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Sample records for aerobically stored ground

  1. Crawl space assisted heat pump. [using stored ground heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of experiments and simulations, currently being designed or underway, to determine the feasibility of conditioning the source air of an air to air heat pump using stored ground heat or cool to produce higher seasonal COP's and net energy savings are discussed. The ground would condition ambient air as it is drawn through the crawl space of a house. Tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of the concept, to determine the amount of heat or cool available from the ground, to study the effect of the system on the heating and cooling loads of the house, to study possible mechanisms which could enhance heat flow through the ground, and to determine if diurnal temperature swings are necessary to achieve successful system performance are described.

  2. Scaling matters: incorporating body composition into Weddell seal seasonal oxygen store comparisons reveals maintenance of aerobic capacities.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) haul-out on the ice in October/November (austral spring) for the breeding season and reduce foraging activities for ~4 months until their molt in the austral fall (January/February). After these periods, animals are at their leanest and resume actively foraging for the austral winter. In mammals, decreased exercise and hypoxia exposure typically lead to decreased production of O2-carrying proteins and muscle wasting, while endurance training increases aerobic potential. To test whether similar effects were present in marine mammals, this study compared the physiology of 53 post-molt female Weddell seals in the austral fall to 47 pre-breeding females during the spring in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Once body mass and condition (lipid) were controlled for, there were no seasonal changes in total body oxygen (TBO2) stores. Within each season, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were negatively correlated with animal size, and larger animals had lower mass-specific TBO2 stores. But because larger seals had lower mass-specific metabolic rates, their calculated aerobic dive limit was similar to smaller seals. Indicators of muscular efficiency, myosin heavy chain composition, myoglobin concentrations, and aerobic enzyme activities (citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) were likewise maintained across the year. The preservation of aerobic capacity is likely critical to foraging capabilities, so that following the molt Weddell seals can rapidly regain body mass at the start of winter foraging. In contrast, muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of anaerobic metabolism, exhibited seasonal plasticity in this diving top predator and was lowest after the summer period of reduced activity. PMID:26164426

  3. Growth dynamics of specific spoilage organisms and associated spoilage biomarkers in chicken breast stored aerobically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to identify and quantify selected volatile spoilage biomarkers in a headspace over chicken breast using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detectors (GC-MS/FID). The chicken breast samples were aerobically s...

  4. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur. PMID:26685167

  5. Examination of the Aerobic Microflora of Swine Feces and Stored Swine Manure.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Terence R; Cotta, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Understanding antibiotic resistance in agricultural ecosystems is critical for determining the effects of subtherapeutic and therapeutic uses of antibiotics for domestic animals. This study was conducted to ascertain the relative levels of antibiotic resistance in the aerobic bacterial population to tetracycline, tylosin, and erythromycin. Swine feces and manure samples were plated onto various agar media with and without antibiotics and incubated at 37°C. Colonies were counted daily. Randomly selected colonies were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA sequence analyses and additional antibiotic resistance and biochemical analyses. Colonies were recovered at levels of 10 to 10 CFU mL for swine slurry and 10 to 10 CFU g swine feces, approximately 100-fold lower than numbers obtained under anaerobic conditions. Addition of antibiotics to the media resulted in counts that were 60 to 80% of those in control media without added antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction analyses for antibiotic resistance genes demonstrated the presence of a number of different resistance genes from the isolates. The recoverable aerobic microflora of swine feces and manure contain high percentages of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which include both known and novel genera and species, and a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. Further analyses of these and additional isolates should provide additional information on these organisms as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes in these ecosystems. PMID:27065407

  6. Microbial Dynamics during Aerobic Exposure of Corn Silage Stored under Oxygen Barrier or Polyethylene Films▿

    PubMed Central

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm3 m−2 per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log10 CFU g−1, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  7. Microbial dynamics during aerobic exposure of corn silage stored under oxygen barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm³ m⁻² per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  8. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  9. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging by the application of lytic bacteriophage preparation SalmoFreshTM.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets, as a surface and dip application. The effectiveness of phage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the ability of phage preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets at room temperature was also evaluated. Chicken breast fillets inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis were treated with bacteriophage (10(9) PFU/mL) as either a dip or surface treatment. The dip-treated samples were stored at 4°C aerobically and the surface-treated samples were stored under aerobic and MAP conditions (95% CO2/5% O2) at 4°C for 7 d. Immersion of Salmonella-inoculated chicken breast fillets in bacteriophage solution reduced Salmonella (P < 0.05) by 0.7 and 0.9 log CFU/g on d 0 and d 1 of storage, respectively. Surface treatment with phage significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella by 0.8, 0.8, and 1 log CFU/g on d 0, 1, and 7 of storage, respectively, under aerobic conditions. Higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken breast fillets when the samples were surface treated with phage and stored under MAP conditions. The Salmonella counts were reduced by 1.2, 1.1, and 1.2 log CFU/g on d 0, 1, and 7 of storage, respectively. Bacteriophage surface application on chicken breast fillets stored at room temperature reduced the Salmonella counts by 0.8, 0.9, and 0.4 log CFU/g after 0, 4, and 8 h, respectively, compared to the untreated positive control. These findings indicate that lytic phage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere conditions. PMID:26706362

  10. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Chemical Spoilage Indexes Associated with Bacterial Growth Dynamics in Aerobically Stored Chicken.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) of raw chicken breast stored aerobically at 4, 10, and 21 °C were identified and quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth dynamics of total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta and H2 S producing bacteria were characterized based on maximum growth rates (μmax ), maximal microbial concentration (Nmax ) and at the moment of microbial shelf life (Svalues ), calculated from Gompertz-fitted growth curves. Pseudomonas spp. was predominant species, while B. thermosphacta was characterized by the highest μmax . The microbiological and sensory shelf lives were estimated based on TVC, Pseudomonas spp., and B. thermosphacta counts and sensory evaluation, respectively. Among 27 VOCs identified by GC-MS in spoiled chicken samples, ethanol (EtOH), 1-butanol-3-methyl (1But-3M), and acetic acid (C2 ) achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.66, 0.61, and 0.59, respectively, with TVC, regardless of storage temperature. Partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed that the synthesis of 1But-3M and C2 was most likely induced by the metabolic activity of B. thermosphacta and LAB, while EtOH was attributed to Pseudomonas spp. The increase in concentration of selected volatile spoilage markers (EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 ) in the headspace over spoiled chicken breast was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) with TVC growth. These findings highlight the possibility of analyzing the combination of 3 selected spoilage markers: EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 as rapid evaluation for poultry quality testing using SPME-GC-MS. PMID:27332555

  11. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages

  12. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages

  13. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    PubMed Central

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  14. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types.

  15. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process.

    PubMed

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  16. Chemical and Sensory Changes Associated with Microbial Flora of Mediterranean Boque (Boops boops) Stored Aerobically at 0, 3, 7, and 10°C

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Nychas, George-John E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a microbial population and changes in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of Mediterranean boque (Boops boops), called gopa in Greece, stored aerobically at 0, 3, 7, and 10°C were studied. Pseudomonads and Shewanella putrefaciens were the dominant bacteria at the end of the storage period, regardless of the temperature tested. Enterobacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta also grew, but their population density was always 2 to 3 log10 CFU g−1 less than that of pseudomonads. The concentration of potential indicators of spoilage, glucose and lactic acid, decreased while that of the α-amino groups increased during storage. The concentrations of these carbon sources also decreased on sterile fish blocks inoculated with strains isolated from fish microbial flora. The organic acid profile of sterile fish blocks inoculated with the above-mentioned bacteria and that of naturally spoiled fish differed significantly. An excellent correlation (r = −0.96) between log10 counts of S. putrefaciens or Pseudomonas bacteria with freshness was observed in this study. PMID:9925603

  17. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation. PMID:26678146

  18. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Robert Wesley; Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  19. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  20. Shelf life study of hurdle treated ready-to-eat spiced buffalo meat product stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks under vacuum and aerobic packaging.

    PubMed

    Malik, Altaf Hussain; Sharma, Brahama Deo

    2014-05-01

    Shelf stable ready to eat spiced pickle type buffalo meat product was prepared after desorbing in infusion solution (glycerol 3.5%, sodium chloride 5.0%, honey2.0%, mango powder 2.2%, spices 1.0%, sodium nitrite 0.015%, phosphate 0.2%, Sorbic acid 0.2%.and acetic acid 1%), pressure cooking of meat in infusion solution for 20 min followed by frying for 2 min in mustard oil and mixing with prefried condiments and spices. The physico-chemical properties i.e. pH, water activity, proximate composition, FFA, Soluble hydroxyproline, TBA values, nitrite content, protein solubility, shear force value, haempigments, microbiological and sensory quality of the product remained good and hygienically safe and almost comparable in aerobic PET jars and multilayered nylon barrier pouches stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks .It can be suggested that storage of such product may be conveniently done even in food grade PET jars without going for vacuum packaging which is a bit costly. PMID:24803689

  1. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  2. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  3. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  4. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  5. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  6. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. PMID:21051843

  7. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  8. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  9. [Research advances in aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhong, Wen-hui; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2007-11-01

    This paper reviewed the varieties and characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers, their action mechanisms, and the factors affecting aerobic denitrification. Aerobic denitrifiers mainly include Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus and Bacillus, which are either aerobic or facultative aerobic, and heterotrophic. They can denitrify under aerobic conditions, with the main product being N2O. They can also convert NH4+ -N to gas product. The nitrate reductase which catalyzes the denitrification is periplasmic nitrate reductase rather than membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio are the main factors affecting aerobic denitrification. The main methods for screening aerobic denitrifiers, such as intermittent aeration and selected culture, were also introduced. The research advances in the application of aerobic denitrifiers in aquaculture, waste water processing, and bio-degradation of organic pollutants, as well as the contributions of aerobic denitrifiers to soil nitrogen emission were summarized. PMID:18260473

  10. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  11. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  12. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  13. Managing for Improved Aerobic Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic deterioration or spoilage of silage is the result of aerobic microorganisms metabolizing components of the silage using oxygen. In the almost 40 years over which these silage conferences have been held, we have come to recognize the typical pattern of aerobic microbial development by which s...

  14. Grocery Store Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity, adaptable to various grade levels, to reinforce the mathematical concept of rounding by utilizing grocery store advertisements to demonstrate the concept in a real life setting. Describes the activity on a step-by-step basis and includes suggestions for additional grocery store games. (SD)

  15. Waste from grocery stores

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, K.

