Arnab; Dasgupta, Arpita; Mukherjee, Somnath; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    A heterotrophic carbon utilizing microbe (R31) capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was isolated from wastewater of an Indian slaughterhouse. From an initial COD value of 583.0 mg/L, 95.54% was removed whilst, from a starting NH4+-N concentration of 55.7 mg/L, 95.87% was removed after 48 h contact. The concentrations of the intermediates hydroxylamine, nitrite, and nitrate were low, thus ensuring nitrogen removal. Aerobic denitrification occurring during ammonium removal by R31 was confirmed by utilization of both nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen substrates. Glucose and succinate were superior while acetate and citrate were poor substrates for nitrogen removal. Molecular phylogenetic identification, supported by chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, assigned R31 as a close relative of Chryseobacterium haifense. The NH4+-N utilization rate and growth of strain R31 were found to be higher at C/N = 10 in comparison to those achieved with C/N ratios of 5 and 20. Monod kinetic coefficients, half saturation concentration (Ks), maximum rate of substrate utilization (k), yield coefficient, (Y) and endogenous decay coefficient (Kd) indicated potential application of R31 in large-scale SND process. This is the first report on concomitant carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification in the genus Chryseobacterium and the associated kinetic coefficients. PMID:24991552

  9. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    PubMed

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail. PMID:20453339

  10. Biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater from the antibiotics industry.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, O; Shi, X; Wu, C H; Ng, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical wastewater generated by an antibiotics (penicillin) company was treated by aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). At a low organic loading rate of 0.22 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1), both types of reactors were capable of treating the wastewater such that the treated effluent met the discharge regulation except for the total dissolved solids. However, when the loading rate was increased to 2.92 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1), foaming issues resulted in unstable performance. Overall, the MBRs achieved better solid removal but the SBRs performed better in regards to the degradation of aromatic compounds, as determined by UV absorbance (UVA). Finally, ozonation was applied on two different streams and showed promise on the strong stream - that corresponds to the formulation effluent and contains most of the biorefractory compounds. Ozonation successfully reduced the UVA, lowered the pH and increased the biochemical oxygen demand : chemical oxygen demand (BOD5 : COD) ratio of the strong stream. However, it was less efficient on the effluent having undergone pre-treatment by a biofilter due to a lack of selectivity towards refractory compounds. PMID:24569287

  11. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  12. A review of on-site wastewater treatment systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  13. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  14. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  15. Wastewater treatment in the pulp-and-paper industry: A review of treatment processes and the associated greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Omid; Yerushalmi, Laleh; Haghighat, Fariborz

    2015-08-01

    Pulp-and-paper mills produce various types of contaminants and a significant amount of wastewater depending on the type of processes used in the plant. Since the generated wastewaters can be potentially polluting and very dangerous, they should be treated in wastewater treatment plants before being released to the environment. This paper reviews different wastewater treatment processes used in the pulp-and-paper industry and compares them with respect to their contaminant removal efficiencies and the extent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. It also evaluates the impact of operating parameters on the performance of different treatment processes. Two mathematical models were used to estimate GHG emission in common biological treatment processes used in the pulp-and-paper industry. Nutrient removal processes and sludge treatment are discussed and their associated GHG emissions are calculated. Although both aerobic and anaerobic biological processes are appropriate for wastewater treatment, their combination known as hybrid processes showed a better contaminant removal capacity at higher efficiencies under optimized operating conditions with reduced GHG emission and energy costs. PMID:25982876

  16. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  17. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  18. Preparation of polyelectrolytes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Radoiu, Marilena T; Martin, Diana I; Calinescu, Ioan; Iovu, Horia

    2004-01-01

    Liquid-phase polymerisation of acrylamide-acrylic acid to form polyelectrolytes used in wastewater cleaning was examined using accelerated electron beam and microwave irradiation methods. Polymerisation was carried out in aqueous solutions at temperatures approximately 60 degrees C. Monomers total concentration was established at 40% (36% acrylamide and 4% acrylic acid). Only using the features of simultaneous radiation-induction and microwave heating can result in the formation of linear polymer chains with good water solubility and low residual monomer concentration. The flocculation capacity of the obtained polymers was tested using two wastewaters, one sampled from a slaughterhouse and the other from a vegetable oil plant. Quality indicators such as total suspended matters (TSM), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and fat, oils and grease (FOG) were measured before and after the treatment with polymeric flocculants and compared with the results obtained in classical treatment with Al(2)(SO(4))(3). It was found that the combined treatment with polymers and Al(2)(SO(4))(3) increases the degree of purification of both wastewaters up to 99%. PMID:14693435

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  20. Removal of bacterial indicators and pathogens from dairy wastewater by a multi-component treatment system.

    PubMed

    Karpiscak, M M; Sanchez, L R; Freitas, R J; Gerba, C P

    2001-01-01

    Microbial removal by a multi-component treatment system for dairy and municipal wastewater is being studied in Arizona, USA. The system consists of paired solids separators, anaerobic lagoons, aerobic ponds and constructed wetlands cells. The organisms under study include: total coliform, fecal coliform, enterovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coliphage, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Organism removal rates from dairy wastewater varied from 13.2 per cent for fecal coliform to 94.9 per cent for coliphage. It appears that the much higher turbidity of the dairy wastewater, nearly 1,300 NTU, decreased the treatment systems' ability to remove some microbial indicators and pathogens. Information from this study can be used to determine the adequacy of multi-component treatment systems for the control of wastewater-borne pathogens, both in municipal treatment systems as well as in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). This information also can assist municipalities and the CAFO industry in the implementation of rational and efficient treatment strategies for appropriate reuse of wastewaters. PMID:11804092

  1. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhui; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology for the treatment ofbio-refractory wastewater. In this research, advanced treatment of coking wastewater which had previously undergone A/O (anaerobic-aerobic biological) treatment was investigated over Ti/RuO2 x IrO2 anode, stainless steel cathode and coke powder particle electrodes which were packed into the electrodes in a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor (BTDR). The results showed that the removal efficiency of COD and ammonia nitrogen increased with applied current density. The main influencing factors of BTDR were evaluated by an orthogonal test, including reaction time, plate distance, current density, plate amounts and aeration flow rate. With reaction time of 60 min, plate distance of 1.0 cm, current density of 20 mA/cm2 and plate amounts of four pairs, most of the contaminants in coking wastewater can be remediated by BTDR, which can then meet the discharge limit for coking wastewater in China. For organic pollutants, 12 kinds of organic pollutants can be completely removed, and the removal efficiencies of 11 kinds of organic pollutants are between 13.3 and 70.3% by advanced treatment with BTDR. We conclude that there is great potential for BTDR in engineering applications as a final treatment for coking wastewater. PMID:24350493

  2. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN COAL CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes water treatment control technology specific to fuel conversion plant sites in the western U.S. Most plants converting coal to other fuels use a large quantity of clean water (as stream) and put out a large quantity of dirty water that is condensed when the pr...

  3. Dewatering in biological wastewater treatment: A review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    2015-10-01

    Biological wastewater treatment removes organic materials, nitrogen, and phosphorus from wastewater using microbial biomass (activated sludge, biofilm, granules) which is separated from the liquid in a clarifier or by a membrane. Part of this biomass (excess sludge) is transported to digesters for bioenergy production and then dewatered, it is dewatered directly, often by using belt filters or decanter centrifuges before further handling, or it is dewatered by sludge mineralization beds. Sludge is generally difficult to dewater, but great variations in dewaterability are observed for sludges from different wastewater treatment plants as a consequence of differences in plant design and physical-chemical factors. This review gives an overview of key parameters affecting sludge dewatering, i.e. filtration and consolidation. The best dewaterability is observed for activated sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances. Polyvalent ions such as calcium ions improve floc strength and dewaterability, whereas sodium ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion, and industry) reduce dewaterability because flocs disintegrate at high conductivity. Dewaterability dramatically decreases at high pH due to floc disintegration. Storage under anaerobic conditions lowers dewaterability. High shear levels destroy the flocs and reduce dewaterability. Thus, pumping and mixing should be gentle and in pipes without sharp bends. PMID:25959073

  4. Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Floating Vegetated Mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for treating aquaculture wastewater. The goal is to improve wastewater quality sufficiently for it to be recycled to production ponds. One potential method for improving aquaculture wastewater is to use floating vegetation in treatment tanks. Alternatively, potential exists for ...

  5. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Treatment of industrial wastewater in continuous electrocoagulator

    SciTech Connect

    Voloshchuk, L.L.; Bezdenezhnykh, A.A.; Klebanova, N.A.; Plesouskikh, V.A.

    1985-11-01

    This paper summarizes and correlates results obtained in studies of the basic relationships, mechanism, and mechanical design of the process of electrocoagulation treatment of industrial wastewater from a plant producing lubricants, additives, and working fluids and pastes. The results obtained in an investigation of the process of waste water treatment in the continuous pilot-plant unit, using an electrocoagulator, have been used as the design basis for reconstruction of the treating facilities at the petroleum oil plant. It is recommended that the electrocoagulator housing should be made of Grade 10 or 20 steel.

  7. Effect of an azo dye on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor treating a simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Franca, Rita D G; Vieira, Anabela; Mata, Ana M T; Carvalho, Gilda S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2015-11-15

    This study analyzed the effect of an azo dye (Acid Red 14) on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system operated with 6-h anaerobic-aerobic cycles for the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater. In this sense, two SBRs inoculated with AGS from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were run in parallel, being one supplied with the dye and the other used as a dye-free control. The AGS successfully adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions forming smaller, denser granules in both reactors, with optimal sludge volume index values of 19 and 17 mL g(-1) after 5-min and 30-min settling, respectively. As a result, high biomass concentration levels and sludge age values were registered, up to 13 gTSS L(-1) and 40 days, respectively, when deliberate biomass wastage was limited to the sampling needs. Stable dye removal yields above 90% were attained during the anaerobic reaction phase, confirmed by the formation of one of the aromatic amines arising from azo bond reduction. The control of the sludge retention time (SRT) to 15 days triggered a 30% reduction in the biodecolorization yield. However, the increase of the SRT values back to levels above 25 days reverted this effect and also promoted the complete bioconversion of the identified aromatic amine during the aerobic reaction phase. The dye and its breakdown products did not negatively affect the treatment performance, as organic load removal yields higher than 80% were attained in both reactors, up to 77% occurring in the anaerobic phase. These high anaerobic organic removal levels were correlated to an increase of Defluviicoccus-related glycogen accumulating organisms in the biomass. Also, the capacity of the system to deal with shocks of high dye concentration and organic load was successfully demonstrated. Granule breakup after long-term operation only occurred in the dye-free control SBR, suggesting that the azo dye plays an important role in improving granule

  8. [Detection of anaerobic processes and microorganisms in immobilized activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant with intense aeration].

    PubMed

    Litti, Iu V; Nekrasova, V K; Kulikov, N I; Siman'kova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2013-01-01

    Attached activated sludge from the Krasnaya Polyana (Sochi) wastewater treatment plant was studied after the reconstruction by increased aeration and water recycle, as well as by the installation of a bristle carrier for activated sludge immobilization. The activated sludge biofilms developing under conditions of intense aeration were shown to contain both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Activity of a strictly anaerobic methanogenic community was revealed, which degraded organic compounds to methane, further oxidized by aerobic methanotrophs. Volatile fatty acids, the intermediates of anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds, were used by both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) and the presence of obligate anammox bacteria were revealed in attached activated sludge biofilms. Simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organic contaminants by attached activated sludge provides for high rates of water treatment, stability of the activated sludge under variable environmental conditions, and decreased excess sludge formation. PMID:25509405

  9. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  10. [Capability and microbial community analysis of a membrane bioreactor for acrylic fiber wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Song, Yong-Huil; Zhao, Le

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SBMBR) was used for the treatment of acrylic fiber polymerization wastewater and acrylonitrile wastewater. The operation efficiencies of SBMBR under different wastewater ratios and operation conditions were investigated, and the microbial community structure of the SBMBR system was analyzed by using PCR-DGGE technology. The results showed that SBMBR had a high removal efficiency on pollutants in acrylic fiber wastewater, and the lacking of carbon source and alkalinity were the main limiting factors for nitrogen removal. Under the designed operation conditions of 90 min anoxic/150 min aerobic cyclic operation and HRT of 24 h, the average COD, NH4(+) -N and TN removal efficiencies were 82.5%, 98.7% and 74.6%, respectively. The effluent of the SBMBR could steadily meet the Grade I standards of the Wastewater Comprehensive Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The PCR-DGGE analyses showed that the microbial communities in SBMBR had a significant shift with the changes of influent characteristics and operation conditions. By cloning and sequencing analyses of selected dominant bacteria, 22 16S rDNA sequence were successfully identified from 9 sludge samples, from which 7 dominant functional microorganisms for the degradation of organic pollutants in acrylic fiber wastewater were screened out. PMID:25826932

  11. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by EPSs in aerobic granular sludge enhanced nitrogen removal of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lilong; Zhang, Shaoliang; Hao, Guoxin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ren, Yuan; Wen, Yan; Guo, Yihan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In this study, role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in enhancing nitrogen-removal from ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology were analyzed. AGS enabled ammonium oxidation and denitrification to occur simultaneously. Air stripping and simultaneous nitrification-denitrification contributed to total-nitrogen removal. Clone-library analysis revealed that close relatives of Nitrosomonas eutropha and heterotrophic denitrifiers were dominant in the AGS, whereas anammox bacteria were not detected. EPSs adsorption of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate nitrogen results in improved removal of nitrogen in batch experiments. PMID:26706722

  12. METALS REMOVALS AND PARTITIONING IN CONVENTIONAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metals removal and partitioning to primary and secondary sludge during treatment of domestic wastewater by conventional sewage treatment processes was studied. Raw wastewater entering the Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, was fed to a 0.1 l/s (1.6 gpm) pilot tr...

  13. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment. PMID:27232417

  14. Energy autonomy in the wastewater treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J.; DaVia, P.

    1980-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plants can recover a high percentage of their energy needs by using new techniques in anaerobic digestion through the production and utilization of methane gas. The Acheres Wastewater Treatment Plant outside Paris has a present design capacity of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//d (400 mgd) and produces over 70% of its energy needs using this process. Methane gas is used to drive a series of engines that produce compressed air for the biological process and drive generators that produce electricity for use in all phases of the treatment process, equipment, and buildings. Water that cools these engines is also used to maintain optimum sludge temperature during the digestion process. After World War II, a master plan was developed that projects the plant's expansion through five major phases to an ultimate design capacity of 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//d (715 mgd). To date three phases are in operation, with a total design capacity of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//d (400 mgd). Phase IV (6.0 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3//d, 160 mgd) is under construction. The article reviews the sludge digestion process used in all three operating phases of the plant.

  15. Treatment of greenhouse wastewater using constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Prystay, W; Lo, K V

    2001-05-01

    Five wetland designs, based on conventional surface flow (SF) and subsurface flow (SSF) approaches, were assessed for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from greenhouse wastewater. Results indicated none of the individual designs assessed was capable of providing the highest treatment effect for all nutrients of concern; however, the SF wetland emerged as the most appropriate design for the treatment of greenhouse wastewater. The highest mean phosphorus reduction of 65% was observed in the unplanted SF wetlands. Peak nitrate reductions of 54% were observed in the 15-cm deep SF wetlands and ammonia removal of 74% was achieved in the unplanted SF wetlands. Nitrate concentration in the greenhouse effluent can be reduced to acceptable levels for the protection of freshwater aquatic life (i.e., less then 40 ppm) using a loading rate of 1.65 g NO3-N/m2/day and a design water depth of 30 cm or greater. Based on available literature and the results of this research project, a multistage design, consisting of an unplanted pre-treatment basin followed by a 25 to 35 cm deep surface flow marsh with open water components, is recommended. PMID:11411856

  16. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  17. Treatment of hazardous wastewater contaminated by nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    El-Diwani, G; El-Ibiari, N N; Hawash, S I

    2009-08-15

    Based on successful preliminary bench scale experimental studies for treatment of industrial wastewater contaminated by nitrocellulose, a pilot plant is constructed for results assessment. Bench scale experimental work proved 55%, 73% recovery of nitrocellulose without and with chemical addition respectively within 10 min flotation compared to 35%, 69% recovery within 2-0.5h settling respectively. The treatment process aims the recovery of nitrocellulose through an efficient dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Different operating conditions have been studied for different effluent characteristics with and without flocculating agent. Nitrocellulose recovery reached 80% by flotation without chemical, which is increased to 87% using cationic polymer, but both exploring suitable pathways to solve the recovery problem.The experimental results are considered suitable basis for full scale design of the industrial treatment unit. PMID:19237246

  18. AUTOMATED MONITORING OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatments minimize the transmission of pathogens and are required by EPA with established treatment and monitoring requirements. The efficiency of treatment processes is determined by measuring the inactivation of indicator organisms (e.g., fecal coliform...

  19. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  20. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  1. [Study on fluorescence measurement system of wastewater treatment process].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Jun-Bo; Li, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Hu

    2011-06-01

    The present paper, focusing on the relationship between the fluorescence characteristics of fluorescent substances produced by the anaerobic reactors in process of the wastewater treatment status, aims to build an online detection platform of anaerobic wastewater treatment process for the wastewater treatment process parameter control, to provide effective, credible and stable technical basis, and to a certain extent can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. The results showed that it is feasible for this system to use fluorescence spectroscopy of wastewater treatment anaerobic reactor during the test; compared with the conventional detection method, it has simple structure, high sensitivity, and less time-consuming advantages; for other fluorescent substances in waste water treatment, it has broad application prospects. PMID:21847935

  2. Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (p<0.05) seasonal differences in wastewater influent concentrations. Removal of CECs by these wastewater treatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (p<0.05) for a range of water quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted

  3. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  4. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  5. Instrumentation and Automation of Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Joseph F.; Cummins, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the use of instrumentation and automation of wastewater treatment systems, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes automatic control systems and cost effectiveness of automation of wastewater treatment. A list of 115 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL - REVISED FEBRUARY 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    This update of the 1980 Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems was developed to provide supplemental and new information for wastewater treatment professionals in both the public and private sectors. This manual is not intended to replace the previous man...

  7. WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND ITS MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that wastewater treatment (WWT) can be a significant source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. WWT can include centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or on-site WWT technologies. EDCs found in WWT effluents (aqueous and biosol...

  8. INSTRUMENTATION AND AUTOMATION EXPERIENCES IN WASTEWATER-TREATMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of a nationwide survey of instrumentation and automation experiences in fifty wastewater-treatment plants. The data show that the average wastewater-treatment plant spent about 3% of the construction costs for installed instruments. This is about...

  9. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

  10. Removal of organic wastewater contaminants in septic systems using advanced treatment technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bahr, J.M.; Hedman, C.J.; Hemming, J.D.C.; Barman, M.A.E.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in ground water and surface-water bodies has raised concerns about the possible ecological impacts of these compounds on nontarget organisms. On-site wastewater treatment systems represent a potentially significant route of entry for organic contaminants to the environment. In this study, effluent samples were collected and analyzed from conventional septic systems and from systems using advanced treatment technologies. Six of 13 target compounds were detected in effluent from at least one septic system. Caffeine, paraxanthine, and acetaminophen were the most frequently detected compounds, and estrogenic activity was detected in 14 of 15 systems. The OWC concentrations were significantly lower in effluent after sand filtration (p < 0.01) or aerobic treatment (p < 0.05) as compared with effluent that had not undergone advanced treatment. In general, concentrations in conventional systems were comparable to those measured in previous studies of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent, and concentrations in systems after advanced treatment were comparable to previously measured concentrations in WWTP effluent. These data indicate that septic systems using advanced treatment can reduce OWCs in treated effluent to similar concentrations as municipal WWTPs. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS - ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental Systems (Zenon) has developed the ZenoGem™ process to remove organic compounds from wastewater by integrating biological treatment and membrane-based ultrafiltration. This innovative system combines biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compou...