    1993-11-01

    The Community Recycling Center, Inc., (CRC, Champaign, Ill.), last year conducted a two-week audit of waste generated at two area grocery stores. The stores surveyed are part of a 10-store chain. For two of the Kirby Foods Stores, old corrugated containers (OCC) accounted for 39-45% of all waste. The summary drew correlations between the amount of OCC and the sum of food and garbage waste. The study suggested that one can reasonably estimate volumes of waste based on the amount of OCC because most things come in a box. Auditors set up a series of containers to make the collection process straightforward. Every day the containers were taken to local recycling centers and weighed. Approximate waste breakdowns for the two stores were as follows: 45% OCC; 35% food waste; 20% nonrecyclable or noncompostable items; and 10% other.

  16. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000534.htm Storing your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... child latch or lock. Do not use Damaged Medicine Damaged medicine may make you sick. DO NOT ...

  17. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  18. School Store Operation and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bill J.

    Written to assist the teacher-sponsor responsible for operating a school store, this book offers a system developed specifically for the operation and control of such a store. It also shows ways in which a school store can be used for training students. Chapter 1 discusses a successful school store operated by students and a store record system…

  19. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  20. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  1. The Store Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical and robotic technologies are merging to present a wonderful opportunity to develop artificial limbs and prosthetic devices for humans injured on the job, in the military, or due to disease. In this challenge, students will have the opportunity to design a store or online service that specifically dedicates itself to amputees. Described…

  2. Storing and transporting energy

    DOEpatents

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-09-07

    Among other things, hydrogen is released from water at a first location using energy from a first energy source; the released hydrogen is stored in a metal hydride slurry; and the metal hydride slurry is transported to a second location remote from the first location.

  3. Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south side of the ground floors central east-west passage (PA-1622-A-51) looking northeast. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  5. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  6. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  7. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... go bad before the expiration date. Pills and capsules are easily damaged by heat and moisture. Aspirin ... medicine with something that ruins it, such as coffee grounds or kitty litter. Put the entire mixture ...

  8. Stored luminescence computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    Phosphor nanoparticles made of doped semiconductors and pre-excited by x-ray radiation were recently reported for their luminescence emission in the range of 650-770 nm upon near-infrared (NIR) light stimulation. These nanophosphors can be functionalized as optical probes for molecular imaging. In this paper, we present stored luminescence computed tomography to reconstruct a nanophosphor distribution in an object. The propagation of x rays in a biological object allows significantly better localization and deeper penetration. Moreover, the nanophosphors, which are pre-excited with collimated x-ray beams or focused x-ray waves, can be successively stimulated for stored luminescence emissions by variable NIR stimulation patterns. The sequentially detected luminescence signals provide more information of a nanophosphor spatial distribution for more accurate image reconstruction and higher image resolution. A realistic numerical study is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the proposed approach. PMID:25321362

  9. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  10. Process for storing calories

    SciTech Connect

    Perrut, M.; Ronc, M.; Valentin, P.

    1980-09-09

    A process is described for storing heat in the form of fusion/solidification latent heat which comprises passing a thermo-conductive fluid into a thermally insulated storage element containing a substance having a melting point that corresponds to the supply and heat consumption temperatures, characterized in that said fusible substance is absorbed on a microporous carrier which forms a granular bed in which the thermo-conductive fluid circulates.

  11. The explicit token store

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, D.E. ); Papadopoulos, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper presents an unusually simple approach to dynamic dataflow execution, called the Explicit Token Store (ETS) architecture, and its current realization in Monsoon. The essence of dynamic dataflow execution is captured by a simple transition on state bits associated with storage local to a processor. Low-level storage management is performed by the compiler in assigning nodes to slots in an activation frame, rather than dynamically in hardware. The processor is simple, highly pipelined, and quite general. There is exactly one instruction executed for each action on the dataflow graph. Thus, the machine-oriented ETS model provides new insight into the real cost of direct execution of dataflow graphs.

  12. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PMID:20476831

  13. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  14. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  15. "Aerobic" Writing: A Writing Practice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Sally Chandler

    "Aerobic writing" is a writing center strategy designed to keep students in writing "shape." Like aerobic exercise, aerobic writing is sustained for a certain length of time and done on a regular basis at prescribed time intervals. The program requires students to write at least two times a week for approximately an hour each time. Students write,…

  16. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  17. Electrically actuated multiple store launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Frank P.; Travor, Bruce W.

    1991-12-01

    This invention comprises a multi-store, electrical pulse initiated launcher that fits into, and is electrically connected with a transporting vehicle and that contains sequentially stacked assemblies. An electrical pulse from the transporting vehicle causes a resistor with the least value to transfer the electric sufficient gas pressure to force the store out of the launcher. The present invention discloses an electrically-actuated, multi-store dispenser wherein an initial electrical charge ignites gas cartridges causing sequential launching of stores from their tandem position inside a launch container. In some environments, it is desirable to dispense multiple stores from a launch vehicle, for instance sonobuoys, in dense patterns. Due to physical limitations of space in the dispensing vehicle, an effort was made to miniaturize the active components inside the store and therefore reduce the overall outer dimensions thereof. Once the size of the store was reduced, in order to meet the demands of the denser patterns, the inside of the individual launch containers were modified to allow each to hold and dispense more than one store. This new type of launch container, in addition to maintaining the size requirement dictated by the transporting vehicle, is operated by the vehicle's electrical system.

  18. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market. PMID:27192496

  19. Respirometric assessment of aerobic sludge stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tas, Didem Okutman

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic sludge stabilization was assessed respirometrically with the sludge taken from the secondary settling tank of a domestic wastewater treatment facility in Istanbul, Turkey. Zero-order removal rates of 178, 127 and 44 mg/L day were found for Suspended Solids (SS), Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) at the end of 18 days sludge stabilization, respectively. Significant nutrient release was observed by the mineralized nitrogen and phosphorus from the death and lysis of microorganisms. The model simulations for the batch respirometric assays for initial, 7th and 18th days of the stabilization agree reasonably well with the experimental data. The maximum storage rates (k(sto)) as well as maximum growth rates on stored products (micro(H2)) decrease with increasing stabilization period. Respirometric assays indicated the presence of microorganisms that started to compete with the dominant microorganisms as a result of the stabilization. As such, these findings have significance in terms of the efforts related to the sludge management and application processes. PMID:19942430

  20. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  1. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  2. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  3. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... bottle. DO NOT use everyday plastic bags or formula bottle bags. They leak. Store your breast milk. ... means not giving any other food, drinks, or formula. If you use formula, still breastfeed and give ...

  4. Sunlight-energy-storing method

    SciTech Connect

    Kitao, T.; Ishihara, Sh.; Setsune, J.I.; Yamamoto, R.

    1984-05-22

    This invention is a method for storing light energy using an indigo derivative. Among indigo derivatives capable of storing light energy by the photoisomerization of the molecule from the trans-form to the cis-form, compounds heretofore obtained have been soluble only in expensive solvents such as benzene, toluene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and the like and harmful substances. On the other hand, the indigo derivative of this invention has the form of a pyridinium salt, is soluble in water and/or ethanol, and permits employment of safe and inexpensive water and/or an alcohol as a solvent. The indigo derivative of this invention converted from the trans-form to the cis-form by irradiation with sunlight and storing sunlight energy liberates the aforesaid stored energy as heat on addition of a catalyst and/or a heat trigger.

  5. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  6. Bacterial population dynamics of aerobic and anaerobic dairy waste treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Modern high intensity dairy farms generate large amounts of waste (manure and urine) that is stored in lagoons until it is disposed of by land application on crop fields. This practice has resulted in nutrients leaching into ground and surface waters, poor air quality from volat...

  7. Aerobic dive limit does not decline in an aging pinniped.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Horning, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Apneustic hunters such as diving mammals exploit body oxygen stores while submerged; therefore, any decline in oxygen handling at advanced life stages could critically impair foraging ability. We calculated the aerobic dive limit (cADL = 17.9 ± 4.4  min SD) from blood and muscle oxygen stores and published metabolic rates of Weddell seals within (9-16 years, n = 24) and beyond peak-reproductive age (17-27 years, n = 26), to investigate (1) senescent constraints in apneustic hunting, and (2) whether mass or age primarily determines oxygen stores and ADL in older seals. We compared cADL with behavioral ADL from 5,275 free-ranging dives (bADL = 24.0 ± 5.3 min, n = 18 females). We observed no changes in Weddell seal oxygen stores, its determinants, or in ADLs late in life. Oxygen stores were better predicted by mass than age, consistent with published findings for young adults. Hematological panels (n = 6) were consistent across mass and age, though hematocrit (females > males, 6% elevation) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (females < males, 8% reduction) varied by sex. Whole blood viscosity was decreased with increasing mass in females and was higher than in males overall (+18%). This was largely due to elevated hematocrit in females, although plasma viscosity also varied under some conditions. Females had higher blood volume and elevated blood oxygen stores (vol% body mass), which did not translate into significantly higher cADL (18.1 vs. 17.1 min for males). Neither cADL nor bADL were mass- or age-dependent. PMID:21898850

  8. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  9. Calcium Stores in Vertebrate Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Križaj, David

    2012-01-01

    This review lays out the emerging evidence for the fundamental role of Ca2+ stores and store-operated channels in the Ca2+ homeostasis of rods and cones. Calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is a major contributor to steady-state and light-evoked photoreceptor Ca2+ homeostasis in the darkness whereas store-operated Ca2+ channels play a more significant role under sustained illumination conditions. The homeostatic response includes dynamic interactions between the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria and/or outer segment disk organelles which dynamically sequester, accumulate and release Ca2+. Coordinated activation of SERCA transporters, ryanodine receptors (RyR), inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and TRPC channels amplifies cytosolic voltage-operated signals but also provides a memory trace of previous exposures to light. Store-operated channels, activated by the STIM1 sensor, prevent pathological decrease in [Ca2+]i mediated by excessive activation of PMCA transporters in saturating light. CICR and SOCE may also modulate the transmission of afferent and efferent signals in the outer retina. Thus, Ca2+ stores provide additional complexity, adaptability, tuneability and speed to photoreceptor signaling. PMID:22453974

  10. Examination of the Aerobic Microflora of swine feces and stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial compounds are commonly used as feed additives for domestic animals to reduce infection and promote growth, but concerns have arisen that such feeding practices may result in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics used in human health. Our previous studies of the commensal anaer...