  12. Biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater using a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Lyles, C; Boopathy, R; Fontenot, Q; Kilgen, M

    2008-12-01

    To improve the water quality in the shrimp aquaculture, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been tested for the treatment of shrimp wastewater. A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same tank to take the place of multiple tanks in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor basin. This is achieved in a simple tank, through sequencing stages, which include fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR and a pilot scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentration of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactor sequentially, viz, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon in a laboratory scale SBR. To be specific, the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 1,593 mg/l was reduced to 44 mg/l within 10 days of reactor operation. Ammonia in the sludge was nitrified within 3 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anaerobic process and 99% removal of nitrate was observed. Based on the laboratory study, a pilot scale SBR was designed and operated to remove excess nitrogen in the shrimp wastewater. The results mimicked the laboratory scale SBR. PMID:18561032

  13. [Microbial composition of the activated sludges of the Moscow wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Kallistova, A Iu; Pimenov, N V; Kozlov, M N; Nikolaev, Iu A; Dorofeev, A G; Aseeva, V G; Grachev, V A; Men'ko, E V; Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Nozhevnikova, A N; Kevbrina, M V

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the major technologically important microbial groups (ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing, phosphate-accumulating, foam-inducing, and anammox bacteria, as well as planctomycetes and methanogenic archaea) was characterized for the aeration tanks of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities. FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludges were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly. Stage II nitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes were significant constituents of the bacterial component of activated sludge, with Nitrobacter spp. being the dominant nitrifier. No metabolically active anammox bacteria were revealed in the sludge from aeration tanks. The sludge from the aeration tanks using different wastewater treatment technologies were found to differ in characteristics. Abundance of the nitrifying and phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the sludges generally correlated with microbial activity, in microcosms and with efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. The highest microbial numbers and activity were found in the sludges of the tanks operating according to the technologies developed in the universities of Hanover and Cape Town. The activated sludge from the Novokur yanovo facilities, where abundant growth of filamentous bacteria resulted in foam formation, exhibited the lowest activity The group of foaming bacteria included Gordonia spp. and Acinetobacter spp., utilizing petroleum and motor oils, Sphaerotilus spp. utilizing unsaturated fatty acids, and Candidatus 'Microthrix parvicella'. Thus, the data on abundance and composition of metabolically active microorganisms obtained by FISH may be used for the technological control of wastewater treatment. PMID:25844473

  14. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process. PMID:25689817

  15. Modeling duckweed growth in wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landesman, L.; Parker, N.C.; Fedler, C.B.; Konikoff, M.

    2005-01-01

    Species of the genera Lemnaceae, or duckweeds, are floating aquatic plants that show great promise for both wastewater treatment and livestock feed production. Research conducted in the Southern High Plains of Texas has shown that Lemna obscura grew well in cattle feedlot runoff water and produced leaf tissue with a high protein content. A model or mathematical expression derived from duckweed growth data was used to fit data from experiments conducted in a greenhouse in Lubbock, Texas. The relationship between duckweed growth and the total nitrogen concentration in the mediium follows the Mitscherlich Function and is similar to that of other plants. Empirically derived model equations have successfully predicted the growth response of Lemna obscura.

  16. Wastewater treatment with zero dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Hirl, P.J.

    1998-07-01

    Many wastewater treatment plants operate their biological reactors inefficiently because the aeration is not adjusted so that the oxygen supply rate equals the microbial oxygen demand in real times. Tapered aeration systems vary aeration based on the oxygen demand profile but these systems are static. Dynamic oxygen control systems have been successful but do not operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The purpose of the research described is to develop a control system and reactor operating strategies to dynamically change the aeration rate to match the oxygen uptake rate while maintaining the dissolve oxygen concentration less than 0.5 mg/L. Though, low dissolved oxygen operation can reduce the rate of carbon degradation and/or promote filamentous bulking, it also maximizes the oxygen transfer rate and can promote simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Development and testing of a control system and operating strategies at the bench scale is in progress.

  17. Treatment of oilfield wastewater by Fenton's process.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y X; Yang, M; Zhang, Y; Hu, J Y

    2004-01-01

    A combination of coagulation and Fenton's process was used for the removal of total oxygen carbon (TOC) from oilfield wastewater. Compared with aluminium sulfate, ferric coagulant had better TOC removal efficiency at the same mass dosage. In Fenton's process, the effect of H2O2 and Fe2+ dose on the removal of TOC was studied. The optimum conditions required for TOC removal were an Fe3+ concentration of 40-50 mg/L, an H2O2 dose of 50 mmol/L and an Fe2+ concentration of 1.0 mmol/L. GC-MS chromatographic analysis indicated that most of the alkyl hydrocarbons of carbon numbers < 21 were removed in the first minute of Fenton's process mainly through adsorption. Alkyl hydrocarbons and phenols were oxidized almost completely following 120 min of treatment. The pathway of newly formed intermediates in Fenton's process was proposed on the basis of the GC/MS chromatogram. PMID:15077956

  18. Combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment of landfill leachates under mesophilic, submesophilic and psychrophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Epov, A

    2003-01-01

    As a first step of treatment of landfill leachates (total COD--1,430-3,810 mg/l, total nitrogen 90-162 mg/l), a performance of laboratory UASB reactors has been investigated under mesophilic (30 degrees C), sub-mesophilic (20 degrees C) and psychrophilic (10 degrees C) conditions. Under hydraulic retention times (HRT) of around 7 h, when the average organic loading rates (OLR) were around 5 g COD/l/day, the total COD removal accounted for 81% (on the average) with the effluent concentrations close to anaerobic biodegradability limit (0.25 g COD/l) for mesophilic and sub-mesophilic regimes. The psychrophilic treatment conducted under the average HRT of 8 h and the average OLR of 4.22 g COD/l/day showed a total COD removal of 47% producing the effluents (0.75 g COD/l) more suitable for subsequent biological nitrogen removal. All three anaerobic regimes used for leachate treatment were quite efficient for elimination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) by concomitant precipitation in the form of insoluble sulphides inside the sludge bed. The application of aerobic/anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step for psychrophilic anaerobic effluents was acceptable for elimination of biodegradable COD and nitrogen approaching the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. PMID:14640233

  19. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  20. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    PubMed

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  1. Transformation of PVP coated silver nanoparticles in a simulated wastewater treatment process and the effect on microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Manufactured silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials in consumer goods and consequently their concentrations in wastewater and hence wastewater treatment plants are predicted to increase. We investigated the fate of AgNPs in sludge that was subjected to aerobic and anaerobic treatment and the impact of AgNPs on microbial processes and communities. The initial identification of AgNPs in sludge was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The solid phase speciation of silver in sludge and wastewater influent was then examined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The effects of transformed AgNPs (mainly Ag-S phases) on nitrification, wastewater microbial populations and, for the first time, methanogenesis was investigated. Results Sequencing batch reactor experiments and anaerobic batch tests, both demonstrated that nitrification rate and methane production were not affected by the addition of AgNPs [at 2.5 mg Ag L-1 (4.9 g L-1 total suspended solids, TSS) and 183.6 mg Ag kg -1 (2.9 g kg-1 total solids, TS), respectively]. The low toxicity is most likely due to AgNP sulfidation. XAS analysis showed that sulfur bonded Ag was the dominant Ag species in both aerobic (activated sludge) and anaerobic sludge. In AgNP and AgNO3 spiked aerobic sludge, metallic Ag was detected (~15%). However, after anaerobic digestion, Ag(0) was not detected by XAS analysis. Dominant wastewater microbial populations were not affected by AgNPs as determined by DNA extraction and pyrotag sequencing. However, there was a shift in niche populations in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge, with a shift in AgNP treated sludge compared with controls. This is the first time that the impact of transformed AgNPs (mainly Ag-S phases) on anaerobic digestion has been reported. Conclusions Silver NPs were transformed to Ag-S phases during activated sludge treatment (prior to anaerobic

  2. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, A

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from the raw and diluted cultivation medium from the first separation process of baker's yeasts (the average organic loading rates varied in the range 3.7-16 g COD/I/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it had insufficient COD to fulfil the denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass of raw wastewater (approximately 10%) should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high. PMID:16180425

  3. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  4. Increasing wastewater system performance--the importance of interactions between sewerage and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2002-01-01

    The necessity to assess sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as integral parts of the wastewater system has been well known for several years and discussed in many conferences. Until recently, sewer systems and WWTPs were improved (or optimised) separately or independently, which resulted in suboptimal solutions. Nowadays, in The Netherlands as well as in other European countries, a trend can be recognised towards more integral solutions. Nevertheless, due to a lack of knowledge on the interactions between the sewer systems and the WWTPs the implementation of this way of thinking in practice takes a long time. This paper describes the results of two cases in which the interactions between sewerage and wastewater treatment are incorporated within the optimisation of a wastewater system. The first case illustrates the importance of taking the interactions into account, while the second case shows how to deal with the interactions within a wastewater system optimisation study. It is concluded that the combination of total wastewater system analysis, incorporating the interactions within the wastewater system, with efficient search algorithms is expected to be very valuable in future wastewater system optimisation studies. PMID:11905443

  5. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Olga S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2015-08-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) consist of a fully fluorinated hydrophobic alkyl chain attached to a hydrophilic end group. Due to their wide use in several industrial and household applications, they have been detected in numerous Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) during the last ten years. The present review reports the occurrence of 22 PFCs (C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylates; C4-C8 and C10 sulfonates; 3 sulfonamides) in municipal or/and industrial wastewater, originating from 24 monitoring studies. PFCs levels in sewage sludge have also been reported using data from 12 studies. Most of the above monitoring data originate from the USA, North Europe and Asia and concern perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while limited information is available from Mediterranean area, Canada and Australia. PFCs concentrations range up to some hundreds ng/L and some thousands ng/g dry weight in raw wastewater and sludge, respectively. They are not significantly removed during secondary biological treatment, while their concentrations in treated wastewater are often higher compared to raw sewage. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatment does not seem possible; whereas some recent studies have noted the potential transformation of precursor compounds to PFCs during biological wastewater treatment. PFCs sorption onto sludge has been studied in depth and seems to be an important mechanism governing their removal in STPs. Concerning tertiary treatment technologies, significant PFCs removal has been observed using activated carbon, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis or applying advanced oxidation and reduction processes. Most of these studies have been conducted using pure water, while in many cases the experiments have been performed under extreme laboratory conditions (high concentrations, high radiation source, temperature or pressure). Future efforts should be focused on better understanding of biotransformation processes occurred in aerobic and anaerobic

  6. [Fate of ARB and ARGs During Wastewater Treatment Process of Spiramycin Production].

    PubMed

    Qin, Cai-xia; Tong, Juan; Shen, Pei-hong; Wei, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance gene(ARG) pose great risk to both environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the fate of macrolide resistant bacteria, six macrolide resistance genes ermB, ermF, ermX, mefA, ereA, mphB and three transfer elements ISCR1, intIl and Tn916/1545 during wastewater biological treatment processes of spiramycin production. Samples were collected from an antibiotic wastewater treatment station in different seasons. Results showed that the total heterotrophs and Enterococci were mostly removed during wastewater biological treatment, with the reduction of 1. 6-2. 1 logs for total heterotrophs and of 3. 7 logs for Enterococci, respectively. For 94 antibiotic resistant Enterococci individually isolated from four different treatment units including adjusting tank, anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, and aerobic tank, all of these strains showed resistance to spiramycin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin; moreover, the antibiotic resistance rates was not reduced in the effluent. Results of PCR and quantitative PCR showed that 80% of antibiotic resistant Enterococci were positive for PCR amplification of erAB, but negative for PCR amplification of other genes. Concentrations of ermB and ermF were peaked in the spring and autumn samples. Resistance genes of ermB, ermF, mefA, ereA, mphB and transfer element of Tn916/1545 were reduced to some degree during antibiotic production wastewater treatment, but concentrations of ermX, intIl, ISCRl in the effluent were higher than those in the influent. The abundance of mefA, ereA and Tn916/1545 were reduced during wastewater treatment process, and the better removal performance for mefA, ereA, Tn916/1545 occurred in spring than in autumn; however, the abundance of ermX, intI1 and ISCR1 were increased. PMID:26717693

  7. Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater using the UASB-technology.

    PubMed

    Urban, I; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater enables new applications for the reuse of wastewater. The effluent could be used for irrigation as the included nutrients are not affected by the treatment. Much more interesting now are renewable energies and the retrenchment of CO(2) emission. With the anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater, not only can the CO(2) emission be reduced but "clean" energy supply can be gained by biogas. Most important for the sustainability of this process is the gathering of methane from the liquid effluent of the reactor, because the negative climate-relevant effect from the degassing methane is much higher than the positive effect from saving CO(2) emission. In this study, UASB reactors were used with a flocculent sludge blanket for the biodegradation of the carbon fraction in the wastewater with different temperatures and concentrations. It could be shown that the positive effect is much higher for municipal wastewater with high concentrations in hot climates. PMID:18048975

  8. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  9. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  10. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    sludge. Methanogenic bacterial aggregates have been successfully applied in many full scale installations, especially for sugar beet, potato, pulp and paper mill, and other soluble wastes. The UASB reactors used for these treatments are simple in construction and handling which result in rather low total costs. A further and wider application of UASB reactors and methanogenic aggregates for various industrial wastewaters is expected. PMID:2291438

  11. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. ELECTROLYTIC TREATMENT OF OILY WASTEWATER FROM MANUFACTURING AND MACHINING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous electrolytic treatment is being developed to remove emulsified oil from dilute oily wastewater streams, such as is generated in metal working operations. In this process, the wastewater permeates through an iron chip bed anode and steel mesh cathode. A potential is a...

  13. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  14. DESIGN MANUAL: ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 18 million housing units, or 25% of all housing units in the United States, dispose of their wastewater using onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems. These systems include a variety of components and configurations, the most common being the septic tank/so...

  15. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated. PMID:25225855

  16. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  17. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:25827248

  18. Wastewater treatment with bacteria immobilized onto a ceramic carrier in an aerated system.

    PubMed

    Kariminiaae-Hamedaani, Hamid-Reza; Kanda, Kohzo; Kato, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatment of the wastewater discharged from a food processing factory was continuously carried out in a packed bed bioreactor under aerobic conditions. The bacterium isolated from the wastewater was immobilized onto a new type of ceramic carrier by a vacuum method and high numbers of bacteria were colonized onto the carrier (2.9 x 10(9) cfu/g of dry ceramic carrier). The effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and aeration rate on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was investigated. The system was able on average to remove more than 82% of the influent COD during 160 d of operation and more than 87% of the influent COD on average was removed when the HRT was 30.17 h and the aeration rate was 2.0 vvm. Aeration rates in the range of 0.4 to 2.0 vvm do not affect the COD removal efficiency. PMID:16233380

  19. Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen during biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Lin, Huirong; Yu, Guozhong; Zhang, Shenghua; Zhao, Chengmei

    2013-04-01

    Due to its potential to form toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is considered as one of the most important parameters in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This study describes a comprehensive investigation of variations in DON levels in orbal oxidation ditches. The results showed that DON increased gradually from 0.71 to 1.14 mg I(-1) along anaerobic zone, anoxic zone, aerobic zone 1 and aerobic 2. Molecular weight fractionation of DON in one anaerobic zone and one aerobic zone (aerobic zone 2) was performed. We found that the proportion of small molecular weight (<6 kDa) decreased and large molecular weight (> 20 kDa) showed opposite trend. This variation may have been caused due to the release of different types of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during biological processes. These SMPs contained both tryptophan protein-like and aromatic protein-like substances, which were confirmed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis. PMID:24620601

  20. Fate of estrogen conjugate 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate in dairy wastewater: comparison of aerobic and anaerobic degradation and metabolite formation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Zou, Yonghong; Li, Xiaolin; Machesky, Michael L

    2013-08-15

    Irrigation with concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) wastewater on croplands has been identified as a major source discharging steroid hormones into the environment. To assess the potential risks on this irrigation practice, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were systematically investigated in aqueous solutions blended with dairy wastewater. Dissipation of the conjugated estrogen was dominated by biodegradation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The half-lives for the biodegradation of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions from 15 to 45°C varied from 1.70 to 415 d and 22.5 to 724 d, respectively. Under the same incubation conditions, anaerobic degradation rates of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were significantly less than aerobic degradation rates, suggesting that this hormone contaminant may accumulate in anaerobic or anoxic environments. Three degradation products were characterized under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 25°C, with estrone-3-sulfate and 17α-estradiol identified as primary metabolites and estrone identified as a secondary metabolite. However, the major degradation mechanisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were distinctly different. For aerobic degradation, oxidation at position C17 of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate ring was a major degradation mechanism. In contrast, deconjugation of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate thio-ester bond at position C3 was a major process initiating degradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23708453

  1. [Impact of proportion of adding raw wastewater on post-treatment of digested piggery wastewater].

    PubMed

    Deng, Liang-Wei; Cao, Wei-Ping; Sun, Xin; Li, Shu-Lan; Chen, Zi-Ai

    2007-03-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat digested piggery wastewater, in order to investigate the impact of proportion of adding raw wastewater. In consecutive experiments, the reactor with adding 30% raw wastewater could get low ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), usually less than 10 mg/L in the effluent, while the reactors with adding 10% or 20% raw wastewater, concentration of NH3-N increased by degrees until reached 300 mg/L or 80 mg/L respectively at end of experiment. These can be explained by the facts that the reactor with adding 30% raw wastewater could maintain stable pH (about 7.7), whereas pH in the reactors with adding 10% or 20% raw wastewater decreased gradually until to below 5.5. Performance monitoring of a cycle of SBR indicate that the peak value of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N) and valley value of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) occur in the fourth, third and second hour after aeration beginning for the reactors with adding 10%, 20% and 30% raw wastewater respectively, which imply that the more is the proportion of adding raw wastewater, the fast does the ammonia oxidized. These results can be attributed to the facts the higher proportion of adding raw wastewater brought better denitrification resulting in stable and high pH. The batch experiment shows that the rate of denitrification has positive correlation with ratio of BOD5 to TN in influent. The consecutive and batch experiment all prove the proportion of adding raw wastewater must reach more than 30% for normal operation of post-treatment of digested piggery wastewater. PMID:17633638

  2. Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

  3. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    PubMed Central

    Speth, Daan R.; in 't Zandt, Michiel H.; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date. PMID:27029554

  4. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date. PMID:27029554

  5. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard. PMID:26942530

  6. The treatment of solvent recovery raffinate by aerobic granular sludge in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Jiang, Guo-sheng; Dan, Jing-feng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Mature aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was inoculated for the start-up of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high concentration solvent recovery raffinate (SRR). The proportion of simulated wastewater (SW) (w/w) in the influent gradually decreased to zero during the operation, while volume of SRR gradually increased from zero to 10.84 L. AGS was successfully domesticated after 48 days, which maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was orange, irregular, smooth and compact. Sludge volume index (SVI), SV30/SV5, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids/mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS/MLSS), extracellular polymeric substances, proteins/polysaccharides, average particle size, granulation rate, specific oxygen utilization rates (SOUR)H and (SOUR)N of AGS were about 38 mL/g, 0.97, 0.52, 39.73 mg/g MLVSS, 1.17, 1.51 mm, 96.66%, 47.40 mg O2/h g volatile suspended solids (VSS) and 8.96 mg O2/h g VSS, respectively. Good removal effect was achieved by the reactor. Finally, the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) were more than 98%, 96%, 97% and 97%, respectively. The result indicated gradually increasing the proportion of real wastewater in influent was a useful domestication method, and the feasibility of AGS for treatment of high C/N ratio industrial wastewater. PMID:26322760

  7. Carbon offsets from improved swine manure management using aerobic treatment technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic treatment of manure is an accepted manure management system under protocols adopted through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from replacement of anaerobic lagoons with aerobic treatme...

  8. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  9. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  10. PRODUCTION OF NATURAL PLASTICS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Sourcing
    Locating our research on site at a wastewater plant proved less reasonable than simply shipping biosolids from the site to our lab. By not locating at one particular site, we were able to experiment with biosolids from several wastewater t...

  11. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater including removal of coloured and recalcitrant to biodegradation pollutants.