  11. Store Security: Internal Shrinkage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The document presents a 10-week training program designed to provide helpful and proven methods for controlling internal shrinkage in retail stores. Shrinkage includes the three problems of shoplifting, employee theft, and errors, each of which is addressed by the course. Ohio's laws are also discussed. The format for the course content section is…

  12. Chemical control in stored products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of grain protectants to control insect pests in stored bulk grains is reviewed and discussed, with emphasis on those insecticides that are currently registered for use in the United States (US). Contact insecticides and aerosols used to control insects in milling, processing, and warehousing...

  13. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  14. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a medical supply store. Most mothers find electric pumps the best. They create and release suction on their own, and you can easily learn to use one. Either a lactation consultant or the ... help you buy or rent a pump. They can also teach you how to use ...

  15. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  16. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  18. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  19. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  20. Bigger Stores, More Stores, or No Stores: Paths of Retail Restructuring in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vias, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes such as the development of large international retail chains, retail concentration, locational changes, technological innovation, new labor practices, and the increasing scale of individual stores, have revolutionized the retail sector. This broad restructuring will have profound impacts in rural America because employment in retail is a…

  1. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    McMullen, John W.; Wheeler, Michael G.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Sherman, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

  2. Model/School Store Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This teacher-coordinator manual assists in planning, organizing, directing, and evaluating student learning experiences associated with either a model store, school store, or combination. (A model store in a marketing laboratory simulates marketing functions; the school store markets merchandise to fellow students, faculty, and/or the public.)…

  3. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  4. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  5. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  6. Size and distribution of oxygen stores in harp and hooded seals from birth to maturity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J M; Lestyk, K C; Folkow, L P; Hammill, M O; Blix, A S

    2007-08-01

    Pinnipeds rely primarily on oxygen stores in blood and muscles to support aerobic diving; therefore rapid development of body oxygen stores (TBO(2)) is crucial for pups to transition from nursing to independent foraging. Here, we investigate TBO(2) development in 45 harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and 46 hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals ranging in age from neonates to adult females. We found that hooded seal adults have the largest TBO(2) stores yet reported (89.5 ml kg(-1)), while harp seal adults have values more similar to other phocids (71.6 ml kg(-1)). In adults, large TBO(2) stores resulted from large blood volume (harp169, hood 194 ml kg(-1)) and high muscle Mb content (harp 86.0, hood 94.8 mg g(-1)). In contrast, pups of both species had significantly lower mass-specific TBO(2 )stores than adults, and stores declined rather than increased during the nursing period. This decline was due to a reduction in mass-specific blood volume and the absence of an increase in the low Mb levels (harp 21.0, hood 31.5 mg g(-1)). Comparisons with other phocid species suggests that the pattern of blood and muscle development in the pre- and post-natal periods varies with terrestrial period, and that muscle maturation rates may influence the length of the postweaning fast. However, final maturation of TBO(2) stores does not take place until after foraging begins. PMID:17576570

  7. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  8. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  9. Aerobic Dance for Children: Resources and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Denise A.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic dance classes may be safe for older children, but are inappropriate for children in the fourth grade and under. Programs for these children should emphasize creativity. Resources for program development are given. (MT)

  10. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  11. Aerobic dynamic feeding as a strategy for in situ accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate in aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-06-01

    Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV). PMID:24725384

  12. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  13. A review of the multi-level adaptations for maximizing aerobic dive duration in marine mammals: from biochemistry to behavior.

    PubMed

    Davis, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals exhibit multi-level adaptations, from cellular biochemistry to behavior, that maximize aerobic dive duration. A dive response during aerobic dives enables the efficient use of blood and muscle oxygen stores, but it is exercise modulated to maximize the aerobic dive limit at different levels of exertion. Blood volume and concentrations of blood hemoglobin and muscle myoglobin are elevated and serve as a significant oxygen store that increases aerobic dive duration. However, myoglobin is not homogeneously distributed in the locomotory muscles and is highest in areas that produce greater force and consume more oxygen during aerobic swimming. Muscle fibers are primarily fast and slow twitch oxidative with elevated mitochondrial volume densities and enhanced oxidative enzyme activities that are highest in areas that produce more force generation. Most of the muscle mitochondria are interfibriller and homogeneously distributed. This reduces the diffusion distance between mitochondria and helps maintain aerobic metabolism under hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial volume densities and oxidative enzyme activities are also elevated in certain organs such as liver, kidneys, and stomach. Hepatic and renal function along with digestion and assimilation continue during aerobic dives to maintain physiological homeostasis. Most ATP production comes from aerobic fat metabolism in carnivorous marine mammals. Glucose is derived mostly from gluconeogenesis and is conserved for tissues such as red blood cells and the central nervous system. Marine mammals minimize the energetic cost of swimming and diving through body streamlining, efficient, lift-based propulsive appendages, and cost-efficient modes of locomotion that reduce drag and take advantage of changes in buoyancy with depth. Most dives are within the animal's aerobic dive limit, which maximizes time underwater and minimizes recovery time at the surface. The result of these adaptations is increased breath

  14. Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Integrated Space Transportation; 2) Fourth Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Research; 3) Ground Operations; 4) Ground Operations Technologies; 5) Sensors; and 6) Umbilicals. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  16. Storing solar energy in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-06-01

    This article describes the world`s largest power tower incorporating one of the newest commercial solar energy systems and being build in California`s Mojave Desert. The project -- sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and a consortium of western utilities, municipalities, and associations -- is called Solar Two, and it will use molten salt to absorb solar energy and store that energy until it is needed to generate electricity. Construction will be completed on Solar Two in September. Solar thermal systems convert the sun`s rays into electricity by using a thousand or more dual-axis, sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, to focus optimum sunlight on the solar receiver of a power tower containing a working fluid. The fluid is heated to a desired temperature and sent to a storage facility. During periods of peak demand, the fluid is circulating through heat exchangers to generate steam used to drive a turbine.

  17. Taxonomy of Aerobic Marine Eubacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D.

    1972-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  18. Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria.

    PubMed

    Baumann, L; Baumann, P; Mandel, M; Allen, R D

    1972-04-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  19. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  20. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  1. Heart rate and aerobic metabolism in Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti, during voluntary dives.

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Woakes, A J

    1984-01-01

    Heart rate and aerobic metabolism have been recorded from three Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti, freely diving on a freshwater pond (9 X 4.6 X 2.7 m deep), using an implanted radiotransmitter and an open circuit respirometer. Oxygen uptake at mean dive duration (46.2s) was 26% greater than the resting value, but the difference was not statistically significant. Heart rate was also similar to the resting value. It is concluded that voluntary dives of penguins are completely aerobic and that oxygen stores are sufficient to allow metabolism to continue at the rate estimated in the present study for 2.27 min during voluntary submersion. This is longer than that calculated for tufted ducks, probably because the penguins are more efficient at underwater locomotion and because they are almost neutrally buoyant. PMID:6423763

  2. Development of the aerobic dive limit and muscular efficiency in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Andrews, Russel D; Lestyk, Keri C; Burns, Jennifer M

    2012-04-01

    Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus; NFS) populations have been declining, perhaps due to limited foraging ability of pups. Because a marine mammal's proficiency at exploiting underwater prey resources is based on the ability to store large amounts of oxygen (O(2)) and to utilize these reserves efficiently, this study was designed to determine if NFS pups had lower blood, muscle, and total body O(2) stores than adults. Pups (<1-month old) had a calculated aerobic dive limit only ~40% of adult females due to lower blood and, to a much greater extent, muscle O(2) stores. Development of the Pectoralis (Pec) and Longissimus dorsi (LD) skeletal muscles was further examined by determining their myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition and enzyme activities. In all animals, the slow MHC I and fast-twitch IIA proteins typical of oxidative fiber types were dominant, but adult muscles contained more (Pec ~50%; LD ~250% higher) fast-twitch MHC IID/X protein characteristic of glycolytic muscle fibers, than pup muscles. This suggests that adults have greater ability to generate muscle power rapidly and/or under anaerobic conditions. Pup muscles also had lower aerobic and anaerobic ATP production potential, as indicated by lower metabolically scaled citrate synthase, β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities (all P values ≤0.001). In combination, these findings indicate that pups are biochemically and physiologically limited in their diving capabilities relative to adults. This may contribute to lower NFS first year survival. PMID:22001970

  3. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  4. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  5. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

  6. Integrating the selection of PHA storing biomass and nitrogen removal via nitrite in the main wastewater treatment line.

    PubMed

    Basset, N; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Malamis, S; Dosta, J; Fatone, F

    2016-01-01

    A novel scheme was developed for the treatment of municipal wastewater integrating nitritation/denitritation with the selection of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storing biomass under an aerobic/anoxic, feast/famine regime. The process took place in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and the subsequent PHA accumulation in a batch reactor. The carbon source added during the selection and accumulation steps consisted of fermentation liquid from the organic fraction of municipal solids waste (OFMSW FL) (Period I) and OFMSW and primary sludge fermentation liquid (Period II). Selection of PHA storing biomass was successful and denitritation was driven by internally stored PHA during the famine phase. Under optimum conditions of SBR operation ammonia removal was 93%, reaching a maximum nitrite removal of 98%. The treated effluent met the nitrogen limits, while PHA-storing biomass was successfully selected. The maximum accumulation of PHA was 10.6% (wt.) since the nutrients present in the carbon source promoted bacterial growth. PMID:26587791

  7. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  8. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  9. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  10. Signature-based store checking buffer

    DOEpatents

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  11. Dynamics of development of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria during aeration of an oil-bearing stratum to enhance oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    The distribution and activity of microorganisms in ground formations has been studied in order to assess their use and regulation during oil field exploitation. Experiments were performed on water-flooded oil fields of the Tatar ASSR and revealed some regularity in the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic microflora. Wells were opened after 3, 28 and 68 days after flooding with aerated water supplemented with nitrogen and phosphate salts. Activation of aerobes results in oxidation of residual oil (not released over 3 years of exploitation). The products (CO/sub 2/ fatty acids) of oxidation promote oil recovery. In the longer experiments anaerobic processes, especially methanogenesis from CO/sub 2/ were enhanced.

  12. Distributed energy store railgun; The limiting case

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated.