    PubMed

    Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, B; Kalyuzhnyi, S

    2004-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (62-67%) even for such high strength and recalcitrant wastewater as the cultivation medium from the first separation process of baker'syeasts (the average organic loading rates varied from 3.7 to 10.3 g COD/l/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (20 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from strong nitrogenous anaerobic effluents; however, it suffered from COD-deficiency to fulfil denitrification requirements. To balance the COD/N ratio, some bypass of raw wastewater should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron chloride coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic effluents may fulfil the discharge limits (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins) under iron concentrations around 200 mg/l. PMID:15497831

  12. Perspectives on anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Love, Nancy G; Skerlos, Steven J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2012-10-01

    Interest in increasing the sustainability of water management is leading to a reevaluation of domestic wastewater (DWW) treatment practices. A central goal is to reduce energy demands and environmental impacts while recovering resources. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have the ability to produce a similar quality effluent to aerobic treatment, while generating useful energy and producing substantially less residuals. This review focuses on operational considerations that require further research to allow implementation of AnMBR DWW treatment. Specific topics include membrane fouling, the lower limits of hydraulic retention time and temperature allowing for adequate treatment, complications with methane recovery, and nutrient removal options. Based on the current literature, future research efforts should focus on increasing the likelihood of net energy recovery through advancements in fouling control and development of efficient methods for dissolved methane recovery. Furthermore, assessing the sustainability of AnMBR treatment requires establishment of a quantitative environmental and economic evaluation framework. PMID:22608937

  13. Real Science, Real Scientists: Student's Experiments with Natural and Artificial Wastewater Treatment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    In this extended biology, ecology, and earth science activity, students construct hands-on models of natural wastewater treatment and wastewater treatment facilities to achieve an understanding of wastewater treatment process in nature and wastewater treatment facilities. During this simulation activity, students have opportunities to learn…

  14. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Lauren B; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Aga, Diana S; Love, Nancy G

    2015-01-23

    We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss. PMID:25200120

  15. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-09-15

    Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5-1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g(-1) and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h(-1), were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (Vmax) varied between 1164.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and 1867.4 mg L(-1) h(-1). High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule. PMID:25897697

  16. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  17. LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS - 3 VOLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents information on site selection and design of municipal wastewater land treatment systems. ive properly managed systems are presented as case histories: Michigan State University, City of Tallahassee, Flushing Meadows (NY), Pennsylvania State University, a...

  18. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA guidance on land treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is updated for the first time since 1984. The significant new technilogical changes include phytoremediation, vadose zone monitoring, new design approaches to surface irrigation, center pivot irrigation,...

  19. ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

  20. DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

  1. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  2. MANUAL FOR EVALUATING SECONDARY IMPACTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes procedures for assessing secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities. The manual guides the user through this impact assessment process by describing EPA policy and regulations governing analysis of these impacts; approaches to refine and improve ex...

  3. DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR AUTOMATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...

  4. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising. PMID:20662390

  5. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward. PMID:24015572

  6. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  7. Cost of phosphate removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuessler, H.

    1983-01-01

    Construction and operating costs of advanced wastewater treatment for phosphate removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants have been investigated on orders from the Federal Environmental Bureau in Berlin. Particular attention has been paid to applicable kinds of precipitants for pre-, simultaneous and post-precipitation as well as to different phosphate influent and effluent concentrations. The article offers detailed comments on determination of technical data, investments, capital costs, operating costs and annual costs as well as potential cost reductions resulting from precipitation. Selected results of the cost investigation are shown in graphical form as specific investments, operating and annual costs depending on wastewater flow.

  8. Characterization of organic particulates present in milk factory process waters used for reuse along with aerobically digested effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Wild, Karl; Heaven, Michael W; McGee, Rachel; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater from a dairy processor is being reused and recycled both within the plant and for irrigation. Flash pyrolysis GC-MS was used to examine nitrogen and phenol containing compounds (M.W.=35 to 450 g/mol) in the particulate fraction of the milk condensate, combined clean wastewater and aerobic bioreactor effluent. For comparison, the particulates were also prepared for standard GC-MS analyses using conventional solvent extraction methods. Compounds detected by pyrolysis GC-MS were found mostly in the bioreactor with the amino acid arginine (220 mg/kg) and the amino acid derivative 1-methyl-5-oxo-L-proline methyl ester (130 mg/kg) found at the highest concentrations. In comparison, sterols detected in the effluent were found at higher concentrations when using solvent extraction indicating some degradation with pyrolysis GC-MS. However, with few exceptions, particulates were generally found not to act as passive collectors capable of concentrating less water soluble chemicals. PMID:20826082

  9. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan. PMID:19699088

  10. CFD for wastewater treatment: an overview.

    PubMed

    Samstag, R W; Ducoste, J J; Griborio, A; Nopens, I; Batstone, D J; Wicks, J D; Saunders, S; Wicklein, E A; Kenny, G; Laurent, J

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a rapidly emerging field in wastewater treatment (WWT), with application to almost all unit processes. This paper provides an overview of CFD applied to a wide range of unit processes in water and WWT from hydraulic elements like flow splitting to physical, chemical and biological processes like suspended growth nutrient removal and anaerobic digestion. The paper's focus is on articulating the state of practice and research and development needs. The level of CFD's capability varies between different process units, with a high frequency of application in the areas of final sedimentation, activated sludge basin modelling and disinfection, and greater needs in primary sedimentation and anaerobic digestion. While approaches are comprehensive, generally capable of incorporating non-Newtonian fluids, multiphase systems and biokinetics, they are not broad, and further work should be done to address the diversity of process designs. Many units have not been addressed to date. Further needs are identified throughout, but common requirements include improved particle aggregation and breakup (flocculation), and improved coupling of biology and hydraulics. PMID:27508360

  11. Simulation study supporting wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    PubMed

    Hvala, N; Vrecko, D; Burica, O; Strazar, M; Levstek, M

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study where upgrading of an existing wastewater treatment plant was supported by simulation. The aim of the work was to decide between two technologies to improve nitrogen removal: a conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). To perform simulations, the mathematical models of both processes were designed. The models were calibrated based on data from ASP and MBBR pilot plants operating in parallel on the existing plant. Only two kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted to represent the real plant behaviour. Steady-state analyses have shown a similar efficiency of both processes in relation to carbon removal, but improved performance of MBBR in relation to nitrogen removal. Better performance of MBBR can be expected especially at low temperatures. Simulations have not confirmed the expected less volume required for the MBBR process. Finally, the MBBR was chosen for plant upgrading. The developed process model will be further used to evaluate the final plant configuration and to optimise the plant operating parameters. PMID:12361028

  12. Integrated environmental assessment of tertiary and residuals treatment--LCA in the wastewater industry.

    PubMed

    Beavis, P; Lundie, S

    2003-01-01

    In the wastewater industry, decision-makers lack access to an environmental tool that can assist in further informing the non-financial analysis of a system. Such a tool should incorporate impacts beyond the effluent quality and look at the supporting processes of a plant as well as plant specific operations. Life Cycle Assessment can provide the means to fill a gap in pertinent information towards more sustainable decision-making. The project "Best Practice LCA in the Wastewater Industry" is commissioned by the CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control at UNSW with representatives from Sydney Water Corporation (SWC), NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation and the NSW Department of Public Works. Two case studies were researched to provide a post-implementation review of changes in wastewater. Case study 1: The conversion from chlorine gas to hypochlorite and UV disinfection has been completed for several inland wastewater plants at SWC. A review of operational data for each of the options has been incorporated into an LCA of each technology. Under efficient dosing conditions, disinfection with the hypochlorite system has the minimum environmental impact. Case study 2 deals with the conversion from anaerobic to aerobic digestion. Aerobic digestion minimises release of nutrients into a sidestream to be further treated in the plant. However conversion results in more biosolids production and higher electricity requirements. This study includes a consideration of the environmental impacts of biosolids production and application. On the basis of the extended boundary including consideration of reflux composition, energy requirements and biosolids quality to potentially offset fertiliser production, anaerobic digestion performs best in 6 out of 9 impact categories. These results suggest that environmental LCA has a role in informing decision-making on unit process and treatment train selection by quantifying aspects on non-financial criteria. Also

  13. Microbial community and treatment ability investigation in AOAO process for the optoelectronic wastewater treatment using PCR-DGGE biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Jien; Lin, Yi-Zi; Fanjiang, Jen-Mao; Fan, Chihhao

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the microbial community variation and treatment ability of a full-scale anoxic-aerobic-anoxic-aerobic (AOAO) process used for optoelectronic wastewater treatment. The sludge samples in the biological treatment units were collected and subsequently subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identification and the wastewater components such as BOD5 and NH3-N were evaluated during the processes. The group specific primers selected were targeting at the kingdom Bacteria, the Acidobacterium, the α-proteobacteria, the β-proteobacteria ammonia oxidizers, Actinobacteria and methyllotrophs, and the 16S rDNA clone libraries were established. Ten different clones were obtained using the Bacteria primers and eight different clones were obtained using the β-proteobacteria ammonia oxidizer primers. Over 95 % of BOD5 and 90 % of NH3-N were removed from the system. The microbial community analysis showed that the Janthinobacterium sp. An8 and Nitrosospira sp. were the dominant species throughout the AOAO process. Across the whole clone library, six clones showed closely related to Janthinobacterium sp. and these species seemed to be the dominant species with more than 50 % occupancy of the total population. Nitrosospira sp. was the predominant species within the β-proteobacteria and occupied more than 30 % of the total population in the system. These two strains were the novel species specific to the AOAO process for optoelectronic treatment, and they were found strongly related to the system capability of removing aquatic contaminants by inspecting the wastewater concentration variation across the system. PMID:22842856

  14. Parametric study of a dyeing wastewater treatment by modified sericite.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate color, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal using modified sericite with magnesium (Mg-Sericite) flocculants in dyeing wastewater. Mg-Sericite flocculants successfully removed >95% of color, SS. COD and BOD in dyeing wastewater at the following optimal conditions: Mg-Sericite dosage of 40 mg/L, pH of 11, Mg/Sericite ratio of 1.5, settling time of 20 min, mixing time of 10 min and mixing rate of 100 rpm. The bioflocculant, Mg-Sericite, can be a promising flocculants due to its high efficiency and low dose requirements in dyeing wastewater treatment. In addition, Mg-Sericite does not contaminate treated wastewater, which can be recycled to reduce not only the cost and the demand for water but also the extra operational costs for reusing wastewater. PMID:26936387

  15. Landfill Leachate Toxicity Removal in Combined Treatment with Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kalka, J.

    2012-01-01

    Combined treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater was performed in order to investigate the changes of leachate toxicity during biological treatment. Three laboratory A2O lab-scale reactors were operating under the same parameters (Q-8.5–10 L/d; HRT-1.4–1.6 d; MLSS 1.6–2.5 g/L) except for the influent characteristic and load. The influent of reactor I consisted of municipal wastewater amended with leachate from postclosure landfill; influent of reactor II consisted of leachate collected from transient landfill and municipal wastewater; reactor III served as a control and its influent consisted of municipal wastewater only. Toxicity of raw and treated wastewater was determinted by four acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Vibrio fischeri, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Landfill leachate increased initial toxicity of wastewater. During biological treatment, significant decline of acute toxicity was observed, but still mixture of leachate and wastewater was harmful to all tested organisms. PMID:22623882

  16. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  17. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

  18. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-01

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases. PMID:27001077

  19. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  20. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater. PMID:14587952

  1. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  2. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

  3. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton's reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton's reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton's reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton's reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed. PMID:26855186

  4. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on swine wastewater solubilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, S-M; Na, S; So, K-H; Nam, J-J

    2009-01-01

    In order to accelerate hydrolysis known to be the rate-limiting step of the overall digestion process for swine wastewater, an ultrasonic treatment process was tested for the solubilization of the swine wastewater. The effectiveness of ultrasonic solubilization of the swine wastewater under various operational conditions was compared by means of an increment of soluble organics in the treated swine wastewater and the hydrolysis rate constant. Ultrasonic treatment resulted in the high degree of solubilization of particulate organics in the swine wastewater and the degree of solubilization increased with increasing supplied energy. The highest extent of an increment of SCOD concentration and SCOD/TCOD ratio at the end of the operation time of 60 min was 109.7 and 117.5%, respectively, under 120 W power output and 20(o)C operating temperature conditions. The observed highest hydrolysis rate constant described by pseudo-first order rate constant was 2.94 h(-1) under the same conditions. Based on the estimated activation energy from modeling using the Arrhenius equation, ultrasonic solubilization of the swine wastewater under higher supplied energy conditions was more dependent on the operating temperature, which was consistent with the experimentally obtained results. Based on the investigation into the effect of gas type and gas delivery methods for ultrasonic solubilization of the swine wastewater, oxygen gas bubbling through the liquid showed the highest degree of an increment of soluble organics possibly attributed to the influent of oxygen in an increase of radicals during the sonolysis. PMID:19214016

  5. Greenhouse gas emission reduction and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A

    2008-01-01

    Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. Emission reductions were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). Emission sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) emissions from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. Emission reductions resulted from the difference between total project and baseline emissions. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG emissions 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net emission reductions by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG emission reductions and credits can help compensate for the

  6. [Treatment of olive mill wastewater by a process combining an intensive treatment (Jet-Loop reactor) followed by an extensive treatment (stabilization ponds)].

    PubMed

    Jail, A; Boukhoubza, F; Nejmeddine, A; Duarte, J C; Sayadi, S; Hassani, L

    2010-04-14

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is generally recognized as an environmentally troublesome by-product of the olive oil industry as its disposal without any treatment is known to cause serious environmental problems. However, this effluent has a high fertilizing power and constitutes, with urban wastewater, an important low-cost source. Biological treatment of OMW, with a process combining an aerobic reactor, 'Jet-Loop', and waste stabilization ponds, was investigated for possible agricultural reuse. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the contribution and the complementarity of the two systems in the total OMW treatment. Bio-treatment was performed using a 100-litre Jet-Loop reactor working volume achieving a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds maximum removal rate of 72% and 68%, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. Co-treatment of OMW and domestic wastewater in waste stabilization ponds, with a hydraulic retention time of 22 days, reached a global removal rate of 66% for COD while no trace of phenolic compounds was detected on this level during the entire treatment period. Dynamics of faecal coliforms in stabilization ponds showed a total removal rate of 99.9% (3 logarithmic units (Log.U)). Preliminary results of agronomic tests on the ray-grass have evaluated the fertilizing effect of the final effluent resulting from the co-treatment. PMID:20480828

  7. Breeding of a new wastewater treatment yeast by genetic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We previously developed a host vector system for the wastewater treatment yeast Hansenula fabianii J640. The promoter and terminator regions of the gene encoding glucoamylase from H. fabianii J640 were used for a new expression vector, pHFGE-1. The performance of pHFGE-1 was compared with that of the widely used pG-1 transformant vector. H. fabianii J640 (HF-TAMY) cells were transformed with pHFGE-1, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH-499 (SC-TAMY) cells were transformed with pG-1, both of which carried the Taka-amylase. Expression of Taka-amylase by HF-TAMY showed higher than that by SC-TAMY. By using this new system, we bred the new wastewater treatment yeast that shows α-amylase activity. This yeast appears to grow well under experimental wastewater conditions, and is effective in treating model wastewater containing soluble and insoluble starch. PMID:21906339

  8. Fluorochemical Mass Flows in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Huset, Carin A.; Luthy, Richard G.; Barofsky, Douglas F.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorochemicals have widespread applications and are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants via domestic wastewater. A field study was conducted at a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant to determine the mass flows of selected fluorochemicals. Flow-proportional, 24-h samples of raw influent, primary effluent, trickling filter effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent and grab samples of primary, thickened, activated, and anaerobically-digested sludge were collected over ten days and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Significant decreases in the mass flows of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorodecanoate occurred during trickling filtration and primary clarification, while activated sludge treatment decreased the mass flow of perfluorohexanoate. Mass flows of the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate were unchanged as a result of wastewater treatment, which indicates that conventional wastewater treatment is not effective for removal of these compounds. A net increase in the mass flows for perfluorooctane and perfluorodecane sulfonates occurred from trickling filtration and activated sludge treatment. Mass flows for perfluoroalkylsulfonamides and perfluorononanoate also increased during activated sludge treatment and are attributed to degradation of precursor molecules. PMID:17180988

  9. Bacterial communities in different locations, seasons and segments of a dairy wastewater treatment system consisting of six segments.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kikue; Yokota, Yuji; Sekimura, Toru; Uchiumi, Hiroshi; Guo, Yong; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Yumoto, Isao

    2016-08-01

    A dairy wastewater treatment system composed of the 1st segment (no aeration) equipped with a facility for the destruction of milk fat particles, four successive aerobic treatment segments with activated sludge and a final sludge settlement segment was developed. The activated sludge is circulated through the six segments by settling sediments (activated sludge) in the 6th segment and sending the sediments beck to the 1st and 2nd segments. Microbiota was examined using samples from the non-aerated 1st and aerated 2nd segments obtained from two farms using the same system in summer or winter. Principal component analysis showed that the change in microbiota from the 1st to 2nd segments concomitant with effective wastewater treatment is affected by the concentrations of activated sludge and organic matter (biological oxygen demand [BOD]), and dissolved oxygen (DO) content. Microbiota from five segments (1st and four successive aerobic segments) in one location was also examined. Although the activated sludge is circulating throughout all the segments, microbiota fluctuation was observed. The observed successive changes in microbiota reflected the changes in the concentrations of organic matter and other physicochemical conditions (such as DO), suggesting that the microbiota is flexibly changeable depending on the environmental condition in the segments. The genera Dechloromonas, Zoogloea and Leptothrix are frequently observed in this wastewater treatment system throughout the analyses of microbiota in this study. PMID:27521942

  10. The occurrence and fate of siloxanes in wastewater treatment plant in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Wen-Long; Sun, Shao-Jing; Qi, Hong; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and fate of four cyclic (D3 to D6) and 10 linear (L5 to L14) siloxanes were investigated in influent and effluent wastewater, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and surrounding air and soil within the WWTP in Harbin, Northeast China. The mean concentrations of total siloxanes in influent and effluent were 4780 and 997 ng/L and in excess sludge and aerobic sludge were 25.1 and 32.3 μg/g dw, respectively. The concentrations in air and soil within the WWTP were 243 ng/m(3) and 4960 ng/g dw, respectively. A similar composition profile of siloxanes in influent and sludge suggests their same source. Seasonal variation with concentration was comprehensively studied. It was found that temperature and rainfall are the two important factors for the seasonal variation of siloxanes. Adsorption with sewage sludge was the major way for the removal of siloxanes during the municipal wastewater treatment process. Overall, on a daily basis, the mass loading of the Σsiloxanes into the WWTP, out of the WWTP with the effluent and sludge, were estimated to be 3.0, 0.6 and 1.3 kg, respectively. In general, 21 % of siloxanes were discharged into the receiving body (Songhua River), 43 % of siloxanes were absorbed on sludge, and 36 % of siloxanes were lost during the whole process of WWTP. PMID:27023806

  11. Use of sanitary sewers as wastewater pre-treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warith, M.A.; Kennedy, K.; Reitsma, R.

    1998-12-31

    As wastewater travels through a sewer system it undergoes changes in composition. The changes in composition may be caused by chemical, physical and/or biological processes. At present engineers do not take into consideration the impacts of these processes on the wastewater quality when designing wastewater treatment systems. However, the impact of these processes on the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the wastewater can be significant. In the case of the biological processes, microorganisms present in the water as it travels through the sewer system are similar to those found in an activated sludge process. Given that the microorganism population and the hydraulic retention time often resembles that of an activated sludge process, it would seem only reasonable to look further into the possibility of using sewers as wastewater treatment systems. Furthermore, the plug flow regime of a sanitary sewer is inherently beneficial in terms of wastewater treatment as it is not subject to short-circuiting. The first part of this paper provides a technical review of the processes which take place in a sewer system and the resulting degradation of some of the more significant substances found in wastewater. The contribution of both the suspended biomass and the attached biomass to the degradation of substrate is also examined. The second part of this paper examines the use of the Toxchem computer model to predict the processes which are taking place in the sewer under a variety of conditions. The goal being to determine the magnitude of the degradation of substrate and dissolved oxygen depletion in a sewer system. In obtaining a better understanding of the processes that are taking place in sewer systems, engineers will be able to more accurately predict the degradation of substrates in sanitary sewer systems. This will result in a reduction in the size of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs).

  12. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China. PMID:27262686

  13. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  14. Olive oil mill wastewater purification by combination of coagulation- flocculation and biological treatments.

    PubMed

    Jaouani, A; Vanthournhout, M; Penninckx, M J

    2005-06-01

    In order to define an efficient pre-treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) to overcome major obstacles to biological treatment, various organic and mineral coagulants have been tested. In particular, the application of quicklime until a pH around 12 - 12.4 was reached, allowed the reduction of almost 37% of the initial COD, and approximately 88% and 71% of the colour and phenolic content of the waste. Hence, further biological treatments with an adapted aerobic consortium (AC) and a white rot fungus (WRF) strain were improved. The WRF Coriolopsis polyzona was more efficient than AC to reduce colour and polyphenols when the waste was prior diluted or pre-treated; however, it was less effective in COD removal. The combined treatment: lime - AC of OOMW having initial COD of 102 g l(-1) led to the elimination of about 77, 91 and 63%, of the COD, phenols and colour, respectively. Interestingly, the opposite combination AC - lime permitted better COD, phenols and colour reduction to respectively, 21, 11 and 11% of the initial values. This latter condition is technically recommended since only one step separation was needed and no pH correction was necessary before undergoing aerobic treatment. Moreover, the process would produce a sludge potentially rich in organic matter, and consequently, useful as an agricultural amendment or/and as an additive in animal nutrition. PMID:16035656

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sludge and municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Valentino, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Karabegovic, L; Gerardin, F; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Magnusson, P; Alexandersson, T; Bengtsson, S; Majone, M; Werker, A

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polyesters with comparable properties to some petroleum-based polyolefins. PHA production can be achieved in open, mixed microbial cultures and thereby coupled to wastewater and solid residual treatment. In this context, waste organic matter is utilised as a carbon source in activated sludge biological treatment for biopolymer synthesis. Within the EU project Routes, the feasibility of PHA production has been evaluated in processes for sludge treatment and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and municipal wastewater treatment. This PHA production process is being investigated in four units: (i) wastewater treatment with enrichment and production of a functional biomass sustaining PHA storage capacity, (ii) acidogenic fermentation of sludge for VFA production, (iii) PHA accumulation from VFA-rich streams, and (iv) PHA recovery and characterisation. Laboratory- and pilot-scale studies demonstrated the feasibility of municipal wastewater and solid waste treatment alongside production of PHA-rich biomass. The PHA storage capacity of biomass selected under feast-famine with municipal wastewater has been increased up to 34% (g PHA g VSS(-1)) in batch accumulations with acetate during 20 h. VFAs obtained from waste activated sludge fermentation were found to be a suitable feedstock for PHA production. PMID:24434985

  16. The fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Yang, Juan; Chen, Shaoyi

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca NBA-1, which was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment facility. The 90-day survivability of strain NBA-1 after exposure to sludge under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was investigated. The bacterium was inoculated into sludge amended with glucose and p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to compare the bacterial community variations between the modified sludge and nitrobenzene amendment. The results showed that glucose had no obvious effect on nitrobenzene biodegradation in the co-metabolism process, regardless of the presence/absence of oxygen. When p-CNB was added under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene remained unchanged although p-CNB inhibited the production of aniline. The diversity of the microbial community increased and NBA-1 continued to be one of the dominant strains. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation rate of both nitrobenzene and p-CNB was only 20% of that under anaerobic conditions. p-CNB had a toxic effect on the microorganisms in the sludge so that most of the DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) bands, including that of NBA-1, began to disappear under aerobic conditions after 90days of exposure. These data show that the bacterial community was stable under anaerobic conditions and the microorganisms, including NBA-1, were more resistant to the adverse environment. PMID:26086561

  17. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  18. Fate of oestrogens during anaerobic blackwater treatment with micro-aerobic post-treatment.

    PubMed

    de Mes, T Z D; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Zeeman, G; Lettinga, G

    2007-01-01

    The fate of oestrone (E1), 17beta-oestradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethynyloestradiol (EE2) was investigated in a concentrated blackwater treatment system consisting of an UASB septic tank, with micro-aerobic post-treatment. In UASB septic tank effluent a (natural) total concentration of 4.02 microg/L E1 and 18.69 microg/L E2, comprising the sum of conjugated (>70% for E1 and >80% for E2) and unconjugated forms, was measured. During post-treatment the unconjugated oestrogens were removed to below 1 microg/L. A percentage of 77% of the measured unconjugated E1 and 82% of E2 was associated with particles >1.2 microm in the final effluent implying high sorption affinity of both compounds. When spiking the UASB septic tank effluent with E1, E2, EE2 and the sulphate conjugate of E2, removal in the micro-aerobic post-treatment was >99% for both E2 and EE2 and 83% for E1. The lower removal value for E1 was a result of (slow) deconjugation during the treatment, and in the final effluent still 40% of E1 and 99% of E2 was present in conjugated form. The latter was the result of incomplete deconjugation of the spiked E2(3S) in the post-treatment system. PMID:17881833

  19. Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

    2012-09-01

    Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

  20. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  1. Neural fuzzy modeling of anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; Zhang, X.

    1999-12-01

    Anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems are difficult to model because their performance is complex and varies significantly with different reactor configurations, influent characteristics, and operational conditions. Instead of conventional kinetic modeling, advanced neural fuzzy technology was employed to develop a conceptual adaptive model for anaerobic treatment systems. The conceptual neural fuzzy model contains the robustness of fuzzy systems, the learning ability of neural networks, and can adapt to various situations. The conceptual model was used to simulate the daily performance of two high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems with satisfactory results obtained.

  2. A study of irradiation in the treatment of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huaying; Liu, Yuanxia; Jia, Haishun

    2002-03-01

    A grafting copolymer of starch and acrylamide was prepared by 60Co- γ pre-irradiation. After purification, the copolymer was modified by a cationic reaction to form a cationic copolymer. The structure of the cationic copolymer was identified by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Using the industrial and sanitary municipal wastewater from the Factory of Wastewater Treatment of Gaobeidian in Beijing as the study sample, three-treatment methods: flocculation deposition, flocculation deposition combined with γ irradiation and the direct irradiation were carried out. COD was applied to evaluate the treatment effect. The preliminary results show that the method of flocculation deposition combined with γ irradiation was effective than the other two.

  3. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector. PMID:17506433

  4. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system. PMID:26706768

  5. Real-time optical monitoring of the wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Koivuranta, Elisa; Kuokkanen, Anna; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-01-01

    One activated sludge process line was optically monitored in situ by a novel image analysis equipment. The results of the image analysis were studied to find out dependencies to the process variables of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and to the quality of the treated wastewater. The quality parameter of the treated wastewater, suspended solids, was modelled using the image analysis results. The model can be used for evaluating the performance of the WWTP and for the better control for stable effluent quality. It was shown that the results of the online optical monitoring reveal useful information from the process and can be used in forecasting the quality of biologically treated wastewater. The optical monitoring method together with process measurements has an important role in keeping the process in stable operating conditions and avoiding environmental risks. PMID:26238162

  6. Assessment of electrocoagulation for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Al-Lobaney, Amal; Makhlouf, Souzan

    2009-10-01

    Batch electrocoagulation experiments were carried out to evaluate the removal of sulfate and COD from petroleum refinery wastewater using three types of electrodes: aluminum, stainless steel, and iron. The effects of current density, electrode arrangement, electrolysis time, initial pH, and temperature were investigated for two wastewater samples with different concentrations of COD and sulfate. The experimental results indicated that the utilization of aluminum, as anode and cathode, was by far the most efficient arrangement in the reduction of both the contaminants. The treatment process was found to be largely affected by the current density and the initial composition of the wastewater. Although electrocoagulation was found to be most effective at 25 degrees C and a pH of 8, the influence of these two parameters on the removal rate was not significant. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation as a possible and reliable technique for the pretreatment of heavily contaminated petroleum refinery wastewater. PMID:19717218

  7. Effect of aerobic pretreatment with Aspergillus terreus on the anaerobic digestion of olive-mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Borja, R; Alba, J; Garrido, S E; Martínez, L; García, M P; Monteoliva, M; Ramos-Cormenzana, A

    1995-10-01

    A kinetic study was carried out on the anaerobic digestion of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) and OMW that was previously fermented with Aspergillus terreus. The bioreactors used were batch fed and contained saponite as support for the mediating bacteria. The anaerobic digestion process followed first-order kinetics, from which the kinetic constant A was calculated using a non-linear regression. This kinetic parameter was influenced by the pretreatment carried out, and was 3.7 times higher for pretreated OMW than for untreated OMW. The anaerobic processing of pretreated OMW seemingly involved no inhibition phenomena as the biotoxicity and the total phenolic compound content (analysed by HPLC) were reduced by 71.2% and 77.9% respectively as a result of the pretreatment. Finally, the yield coefficient of methane production was 0.345 litres of methane (at standard temperature and pressure)/g of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 23% higher than that provided by untreated wastewater. PMID:7576261

  8. OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF POULTRY PROCESSING WASTEWATER IN COLD CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluates a full-scale wastewater treatment facility emphasizing the overland flow process in northern Indiana, which has a cold climate. The other processes include mechanical pretreatment, a storage lagoon, a lagoon for batch chemical treatment of the overland flow...

  9. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. A two-phased plann...

  10. BILATERAL WASTEWATER LAND TREATMENT RESEARCH BY CHINA AND THE USEPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rapid infiltration (R.I.) method of land treatment as a partial solution to wastewater treatment and reuse for the 0.45 billion m3/yr (15.75 billion ft 3/yr) of safe irrigation water needed by the year 2000. hinese environmental scientists...

  11. A Primer on Wastewater Treatment, July 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This general information pamphlet is concerned with the types of wastewater treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating waste. Current methods are described, illustrated and evaluated. Pollution problems from oxygen-demanding wastes, disease-causing agents, plant nutrients, synthetic chemicals, inorganic…

  12. TWO-STAGE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF COKE PLANT WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a pilot-plant study of the use of advanced waste treatment methods in upgrading metallurgical cokemaking wastewaters to Best Available Technology (BAT) levels. Mobile treatment units, operable at a flow rate of 191/min, were used. Methods used included two-st...

  13. Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, R.; And Others

    This manual presents a procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are given emphasis. The basic unit operations and unit processes are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. The manual includes design…

  14. Optimal flow sensor placement on wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Villez, Kris; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Corominas, Lluís

    2016-09-15

    Obtaining high quality data collected on wastewater treatment plants is gaining increasing attention in the wastewater engineering literature. Typical studies focus on recognition of faulty data with a given set of installed sensors on a wastewater treatment plant. Little attention is however given to how one can install sensors in such a way that fault detection and identification can be improved. In this work, we develop a method to obtain Pareto optimal sensor layouts in terms of cost, observability, and redundancy. Most importantly, the resulting method allows reducing the large set of possibilities to a minimal set of sensor layouts efficiently for any wastewater treatment plant on the basis of structural criteria only, with limited sensor information, and without prior data collection. In addition, the developed optimization scheme is fast. Practically important is that the number of sensors needed for both observability of all flows and redundancy of all flow sensors is only one more compared to the number of sensors needed for observability of all flows in the studied wastewater treatment plant configurations. PMID:27258618

  15. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  16. Integrated physicochemical and biological treatment process for fluoride and phosphorus removal from fertilizer plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Mlaik, Najwa; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-08-01

    The phosphate fertilizer industry produces highly hazardous and acidic wastewaters. This study was undertaken to develop an integrated approach for the treatment of wastewaters from the phosphate industry. Effluent samples were collected from a local phosphate fertilizer producer and were characterized by their high fluoride and phosphate content. First, the samples were pretreated by precipitation of phosphate and fluoride ions using hydrated lime. The resulting low- fluoride and phosphorus effluent was then treated with the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process to monitor the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Phosphorus removal included a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic system operating under continuous flow. Pretreated wastewater was added to the activated sludge and operated for 160 days in the reactor. The operating strategy included increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 0.3 to 1.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. The stable and high removal rates of COD, NH4(+)-N, and PO4(3-)-P were then recorded. The mean concentrations of the influent were approximately 3600 mg COD/L, 60 mg N/L, and 14 mg P/L, which corresponded to removal efficiencies of approximately 98%, 86%, and 92%, respectively. PMID:21905410

  17. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

  18. Economy of precipitating agent application in municipal wastewater treatment facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neis, U.; Geppert, B.; Hahn, H. H.; Gleisberg, D.

    1983-01-01

    Purification by precipitation in this study is not considered primarily as a means of phosphate removal but as a method for reduction of suspended solids BOD and COD. A dynamic calculation procedure is used to allow for exact determination of time dependent variation of costs. The results show that costs of wastewater treatment by precipitation may equal those of conventional primary clarification and secondary biological treatment, especially with low-cost iron-II-salts in simultaneous precipitation and in larger plants ( 20,000 PF). Cost advantages may be accrued in smaller plants by using the more expensive trivalent salts in pre-precipitation as compared to conventional low-load biological treatment. This is due mainly to better effluent quality and, consequently, lower wastewater fees (Wastewater Discharge Act). If the precipitant is dosed temporarily only during periods of highest pollution the savings can be about 5 to 10%.

  19. Sustainable wastewater treatment: how might microbial fuel cells contribute.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung T; Kim, Jung Rae; Premier, Giuliano C; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Changwon; Sloan, William T

    2010-01-01

    The need for cost-effective low-energy wastewater treatment has never been greater. Clean water for our expanding and predominantly urban global population will be expensive to deliver, eats into our diminishing carbon-based energy reserves and consequently contributes to green house gases in the atmosphere and climate change. Thus every potential cost and energy cutting measure for wastewater treatment should be explored. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could potentially yield such savings but, to achieve this, requires significant advances in our understanding in a few critical areas and in our designs of the overall systems. Here we review the research which might accelerate our progress towards sustainable wastewater treatment using MFCs: system control and modelling and the understanding of the ecology of the microbial communities that catalyse the generation of electricity. PMID:20688144

  20. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla Regina; Botta, Clarice M R; Espindola, Evaldo L G; Olivi, Paulo

    2008-05-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity. PMID:17931769

  1. Response of a seagrass fish assemblage to improved wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ourgaud, M; Ruitton, S; Bell, J D; Letourneur, Y; Harmelin, J G; Harmelin-Vivien, M L

    2015-01-15

    We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites. PMID:25499183

  2. Dynamic simulation of chemical industry wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Bury, S J; Groot, C K; Huth, C; Hardt, N

    2002-01-01

    High variability, stringent effluent permits, and often extreme operating conditions define the practice of wastewater treatment in the chemical industry. This paper reviews the benefits and challenges of applying dynamic simulation to chemical-industry wastewater treatment plants by describing case studies at full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The applications range from process troubleshooting to optimization and control. The applications have been valuable and useful in developing a deeper understanding of the plants as integrated systems. However there still remains substantial work to implement the dynamic simulations for daily real-time use by plant engineers and operators. This opportunity to improve plant operations is still largely untapped and will remain so until dynamic state estimation and data reconciliation are incorporated into simulation packages for use in developing the on-line simulations. PMID:11936653

  3. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  4. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  5. Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  7. IMPACT OF INFLUENT MICROORGANISMS UPON POOR SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE QUIESCENT ZONE OF AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most common biological treatment systems used to clean wastewater is suspended growth activated sludge wastewater treatment (AS). When AS is adapted for the treatment of wastewater from industrial manufacturing processes, unanticipated difficulties can arise. For the s...

  8. Electrospun nylon 6 microfiltration membrane for treatment of brewery wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul; Sultana, Sormin; Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2016-07-01

    Nylon 6 microfiltration membrane, for the treatment of brewery wastewater, was fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by hot-pressing. The fabricated membrane was robust and demonstrated highly hydrophilic property (water contact angle 39° at the touching point to the membrane surface and the water droplet was completely immersed into the membrane in 7 seconds), and higher porosity (65%) with pore sizes of 100 to 210 nm. The electrospun nylon 6 membrane showed higher pure water flux (850 LMH) at an applied pressure of 4 psi. The same membrane also demonstrated a 95% rejection rate of suspended solids (SS) in brewery wastewater treatment.

  9. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  10. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  11. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    PubMed

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed. PMID:24730286

  12. Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Long; Xie, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lanhua; Wang, Ziwen; Wu, Wenhua; Zhao, Fuyi; Xie, Xiaoming; Huang, Shiqing; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Shaohua

    2014-11-01

    Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters. PMID:25052339

  13. Treatment of unpleasant odors in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, Petros; Latos, Manolis; Kotsifaki, Christina; Lazaridis, Mihalis; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper to present a case study on how to address the odor problem from secondary sources within a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by first identifying the locations of the problem and second by evaluating alternative treatment technologies. The WWTP of Chania is a typical 100,000 equivalent inhabitants-facility in a warm semi-arid environment which is located close to residential areas. The installation of a chemical scrubber to control major odor sources within the plant did not succeed in eliminating complaints by nearby residents, and additional measures were required. In this case study we identify all major secondary sources of odor within the plant and evaluate the effectiveness of the different technologies that were employed to address this problem (cover installation, gas and liquid phase oxidation, activated carbon/permanganate absorption, FeCl(3) addition). In particular, we found that installation of covers and reduction of turbulence at two key locations within the WWTP was the best strategy to combat unpleasant odors. Furthermore, when the central chemical scrubber was near capacity the installation of an auxiliary system of activated carbon absorption coupled to permanganate oxidation was deemed to be a safe approach. However, despite the very high removal efficiency (>99.5%) of the unit, the addition of FeCl(3) in the liquid phase was required in order to achieve complete deodorization (below the human odor threshold level). PMID:20453338

  14. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  15. Fecal contamination of wastewater treatment plants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Serrano, Isa; Van Harten, Sofia; Bessa, Lucinda J; Bernardo, Fernando; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Reutilization of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for non-potable applications is increasing due to the reduction of sustainable water resources. These products mostly come from municipal WWTP and also from slaughterhouses effluents. The microbiological certification of these products is mandatory before their discharge into the environment. This study evaluates if the treatment applied in WWTP to municipal waters or to poultry slaughterhouse effluents distributed over the Portuguese continental territory is efficient in reducing the microbiological risk associated with the reutilization of those wastewaters and sludges. Fecal indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were evaluated in 42 and 24 wastewater samples from 14 municipal WWTP and 8 poultry slaughterhouse treatment plants, respectively, by the conventional culture method and a rapid Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Bacterial enumeration in inflow water from most WWTP was rather high (generally >10(5) cells/ml), for both E. coli and Enterococcus spp., and the bacterial quantification by FISH was generally higher than enumeration by the conventional culture method. In both types of treatment plants studied, bacterial load from effluents and sludges was not statistically different from the inflows, indicating that the treatment applied seems to be equally unable to reduce the microbiological load of the effluents. These findings may jeopardize the safe reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and the quality of the water environment. Therefore, products like water, sewage sludge, and biosolids originated from the municipal and slaughterhouse WWTP studied should not be reutilized, and effluents treatment should be urgently reviewed. PMID:27236442

  16. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, A. A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-11-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD.