  13. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  14. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  15. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  16. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  17. Strengthening aerobic granule by salt precipitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-You; Pan, Xiangliang; Li, Jun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Structural stability of aerobic granules is generally poor during long-term operation. This study precipitated seven salts inside aerobic granules using supersaturated solutions of (NH4)3PO4, CaCO3, CaSO4, MgCO3, Mg3(PO4)2, Ca3(PO4)2 or SiO2 to enhance their structural stability. All precipitated granules have higher interior strength at ultrasonic field and reveal minimal loss in organic matter degradation capability at 160-d sequential batch reactor tests. The strength enhancement followed: Mg3(PO4)2=CaSO4>SiO2>(NH4)3PO4>MgCO3>CaCO3=Ca3(PO4)2>original. Also, the intra-granular solution environment can be buffered by the precipitate MgCO3 to make the aerobic granules capable of degradation of organic matters at pH 3. Salt precipitation is confirmed a simple and cost-effective modification method to extend the applicability of aerobic granules for wastewater treatments. PMID:27377228

  18. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  19. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  20. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  1. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  2. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme. PMID:25661308

  3. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  4. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  5. 7 CFR 1170.6 - Store.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Store. 1170.6 Section 1170.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.6 Store. (a)...

  6. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF PSOCIDS IN STORED WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psocids are an emerging problem in stored grain and in grain processing facilities in the United States. We conducted preliminary studies to determine which species of psocids were present in a feed mill, a grain elevator, and wheat stored in steel bins. We then conducted a more extensive study in...

  7. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  8. Gauging triple stores with actual biological data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semantic Web technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of the current Web and conventional data integration solutions. The Semantic Web is expected to link all the data present on the Internet instead of linking just documents. One of the foundations of the Semantic Web technologies is the knowledge representation language Resource Description Framework (RDF). Knowledge expressed in RDF is typically stored in so-called triple stores (also known as RDF stores), from which it can be retrieved with SPARQL, a language designed for querying RDF-based models. The Semantic Web technologies should allow federated queries over multiple triple stores. In this paper we compare the efficiency of a set of biologically relevant queries as applied to a number of different triple store implementations. Results Previously we developed a library of queries to guide the use of our knowledge base Cell Cycle Ontology implemented as a triple store. We have now compared the performance of these queries on five non-commercial triple stores: OpenLink Virtuoso (Open-Source Edition), Jena SDB, Jena TDB, SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. We examined three performance aspects: the data uploading time, the query execution time and the scalability. The queries we had chosen addressed diverse ontological or biological questions, and we found that individual store performance was quite query-specific. We identified three groups of queries displaying similar behaviour across the different stores: 1) relatively short response time queries, 2) moderate response time queries and 3) relatively long response time queries. SwiftOWLIM proved to be a winner in the first group, 4Store in the second one and Virtuoso in the third one. Conclusions Our analysis showed that some queries behaved idiosyncratically, in a triple store specific manner, mainly with SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. Virtuoso, as expected, displayed a very balanced performance - its load time and its response time for all the

  9. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-11-18

    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Menahem; Korkotian, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. PMID:25071469

  11. [Research advances in denitrogenation characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Cheng; Zhao, Min; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Li-Yan

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of aerobic denitrifiers is the enrichment and breakthrough of traditional denitrification theory. Owing to their unique superiority in denitrogenation, aerobic denitrifiers have become a hotspot in the study of bio-denitrogenation of waste water. Under aerobic conditions, the aerobic denitrifiers can utilize organic carbon sources for their growth, and produce N2 from nitrate and nitrite. Most of the denitrifiers can also proceed with heterotrophic nitrification simultaneously, transforming NH4(+)-N to gaseous nitrogen. In this paper, the denitrogenation characteristics and action mechanisms of some isolated aerobic denitrifiers were discussed from the aspects of electron theory and denitrifying enzyme system. The effects of the environmental factors DO, carbon sources, and C/N on the denitrogenation process of aerobic denitrifiers were analyzed, and the screening methods as well as the present and potential applications of aerobic denitrifiers in wastewater treatment were described and discussed. PMID:20873638

  12. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed.

  13. Measuring the healthfulness of food retail stores: variations by store type and neighbourhood deprivation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumer nutrition environment has been conceptualised as in-store environmental factors that influence food shopping habits. More healthful in-store environments could be characterised as those which promote healthful food choices such as selling good quality healthy foods or placing them in prominent locations to prompt purchasing. Research measuring the full-range of in-store environmental factors concurrently is limited. Purpose To develop a summary score of ‘healthfulness’ composed of nine in-store factors that influence food shopping behaviour, and to assess this score by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 601 retail food stores, including supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, was completed in Hampshire, United Kingdom between July 2010 and June 2011. The survey measured nine variables (variety, price, quality, promotions, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) to assess the healthfulness of retail food stores on seven healthy and five less healthy foods that are markers of diet quality. Four steps were completed to create nine individual variable scores and another three to create an overall score of healthfulness for each store. Results Analysis of variance showed strong evidence of a difference in overall healthfulness by store type (p < 0.001). Large and premium supermarkets offered the most healthful shopping environments for consumers. Discount supermarkets, ‘world’, convenience and petrol stores offered less healthful environments to consumers however there was variation across the healthfulness spectrum. No relationship between overall healthfulness and neighbourhood deprivation was observed (p = 0.1). Conclusions A new composite measure of nine variables that can influence food choices was developed to provide an overall assessment of the healthfulness of retail food stores. This composite score could be

  14. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  15. NASA Armstrong's Approach to Store Separation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuff, Chris; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities. It will include discussions on the use of NAVSEP and Cart3D, as well as some Python scripting work to perform the analysis, and a short overview of this methodology applied to the Towed Glider Air Launch System. Collaboration with potential customers in this area could lead to funding for the further development of a store separation capability at NASA Armstrong, which would boost the portfolio of engineering expertise at the center.

  16. Aerobic workout and bone mass in females.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Lorentzon, R

    1997-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate bone mass in females participating in aerobic workout. Twenty-three females (age 24.1 +/- 2.7 years), participating in aerobic workout for about 3 hours/week, were compared with 23 age-, weight- and height-matched non-active females. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, whole dominant humerus, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter femoris, in specific sites in right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia and tibial diaphysis, and bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the whole dominant arm and right leg, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The aerobic workout group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in total body (3.7%), lumbar spine (7.8%), femoral neck (11.6%), Ward's triangle (11.7%), trochanter femoris (9.6%), proximal tibia (6.8%) and tibia diaphysis (5.9%) compared to the non-active controls. There were no differences between the groups concerning BMD of the whole dominant humerus, femoral diaphysis, distal femur and BMC and lean mass of the whole dominant arm and right leg. Leaness of the whole dominant arm and leg was correlated to BMC of the whole dominant arm and right leg in both groups. In young females, aerobic workout containing alternating high and low impact movements for the lower body is associated with a higher bone mass in clinically important sites like the lumbar spine and hip, but muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups and soft-glove boxing are not associated with a higher bone mass in the dominant humerus. It appears that there is a skeletal adaptation to the loads of the activity. PMID:9458499

  17. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  18. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%. PMID:17251012

  19. Coordinated Metabolic Transitions During Drosophila Embryogenesis and the Onset of Aerobic Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tennessen, Jason M.; Bertagnolli, Nicolas M.; Evans, Janelle; Sieber, Matt H.; Cox, James; Thummel, Carl S.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells and embryonic stem cells rely on a specialized metabolic program known as aerobic glycolysis, which supports biomass production from carbohydrates. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster also utilizes aerobic glycolysis to support the rapid growth that occurs during larval development. Here we use singular value decomposition analysis of modENCODE RNA-seq data combined with GC-MS-based metabolomic analysis to analyze the changes in gene expression and metabolism that occur during Drosophila embryogenesis, spanning the onset of aerobic glycolysis. Unexpectedly, we find that the most common pattern of co-expressed genes in embryos includes the global switch to glycolytic gene expression that occurs midway through embryogenesis. In contrast to the canonical aerobic glycolytic pathway, however, which is accompanied by reduced mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, the expression of genes involved in the tricarboxylic cycle (TCA cycle) and the electron transport chain are also upregulated at this time. Mitochondrial activity, however, appears to be attenuated, as embryos exhibit a block in the TCA cycle that results in elevated levels of citrate, isocitrate, and α-ketoglutarate. We also find that genes involved in lipid breakdown and β-oxidation are upregulated prior to the transcriptional initiation of glycolysis, but are downregulated before the onset of larval development, revealing coordinated use of lipids and carbohydrates during development. These observations demonstrate the efficient use of nutrient stores to support embryonic development, define sequential metabolic transitions during this stage, and demonstrate striking similarities between the metabolic state of late-stage fly embryos and tumor cells. PMID:24622332

  20. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  1. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  2. Microbiological quality of fresh produce obtained from retail stores on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, United States of America.

    PubMed

    Korir, Robert Cheruiyot; Parveen, Salina; Hashem, Fawzy; Bowers, John

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of six types of fresh produce obtained from three retail stores located on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, USA. A total of 414 samples representing basil, cilantro, lettuce, scallion, spinach, and parsley were analyzed for total aerobic bacteria (APC), total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and three pathogenic bacteria (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella), using standard methods. Presumptive pathogenic isolates were confirmed using BAX Polymerase Chain Reaction. Total aerobic populations varied widely between samples, while 38.41% were positive for total coliforms and only 10.15% for E. coli. Median abundance (log CFU/g) of total coliforms and E. coli were less than the limit of detection and that of APC ranged from 5.78 to 6.61 over the six produce types. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of total coliforms among the retail stores, but not for abundance of APC or prevalence of E. coli. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were detected in one spinach sample each, while one parsley and one cilantro sample were positive for Salmonella. There were no statistically significant differences in microbiological quality among produce types. Although the results of this study provided some indices of sanitary and/or spoilage level, no relationship was observed among the total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, E. coli, and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the samples tested. PMID:26919815

  3. Ground Zero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Marlene

    1998-01-01

    Many public school districts have adopted a policy of zero tolerance toward drug use, weapon possession, and sexual harassment on school grounds. Although a study by the National Center for Education Statistics reported no evidence that zero tolerance policies have lowered school crime rates, prominent education groups favor them. (JOW)

  4. The emission of volatile compounds during the aerobic and the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting of biowaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Erik; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Bo, Inge

    Two different biowaste composting techniques were compared with regard to their overall emission of volatile compounds during the active composting period. In the aerobic composting process, the biowaste was aerated during a 12-week period, while the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process consisted of a sequence of a 3-week anaerobic digestion (phase I) and a 2-week aeration period (phase II). While the emission of volatiles during phase I of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was measured in a full-scale composting plant, the aerobic stages of both composting techniques were performed in pilot-scale composting bins. Similar groups of volatile compounds were analysed in the biogas and the aerobic composting waste gases, being alcohols, carbonyl compounds, terpenes, esters, sulphur compounds and ethers. Predominance of alcohols (38% wt/wt of the cumulative emission) was observed in the exhaust air of the aerobic composting process, while predominance of terpenes (87%) and ammonia (93%) was observed in phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process, respectively. In the aerobic composting process, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone, limonene and ethyl acetate made up about 82% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOC)-emission. Next to this, the gas analysis during the aerobic composting process revealed a strong difference in emission profile as a function of time between different groups of volatiles. The total emission of VOC, NH 3 and H 2S during the aerobic composting process was 742 g ton -1 biowaste, while the total emission during phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was 236 and 44 g ton -1 biowaste, respectively. Taking into consideration the 99% removal efficiency of volatiles upon combustion of the biogas of phase I in the electricity generator, the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process can be considered as an attractive alternative for aerobic biowaste composting because of

  5. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H

    1997-01-01

    The microbiology of perirectal abscesses in 144 patients was studied. Aerobic or facultative bacteria only were isolated in 13 (9%) instances, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 27 (19%) instances, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated in 104 (72%) instances. A total of 325 anaerobic and 131 aerobic or facultative isolates were recovered (2.2 anaerobic isolates and 0.9 aerobic isolates per specimen). The predominant anaerobes were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis group (85 isolates), Peptostreptococcus spp. (72 isolates), Prevotella spp. (71 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (21 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (20 isolates), and Clostridium spp. (15 isolates). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (34 isolates), Streptococcus spp. (28 isolates), and Escherichia coli (19 isolates). These data illustrate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of perirectal abscesses. PMID:9350771

  6. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef.

    PubMed

    Banović, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G; Barreira, Maria Madalena; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs. PMID:20374754

  7. Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jean Baldus; Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Taylor, Tony; Imperatrice, Carol; Leonard, Deborah G. B.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Jost, Kenneth C.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying clinically significant species of aerobic actinomycetes. A total of 28 reference strains and 71 clinical isolates that included members of the genera Streptomyces, Gordonia, and Tsukamurella and 10 taxa of Nocardia were studied. Methods of nonsequencing analyses included growth and biochemical analysis, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the 439-bp Telenti fragment of the 65 hsp gene, susceptibility testing, and, for selected isolates, high-performance liquid chromatography. Many of the isolates were included in prior taxonomic studies. Sequencing of Nocardia species revealed that members of the group were generally most closely related to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains. However, the sequences of Nocardia transvalensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. nova isolates were highly variable; and it is likely that each of these species contains multiple species. We propose that these three species be designated complexes until they are more taxonomically defined. The sequences of several taxa did not match any recognized species. Among other aerobic actinomycetes, each group most closely resembled the associated reference strain, but with some divergence. The study demonstrates the ability of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify members of the aerobic actinomycetes, but the study also shows that a high degree of sequence divergence exists within many species and that many taxa within the Nocardia spp. are unnamed at present. A major unresolved issue is the type strain of N. asteroides, as the present one (ATCC 19247), chosen before the availability of molecular analysis, does not represent any of the common taxa associated with clinical nocardiosis. PMID:15184431

  8. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    Micropowder (20–250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  9. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-08-01

    Micropowder (20-250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  10. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V

    1997-02-01

    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data. PMID:9077005

  11. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  12. Examination of the cultivatable, aerobic microflora of swine feces and stored swine manure on various media and antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial compounds have been commonly used as feed additives for domestic animals to reduce infection and promote growth. Recent concerns have suggested that such feeding practices may result in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics. Our laboratory has been studying the predominant comm...

  13. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan P.

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  14. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  15. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  16. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Jiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor. During the operating period, it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly. Unlike the existing hypothesis, the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions. When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L, low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments. When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone, where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate, they underwent denitrification. However, when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions, denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation. Hence, in order to avoid filamentous bulking, the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L, or alternatively, the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO(3-)-N/g SS. PMID:24520715

  17. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  18. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  19. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  20. Automated Store Management For Drum Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, W.; Lang, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes advanced system technology developed for a new Drum Storage Facility to be operated by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A logistics management concept is applied for the storage of solid rad-wastes in terms of automated handling, transportation and storing as well as in terms of data management. The individual equipments, such as automated Bridge Cranes, Automatic Guided Vehicles and auxiliary systems are introduced in this paper and the store management process is outlined. The authors report furthermore on challenges during the design and engineering phase and review the project implementation from the equipment supplier's end. (authors)

  1. Storing Fluorine In Graphitelike Carbon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1995-01-01

    Fluorine stored in graphite or graphitelike carbon fibers for later release and/or use in chemical reactions. Storage in carbon fibers eliminates difficulty and risk of using high-pressure tanks and pipes to hold corrosive gas. Storage in carbon fibers makes fluorine more readily accessible than does storage as constituent of metal fluoride. Carbon fibers heated to release stored fluorine, which draws away to vessel where reacts with material to be fluorinated, possibly at temperature other than release temperature. Alternatively, material to be fluorinated mixed or otherwise placed in contact with fibers and entire mass heated to or beyond release temperature.

  2. Storing syngas lowers the carbon price for profitable coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2007-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation systems with carbon capture and sequestration have desirable environmental qualities but are not profitable when the carbon dioxide price is less than approximately $50 per metric ton. We examine whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously butstores the syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be profitable at significantly lower CO2 prices. Using a probabilistic analysis, we have calculated the plant-level return on investment (ROI) and the value of syngas storage for IGCC facilities located in the U.S. Midwest using a range of storage configurations. Adding a second turbine to use the stored syngas to generate electricity at peak hours and implementing 12 h of above-ground high-pressure syngas storage significantly increases the ROI and net present value. Storage lowers the carbon price at which IGCC enters the U.S. generation mix by approximately 25%. PMID:18186325

  3. The Heidelberg CSR: Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Orlov, D. A.; Fadil, H.; Welsch, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, V.; Diehl, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Weber, T.; Mallinger, V.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rappaport, M.; Urbain, X.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-03-20

    A cryogenic electrostatic ion storage ring CSR is under development at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps. The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to 200 eV. Through long storage times of 1000 s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution. In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed. The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced.

  4. Diving Related Changes in the Blood Oxygen Stores of Rehabilitating Harbor Seal Pups (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Amber; Ono, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups begin diving within hours of birth, stimulating the development of the blood oxygen (O2) stores necessary to sustain underwater aerobic metabolism. Since harbor seals experience a brief nursing period, the early-life development of these blood O2 stores is necessary for successful post-weaning foraging. If mothers and pups become prematurely separated, the pup may be transported to a wildlife rehabilitation center for care. Previous studies suggest that the shallow pools and lack of diving in rehabilitation facilities may lead to under-developed blood O2 stores, but diving behavior during rehabilitation has not been investigated. This study aimed to simultaneously study the diving behaviors and blood O2 store development of rehabilitating harbor seal pups. Standard hematology measurements (Hct, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC) were taken to investigate O2 storage capacity and pups were equipped with time-depth recorders to investigate natural diving behavior while in rehabilitation. Linear mixed models of the data indicate that all measured blood parameters changed with age; however, when compared to literature values for wild harbor seal pups, rehabilitating pups have smaller red blood cells (RBCs) that can store less hemoglobin (Hb) and subsequently, less O2, potentially limiting their diving capabilities. Wild pups completed longer dives at younger ages (maximum reported <25 days of age: 9 min) in previous studies than the captive pups in this study (maximum <25 days of age: 2.86 min). However, captivity may only affect the rate of development, as long duration dives were observed (maximum during rehabilitation: 13.6 min at 89 days of age). Further, this study suggests that there may be a positive relationship between RBC size and the frequency of long duration dives. Thus, rehabilitating harbor seal pups should be encouraged to make frequent, long duration dives to prepare themselves for post-release foraging. PMID:26061662

  5. Diving Related Changes in the Blood Oxygen Stores of Rehabilitating Harbor Seal Pups (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Amber; Ono, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups begin diving within hours of birth, stimulating the development of the blood oxygen (O2) stores necessary to sustain underwater aerobic metabolism. Since harbor seals experience a brief nursing period, the early-life development of these blood O2 stores is necessary for successful post-weaning foraging. If mothers and pups become prematurely separated, the pup may be transported to a wildlife rehabilitation center for care. Previous studies suggest that the shallow pools and lack of diving in rehabilitation facilities may lead to under-developed blood O2 stores, but diving behavior during rehabilitation has not been investigated. This study aimed to simultaneously study the diving behaviors and blood O2 store development of rehabilitating harbor seal pups. Standard hematology measurements (Hct, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC) were taken to investigate O2 storage capacity and pups were equipped with time-depth recorders to investigate natural diving behavior while in rehabilitation. Linear mixed models of the data indicate that all measured blood parameters changed with age; however, when compared to literature values for wild harbor seal pups, rehabilitating pups have smaller red blood cells (RBCs) that can store less hemoglobin (Hb) and subsequently, less O2, potentially limiting their diving capabilities. Wild pups completed longer dives at younger ages (maximum reported <25 days of age: 9 min) in previous studies than the captive pups in this study (maximum <25 days of age: 2.86 min). However, captivity may only affect the rate of development, as long duration dives were observed (maximum during rehabilitation: 13.6 min at 89 days of age). Further, this study suggests that there may be a positive relationship between RBC size and the frequency of long duration dives. Thus, rehabilitating harbor seal pups should be encouraged to make frequent, long duration dives to prepare themselves for post-release foraging. PMID:26061662

  6. Low stored energy 100 kV regulator for ion sources at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, E.G.; Haffner, R.L.; Ingalls, W.B.; Meyer, B.J.; Stelzer, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    To minimize accelerating column damage caused by uncontrolled energy release during arc-downs, it is desirable to minimize the available stored electrical energy. For the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) H{sup {minus}} ion sources, the stored energy includes, in addition to the charge in the power supply output capacitance, the charge on the electronics racks. They are supported and insulated from ground by PVC pipe and have a capacitance to ground of approximately 900 pf. In 1988 (LANSCE) personnel designed a high-voltage current source using a low-stored-energy power supply and planar triode with the goal of eliminating uncontrolled release of charge stored in the power supply. Construction and testing were performed intermittently as resources permitted until 1993. When work on the Short Pulse Spallation Source (SPSS) started on the LANSCE Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS) it was recognized that a higher current power supply would be needed and work resumed on the regulator circuitry. A 120 kV power supply having low output capacitance, and a planar triode have been used to supply 40 mA, 120 Hz, 12% duty-factor current for the ISTS beam. The triode`s cathode current is controlled by circuitry operating both at power-supply voltage level and at ground level via a fiber optic link. Voltage droop is approximately 600 V during the 1 ms beam pulse. The authors present the status of the regulator and its special challenges.