  17. Electrochemical wastewater treatment directly powered by photovoltaic panels: electrooxidation of a dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, but to enhance their green characteristics it seems interesting to use a green electric energy such as that provided by photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are actually under active research to decrease the economic cost of solar kW. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using an electrooxidation system directly powered by a photovoltaic array for the treatment of a wastewater. The experimental system used was an industrial electrochemical filter press reactor and a 40-module PV array. The influence on the degradation of a dye-containing solution (Remazol RB 133) of different experimental parameters such as the PV array and electrochemical reactor configurations has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the electrical configuration of the PV array has a strong influence on the optimal use of the electric energy generated. The optimum PV array configuration changes with the intensity of the solar irradiation, the conductivity of the solution, and the concentration of pollutant in the wastewater. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EO-PV system operation conditions to the wastewater treatment is proposed. PMID:20540540

  18. The role of fungi in the Sphagnum peat wastewater treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of suitable soils and the increased building in rural areas has led to the need for alternative onsite wastewater treatment systems. One alternative system utilizes Sphagnum peat to provide a high quality effluent (<10 mg/l BOD5, <6 mg/l nitrate N, and <1 fecal coliform bacteria/100 ml). Treatment efficiencies were greatest when the temperature of the peat was 0-10{degree}C. During this period the organic N and ammonia-N concentrations in the septic tank effluent were reduced by 90-95% and 95-99% respectively; the effluent contained 0.4-1.4 mg/liter organic N and 0.2-1.9 mg/liter ammonia-N. Treatment of the septic tank effluent is attributed to physical filtration, adsorption, and microbiological activity. Microbiological treatment of wastewater has traditionally been attributed to bacteria; however, the cool, acidic, aerobic environment in the peat system favored the growth and activity of fungi over that of bacteria. The fungal population recovered from the system by plating techniques ranged from 1.9 {times} 10{sup 6} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 9} colony forming units/gram of dry peat. Additional yeast species and zoosporic fungi were recovered from the peat samples by shake-culturing and baiting techniques. The ratio of fungal to bacterial activity, as measured by relative respiration rates, was 8:1 in the winter months and 6:2.5 in the summer. Excessive growth of fungi was controlled by the enchytraeid-worm population which was, in turn, fed upon by skunks, racoons, and birds. Additional nutrients were removed from the system when surface vegetation was harvested. Peat wastewater treatment systems, when properly designed and constructed, may be used effectively on adverse sites; their documented lifespan is ten years and their projected lifespan equals that of conventional soil adsorption systems.

  19. EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENT OF SLUDGE ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for thermal treatment of municipal wastewater sludges; for handling, treatment, and disposal of the strong liquor generated; and for controlling odors produced. Size ranges cov...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: ECONOMICS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the economics of wastewater treatment alternatives as a guide for minimizing the costs of meeting water pollution control requirements. Initially, operating and investment costs are presented for conventional wastewater treatment systems employed by the elec...

  1. ETV REPORT - EVALUATION OF DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL CORP. - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Evaluation of Davis Technologies International Corp. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    The Davis Technologies International Corp. (DTIC) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metalworking and ...

  2. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  3. Occurrence and enrichment of 'bacterial sherpas': climb to sustainability in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Arnaldos, M; Pagilla, K R

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents research on hemoglobin (Hb)-expressing bacteria in biological wastewater treatment systems. The outcome(s) will greatly reduce the aeration needs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and provide insight into emerging biological nitrogen removal processes using low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. In anthropogenic terms, the bacteria that express Hb could be considered as 'bacterial sherpas' that can function under low DO conditions. Hitherto, this functionality of bacteria has not been realized due to the initial response of the aerobic treatment stage: namely, morphology change by bacteria to filamentous forms to overcome oxygen mass transfer limitations causing bulking/foaming and nitrification inhibition. There is evidence, however, of the potential expression of Hb proteins by activated sludge (AS) bacteria. First, bacteria known to possess genes coding Hb proteins have been isolated from AS systems. Secondly, there is evidence that WWTPs are able to operate their biological processes at low DO without sludge bulking or incomplete nitrification. Our research has focused on nitrifying systems and has shown that this is due to prolonged operation at low DO conditions (0.1 mg O2/L), which allows sufficient time for bacterial acclimation. Additionally, it has been shown that enhanced Hb expression is linked to acclimation to low DO conditions. PMID:26524438

  4. Intermittent aeration to improve wastewater treatment efficiency in pilot-scale constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I; Trabi, Christophe L; Hawes, Patrick; Puigagut, Jaume; García, Joan

    2016-07-15

    Forced aeration of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) is nowadays a recognized method to improve treatment efficiency, mainly in terms of ammonium removal. While numerous investigations have been reported testing constant aeration, scarce information can be found about the efficiency of intermittent aeration. This study aims at comparing continuous and intermittent aeration, establishing if there is an optimal regime that will increase treatment efficiency of HSSF CWs whilst minimizing the energy requirement. Full and intermittent aeration were tested in a pilot plant of three HSSF CWs (2.64m(2) each) fed with primary treated wastewater. One unit was fully aerated; one intermittently aerated (i.e. by setting a limit of 0.5mg/L dissolved oxygen within the bed) with the remaining unit not aerated as a control. Results indicated that intermittent aeration was the most successful operating method. Indeed, the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic conditions promoted by the intermittent aeration resulted in the highest COD (66%), ammonium (99%) and total nitrogen (79%) removals. On the other hand, continuous aeration promotes ammonium removal (99%), but resulted in nitrate concentrations in the effluent of up to 27mg/L. This study demonstrates the high potential of the intermittent aeration to increase wastewater treatment efficiency of CWs providing an extreme benefit in terms of the energy consumption. PMID:27062558

  5. Persistence of Pathogenic Prion Protein during Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hinckley, Glen T.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Kurt H.; Bartholomay, Christian; McMahon, Katherine D.; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPTSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment. Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 10-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most of the agent would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. PMID:18754377

  6. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  7. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Energy pattern analysis of a wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratima; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Kansal, Arun

    2012-09-01

    Various forms of energy are used during a wastewater treatment process like electrical, manual, fuel, chemical etc. Most of the earlier studies have focused only on electrical energy intensity of large-scale centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents a methodological framework for analysing manual, mechanical, chemical and electrical energy consumption in a small-scaled WWTP. The methodology has been demonstrated on a small-scale WWTP in an institutional area. Total energy intensity of the plant is 1.046 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. Electrical energy is only about half of the total energy consumption. Manual energy also has a significant share, which means that the small-scale treatment plants offer significant employment opportunities in newly industrializing countries and replaces fossil fuel-based energy with renewable. There is a lack of sufficient data in the literature for comparison, and few studies have reported values that vary significantly due to the difference in scale, scope of the study and the choice of the treatment technologies. Replication of similar studies and generation of data in this area will offer directions for decision on choice of the scale of wastewater treatment process from the considerations of energy and climate change mitigation strategies.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation as a final treatment of synthetic tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2004-10-15

    Vegetable tannery wastewaters contain high concentrations of organics and other chemicals that inhibit the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations, so biorefractory organics that are not removed by biological treatment must be eliminated by a tertiary or advanced wastewater treatment. In this paper, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as a tertiary treatment of a vegetable tannery wastewater was investigated by performing galvanostatic electrolysis using lead dioxide (Ti/PbO2) and mixed titanium and ruthenium oxide (Ti/TiRuO2) as anodes under different experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that both the electrodes performed complete mineralization of the wastewater. In particular, the oxidation took place on the PbO2 anode by direct electron transfer and indirect oxidation mediated by active chlorine, while it occurred on the Ti/TiRuO2 anode only by indirect oxidation. Furthermore, the Ti/PbO2 gave a somewhat higher oxidation rate than that observed for the Ti/TiRuO2 anode. Although the Ti/TiRuO2 required almost the same energy consumption for complete COD removal, it was more stable and did not release toxic ions, so it was the best candidate for industrial applications. With the Ti/TiRuO2 anode, the rate of tannery wastewater oxidation increased with the current density, pH, and temperature of the solution. These results strongly indicate that electrochemical methods can be applied effectively as a final treatment of vegetable tannery wastewater allowing the complete removal of COD, tannin, and ammonium and decolorization. PMID:15543753

  10. Bacterial population dynamics in diary waste during aerobic and anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream and monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. Both...

  11. Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and

  12. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months. PMID:27105406

  13. Application of microwave radiation to biofilm heating during wastewater treatment in trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Marcin; Zielińska, Magdalena; Dębowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential for improving wastewater treatment by the application of microwave radiation (MW) compared to convective heating (CH) of trickling filters. Microwaves were delivered to the biofilm in a continuous and intermittent way to obtain temperatures of 20, 25, 35 and 40 °C. Although there was no effect of MW on organic removal, the observed yield coefficient was lower during the continuous MW supply compared to the periodic dosage and CH. The presence of organic compounds in the influent and continuous biofilm exposure to MW resulted in ca. 10% higher efficiency and ca. 20% higher rate of nitrification compared to intermittent MW dosage and CH. Independent of the method of reactor heating, the absence of organic carbon in the influent induced a significant increase in ammonium oxidation efficiency at 20-35 °C. Despite the aerobic conditions in trickling filters, nitrogen loss was observed. PMID:23131645

  14. UASB treatment of wastewater containing concentrated benzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.Y.; Fang, H.H.P.; Chen, T.; Chui, H.K.

    1995-10-01

    The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process removed 97--99% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater containing concentrated benzoate at 37 C, pH 7.5, a hydraulic retention time of 9.8 h, and loading rates up to 30.6 g-COD/(L {center_dot} day) based on the reactor volume. About 95.2% of the total COD removed was converted to methane; 0.034 g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was yielded for each gram of COD removed. The highly settleable granules were 1--3 mm in size with a layered microstructure and were composed in abundance of bacteria resembling the benzoate-degrading Syntrophus buswellii. Two interesting observations have led to the postulation that the degradation of benzoate into acetate was probably conducted completely inside the cell of Syntrophus buswellii-like bacteria: (1) no fatty acids except acetate were found in the effluent; and (2) the granules showed very limited butyrate-degrading capability and could not degrade propionate. This study demonstrated the feasibility of removing aromatic pollutants in wastewater by anaerobic processes.

  15. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters using anaerobic filters.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Sandra Luz; Torretta, Vincenzo; Minguelac, Jésus Vázquez; Siñeriz, Faustino; Raboni, Massimo; Copelli, Sabrina; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-scale experimentation allowed comparing the performances of two upflow anaerobic packed-bed filters filled with different packing materials and operating at mesophilic conditions (30 degreeC) for treating slaughterhouse wastewaters. Methane production was experimentally evaluated considering different volumetric organic loading rates as well as feeding overloading conditions. Although filter performances declined with loading rates higher than 6 kg CODin m-3 d-1 , the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency remained always above 60%. The experimental results allowed for determining kinetic parameters for bacterial growth rate and methane production, following Monod and Chen-Hashimoto models, respectively. Results demonstrated that the reactors reached a cellular retention time significantly greater than the hydraulic retention time. The kinetic parameter values (Ks, l/max) revealed the low microorganisms' affinity for the substrate and confirmed the moderate biodegradability of slaughterhouse wastewater. The kinetic analysis also allowed the comparison of the filters performances with another anaerobic system and the assessment of the parameters useful for real-scale plant design. The system design, applied to a medium-sized Argentinean slaughterhouse, demonstrated to (i) be energetically self-sufficient and (ii) contribute to the plant's water heating requirements. PMID:24600871

  16. CONSIDERATIONS IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF COMBINED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the use of activated carbon in reducing the content of biologically resistant organic compounds in a combined industrial wastewater treatment system. The invvestigation was conducted in two stages: (1) characterize organic priority pol...

  17. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  18. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  19. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  20. TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

  1. Anammox treatment of swine wastewater using immobilized technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial nitrification (PN) coupled with anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) stands for a totally autotrophic strategy for the removal of nitrogen. This new bioprocess is particularly useful for the treatment of wastewaters with a high ammonium concentration and a low organic load such as lives...

  2. STATISTICS-BASED APPROACH TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes work toward development of a convenient decision support system to improve everyday operation and control of the wastewater treatment process. The goal is to help the operator detect problems in the process and select appropriate control actions. The system...

  3. Wastewater Treatment: A Pilot Plant on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reports that there are currently three companies that own mobile physical-chemical wastewater treatment vans that investigate such parameters as chemical coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration and carbon adsorption. Information is provided regarding the potential of utilizing this type of facility and rental agreements. (MLB)

  4. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  7. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Basim, Yalda; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Hendrickx, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  8. NATIONAL SCREENING SURVEY OF EDCS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 and 2003 the USEPA's Office of Research and Development asked Regional EPA inspectors, state EPA inspectors and municipal plant operators to collect four gallons effluent, either as a grab or composite sample, from up to 50 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and ship the...

  9. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities. PMID:24804662

  10. SAFETY MANUAL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH OXYGEN AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This safety manual provides design, operating, and safety personnel of municipal wastewater treatment plants which use oxygen aeration of activated sludge systems with the knowledge to prevent hazards due to the interaction of the oxygen with combustibles and other hazardous mate...

  11. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WETLANDS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have ...

  12. Occurrence, fate, and risk assessment of vancomycin in two typical pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Panzi; Guo, Xinyan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Xingling; Wang, Na

    2016-08-01

    Vancomycin (VCM) is an antibiotic, known medically as the deadline for defending against bacteria. In this study, the removal and fate of VCM were investigated in each treatment unit at two pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) in eastern China. VCM was present in all wastewater and sludge samples of both PWWTPs. After the treatment procedure (the moving bed biofilm reactor technology for PWWTP1 and the modified anaerobic-anoxic-oxic technology for PWWTP2), total removal efficiencies were up to 99 %, corresponding to a reduction of two orders of magnitude of the influent concentrations in both PWWTPs. The aerobic tank dominated VCM removal. Mass balance flow analyses indicated that biodegradation (99.15 % for PWWTP1 and 99.51 % for PWWTP2) was the principle mechanism for removing VCM, while the contribution of sorption by sludge for both PWWTPs was negligible. However, the results of the environmental risk assessment of VCM in the effluents showed that the maximum trigger quotient values were much higher than 1 in both PWWTPs, indicating the non-negligible environmental and health risks. This is the first report of the fate and risks of VCM in pharmaceutical wastewater, and underscores the importance of PWWTPs as antibiotic pollution sources, even though wastewater management appeared efficient. PMID:27169409

  13. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  14. [Research advances in denitrogenation characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Cheng; Zhao, Min; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Li-Yan

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of aerobic denitrifiers is the enrichment and breakthrough of traditional denitrification theory. Owing to their unique superiority in denitrogenation, aerobic denitrifiers have become a hotspot in the study of bio-denitrogenation of waste water. Under aerobic conditions, the aerobic denitrifiers can utilize organic carbon sources for their growth, and produce N2 from nitrate and nitrite. Most of the denitrifiers can also proceed with heterotrophic nitrification simultaneously, transforming NH4(+)-N to gaseous nitrogen. In this paper, the denitrogenation characteristics and action mechanisms of some isolated aerobic denitrifiers were discussed from the aspects of electron theory and denitrifying enzyme system. The effects of the environmental factors DO, carbon sources, and C/N on the denitrogenation process of aerobic denitrifiers were analyzed, and the screening methods as well as the present and potential applications of aerobic denitrifiers in wastewater treatment were described and discussed. PMID:20873638

  15. Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Dieu, B

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

  16. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  17. Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q H; Yang, W N; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Jin, P K; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Yang, S J; Wang, Q; Wang, X C; Ao, D

    2016-01-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and effluent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment capacity of 1.48×10(8)m(3)/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and oxidation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efficiencies of COD and NH3-N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efficiency of NH3-N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of <80%, treating up to 40% of the wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefficiently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1×10(4)m(3)/d-5×10(4)m(3)/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided. PMID:27045705

  18. EFFECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SEAWATER DILUTION IN REDUCING LETHAL TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TO SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW AND PINK SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of treatment and seawater dilution of municipal wastewater on marine organisms. n experimental facility was built in southeast Florida that provided both unchlorinated and chlorinated effluent from three standard treatments: primar...

  19. Occurrence and removal of metals in urban wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ustün, Gökhan Ekrem

    2009-12-30

    In this study, nine metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) found in urban wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) in Bursa (Turkey) were monitored for 23 months in 2002 and 2007. Metal influent and effluent concentrations of wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) and the activated sludge process (ASP) measured via 24-h composite samples were used to determine removal efficiencies. Average influent concentrations ranged between 2 microg/L (Cd) and 1975 microg/L (Fe). In the stabilization ponds, the removal efficiency was 58% for Cr, while for Cd, Mn, and Pb, it was less than 20%. The activated sludge process yielded high removal efficiencies, ranging from 47% for Ni to 95% for Cr. The use of treated wastewaters for agricultural purposes was investigated, and it was determined that all metal concentrations met application limits, with the exception of Cr in wastewater stabilization pond effluent. Results showed that wastewater stabilization pond effluent reduced the receiving water quality with respect to Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb. In addition, it was shown that effluent from the activated sludge process temporarily improved the receiving water quality with regard to the Cd, Cu, Mn, and Zn parameters. However, considering the periodic variations of the metals in both processes, water quality, and agricultural practices, it was determined that they should be monitored continuously. PMID:19683867

  20. Feasibility studies and pre-design simulation of Warsaw's new wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Oleszkiewicz, J A; Kalinowska, E; Dold, P; Barnard, J L; Bieniowski, M; Ferenc, Z; Jones, R; Rypina, A; Sudol, J

    2004-12-01

    The proposed transfer of wastewater from the western part of Warsaw, across the Wisla (Vistula) River for joint treatment at the existing eastern side "Czajka" wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) will result in combined winter flows of approx. 580,000 m3 d(-1). One-year of pilot-scale studies defined the COD characteristics and kinetics of nitrogen removal and VFA production from primary sludge. BioWin simulation was used to size and price the optional processes and pointed to the Westbank process as the most cost-effective. The process consists of a sequence of a RAS pre-denitrification zone followed by an anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zone. Some 100-150 t d(-1) of 10% methanol would be needed to remove 2-4 mg l(-1) of NO3-N above the recommended effluent level TN = 10 mg l(-1). Applying the principle of annual average 80% TN removal, and allowing for use of daily composite samples (rather than grab) could annually save the municipality over 1.5 million Euro on external carbon source. PMID:15691201

  1. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    PubMed

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day). PMID:17383179

  2. Deliberation about the Safety of Industrial Wastewater Discharges into Wastewater Treatment Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolchinsky, Pancho; Aulinas, Montse; Cortés, Ulises; Poch, Manel

    The daily operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in industrialized areas is of particular concern because of the severe problems that can occur in the WWTP caused by the incoming inflow, which in turn may cause an ecological imbalance in the fluvial ecosystem. In order to minimize the environmental impact caused by the industrial wastewater discharges, guidelines and regulations exists. However, due to the complexity of the domain, there are still no golden standards by which to decide whether a WWTP can cope with wastewater discharges, and so strict adherence to regulations may not always be convenient. Special circumstances may motivate to accept discharges that are above established thresholds or to reject discharges that comply with guidelines. Nonetheless, because of the criticality of the actions to be taken, such decisions require to be well justified. Hence, in this work it is proposed the use of the argumentation-based model Pro- CLAIM to provide a more flexible decision making process, in which expertise can deliberate whether an industrial wastewater can safely be discharged into a WWTP, and thus adapt each decision to the particular circumstance. To ensure a safe decision, agents’ given arguments for or against the industrial spill are evaluated accounting for the domain guidelines and regulations, for similar past cases and for confidence in the expertise’s assessments.

  3. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems. PMID:25600011

  4. FGD wastewater treatment still has a way to go

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.; Givens, S.; Sandy, T.

    2008-01-15

    The power industry should jointly address questions about FGD water treatment and share the lessons it has learned so far. The article describes a scheme developed by CH2M Hill to treat FGD wastewater and remove heavy metals. The process desaturates the waste water of sulfates and removes the bulk of the insoluble suspended solids prior to tertiary treatment of heavy metals using a chemical/physical treatment process. Additional treatment could be provided (for example, anoxic biological treatment) for selenium, nitrates and organics. 2 figs.