  7. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  8. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  9. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  10. Storing syngas lowers the carbon price for profitable coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Newcomer; Jay Apt

    2007-12-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation systems with carbon capture and sequestration have desirable environmental qualities but are not profitable when the carbon dioxide price is less than approximately $50 per metric ton. We examine whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously but stores the syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be profitable at significantly lower CO{sub 2} prices. Using a probabilistic analysis, we have calculated the plant-level return on investment (ROI) and the value of syngas storage for IGCC facilities located in the U.S. Midwest using a range of storage configurations. Adding a second turbine to use the stored syngas to generate electricity at peak hours and implementing 12 h of above-ground high-pressure syngas storage significantly increases the ROI and net present value. Storage lowers the carbon price at which IGCC enters the U.S. generation mix by approximately 25%. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Apparatus and methods for storing and releasing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    2000-01-01

    A rechargeable device that stores and discharges hydrogen is described. The device stores hydrogen in a solid form and supplies hydrogen as a gas when needed. The solid storage medium may be metal hydride in a ground particle form that avoids the need for compaction or other treatment. Dividers partition a container into separate chambers, each provided with a matrix, formed from an appropriate material like a thermally-conductive aluminum foam, which forms a number of cells. For proper chamber size, the ratio of chamber length to container diameter should be between about 0.5 and 2. Metal hydride particles (or other hydrogen storage medium) may be placed within the cells, which help prevent excessive particle settling. The container is provided with a hydrogen transfer port through which hydrogen gas passes upon either discharging from or charging of the metal hydride particles. A filter may be placed within the port to allow hydrogen to flow but prevent particles from escaping. A heat transferring surface is formed by, for instance, a channel that is thermally coupled with the aluminum foam. Fluid flows through the channel to deliver or remove heat during the respective hydrogen discharging or charging processes.

  12. Apparatus and methods for storing and releasing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    2001-01-01

    A rechargeable device that stores and discharges hydrogen is described. The device stores hydrogen in a solid form and supplies hydrogen as a gas when needed. The solid storage medium may be metal hydride in a ground particle form that avoids the need for compaction or other treatment. Dividers partition a container into separate chambers, each provided with a matrix, formed from an appropriate material like a thermally-conductive aluminum foam, which forms a number of cells. For proper chamber size, the ratio of chamber length to container diameter should be between about 0.5 and 2. Metal hydride particles (or other hydrogen storage medium) may be placed within the cells, which help prevent excessive particle settling. The container is provided with a hydrogen transfer port through which hydrogen gas passes upon either discharging from or charging of the metal hydride particles. A filter may be placed within the port to allow hydrogen to flow but prevent particles from escaping. A heat transferring surface is formed by, for instance, a channel that is thermally coupled with the aluminum foam. Fluid flows through the channel to deliver or remove heat during the respective hydrogen discharging or charging processes.

  13. Presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in minced beef stored under various temperature and packaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Nychas, George-John E

    2014-03-01

    The presence of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-like activity was observed in meat stored under various temperatures (0, 5, 10 and 15°C) and packaging (air, modified atmospheres and modified atmospheres with oregano essential oil) conditions, and correlated with the ephemeral spoilage organisms that comprise the microbial community generally associated with this product. Quorum sensing signal molecules were found to be affected by the packaging conditions e.g. temperature and atmosphere used for meat preservation as a consequence of the development of a distinct microbial community. AHL signal molecules were detected at all incubation temperatures in minced beef samples, both stored aerobically and under modified atmospheres, when both pseudomonads and Enterobacteriaceae populations ranged from 10(7) to 10(9)CFU/g, but no signal molecules were detected in minced beef stored under modified atmospheres in the presence of volatile compounds of oregano essential oil, where both these groups failed to grow in high numbers. Additionally, no significant AI-2 activity was observed in the tested cell-free meat extracts (CFME), regardless of the indigenous bacterial populations. The presence of N-(β-ketocaproyl)-homoserine lactone was confirmed with TLC analysis of CFME. PMID:24380750

  14. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Tunick, Michael H; Thomas-Gahring, Audrey; Van Hekken, Diane L; Iandola, Susan K; Singh, Mukti; Qi, Phoebe X; Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles I; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-03-01

    In a case study, we monitored the physical properties of 2 batches of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. Whey protein concentrates with 34.9 g of protein/100g (WPC34) and 76.8 g of protein/100g (WPC80) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and relative humidity. The samples became yellower with storage; those stored at 35 °C were removed from the study by 12 mo because of their unsatisfactory appearance. Decreases in lysine and increases in water activity, volatile compound formation, and powder caking values were observed in many specimens. Levels of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeast, and mold were <3.85 log10 cfu/g in all samples. Relative humidity was not a factor in most samples. When stored in sealed bags, these samples of WPC34 and WPC80 had a shelf life of 9 mo at 35 °C but at least 18 mo at lower temperatures, which should extend the market for these products. PMID:26778305

  15. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  16. Overview of North American stored product research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major locations for stored product research in North America are in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Recent personnel changes and research areas are reviewed. One of the pressing research areas in the U.S. is reducing the need for fumigations in flour mills and evaluating alte...

  17. A stored program channel processor for CAMAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    A PDP-15 interface was developed for the CAMAC instrumentation standard which implements the features of both the addressable I/0 bus and the single cycle data channel. The data channel section forms an independent I/0 processor which executes programs stored in core. Programs consist of CAMAC commands plus special control characters and commands.

  18. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  19. Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Kozubal, E.; Norton, P.

    2010-08-01

    Walmart opened two experimental stores--one in Colorado and one in Texas--in 2005 to serve as test beds for several advanced building systems. Each embodied more than 50 experiments covering materials, water systems, energy systems, and renewable energy production. Walmart worked for three years with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Colorado Store and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Texas store to monitor, analyze, and report on their performance. HVAC experiments included waste oil boilers, a microturbine/absorption chiller combined heat and power system, evaporative cooling, and a transpired solar collector. The refrigeration systems integrated a medium-temperature secondary loop, evaporatively cooled condenser, doors on medium-temperature cases, and light-emitting diodes on cases. Experiments in the lighting systems included a redesigned roof for clerestory daylighting and T-5 fluorescent lamps. Three photovoltaic systems for a total of 135 kW and a 50-kW wind turbine are also included. The energy system performance was compared to the measured performance of a prototypical Walmart store and to other benchmarks.

  20. Interspecific Associations Among Stored-Grain Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many laboratory studies have described interspecific relationships of stored grain insects, but little is known about such relationships under field conditions. Compared to most other habitats, natural or man-made, a loaded grain silo constitutes a uniquely uniform habitat in which food availability...

  1. Management Training Program in a Discount Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Manmohan Singh

    This study inquired into the objectives of management training programs in two chains of discount stores, and whether those who complete training believe that program objectives have been met. Questionnaire interviews were held with two managers and four trainees from one chain, and with two managers and two trainees from the other. Ten hypotheses…

  2. Fuels and Lubricants. Selecting and Storing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parady, W. Harold; Colvin, Thomas S.

    The manual presents basic information for the person who plans to operate or service tractors, trucks, industrial engines, and automobiles. It tells how to select the proper fuels and lubricants and how to store them properly. Although there are no prerequisites to the study of the text, a general knowledge of engines and mobile-type vehicles is…

  3. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and... aircraft required to enter under § 122.41. (b) Form. The aircraft stores shall be listed on the...

  4. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and... aircraft required to enter under § 122.41. (b) Form. The aircraft stores shall be listed on the...

  5. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and... aircraft required to enter under § 122.41. (b) Form. The aircraft stores shall be listed on the...

  6. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and... aircraft required to enter under § 122.41. (b) Form. The aircraft stores shall be listed on the...

  7. Method for storing nuclear fuel in respositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing polyphenyl or silicon oil as the storage medium is disclosed. Polyphenyls and silicon oils are non-corrosive and are not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  8. Storing Renewable Energy in Chemical Bonds

    ScienceCinema

    Helm, Monte; Bullock, Morris

    2014-06-13

    With nearly 7 billion people, the world's population is demanding more electricity every year. Improved technologies are bringing wind and solar power to our electrical grid. However, wind turbines and solar panels only work when the wind blows or the sun shines. PNNL scientists discuss catalysis approaches for storing and releasing energy on demand.

  9. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stores list. 122.47 Section 122.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  10. The Changing Face of the College Store

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Increased competition from Internet merchants, coupled with the swelling popularity of electronic books and skyrocketing textbook prices, is forcing the nation's college stores to get creative, find new ways to boost revenues, and drive sales of books and other merchandise to students and faculty. To make up for lost revenue as a result of…

  11. Storing Renewable Energy in Chemical Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, Monte; Bullock, Morris

    2013-03-27

    With nearly 7 billion people, the world's population is demanding more electricity every year. Improved technologies are bringing wind and solar power to our electrical grid. However, wind turbines and solar panels only work when the wind blows or the sun shines. PNNL scientists discuss catalysis approaches for storing and releasing energy on demand.

  12. Influence of irradiation on stored platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Moroff, G.; George, V.M.; Siegl, A.M.; Luban, N.L.

    1986-09-01

    Platelet concentrates intended for transfusion to immunosuppressed patients are irradiated to minimize transfusion-induced graft-versus-host disease. Because few reports describe how irradiation influences stored platelets, the authors studied whether 5000 rad of gamma irradiation, the maximum dose currently used clinically, altered platelets in vitro. Platelet concentrates were stored for either 1 day or 5 days in plastic (PL 732) containers before gamma irradiation. One unit of a pair of identical platelet concentrates was irradiated; the second unit served as a control. Irradiation did not alter platelet morphology, mean platelet volume, expression of platelet-factor-3 activity, response to hypotonic stress, extent of discharge of lactate dehydrogenase, release of beta-thromboglobulin, formation of thromboxane B2, nor the ability to undergo synergistic aggregation. The lack of any substantial change was observed whether the platelet concentrates were stored initially for either 1 day or 5 days. These results suggest that stored platelets are not altered deleteriously by irradiation with 5000 rad.

  13. Design of Chemical Stores--Or Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, Andy

    2010-01-01

    When science departments are designed for new builds, or are to be refurbished or moved to other parts of the school, design of preparation areas should be a major feature. It is vital that the brief contains everything that is needed including, in particular, a chemical store. But no matter how well a brief is specified, the people who actually…

  14. SURVIVAL OF PARASITE EGGS IN STORED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inactivation rates of digester-resistant parasite eggs in laboratory-stored sludge were measured to determine their potential fate in sludge lagoons. Eggs from roundworms (Ascaris, Toxocara and Trichuris) and a tapeworm (Hymenolepis) were added to domestic sludges either befo...

  15. Storing Data and Video on One Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor-based system originally developed for anthropometric research merges digital data with video images for storage on video cassette recorder. Combined signals later retrieved and displayed simultaneously on television monitor. System also extracts digital portion of stored information and transfers it to solid-state memory.

  16. Charge and Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Using a data-acquisition system, the charge and energy stored in a capacitor are measured and displayed during the charging/discharging process. The experiment is usable as a laboratory work and/or a lecture demonstration. (Contains 3 figures.)

  17. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  18. Psychological Benefits of Aerobic Running: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…

  19. The Psychology, Physiology, and Creativity of Middle School Aerobic Exercisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of aerobic running program on psychological and physical fitness and creative abilities of eight-grade school children. Students (n=85) were randomly assigned to aerobic running treatment groups or to control groups who participated in traditional, nonaerobic physical education. Found statistically significant increases for…

  20. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  1. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  2. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  3. EFFECTS OF CORN SILAGE INOCULANTS ON AEROBIC STABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic stability of corn silage can be a major problem for farmers particularly in warm weather. Silage inoculants, while the most common type of silage additive, have not been consistently effective at improving aerobic stability. This study investigated new and proposed inoculant products over ...

  4. Aerobic Activity--Do Physical Education Programs Provide Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGing, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    High school physical education curricula should concentrate less on sport skill development and competition, and more on health-related fitness and aerobic activity. Results are reported from a study of the type and amount of aerobic exercise provided in 29 high school physical education programs in a large metropolitan area. (IAH)

  5. Sexual dimorphism in primate aerobic capacity: a phylogenetic test.

    PubMed

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, L J; Nunn, C L

    2010-06-01

    Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of haematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should co-vary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions, we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

  6. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  9. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  10. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  11. Identification of inorganic and organic species of phosphorus and its bio-availability in nitrifying aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenli; Cai, Wei; Huang, He; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from sewage sludge is necessary for a sustainable development of the environment and thus the society due to gradual depletion of non-renewable P resources. Aerobic granular sludge is a promising biotechnology for wastewater treatment, which could achieve P-rich granules during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes. This study aimed to disclose the changes in inorganic and organic P species and their correlation with P mobility and bio-availability in aerobic granules. Two identical square reactors were used to cultivate aerobic granules, which were operated for 120 days with influent ammonia nitrogen (NH₄-N) of 100 mg/L before day 60 and then increased to 200 mg/L during the subsequent 60 days (chemical oxygen demand (COD) was kept constant at 600 mg/L). The aerobic granules exhibited excellent COD removal and nitrification efficiency. Results showed that inorganic P (IP) was about 61.4-67.7% of total P (TP) and non-apatite inorganic P (NAIP) occupied 61.9-70.2% of IP in the granules. The enrichment amount of NAIP and apatite P (AP) in the granules had strongly positive relationship with the contents of metal ions, i.e. Fe and Ca, respectively accumulated in the granules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and solution index calculation demonstrated that hydroxyapatite (Ca₅(PO₄)₃(OH)) and iron phosphate (Fe₇(PO₄)₆) were the major P minerals in the granules. Organic P (OP) content maintained around 7.5 mg per gram of biomass in the aerobic granules during the 120 days' operation. Monoester phosphate (21.8% of TP in extract), diester phosphate (1.8%) and phosphonate (0.1%) were identified as OP species by Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (³¹P NMR). The proportion of NAIP + OP to TP was about 80% in the granules, implying high potentially mobile and bio-available P was stored in the nitrifying aerobic granules. The present results provide a new insight into the characteristics of P species in aerobic

  12. Validation of the Peel Plate™ AC for Detection of Total Aerobic Bacteria in Dairy and Nondairy Products.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Crowley, Erin; Hammack, Thomas; Chen, Yi; Clark, Dorn; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Peel Plate™ AC (aerobic count) is a low-profile plastic 47 mm culture dish with adhesive top that contains a dried standard plate count medium with oxidation/reduction indicator triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) that turns red with dehydrogenase enzyme activity of growing aerobic bacteria. The method provides a conventional quantitative count with simple rehydration and incubation for 48 ± 3 h at 35 ± 1°C for most food matrixes and 32 ± 1°C for 48 ± 3 h for dairy products. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total aerobic count data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), light cream (20% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk, nonfat dried milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, condensed skim milk, and vanilla ice cream. Food matrixes claimed for aerobic count detection are raw ground beef, environmental sponge of stainless steel, raw ground turkey, dry dog food, liquid whole pasteurized eggs, milk chocolate, poultry carcass rinse, and large animal carcass sponge. The method has been independently evaluated for aerobic count in dairy products: whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk, and light cream. The method was also independently evaluated for aerobic count in food matrixes: ground beef and sponge rinse from stainless steel surfaces. In the matrix study, each matrix was assessed separately at each contamination level in comparison to an appropriate reference method. Colony counts were determined for each level and then log10-transformed. The transformed data were evaluated for repeatability, mean comparison between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI), and r(2). A CI range of (-0.5, 0.5) on the mean difference was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical differences between methods. The evaluations demonstrate that the Peel Plate AC provides no statistical differences across most of the matrixes with r(2) > 0

  13. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  14. O2 store management in diving emperor penguins

    PubMed Central

    Ponganis, P. J.; Stockard, T. K.; Meir, J. U.; Williams, C. L.; Ponganis, K. V.; Howard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In order to further define O2 store utilization during dives and understand the physiological basis of the aerobic dive limit (ADL, dive duration associated with the onset of post-dive blood lactate accumulation), emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) were equipped with either a blood partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) recorder or a blood sampler while they were diving at an isolated dive hole in the sea ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Arterial PO2 profiles (57 dives) revealed that (a) pre-dive PO2 was greater than that at rest, (b) PO2 transiently increased during descent and (c) post-dive PO2 reached that at rest in 1.92±1.89 min (N=53). Venous PO2 profiles (130 dives) revealed that (a) pre-dive venous PO2 was greater than that at rest prior to 61% of dives, (b) in 90% of dives venous PO2 transiently increased with a mean maximum PO2 of 53±18 mmHg and a mean increase in PO2 of 11±12 mmHg, (c) in 78% of dives, this peak venous PO2 occurred within the first 3 min, and (d) post-dive venous PO2 reached that at rest within 2.23±2.64 min (N=84). Arterial and venous PO2 values in blood samples collected 1–3 min into dives were greater than or near to the respective values at rest. Blood lactate concentration was less than 2 mmol l–1 as far as 10.5 min into dives, well beyond the known ADL of 5.6 min. Mean arterial and venous PN2 of samples collected at 20–37 m depth were 2.5 times those at the surface, both being 2.1±0.7 atmospheres absolute (ATA; N=3 each), and were not significantly different. These findings are consistent with the maintenance of gas exchange during dives (elevated arterial and venous PO2 and PN2 during dives), muscle ischemia during dives (elevated venous PO2, lack of lactate washout into blood during dives), and arterio-venous shunting of blood both during the surface period (venous PO2 greater than that at rest) and during dives (arterialized venous PO2 values during descent, equivalent arterial and venous PN2 values during

  15. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  16. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  17. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Glucoisosaccharinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Strand, S. E.; Dykes, J.; Chiang, V.

    1984-01-01

    α-Glucoisosaccharinic acid (GISA), a major by-product of kraft paper manufacture, was synthesized from lactose and used as the carbon source for microbial media. Ten strains of aerobic bacteria capable of growth on GISA were isolated from kraft pulp mill environments. The highest growth yields were obtained with Ancylobacter spp. at pH 7.2 to 9.5. GISA was completely degraded by cultures of an Ancylobacter isolate. Ancylobacter cell suspensions consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide in response to GISA addition. A total of 22 laboratory strains of bacteria were tested, and none was capable of growth on GISA. GISA-degrading isolates were not found in forest soils. Images PMID:16346467

  18. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Benjamin J; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-06-28

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual-motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  19. New Routes for Aerobic Biodegradation of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Gilchrist, Darrin C.

    1991-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an osmolyte in marine plants, is biodegraded by cleavage of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or by demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA). Sequential demethylation has been observed only with anoxic slurries of coastal sediments. Bacteria that grew aerobically on MMPA and DMSP were isolated from marine environments and phytoplankton cultures. Enrichments with DMSP selected for bacteria that generated DMS, whereas MMPA enrichments selected organisms that produced methanethiol (CH3SH) from either DMSP or MMPA. A bacterium isolated on MMPA grew on MMPA and DMSP, but rapid production of CH3SH from DMSP occurred only with DMSP-grown cells. Low levels of MPA accumulated during growth on MMPA, indicating demethylation as well as demethiolation of MMPA. The alternative routes for DMSP biodegradation via MMPA probably impact on net DMS fluxes to the marine atmosphere. PMID:16348607

  20. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  1. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  2. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  3. Laboratory evaluation of bioaugmentation for aerobic treatment of RDX in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Vainberg, Simon; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Eaton, Hillary; Istok, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    The potential for bioaugmentation with aerobic explosive degrading bacteria to remediate hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated aquifers was demonstrated. Repacked aquifer sediment columns were used to examine the transport and RDX degradation capacity of the known RDX degrading bacterial strains Gordonia sp. KTR9 (modified with a kanamycin resistance gene) Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, and a kanamycin resistant transconjugate Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 pGKT2:Km+. All three strains were transported through the columns and eluted ahead of the conservative bromide tracer, although the total breakthrough varied by strain. The introduced cells responded to biostimulation with fructose (18 mg L(-1), 0.1 mM) by degrading dissolved RDX (0.5 mg L(-1), 2.3 µM). The strains retained RDX-degrading activity for at least 6 months following periods of starvation when no fructose was supplied to the column. Post-experiment analysis of the soil indicated that the residual cells were distributed along the length of the column. When the strains were grown to densities relevant for field-scale application, the cells remained viable and able to degrade RDX for at least 3 months when stored at 4 °C. These results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable option for treating RDX in large dilute aerobic plumes. PMID:25503243