  5. A Pilot Study of Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunctive Treatment for Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory G.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention to increase exercise in drug dependent patients represents a potentially useful yet unexplored strategy for preventing relapse. However, there are currently no established exercise interventions for use with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment among drug dependent patients. Participants included 16 (31% female, 38.3 years old) drug dependent patients who participated in a 12-week, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention. Participants attended a mean of 8.6 sessions (out of 12). Participants demonstrated a significant increase in percent days abstinent for both alcohol and drugs at the end of treatment, and those who attended at least 75% of the exercise sessions had significantly better substance use outcomes than those who did not. In addition, participants showed a significant increase in their cardiorespiratory fitness by the end of treatment. While preliminary, this study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating aerobic exercise during drug abuse treatment. Future randomized control trials are a necessary next step to test the efficacy of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention as an adjunct to drug abuse treatment in this patient population. PMID:20582151

  6. Powdered ZELIAC augmented sequencing batch reactors (SBR) process for co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mojiri, Amin; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Zaman, Nastaein Q; Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Zahed, Mohammad Ali

    2014-06-15

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is one of the various methods of biological treatments used for treating wastewater and landfill leachate. This study investigated the treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater by adding a new adsorbent (powdered ZELIAC; PZ) to the SBR technique. ZELIAC consists of zeolite, activated carbon, lime stone, rice husk ash, and Portland cement. The response surface methodology and central composite design were used to elucidate the nature of the response surface in the experimental design and describe the optimum conditions of the independent variables, including aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v), as well as their responses (dependent variables). Appropriate conditions of operating variables were also optimized to predict the best value of responses. To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, four dependent parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and phenols, were measured as responses. The results indicated that the PZ-SBR showed higher performance in removing certain pollutants compared with SBR. Given the optimal conditions of aeration rate (1.74 L/min), leachate to wastewater ratio (20%), and contact time (10.31 h) for the PZ-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, COD, and phenols were 84.11%, 99.01%, 72.84%, and 61.32%, respectively. PMID:24662109

  7. Hybrid system up-flow constructed wetland integrated with microbial fuel cell for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Oon, Yoong-Ling; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur; Thung, Wei-Eng

    2015-06-01

    An innovative design of upflow constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (UFCW-MFC) planted with cattail was used for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation. The electrodes material employed in the study was carbon felt. The main aim of this study is to assess the performance of the UFCW coupling with MFC in term of ability to treat wastewater and the capability to generate bioelectricity. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) profile showed that the anaerobic and aerobic regions were well developed in the lower and upper bed, respectively, of UFCW-MFC. Biodegradation of organic matter, nitrification and denitrification was investigated and the removal efficiencies of COD, NO3(-), NH4(+) were 100%, 40%, and 91%, respectively. The maximum power density of 6.12 mW m(-2) and coulombic efficiency of 8.6% were achieved at electrode spacing of anode 1 (A1) and cathode (15 cm). PMID:25836035

  8. Transport of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems to Shallow Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, G.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge about the nutrients transport from the vadose zone of onsite wastewater treatment systems (commonly called septic systems) is crucial to protect groundwater quality as 25% of US population uses septic systems to discharge household wastewater. For example, our preliminary data showed that about 47% of applied water was recovered at 60-cm below drainfield of septic systems. This implies that contaminants present in wastewater, if not attenuated in the vadose zone, can be transported to shallow groundwater. This presentation will focus on the biophysical and hydrologic controls on the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the vadose of two conventional (drip dispersal, gravel trench) and an advanced (with aerobic and anaerobic medias) system. These systems were constructed using two rows of drip pipe (37 emitters/mound) placed 0.3 m apart in the center of 6 m x 0.6 m drainfield. Each system received 120 L of wastewater per day. During 20-month period (May 2012 to December 2013), soil-water samples were collected from the vadose zone using suction cup lysimeters installed at 0.30, 0.60, and 1.05 m depth and groundwater samples were collected from piezometers installed at 3-3.30 m depth below the drainfield. A complimentary 1-year study using smaller drainfields (0.5 m long, 0.9 m wide, 0.9 m high) was conducted to obtain better insights in the vadose zone. A variety of instruments (multi-probe sensors, suction cup lysimeters, piezometers, tensiometers) were installed in the vadose zones. Results showed that nitrification controlled N evolution in drainfield and subsequent transport of N plumes (>10 mg/L) into groundwater. Most of the wastewater applied soluble inorganic P (>10 mg/L) was quickly attenuated in the drainfield due to fixation (sorption, precipitation) in the vadose zone (<0.10 mg/L), which was further reduced to <0.05 mg/L in groundwater. The hydrologic controls (primarily rainfall during June-September) facilitated transport of

  9. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC) Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chao; He, Wenjie; Wei, Li; Li, Chunying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC) wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A) and aerobic biofilm (Sample O), 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB) Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN) on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process. PMID:26461260

  10. Microbial pathogens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Hamburg.

    PubMed

    Ajonina, Caroline; Buzie, Christopher; Rubiandini, Rafi Herfini; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogens are among the major health problems associated with water and wastewater. Classical indicators of fecal contamination include total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens. These fecal indicators were monitored in order to obtain information regarding their evolution during wastewater treatment processes. Helminth eggs survive for a long duration in the environment and have a high potential for waterborne transmission, making them reliable contaminant indicators. A large quantity of helminth eggs was detected in the wastewater samples using the Bailanger method. Eggs were found in the influent and effluent with average concentration ranging from 11 to 50 eggs/L. Both E. coli and total coliforms concentrations were significantly 1- to 3-fold higher in influent than in effluent. The average concentrations of E. coli ranged from 2.5×10(3) to 4.4×10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/100 ml. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 3.6×10(3) to 7.9×10(5) CFU/100 ml. Clostridium perfringens was also detected in influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at average concentrations ranging from 5.4×10(2) to 9.1×10(2) most probable number (MPN)/100 ml. Significant Spearman rank correlations were found between helminth eggs and microbial indicators (total coliform, E. coli, and C. perfringens) in the WWTP. There is therefore need for additional microbial pathogen monitoring in the WWTP to minimize public health risk. PMID:25734765

  11. Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Arndt, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

  12. An integrated biological approach for treatment of cyanidation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, S K O; Akcil, Ata

    2016-11-15

    The cyanidation process has been, and still remains, a profitable and highly efficient process for the recovery of precious metals from ores. However, this process has contributed to environmental deterioration and potable water reserve contamination due to the discharge of poorly treated, or untreated, cyanide containing wastewater. The process produces numerous cyanide complexes in addition to the gold cyanocomplex. Additionally, the discharge constituents also include hydrogen cyanide (HCN) - metallic complexes with iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt and other metals; thiocyanate (SCN); and cyanate (CNO). The fate of these complexes in the environment dictates the degree to which these species pose a threat to living organisms. This paper reviews the impact that the cyanidation process has on the environment, the ecotoxicology of the cyanidation wastewater and the treatment methods that are currently utilised to treat cyanidation wastewater. Furthermore, this review proposes an integrated biological approach for the treatment of the cyanidation process wastewater using microbial consortia that is insensitive and able to degrade cyanide species, in all stages of the proposed process. PMID:27424119

  13. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    PubMed

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. PMID:27497312

  14. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation: Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Iorhemen, Oliver Terna; Hamza, Rania Ahmed; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has emerged as an efficient compact technology for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The major drawback impeding wider application of MBRs is membrane fouling, which significantly reduces membrane performance and lifespan, resulting in a significant increase in maintenance and operating costs. Finding sustainable membrane fouling mitigation strategies in MBRs has been one of the main concerns over the last two decades. This paper provides an overview of membrane fouling and studies conducted to identify mitigating strategies for fouling in MBRs. Classes of foulants, including biofoulants, organic foulants and inorganic foulants, as well as factors influencing membrane fouling are outlined. Recent research attempts on fouling control, including addition of coagulants and adsorbents, combination of aerobic granulation with MBRs, introduction of granular materials with air scouring in the MBR tank, and quorum quenching are presented. The addition of coagulants and adsorbents shows a significant membrane fouling reduction, but further research is needed to establish optimum dosages of the various coagulants/adsorbents. Similarly, the integration of aerobic granulation with MBRs, which targets biofoulants and organic foulants, shows outstanding filtration performance and a significant reduction in fouling rate, as well as excellent nutrients removal. However, further research is needed on the enhancement of long-term granule integrity. Quorum quenching also offers a strong potential for fouling control, but pilot-scale testing is required to explore the feasibility of full-scale application. PMID:27314394

  15. Characterization and biological abatement of diffuse methane emissions and odour in an innovative wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Barcón, Tamara; Hernández, Jerónimo; Gómez-Cuervo, Santiago; Garrido, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An innovative and patented process for medium-high strength sewage which comprises an anaerobic step followed by a hybrid anoxic-aerobic chamber and a final ultrafiltration stage was characterized in terms of methane fugitive emissions as well as odours. The operation at ambient temperature implies higher methane content in the liquid anaerobic effluent, which finally causes concentrations around 0.01-2.4% in the off-gas released in the anoxic-aerobic chamber (1.25% average). Mass balances indicate that these emissions account for up to 30-35% of the total methane generated in the anaerobic reactor. A conventional biofilter (BF) operated at an empty bed residence time of 4 min was used to treat these emissions for 70 d. In spite of the fluctuations in the methane inlet concentrations derived from the operation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), it was possible to operate at pseudo-steady-state conditions, achieving average removal efficiencies of 76.5% and maximum elimination capacities of 30.1 g m(-3) h(-1). Odour removal was quantified as 99.1%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes as well as metabolic activity assays demonstrated the suitability of the biomass developed in the WWTP as inoculum to start up the BF due to the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. PMID:25749282

  16. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation: Membrane Fouling.

    PubMed

    Iorhemen, Oliver Terna; Hamza, Rania Ahmed; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has emerged as an efficient compact technology for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The major drawback impeding wider application of MBRs is membrane fouling, which significantly reduces membrane performance and lifespan, resulting in a significant increase in maintenance and operating costs. Finding sustainable membrane fouling mitigation strategies in MBRs has been one of the main concerns over the last two decades. This paper provides an overview of membrane fouling and studies conducted to identify mitigating strategies for fouling in MBRs. Classes of foulants, including biofoulants, organic foulants and inorganic foulants, as well as factors influencing membrane fouling are outlined. Recent research attempts on fouling control, including addition of coagulants and adsorbents, combination of aerobic granulation with MBRs, introduction of granular materials with air scouring in the MBR tank, and quorum quenching are presented. The addition of coagulants and adsorbents shows a significant membrane fouling reduction, but further research is needed to establish optimum dosages of the various coagulants/adsorbents. Similarly, the integration of aerobic granulation with MBRs, which targets biofoulants and organic foulants, shows outstanding filtration performance and a significant reduction in fouling rate, as well as excellent nutrients removal. However, further research is needed on the enhancement of long-term granule integrity. Quorum quenching also offers a strong potential for fouling control, but pilot-scale testing is required to explore the feasibility of full-scale application. PMID:27314394

  17. SEPARATION OF ALGAL CELLS FROM WASTEWATER LAGOON EFFLUENTS. VOLUME III: SOIL MANTLE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT - SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lysimeter studies and a two-year field study were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of sprinkler irrigation wastewater treatment as a means of polishing wastewater stabilization lagoon effluent. In the lysimeter study four typical Utah soils were evaluated for their effectiven...

  18. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  19. A, b, c's of wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Grutsch, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    Tests by Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) over 15 mo showed greatly improved performance by operating the activated sludge process (ASP) at high sludge age (more than 100 days) and by adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) to further reduce residual soluble organics in the wastewater. When high sludge age was maintained by good filtration to eliminate influent solids, a 5000 mg/l. equilibrium mixed-liquor PAC concentration was maintained in a municipal plant with <5 mg/l. PAC makeup rate. This occurs because at high sludge age, bacteria in the sludge utilize organic wastes only for metabolism; growth is kept low enough to merely balance the inevitable sludge losses in the effluent so that there is no production of waste sludge. Maintenance of 45 day sludge age with 2400 mg/l. total suspended sludge solids in the aerator resulted in effluent solids of 4.2 mg/l. or 12.7 lb/day, of which 53% was PAC. A detailed description is given of the biological oxidation processes operative in the ASP.

  20. Agricultural potential of anaerobically digested industrial orange waste with and without aerobic post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-01-01

    The potential of anaerobically digested orange waste with (AAD) and without (AD) aerobic post-treatment for use in agriculture was evaluated through chemical analyses, short-term phytotoxicity and long-term plant assays. Chemical analyses showed that AD contained ammonia and organic acids, and aerobic post-treatment did not significantly remove these phytotoxins. The N:P2O5:K2O ratio in AD was 1:0.26:0.96 and aerobic post-treatment did not change the composition in AAD except for K2O (1:0.26:1.24). Heavy metal contents in AD and AAD were more or less the same and were below the upper limit recommended for non-sewage sludge application on agricultural soils. Short-term phytotoxicity tests showed that seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbage and ryegrass were severely inhibited at digestate concentrations of 60-100%. Germination index values were well below the score of 50% required to indicate the phytotoxic-free nature of compost. Long-term plant assays showed that AD and AAD, when supplemented with a base fertilizer, resulted in higher plant growth, and fresh weight and dry matter production than AD without base fertilizer. The results thus indicate that aerobic post-treatment did not have any significant beneficial effect on reducing phytotoxicity, and AD could be used as such on agricultural soils, especially with high P. PMID:22519091

  1. The effect of microbubbles on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and degradation rate of COD in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kangning; Chi, Yong; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used aeration device at present has the disadvantages of low mass transfer rate because the generated bubbles are several millimeters in diameter which are much bigger than microbubbles. Therefore, the effect of a microbubble on gas-liquid mass transfer and wastewater treatment process was investigated. To evaluate the effect of each bubble type, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients for microbubbles and conventional bubbles were determined. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was 0.02905 s(-1) and 0.02191 s(-1) at a gas flow rate of 0.67 L min(-1) in tap water for microbubbles and conventional bubbles, respectively. The degradation rate of simulated municipal wastewater was also investigated, using aerobic activated sludge and ozone. Compared with the conventional bubble generator, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 2.04, 5.9, 3.26 times higher than those of the conventional bubble contactor at the same initial COD concentration of COD 200 mg L(-1), 400 mg L(-1), and 600 mg L(-1), while aerobic activated sludge was used. For the ozonation process, the rate of COD removal using microbubble generator was 2.38, 2.51, 2.89 times of those of the conventional bubble generator. Based on the results, the effect of initial COD concentration on the specific COD degradation rate were discussed in different systems. Thus, the results revealed that microbubbles could enhance mass transfer in wastewater treatment and be an effective method to improve the degradation of wastewater. PMID:27120652

  2. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...

  4. Quorum sensing in water and wastewater treatment biofilms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Wu, Zhuoying; Yu, Xin

    2013-04-01

    Fixed film processes and activated sludge processes are two main families of wastewater treatment systems which all refer to the heterogeneous microbial communities. Meanwhile, biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) and biofouling in membrane systems are significant problems in the water and wastewater treatment which reduce the microbial quality of drinking water and limit the development of membrane system respectively. Since biofilms and quorum sensing (QS) as two microbial social behaviors have been inextricably linked, a number of studies have focused on the role of QS signaling and QS inhibition in the processes of water and wastewater treatment, which will help us engineer these biological treatment processes successfully and develop promising approaches for control of microbial adhesion, colonization and biofilm formation. This review gives a summary of recent known QS mechanisms and their role in biofilm formation for different species. Particular attentions are dedicated to the signaling molecules involved in some microbial granulation processes and the potential applications by some of their natural and synthetic analogues in the treatment of membrane biofouling. PMID:24620615

  5. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. PMID:25845997

  6. Removal of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals During On-Site Wastewater Treatment Using A Constructed Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants. These plants have been show...

  7. An Innovative Membrane Bioreactor Process For Achieving Sustainable Advanced Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals of concern (COCs), such as pharmaceutical chemicals, steroid hormones, and pesticides, have been found to be widely distributed in water and wastewater. Conventionally operated wastewater treatment plants do not provide an effective barrier against the release of these...

  8. Method of measurement of VOCs in the off-gas and wastewater of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Min Wang; Keener, T.C.; Orton, T.L.; Zhu, H.; Bishop, P.; Pekonen, S.; Siddiqui, K.

    1997-12-31

    VOCs need to be controlled according to Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), so an accurate estimation of the total VOC emissions must be attained. This paper reports on a study where EPA method 624 was revised so that this method could be used for VOC analysis both in the water and off-gas of wastewater treatment plants. The revised method uses the same approach and equipment as water and soil analyses, thereby providing a great time and cost advantage for anyone needing to perform this type of analysis. Without using a cryogenic preconcentration step, gas samples from Tedlar bags are easily analyzed to concentrations of approximately 20 ppb using scan mode in a GC-MS unit. For the wastewater, scan mode was still used for the identification, but Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis because of lower VOC concentration in the water. The results show that this method`s detection limit (MDL) was lowered 2--3 orders of magnitude when compared with scan mode. The modified method has been successfully applied to the identification and quantitative analysis of wastewater and off-gas VOCs from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) aeration basin (120 MGD).

  9. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  10. [Optoelectronic PCB Wastewater Treatment by Partial Nitrification-ANAMMOX Integrative Reactor].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yan; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Zong-heng

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility and operating characteristics of treatment of printed circuit board (PCB) wastewater by using autotrophic nitrogen removal process in partial nitrification and ANAMMOX integrative reactor were investigated. The reactor had startup successfully and achieved the stable nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that, after 80d operation, the nitrogen removal rate increased and was up to 1. 29 kg . (m3 . d)-1, the effluent NH4+-N and NO2- -N were decreased and stabilized at 4. 0 mg . L -1, 9. 8 mg . L-1 respectively, when the influent concentration of NH4+-N maintained at 220 mg . L -1. At the same time, the concentration of total nitrogen was less than 50 mg . L-1 in effluent, which meet the quality emissions requirements. The NO2- -N production rate was up to 2. 05 kg . (m3 . d)-1 by nitrite bacteria in aerobic zone, and the highest nitrogen removal rate was 2. 91 kg . (m3 . d) -1 by ANAMMOX. bacteria in anaerobic zone, which illuminated functional bacteria were steadily grown in the corresponding region. The inorganic ammmonia in PCB wastewater could be removed by autotrophic nitrogen removal process in nitrification and ANAMMOX integrative reactor. PMID:26489329

  11. An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

    2013-02-01

    This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day). PMID:23596946

  12. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

  13. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating. PMID:26360762

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Bellucci, F.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Heraty, L.; Kozak, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are considered the seventh highest contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere. For instance, USEPA recently reported (http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads10/US-GHG-Inventory-2010_Chapter8-Waste.pdf) that U.S. wastewater treatment released 24.3 Tg CO2e (i.e. CO2 GHG equivalents) via CH4 and 4.9 Tg CO2e via N20 during 2008. Emissions of GHG from wastewater treatment sources are often modeled using algorithms that rely on surrogates such as five-day Biological or Chemical Oxygen Demand [B(C)OD5] for CH4 and protein content of diets for N2O. Unfortunately, empirical validation of these models using field data is lacking. To fill this gap, we measured annual CH4 and N20 emissions from three wastewater treatment plants in the Chicago region that differ in size and design. Plants ranged from serving 0.17 to 2.3 million people, treating from 27 to 751 millions of gallons of wastewater per day, and having BOD5 from 101 to 220 mg/L. Primary settling tanks, exhausts, and aeration basins were the main sources of CH4 emissions, whereas N2O was mainly emitted by aeration basins at the three plants investigated. During 2009, per capita emissions for CH4 and N2O (for every thousand people) ranged from 61 to 1130 kg/yr and from 12 to 226 Kg/yr, respectively. These wide variations were in part due to chemistry of influent waters and plant design. We found that IPCC and USEPA algorithms were good predictors of CH4 emissions but they largely underestimated N20 emissions. Despite the differences in plant design and per capita emissions, we found that all three plants have a similar CH4:N2O flux ratio. If this flux ratio proves to be a general characteristic of wastewater treatment plants, it could provide a more accurate alternative to current models for estimation of N2O emissions.

  15. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  16. "Living off the land": resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Odum, H T; Brown, M T; Alling, A

    2001-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens(TM)) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  17. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Alfonsín, Carolina; Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO2 emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. PMID:26901804

  18. A review on the electrochemical treatment of the salty organic wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xianjun

    2015-07-01

    Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, and recent years, there are growing interests in electrochemical treatment of the salty organic wastewater. The aim of this paper is to mainly present the source of the salty organic wastewater, the mechanism of direct and indirect oxidation process, and the research advances of electrochemical technologies in the salty organic wastewater by literature reports review.

  19. Solar enhanced wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Agunwamba, J C; Utsev, J T; Okonkwo, W I

    2009-05-01

    One of the most popular off-site wastewater treatment plants used in the tropics is the waste stabilization pond (WSP). Although it has several advantages, its use in urban areas is limited because of its large land area requirement. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating if a solar-enhanced WSP (SEWSP) can increase treatment efficiency and consequently reduce the land area requirement. The SEWSPs of varying sizes, made of a metallic tank with inlet and outlet valves and a solar reflector, were constructed to increase the incident sunlight intensity. Wastewater samples collected from the inlet and outlet of the SEWSPs were examined for physio-chemical and biological characteristics for a period of 2 months. The parameters examined were total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), coliform, and Escherichia coli. The efficiencies of the SEWSPs, with respect to these parameters, fluctuated with temperature variation, with the shallowest SEWSP giving the highest treatment efficiency. The research revealed that the cost of treating wastewater using SEWSPs was approximately 2 times lower than the conventional WSP for the same treatment efficiencies. PMID:19472946

  20. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs. PMID:27164889

  1. Treatment of winery wastewater in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ragazzi, M; Villa, R

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were carried out applying the SBBR process (Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor) for the treatment of winery wastewater. The aim was the evaluation of the SBBR performance and the development of a control strategy based on dissolved oxygen (DO) for the optimisation of the SBBR treatment cycle and the minimisation of the energy supply. The results of the experimentation have confirmed the applicability of the SBBR process pointing out high COD removal efficiencies between 86% and 99%, with applied loads up to 29 gCOD m-2d-1, corresponding to 8.8 kgCOD m-3d-1. The on-line monitoring of DO concentration appeared as a good indicator of the progress in the COD biodegradation. The control strategy for the ending of the SBBR cycles was based on the time derivative of the DO concentration. The optimised control strategy makes it possible to obtain a steady quality of the effluent wastewater with an average daily applied load of 6.3 kgCOD m-3d-1 rather than 3.5 kgCOD m-3d-1 for the non-optimised SBBR cycle. The possibility of optimising the SBBR cycle through a simple control of the DO in the mixed liquor could be an interesting solution for the biological pre-treatment of winery wastewater to be discharged into sewerage or as a single-stage of a combined treatment plant for the discharge into surface water. PMID:12201122

  2. Identifying changes in dissolved organic matter content and characteristics by fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with self-organizing map and classification and regression tree analysis during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huibin; Song, Yonghui; Liu, Ruixia; Pan, Hongwei; Xiang, Liancheng; Qian, Feng

    2014-10-01

    The stabilization of latent tracers of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of wastewater was analyzed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with self-organizing map and classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in wastewater treatment performance. DOM of water samples collected from primary sedimentation, anaerobic, anoxic, oxic and secondary sedimentation tanks in a large-scale wastewater treatment plant contained four fluorescence components: tryptophan-like (C1), tyrosine-like (C2), microbial humic-like (C3) and fulvic-like (C4) materials extracted by self-organizing map. These components showed good positive linear correlations with dissolved organic carbon of DOM. C1 and C2 were representative components in the wastewater, and they were removed to a higher extent than those of C3 and C4 in the treatment process. C2 was a latent parameter determined by CART to differentiate water samples of oxic and secondary sedimentation tanks from the successive treatment units, indirectly proving that most of tyrosine-like material was degraded by anaerobic microorganisms. C1 was an accurate parameter to comprehensively separate the samples of the five treatment units from each other, indirectly indicating that tryptophan-like material was decomposed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. EEM fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with self-organizing map and CART analysis can be a nondestructive effective method for characterizing structural component of DOM fractions and monitoring organic matter removal in wastewater treatment process. PMID:25065793

  3. [Simultaneously removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater by coupling treatment system with immobilized algae-bacteria].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu; Wei, Bin; Hu, Zhang-Li

    2011-08-01

    A coupling treatment system was developed by employing immobilized Chlamydomonas reinhardti and activated sludge to simultaneously remove COD, nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. The amount of wastewater treated by the system was 6 m3 per day, and hydraulic retention time was 12 h. For activated sludge section, as stirring rate of anaerobic tank was 15 r x min(-1) and DO value of aerobic tank was 5 mg x L(-1), COD decreased from about 150 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1) and NH4+-N from 20-30 mg x L(-1) to 0.5 mg x L(-1), whereas TP only dropped from 2-3 mg x L(-1) to 1.0 mg x L(-1). For immobilized C. reinhardti section, the suitable conditions were: DO 5 mg x L(-1), illumination intensity 2000 lx, the loading ratio of immobilization pellets 20%, respectively. Under the appropriate conditions of the coupling treatment system, COD, NH4+-N and TP of the effluent were about 15 mg x L(-1), 0.5 mg x L(-1) and 0.5 mg x L(-1), respectively. During 2 months period of continuous treatment, COD, NH4+-N and TP of the effluent kept fairly constant, showing the stability of the coupling wastewater treatment system. PMID:22619955

  4. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    PubMed

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. PMID:26515938

  5. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  6. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Keefe, S.H.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.; Wass, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands on water resources in arid environments make reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater an important component of the water budget. Treatment wetlands can be an integral part of the water-reuse cycle providing both water-quality enhancement and habitat functions. When used for habitat, the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants in the wastewater is a critical consideration. Water and fish samples collected from the Tres Rios Demonstration Constructed Wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, which uses secondary-treated wastewater to maintain an aquatic ecosystem in a desert environment, were analyzed for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and trace elements. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed to investigate uptake of HOC. The wetlands effectively removed HOC, and concentrations of herbicides, pesticides, and organic wastewater contaminants decreased 40-99% between inlet and outlet. Analysis of Tilapia mossambica and Gambusia affinis indicated accumulation of HOC, including p,p???-DDE and trans-nonachlor. The SPMD accumulated the HOC detected in the fish tissue as well as additional compounds. Trace-element concentrations in whole-fish tissue were highly variable, but were similar between the two species. Concentrations of HOC and trace elements varied in different fish tissue compartments, and concentrations in Tilapia liver tissue were greater than those in the whole organism or filet tissue. Bioconcentration factors for the trace elements ranged from 5 to 58 000 and for the HOC ranged from 530 to 150 000. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  7. Dairy Wastewater Treatment Using Low Molecular Weight Crab Shell Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha Devi, M.; Dumaran, Joefel Jessica; Feroz, S.

    2012-08-01

    The investigation of possible use of low molecular weight crab shell chitosan (MW 20 kDa) in the treatment of dairy waste water was studied. Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the process variables, which include contact time, stirring speed, pH and adsorbent dosage. Treated effluent characteristics at optimum condition showed that chitosan can be effectively used as adsorbent in the treatment of dairy wastewater. The optimum conditions for this study were at 150 mg/l of chitosan, pH 5 and 50 min of mixing time with 50 rpm of mixing speed. Chitosan showed the highest performance under these conditions with 79 % COD, 93 % turbidity and 73 % TSS reduction. The result showed that chitosan is an effective coagulant, which can reduce the level of COD, TSS and turbidity in dairy industry wastewater.

  8. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations were conducted on the use of artificial and natural marshes as purifiers of effluent from municipal treatment plants. Observations were made on marsh influent and effluent quality. Phosphorus distribution in the ecosystem and removal by harvesting were studied. Res...

  9. Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Martí, Esther; Navalón-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2012-05-15

    Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox® toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity. PMID:22483948

  10. Improvement of biological nitrogen removal with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation bacterium Aquabacterium parvum B6 in an up-flow bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Li, Ang; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Ma, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Aquabacterium parvum strain B6 exhibited efficient nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation ability using nitrate as an electron acceptor. A continuous up-flow bioreactor that included an aerobic and an anoxic section was constructed, and strain B6 was added to the bioreactor as inocula to explore the application of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing (NDFO) efficiency in wastewater treatment. The maximum NRE (anoxic section) and TNRE of 46.9% and 79.7%, respectively, could be obtained at a C/N ratio of 5.3:1 in the influent with HRT of 17. Meanwhile, the taxonomy composition of the reactor was assessed, as well. The NDFO metabolism of strain B6 could be expected because of its relatively dominant position in the anoxic section, whereas potential heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification developed into the prevailing status in the aerobic section after 50days of continuous operation. PMID:27544912

  11. Benchmarking wastewater treatment plants under an eco-efficiency perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Amores, María José; Termes-Rifé, Montserrat; Marín-Navarro, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2016-10-01

    The new ISO 14045 framework is expected to slowly start shifting the definition of eco-efficiency toward a life-cycle perspective, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as the environmental impact assessment method together with a system value assessment method for the economic analysis. In the present study, a set of 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain were analyzed on the basis of eco-efficiency criteria, using LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) as a system value assessment method. The study is intended to be useful to decision-makers in the wastewater treatment sector, since the combined method provides an alternative scheme for analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and costs. Two midpoint impact categories, global warming and eutrophication potential, as well as an endpoint single score indicator were used for the environmental assessment, while LCC was used for value assessment. Results demonstrated that substantial differences can be observed between different WWTPs depending on a wide range of factors such as plant configuration, plant size or even legal discharge limits. Based on these results the benchmarking of wastewater treatment facilities was performed by creating a specific classification and certification scheme. The proposed eco-label for the WWTPs rating is based on the integration of the three environmental indicators and an economic indicator calculated within the study under the eco-efficiency new framework. PMID:27235897

  12. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant optimization report

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Scott, C.B.; Maddox, J.J.; Peterson, D.J.; Barton, P.T.

    1991-06-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated by Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). For many years, non-radiological process wastewater streams which mainly consist of once-through cooling water underwent little or no treatment and were discharged directly to White Oak Creek (WOC). However, since the non-radiological process waste streams could potentially contain small quantities of organic and heavy metal pollutants, it was determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) that the discharge of many of the process waste streams into WOC was not in compliance with state and federal environmental regulations. The Non-radiological Wastewater Treatment Project (NRWTP) was conceived as a means of collecting and treating non-radiological process wastewaters from a variety of outfalls and complying with the Clean Water Act's National Pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) regulations. The facility has operated under a one year evaluation period as specified in the NPDES permit. During the evaluation period, operation of the plant has been monitored and adjusted to optimize treatment performance. This report is intended to provide documentation of efforts to evaluate and optimize NRWTP performance and present the results obtained for submittal to the TDHE and EPA. 5 refs., 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology. PMID:26360302

  15. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts. PMID:27376367

  16. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  17. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2006-12-12

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  18. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  19. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  20. Physicochemical and biological combined treatment applied to a food industry wastewater for reuse.

    PubMed

    Pavón-Silva, Thelma; Pacheco-Salazar, Victor; Carlos Sánchez-Meza, Juan; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Colín-Cruz, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) efficiency of a food industry. Despite the anaerobic-aerobic treatment, the efficiency of the plant is poor because of the high pollutants load derived mainly from the use of disinfectants and sanitizers. These cleaning products are used in the production process. In order to achieve the main goal of the study, the pollutants load reduction was targeted and a physicochemical treatment was added for that purpose. For this effort, the tests were divided in three parts. The first consisted of performing coagulation-flocculation laboratory tests to select the best chemical reagent for reduction of the high load of pollutants present in the influent. The evaluated compounds were ferric chloride, aluminum sulphate, hydroxychloride of aluminum (AHC) and polyaluminum sulphate (PAS). The second was a pilot plant study in which physicochemical and biological treatment werecombined. Finally processes were verified in the WWTP characterizing the effluent and evaluating the process for compliance with standards for reuse water. The results showed that the best coagulant was hidroxichloride of aluminium. Improving the relationship Chemical Oxygen Demand/ Biological Oxygen Demand (COD/BOD(5)) of 0.27 to 0.45 and getting a dose of 1 to 5 mg L(- 1) in the laboratory, which improved to make scaling to plant 0.5 to 2 mg L(- 1) with efficiencies removal of contaminants 98% for COD, 95% for BOD(5), 99% for O&G, to 99% for TSS and helminth eggs were not detect. The wastewater was characterized with cyclic voltammetry and the sludge produced with AHC was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). PMID:19085601

  1. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  2. An activated sludge model based on activated sludge model number 3 for full-scale wastewater treatment plant simulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ji; Lu, Shu-Guang; Qiu, Zhao-fu; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Wen-Zhen

    2009-06-01

    A modified model based on the activated sludge model no. 3 was established to simulate a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China. The activated sludge model no. 3 was modified to describe the simultaneous storage and growth processes occurring in activated sludge systems under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The mechanism of soluble microbial product formation and degradation by microorganisms was considered in this proposed model. Three months simulation was conducted including soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, NO(X)(-)-N and T-N parameters, and compared with measured data from the Quyang wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that the calculated effluent chemical oxygen demand and NH4(+)-N using this proposed model were in good agreement with the measured data. Results also showed that besides inert soluble organic matter contributing to the effluent chemical oxygen demand, soluble microbial products played an important part in the effluent chemical oxygen demand and, therefore, demonstrated that these products composed an important portion of effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand in wastewater treatment plants and should not be neglected. PMID:19705601

  3. Application of dynamic models to estimate greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Omid; Yerushalmi, Laleh; Haghighat, Fariborz

    2013-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in wastewater treatment plants of the pulp-and-paper industry was estimated by using a dynamic mathematical model. Significant variations were shown in the magnitude of GHG generation in response to variations in operating parameters, demonstrating the limited capacity of steady-state models in predicting the time-dependent emissions of these harmful gases. The examined treatment systems used aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid-anaerobic/aerobic-biological processes along with chemical coagulation/flocculation, anaerobic digester, nitrification and denitrification processes, and biogas recovery. The pertinent operating parameters included the influent substrate concentration, influent flow rate, and temperature. Although the average predictions by the dynamic model were only 10 % different from those of steady-state model during 140 days of operation of the examined systems, the daily variations of GHG emissions were different up to ± 30, ± 19, and ± 17 % in the aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid systems, respectively. The variations of process variables caused fluctuations in energy generation from biogas recovery by ± 6, ± 7, and ± 4 % in the three examined systems, respectively. The lowest variations were observed in the hybrid system, showing the stability of this particular process design. PMID:23179218

  4. Long-term impact of salinity on the performance and microbial population of an aerobic granular reactor treating a high-strength aromatic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Carrera, Julián

    2015-12-01

    The effect of salinity over granular biomass treating a mixture of aromatic compounds (phenol, o-cresol and p-nitrophenol) was evaluated in a continuous airlift reactor. To mimic an industrial wastewater, increasing concentrations (from 2.0 to 29.0 g salts L(-1)) of a mixture of salts (MgSO4, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3) were introduced in the influent. The gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass obtaining complete biodegradation of the aromatic compounds and no accumulation of metabolic intermediates. However, a deterioration of the morphology of aerobic granules with a complete loss of granulation after 125 days was produced at 29.0 g salts L(-1). At that moment, anaerobic granules were added to promote granulation and after 50 days new aerobic granules were formed. These new aerobic granules remained stable for more than 100 days at the highest salinity condition with 100% removal of the mixture of aromatic compounds. PMID:26457833

  5. Organic pollutant removal versus toxicity reduction in industrial wastewater treatment: the example of wastewater from fluorescent whitening agent production.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie; Escher, Beate I; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2006-05-15

    Industrial wastewater treatment in the chemical industry aims at eliminating organic contaminants, as these pollutants may be persistent and ecotoxic. In a case study performed in collaboration with the chemical industry, we investigated the removal of a fluorescent whitening agent and its side products in the wastewater-treatment system. Adsorption to activated carbon and biological treatment were simulated in laboratory tests. Algae toxicity tests were performed to quantify the toxicity of the wastewater mixture and of single components. The contaminants identified accounted for up to 82% of the wastewater's total organic carbon (TOC). Adsorption to activated carbon eliminated the TOC and the single contaminants only slightly. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the wastewater decreased by 40%. In contrast, biological treatment reduced the TOC by up to 80%, and the whole effluent toxicity increased. These results indicate that new ecotoxic metabolites were formed during the biological treatment. They also illustrate that mere reduction of the TOC in the wastewater-treatment system is not sufficient for ensuring a reduction of environmental impact. Therefore, simultaneously conducting TOC measurements and toxicity tests, as demonstrated in the current work, is recommended. PMID:16749712

  6. Characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Bang, Cheon-Hee; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2016-08-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions were measured from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using a flux chamber to determine the emission factors. The WWTP treats sewage using both the activated-sludge treatment and anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A(2)O) methods. Measurements were performed in the first settling, aeration, and secondary settling basins, as well as in the sludge thickener, sludge digestion tank, and A(2)O basins. The total emission factors of N2O and CH4 from the activated-sludge treatment were 1.256gN2O/kg total nitrogen (TN) and 3.734gCH4/kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), respectively. Those of the advanced treatment (A(2)O) were 1.605gN2O/kg TN and 4.022gCH4/kgBOD5, respectively. These values are applicable as basic data to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:27237575

  7. Impact of influent wastewater quality on nitrogen removal rates in multistage treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Magdalena; Jóźwiakowski, Krzysztof; Ghrabi, Ahmed; Masi, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen removal in treatment wetlands is influenced by many factors, and the presence of electron donors (biodegradable organic matter) and electron acceptors (nitrate ions) is the main limiting one; for obtaining these conditions, multistage treatment wetlands (MTWs) are required, where an extensive nitrification can be obtained in the first stages under aerobic conditions leaving then to the following anoxic/anaerobic stages the duty of the denitrification. Most of the biodegradable organic matter is however oxidised in the first stages, and therefore, the inlet to the denitrification beds is usually poor of easily degradable carbon sources. This study is comparing the long-term performances obtained at several MTWs operating in Europe (North and South) and North Africa in order to understand if there is a significant avail in making use of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio during the design phase for ensuring proper performances in terms of N overall removal. The statistic analysis performed in this study have shown that MTWs are capable to ensure sufficient removal of both organic and nutrients even in unfavourable proportions of macronutrients (C and N). The usual assumptions for conventional biological treatment systems concerning adequate C/N ratios seem to be dubious in case of wastewater treatment in MTWs. PMID:25300181

  8. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Elmolla, Emad S; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-09-15

    The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H(2)O(2)/COD and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H(2)O(2)/COD and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD(5)/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe(2+) dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H(2)O(2)/COD molar ratio 2, H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards. PMID:21767911

  9. Removal of Cryptosporidium by wastewater treatment processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2016-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and various animal species. The environmental stability and the low infectious dose of Cryptosporidium facilitate its transmission by water and food. Discharge of untreated wastewater may result in waterborne or foodborne Cryptosporidium outbreaks, therefore a suitable treatment may prevent its dissemination. Most studies on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have reported a concentration range between 10 and 200 oocysts/L and a prevalence of 6 to 100%. Activated sludge has been found to be ineffective for the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands are efficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium from wastewater, especially when the retention time is longer than 20 days at suitable sunlight and temperature. High rate filtration and chlorine disinfection are inefficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium from effluents, whereas ultrafiltration and UV irradiation were found to be very efficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Adequate tertiary treatment may result in high quality effluent with low risk of Cryptosporidium for unrestricted irrigation and other non-potable applications. PMID:26837825

  10. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H. Jr.; Earley, J.P.; Shen, Yutao.

    1989-09-01

    The work proposed is a laboratory investigation of the AnSBR (Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors) for treatment of a synthetic coal conversion wastewater. Two different strategies will be pursued. First, an AnSBR will be operated to simulate the Anaerobic Up-flow Sludge Blanket Reactor in an attempt to develop a readily settleable granular sludge. Second, operating strategies will be sought to optimize treatment, without attempting to develop settleable granular sludge. These systems will require development of more elaborate decanting mechanisms, probably including use of tube settler technology. We will use: (1) screening tests to identify compounds which are amenable to anaerobic degradation; (2) to determine those which are toxic or have an inhibitory effect; and (3) to identify the dilution required to achieve anaerobic degradation of the synthetic waste water; acclimation tests of organisms collected from different sources to the synthetic coal conversion wastewater; and Automatic Laboratory AnSBR studies. A 4-liter reactor will be operated to maintain a settleable granular anaerobic sludge when treating the synthetic coal conversion wastewater. 72 refs., 238 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Treatment of refectory oily wastewater by electro-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiangfeng

    2004-09-01

    Electro-coagulation was used to treat refectory wastewater with high oil and grease contents. Different operational conditions were examined, including pH, current density, reaction time, conductivity, electrode distance and inlet concentration. The optimum current density was 10-14 A m(-2) within 30 min depending on the wastewater properties tested. Conductivity had little effect on the treatment efficiency. Although the addition of extra salts (e.g., sodium chloride) to the wastewater did not help increase the pollutant removal efficiency, it could save the power consumption significantly. The COD(Cr) and oil removal efficiency descended with increasing electrode distance. The optimal electrode distance was determined to be 10 mm for this equipment in consideration of the treatment cost and efficiency together. The pH effect on the performance of the electro-coagulation process was not very significant in the range of 3-10. The removal efficiency of oil and COD(Cr) under normal condition exceeded 95% and 75%, respectively. PMID:15268954

  12. Development of an advanced water treatment system for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Chung, H; Ku, B; Gregory, J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an optimal reuse system applying various types of advanced oxidation processes such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), ozone (O3) and electro-coagulation/oxidation methods. This system is suitable for improving the treatment efficiency of difficult wastewaters, and for the efficient reuse of wastewater. The connecting systems were divided into various types to investigate the stability and treatment efficiency according to the kinds of waste load. Different treatment sequences were examined taking into consideration the characteristics and economical efficiency. In the case of electro-coagulation/oxidation + ozone system, the mean treatment efficiency in terms of BOD5, CODCr and SS removal was 98.7%. The effluent concentration was 50.2 mg l(-1), 38.3 mg l(-1), 30.4 mg l(-1), respectively. In considering the economical efficiency and commercial use, around an eighth of the treatment expenses and around a fifth of the maintenance expenses could be saved compared with existing water treatment systems. The initial construction expenses could be reduced by a third to a fifth. Therefore, if a proper implementation of this research is carried out in relation to site conditions and the purpose of the water reuse, the water reuse rate will be higher and water resources can be protected. PMID:18844120

  13. Hydrothermal electrocatalytic oxidation for the treatment of herbicides wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hanshuang; Lv, Baoying; Gao, Junxia; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-05-01

    A hydrothermal electrocatalytic oxidation (HTECO) method is adopted to treat the biorefractory and toxic 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides wastewater on nano-Pt/Ti electrode in the existence of H2O2. Comparisons for the removal of 2,4-D and total organic carbon (TOC) have been carried out between HTECO with individual electrochemical oxidation (EO) and hydrothermal catalytic oxidation (HTCO), showing that high mineralization efficiency was obtained in HTECO process. The possible factors resulting in the high removal efficiency in HTECO process have been studied by investigating the properties of the electrode and solution in hydrothermal condition, the amount of active radicals, the decay kinetic, and evolution of main intermediates of 2,4-D. Thus, an enhanced mechanism for HTECO method for the treatment of herbicides wastewater has been obtained. PMID:26865489

  14. BIOASSAY OF POLLUTED SEDIMENTS AND REDUCTION OF TOXICITY BY AEROBIC TREATMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikura, Mitsuhiro; Kojima, Toshikazu; Okamura, Kazuo; Horiuchi, Sumio

    Aerobic treatment is being studied as an efficient in-situ remediation method for polluted sediments. This treatment method is able to decompose organic substances that are otherwise difficult to degrade. Changes in toxicity during such treatment is the subject of this study. Bioassay utilizing Daphnia magna was conducted for toxicity assessment of sediment. Laboratory treatment experiment was conducted, and changes in toxicity and dissolved ion concentrations were measured.Conclusions from this test are, as follows; (1) toxicity of chloride, ammonia, and sulfide was found to be masked by the coexisting materials in the sample matrix, and (2) changes of toxicity was dependent on the forms of sulfur and nitrogen species.

  15. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery. PMID:21245566

  16. Industrial wastewater treatment technology, Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The author has organized the book by specific pollutant or class of pollutants for reference. For each topic there is a description of sources and typical industry discharge levels of the pollutant, the appropriate treatment technologies and their applications and limitations, as well as the relative costs of each. Major Sections: Aluminium; Arsenic; Barium; Cadmium; Hexavalent Chromium; Trivalent Chromium; Copper; Cyanide; Fluoride; Iron; Lead; Manganese; Mercury; Nickel; Organic and Ammonia Nitrogen; Nitrite and Nitrate Nitrogen; Oil and Grease; Toxic Organics; pH Control; Phenol; Selenium; Silver; Total Dissolved Solids; Zinc.

  17. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-12-31

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

  18. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

  19. Wineries wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands: a review.

    PubMed

    Masi, F; Rochereau, J; Troesch, S; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    The application of wetland systems for the treatment of wineries wastewater started in the early 1990s in the USA followed a few years later by France, Italy, Germany and Spain. Various studies demonstrated the efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) as a low cost, low maintenance and energy-saving technology for the treatment of wineries wastewater. Several of these experiences have also shown lessons to be learnt, such as some limits in the tolerance of the horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow classic CWs to the strength of the wineries wastewater, especially in the first stage for the multistage systems. This paper is presenting an overview of all the reported experiences at worldwide level during the last 15 years, giving particular attention and provision of details to those systems that have proven to get reliable and constant performances in the long-term period and that have been designed and realized as optimized solutions for the application of CW technology to this particular kind of wastewater. The organic loading rates (OLRs) applied to the examined 13 CW systems ranged from about 30 up to about 5,000 gCOD/m² d (COD: chemical oxygen demand), with the 80th percentile of the reported values being below 297 gCOD/m² d and the median at 164 gCOD/m² d; the highest OLR values have in all cases been measured during the peak season (vintage) and often have been linked to lower surface removal rates (SRRs) in comparison to the other periods of the year. With such OLRs the SRRs have ranged from a minimum of 15 up to 4,700 gCOD/m² d, with the 80th percentile of the reported values being below 308 gCOD/m² d and the median at 112 gCOD/m² d. PMID:25909720

  20. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment. PMID:26473701

  1. Impact of hazardous events on the removal of nutrients and trace organic contaminants by an anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor receiving real wastewater.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hop V; Hai, Faisal I; McDonald, James A; Khan, Stuart J; van de Merwe, Jason P; Leusch, Frederic D L; Zhang, Ren; Price, William E; Broeckmann, Andreas; Nghiem, Long D

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of four simulated hazardous events, namely, aeration failure, power loss, and chemical shocks (ammonia or bleach) on the performance of an anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) receiving real wastewater were investigated. Hazardous events could alter pH and/or oxidation reduction potential of the mixed liquor and inhibit biomass growth, thus affecting the removal of bulk organics, nutrients and trace organic contaminants (TrOC). Chemical shocks generally exerted greater impact on MBR performance than aeration/power failure events, with ammonia shock exerting the greatest impact. Compared to total organic carbon, nutrient removal was more severely affected. Removal of the hydrophilic TrOCs that are resistant and/or occur at high concentrations in wastewater was notably affected. The MBR effectively reduced estrogenicity and toxicity from wastewater, but chemical shocks could temporarily increase the endocrine activity of the effluent. Depending on the chemical shock-dose and the membrane flux, hazardous events can exacerbate membrane fouling. PMID:26038323

  2. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using a simulation model that considers the type of equipment existing at the plants and the costs of modifying that equipment to obtain a range of effluent levels for various pollutants. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine the water quality effects of the various treatment technologies and pollutant levels. Cost and water quality data are combined and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment configurations is compared. The regionalized treatment-plant configuration is found to be the more cost-effective.

  3. Acetate favors more phosphorus accumulation into aerobic granular sludge than propionate during the treatment of synthetic fermentation liquor.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Huang, Wenli; Li, Huifang; Sun, Beina; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an efficient biotechnology widely applied for energy and resource recovery from organic waste and wastewater treatment. The effluent from AD or fermentation liquor containing organic substances like volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and mineral nutrients (such as N and P), however, will trigger serious environmental issues if not properly dealt with. In this study two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), namely Ra and Rp were used to cultivate aerobic granules for P recovery from synthetic fermentation liquor, respectively using acetate and propionate as additional carbon source. Larger and more stable granules were achieved in Ra with higher P removal capability (9.4mgP/g-VSS·d) and higher anaerobic P release (6.9mgP/g-VSS·h). In addition to much higher P content (78mgP/g-SS), bioavailable P in Ra-granules increased to 45mgP/g-SS, approximately 2-times those of seed sludge and Rp-granules. Microbial community analysis indicated that more GAOs were accumulated in Rp-granules. PMID:27183235

  4. A collection and treatment system for organic waste and wastewater in a sensitive rural area.

    PubMed

    Malmén, L; Palm, O; Norin, E

    2003-01-01

    In the municipality of Sund, located in a sensitive rural area in Aland, a demonstration project is now carried out with the overall objective to move the most concentrated fractions of wastewater from the coastal area to a treatment plant situated close to arable land. Blackwater and greywater septic sludge from about twenty households and two tourist camps are treated together with energy rich organic material from a nearby potato-chip factory. The collection concept is based on the use of extremely efficient water-saving toilets, with separate systems for the blackwater and greywater in the households. The collected materials are co-treated in a batchwise aerobic thermophilic treatment process (wet composting process), where the materials reach at least 55 degrees C during a minimum of 10 hours. The dry matter content of the collected material was about 2%. After stabilisation and sanitation (by the temperature rise caused by microbial activity during the treatment process), the compost slurry is utilized as a liquid organic fertilizer on arable land. PMID:14753521

  5. Anammox process for synthetic and practical wastewater treatment using a novel kind of biomass carriers.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Kawakubo, Yuki; Cheng, Yingjun; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Furukawa, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The anammox process, as an alternative to conventional nitrogen removal technologies, has abstracted much attention in recent years. In this study, one column-type reactor using a novel support material--net type acrylic fiber (Biofix)--was used for anammox treatment. The Biofix reactor was operated at 25 degrees C (peak summer temperature, 31.5 degrees C). Over 330 days of operation for synthetic wastewater treatment, the nitrogen loading rates of the reactor were increased to 3.6 kg-N/m3/d and T-N removal efficiencies reached to 81.3%. For the practical anaerobic sludge digester liquor treatment, the average TN removal efficiency of 72% was obtained. A protein substance was shown to be the most abundant extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the granular sludge with almost two times more in the attached sludge of the Biofix reactor. Considering the EPS levels and observation by scanning electron microscopy, the anammox granules in the Biofix reactor were showing dense state. Results of DNA analyses indicated that the KSU-1 strain might prefer relatively low nutrient levels, while the KU2 strain might be better suited for the high media concentration. Other kinds of bacteria were also identified with the potentials for consuming the dissolved oxygen in the influent and facilitating anammox bacteria surviving under aerobic conditions. PMID:18845875

  6. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  7. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level. PMID:26893178

  8. Supercritical gasification for the treatment of o-cresol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-hai; Hu, Cheng-sheng; Wu, Chao-fei; Yan, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification of phenolic wastewater without oxidant was performed to degrade pollutants and produce hydrogen-enriched gases. The simulated o-cresol wastewater was gasified at 440-650 degrees C and 27.6 MPa in a continuous Inconel 625 reactor with the residence time of 0.42-1.25 min. The influence of the reaction temperature, residence time, pressure, catalyst, oxidant and the pollutant concentration on the gasification efficiency was investigated. Higher temperature and longer residence time enhanced the o-cresol gasification. The TOC removal rate and hydrogen gasification rate were 90.6% and 194.6%, respectively, at the temperature of 650 degrees C and the residence time of 0.83 min. The product gas was mainly composed of H2, CO2, CH4 and CO, among which the total molar percentage of H2 and CH4 was higher than 50%. The gasification efficiency decreased with the pollutant concentration increasing. Both the catalyst and oxidant could accelerate the hydrocarbon gasification at a lower reaction temperature, in which the catalyst promoted H2 production and the oxidant enhanced CO2 generation. The intermediates of liquid effluents were analyzed and phenol was found to be the main composition. The results indicate that the supercritical gasification is a promising way for the treatment of hazardous organic wastewater. PMID:17078539

  9. Treatment of laundry wastewater using polyethersulfone/polyvinylpyrollidone ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Sumisha, A; Arthanareeswaran, G; Lukka Thuyavan, Y; Ismail, A F; Chakraborty, S

    2015-11-01

    In this study, laundry wastewater filtration was studied using hydrophilic polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) modified polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes. The performances of PES/PVP membranes were assessed using commercial PES membrane with 10kDa in ultrafiltration. Operating parameters The influence of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and stirring speed on laundry wastewater flux was investigated. A higher permeate flux of 55.2L/m(2)h was obtained for modified PES membrane with high concentration of PVP at TMP of 500kPa and 750rpm of stirring speed. The separation efficiencies of membranes were also studied with respect to chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity and conductivity. Results showed that PES membrane with 10% of PVP had higher permeate flux, flux recovery and less fouling when compared with other membranes. Higher COD and TDS rejection of 88% and 82% were also observed for modified membranes due to the improved surface property of membranes. This indicated that modified PES membranes are suitable for the treatment of surfactant, detergent and oil from laundry wastewater. PMID:25890841

  10. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  11. Continuous treatment of flotation collector wastewater using a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weixiong; Dai, Yongkang; Wu, Chun; Xu, Pingting; Ren, Jie; Sun, Shuiyu; Li, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Aniline aerofloat (DDA) is a widely used material in China and has become a main pollutant in floatation wastewater. In this study, a membrane reactor (MBR) was constructed to continuously treat simulated wastewater contaminated with DDA. The study investigated the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the impact of influent DDA concentration on MBR performance, and analyzed intermediates from the DDA biodegradation pathway and activated sludge transfer pathway. The results showed that a 3 h HRT was an efficient and economical time period for MBR to remove 95 ± 5 mg/L DDA from the simulated wastewater; the chemical oxygen demand reduction rate was 89.9%. DDA concentration negatively impacted MBR performance. MBR performance fluctuated slightly when HRT was 3 h, dissolved oxygen ranged from 4.8 to 5.3 mg/L, pH was between 6.5 and 7.0, and DDA concentrations were at 95 ± 5 mg/L DDA. The transfer pathway in the activated sludge of DDA was through soluble microbial products, loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances, tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances, and finally cell biodegradation. DDA initially degraded to aniline; the aniline was further biodegraded to other organic compounds and was finally mineralized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This study offers a new continuous biological treatment technology to address DDA. PMID:27120645

  12. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  13. High Levels of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Their Correlations with Bacterial Community and Mobile Genetic Elements in Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wenda; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Zhao, Fuzheng; Huang, Kailong; Ma, Haijun; Wang, Zhu; Ye, Lin; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment bioreactors, the ARGs in sludge from two full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) were investigated and compared with sludge samples from three sewage treatment plants (STPs) using metagenomic approach. The results showed that the ARG abundances in PWWTP sludge ranged from 54.7 to 585.0 ppm, which were higher than those in STP sludge (27.2 to 86.4 ppm). Moreover, the diversity of ARGs in PWWTP aerobic sludge (153 subtypes) was higher than that in STP aerobic sludge (118 subtypes). In addition, it was found that the profiles of ARGs in PWWTP aerobic sludge were similar to those in STP aerobic sludge but different from those in PWWTP anaerobic sludge, suggesting that dissolve oxygen (DO) could be one of the important factors affecting the profiles of ARGs. In PWWTP aerobic sludge, aminoglycoside, sulfonamide and multidrug resistance genes were frequently detected. While, tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin and polypeptide resistance genes were abundantly present in PWWTP anaerobic sludge. Furthermore, we investigated the microbial community and the correlation between microbial community and ARGs in PWWTP sludge. And, significant correlations between ARG types and seven bacterial genera were found. In addition, the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were also examined and correlations between the ARGs and MGEs in PWWTP sludge were observed. Collectively, our results suggested that the microbial community and MGEs, which could be affected by DO, might be the main factors shaping the profiles of ARGs in PWWTP sludge. PMID:27294780

  14. Innovations in wastewater treatment: the moving bed biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Hallvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and presents applications of wastewater treatment processes in which this reactor is used. The MBBR processes have been extensively used for BOD/COD-removal, as well as for nitrification and denitrification in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This paper focuses on the municipal applications. The most frequent process combinations are presented and discussed. Basic design data obtained through research, as well as data from practical operation of various plants, are presented. It is demonstrated that the MBBR may be used in an extremely compact high-rate process (<1 h total HRT) for secondary treatment. Most European plants require P-removal and performance data from plants combining MBBR and chemical precipitation is presented. Likewise, data from plants in Italy and Switzerland that are implementing nitrification in addition to secondary treatment are presented. The results from three Norwegian plants that are using the so-called combined denitrification MBBR process are discussed. Nitrification rates as high as 1.2 g NH4-N/m2 d at complete nitrification were demonstrated in practical operation at low temperatures (11 degrees C), while denitrification rates were as high as 3.5g NO3-Nequiv./m2.d. Depending on the extent of pretreatment, the total HRT of the MBBR for N-removal will be in the range of 3 to 5 h. PMID:16841724

  15. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  16. Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Carr, Steve A; Liu, Jin; Tesoro, Arnold G

    2016-03-15

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are frequently suspected as significant point sources or conduits of microplastics to the environment. To directly investigate these suspicions, effluent discharges from seven tertiary plants and one secondary plant in Southern California were studied. The study also looked at influent loads, particle size/type, conveyance, and removal at these wastewater treatment facilities. Over 0.189 million liters of effluent at each of the seven tertiary plants were filtered using an assembled stack of sieves with mesh sizes between 400 and 45 μm. Additionally, the surface of 28.4 million liters of final effluent at three tertiary plants was skimmed using a 125 μm filtering assembly. The results suggest that tertiary effluent is not a significant source of microplastics and that these plastic pollutants are effectively removed during the skimming and settling treatment processes. However, at a downstream secondary plant, an average of one micro-particle in every 1.14 thousand liters of final effluent was counted. The majority of microplastics identified in this study had a profile (color, shape, and size) similar to the blue polyethylene particles present in toothpaste formulations. Existing treatment processes were determined to be very effective for removal of microplastic contaminants entering typical municipal WWTPs. PMID:26795302

  17. Reduction of sludge generation by the addition of support material in a cyclic activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Moacir Messias de; Lermontov, André; Araujo, Philippe Lopes da Silva; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    An innovative biomass carrier (Biobob®) was tested for municipal wastewater treatment in an activated sludge system to evaluate the pollutant removal performance and the sludge generation for different carrier volumes. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale cyclic activated sludge system (CASS®) built with three cylindrical tanks in a series: an anoxic selector (2.1 m(3)), an aerobic selector (2.5 m(3)) and the main aerobic reactor (25.1 m(3)). The results showed that by adding the Biobob® carrier decreased the MLVSS concentration, which consequently reduced the waste sludge production of the system. Having 7% and 18% (v/v) support material in the aerobic reactor, the observed biomass yield decreased 18% and 36%, respectively, relative to the reactor operated with suspended biomass. The addition of media did not affect the system's performance for COD and TSS removal. However, TKN and TN removal were improved by 24% and 14%, respectively, using 18% (v/v) carrier. PMID:23831747

  18. Aerobic composting leachate treatment by the combination of membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Çakmakci, Mehmet; Özyaka, Vahide Seyda

    2013-02-01

    The main product of the conversion process of organic wastes to a useful organic fertilizer, known as compost, has gained an increasing interest in management of organic wastes recently. One of the main problems arising in the composting facilities is the high organic loaded leachate. In this study, a treatability experiment for composting leachate from a full-scale composting facility was carried out with the combination of membrane processes. The parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, Cl⁻ and NH₄⁺ were analysed to evaluate the membrane treatment performances of single and combined membrane systems consisting centrifuge, cartridge filter, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. The removal efficiencies of all pollutants were observed between 4.4 and 98%. The highest removal efficiencies were observed with the nanofiltration membrane (NF90) having a lower molecular weight cut-off than the others used in this study. It was observed that the effluent of NF90 membrane did not exceed the allowed maximum COD value. PMID:23076267

  19. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  20. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...