  4. Long-term storage of aerobic granules in liquid media: viable but non-culturable status.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Qinlan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Yayi; Li, Jieni

    2014-08-01

    Long-term storage and successful reactivation after storage are essential for practical applications of aerobic granules on wastewater treatment. This study cultivated aerobic granules (SI) in sequencing batch reactors and then stored the granules at 4 °C in five liquid media (DI water (SW), acetone (SA), acetone/isoamyl acetate mix (SAA), saline water (SS), and formaldehyde (SF)) for over 1 year. The first four granules were then successfully reactivated in 24h cultivation. The specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) of the granules followed SI>SS>SA>SAA>SW>SF; and the corresponding granular strengths (10 min ultrasound) followed SI>SA=SS>SAA>SW>SF. During storage the granular cells secreted excess quantities of cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and pentaphosphate (ppGpp) as responses to the stringent challenges. We proposed that to force cells in granules (Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Clostridia) entering viable but non-culturable (VBNC) status is the key of success for extended period storage of granules. PMID:24950091

  5. Homeostasis and the glycogen shunt explains aerobic ethanol production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Robert G; Rothman, Douglas L

    2015-09-01

    Aerobic glycolysis in yeast and cancer cells produces pyruvate beyond oxidative needs, a paradox noted by Warburg almost a century ago. To address this question, we reanalyzed extensive measurements from (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy of yeast glycolysis and the coupled pathways of futile cycling and glycogen and trehalose synthesis (which we refer to as the glycogen shunt). When yeast are given a large glucose load under aerobic conditions, the fluxes of these pathways adapt to maintain homeostasis of glycolytic intermediates and ATP. The glycogen shunt uses glycolytic ATP to store glycolytic intermediates as glycogen and trehalose, generating pyruvate and ethanol as byproducts. This conclusion is supported by studies of yeast with a partial block in the glycogen shunt due to the cif mutation, which found that when challenged with glucose, the yeast cells accumulate glycolytic intermediates and ATP, which ultimately leads to cell death. The control of the relative fluxes, which is critical to maintain homeostasis, is most likely exerted by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and fructose bisphosphatase. The kinetic properties of yeast PK and mammalian PKM2, the isoform found in cancer, are similar, suggesting that the same mechanism may exist in cancer cells, which, under these conditions, could explain their excess lactate generation. The general principle that homeostasis of metabolite and ATP concentrations is a critical requirement for metabolic function suggests that enzymes and pathways that perform this critical role could be effective drug targets in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26283370

  6. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site.

  7. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies.

  8. Hybrid system for producing and storing ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. E.; Larash, R. C.; Gorski, A. J.

    Refrigeration, cooling and/or chilling methods usually require rather large amounts of energy for operation. This system uses naturally frozen ice in long term storage to provide an economical source of ice for various cooling or chilling purposes. Initial research and computer simulations indicate that in areas where the winter is suffuciently cold and of sufficient duration, this system would be an economical, viable option for uses such as simple refrigeration, summer air conditioning, or simply for effective dehumidification. In a 36 day melting period in June and July 1984, the system ran nearly continuously for 768 hours, recovering a total of 743 tons of cooling with an estimated 5 to 8% of the stored cooling capacity remaining. The seasonal melting loss was approximately 50% of the stored capacity.

  9. Small multipurpose stored data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, G.C.; Ryerson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department has designed and is fielding a small, inexpensive multipurpose stored data acquisition system in tests ranging from 6000 meters below the ocean surface in seafloor penetrators to 40,000 meters above sea level in gamma ray telescope balloons. The systems consists of a simple microprocessor-controlled unit which digitizes analog data stores the data in memory for readout after the test by a portable personal compute. The system has been used in over ninety tests consisting of parachute drops, water entry test, vehicle environmental monitoring, and seafloor penetration tests. Data typically recorded with the system are acceleration, strain, temperature, pressure, and angular velocity. The system is also capable of generating control functions such as parachute release. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  10. 19. View of southwest corner of corner store, Crystal Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of southwest corner of corner store, Crystal Bridge connection to east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and south side of 1946/1948 store for homes, and 1958 service building addition, from south looking northwest. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 7 CFR 160.5 - Standards for naval stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for naval stores. 160.5 Section 160.5..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.5 Standards for naval stores. In addition to the standards...

  12. 7 CFR 160.5 - Standards for naval stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standards for naval stores. 160.5 Section 160.5..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.5 Standards for naval stores. In addition to the standards...

  13. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  14. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  15. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  16. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  17. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  18. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. PMID:26928914

  19. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  20. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  1. Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

  2. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  3. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  4. Manure source and age affect survival of zoonotic pathogens during aerobic composting at sublethal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Heat is the primary mechanism by which aerobic composting inactivates zoonotic bacterial pathogens residing within animal manures, but at sublethal temperatures, the time necessary to hold the compost materials to ensure pathogen inactivation is uncertain. To determine the influence of the type of nitrogen amendment on inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures, specific variables investigated in these studies included the animal source of the manure, the initial carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the compost mixture, and the age of the manure. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were both inactivated more rapidly in chicken and swine compost mixtures stored at 20°C when formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 20:1 compared with 40:1, whereas a C:N ratio did not have an effect on inactivation of these pathogens in cow compost mixtures. Pathogen inactivation was related to the elevated pH of the samples that likely arises from ammonia produced by the indigenous microflora in the compost mixtures. Indigenous microbial activity was reduced when compost mixtures were stored at 30°C and drier conditions (<10% moisture level) were prevalent. Furthermore, under these drier conditions, Salmonella persisted to a greater extent than L. monocytogenes, and the desiccation resistance of Salmonella appeared to convey cross-protection to ammonia. Salmonella persisted longer in compost mixtures prepared with aged chicken litter compared with fresh chicken litter, whereas E. coli O157:H7 survived to similar extents in compost mixtures prepared with either fresh or aged cow manure. The different responses observed when different sources of manure were used in compost mixtures reveal that guidelines with times required for pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures should be dependent on the source of nitrogen, i.e., type of animal manure, present. PMID:25710145

  5. Effect of whey protein coating on quality attributes of low-fat, aerobically packaged sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shon, J; Chin, K B

    2008-08-01

    Whey protein-based edible coating was used to reduce oxidative degradation and microbial growth of low-fat sausages (LFSs) stored at 4 degrees C for 8 wk, under aerobic package. Whey protein coating reduced (P<0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) formation compared to control sausages. The percent inhibition of TBARS and PV for whey protein-coated sausages, compared to the control, was 31.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The ability of the whey protein coating to provide a moisture barrier for the sausages was reduced (P<0.05). In addition, a reduction of moisture loss by 36.7% compared to the control was achieved by whey coating. However, whey protein coating of LFSs did not inhibit the growth of either the total number of aerobic bacteria or of Listeria monocytogenes. These results indicated that whey protein coating had an antioxidative activity in LFSs under aerobic package during refrigerated storage. PMID:19241536

  6. Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention. PMID:24297010

  7. Resilience of invaded riparian landscapes: the potential role of soil-stored seed banks.

    PubMed

    Tererai, Farai; Gaertner, Mirijam; Jacobs, Shayne M; Richardson, David M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of soil-stored seed banks in driving vegetation recovery under varying intensities of invasion by the alien tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis along the Berg River in South Africa's Western Cape Province. We asked: How do richness, diversity, and composition of soil-stored seed banks vary with invasion intensity? What is the difference between the seed banks and above-ground vegetation with respect to species richness, diversity, composition, and structure? To what extent do soil-stored seed banks provide reliable sources for restoring native plant communities? Through a seedling-emergence approach, we compared seedling density, richness, and diversity in plots under varying Eucalyptus cover. Seed bank characteristics were also compared with those of the above-ground vegetation. Except in terms of diversity and density, the richness and composition of native species varied significantly among invasion conditions. Despite the paucity of native tree and shrub species in the seed bank, it was more diverse than extant vegetation. Some species occurred exclusively either in the seed bank or in the above-ground vegetation. Although this ecosystem has been degraded by several agents, including Eucalyptus invasion, soil-stored seed banks still offer modest potential for driving regeneration of native plant communities, but secondary invasions need to be managed carefully. Remnant populations of native plants in the above-ground vegetation remaining after E. camaldulensis clearing provide a more promising propagule source for rapid regeneration. Further work is needed to elucidate possible effects of invasion on successional pathways following E. camaldulensis removal and the effects of hydrochory on seed bank dynamics. PMID:25245198

  8. Resilience of Invaded Riparian Landscapes: The Potential Role of Soil-Stored Seed Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tererai, Farai; Gaertner, Mirijam; Jacobs, Shayne M.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of soil-stored seed banks in driving vegetation recovery under varying intensities of invasion by the alien tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis along the Berg River in South Africa's Western Cape Province. We asked: How do richness, diversity, and composition of soil-stored seed banks vary with invasion intensity? What is the difference between the seed banks and above-ground vegetation with respect to species richness, diversity, composition, and structure? To what extent do soil-stored seed banks provide reliable sources for restoring native plant communities? Through a seedling-emergence approach, we compared seedling density, richness, and diversity in plots under varying Eucalyptus cover. Seed bank characteristics were also compared with those of the above-ground vegetation. Except in terms of diversity and density, the richness and composition of native species varied significantly among invasion conditions. Despite the paucity of native tree and shrub species in the seed bank, it was more diverse than extant vegetation. Some species occurred exclusively either in the seed bank or in the above-ground vegetation. Although this ecosystem has been degraded by several agents, including Eucalyptus invasion, soil-stored seed banks still offer modest potential for driving regeneration of native plant communities, but secondary invasions need to be managed carefully. Remnant populations of native plants in the above-ground vegetation remaining after E. camaldulensis clearing provide a more promising propagule source for rapid regeneration. Further work is needed to elucidate possible effects of invasion on successional pathways following E. camaldulensis removal and the effects of hydrochory on seed bank dynamics.

  9. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  10. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  11. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  12. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters

  13. Stored energy release behaviour of disordered carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, K.; Barat, P.; Sarkar, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    2007-06-01

    The use of graphite as a moderator in a low temperature thermal nuclear reactor is restricted due to accumulation of energy caused by displacement of atoms by neutrons and high energetic particles. Thermal transients may lead to a release of stored energy that may raise the temperature of the fuel clad above the design limit. Disordered carbon is thought to be an alternative choice for this purpose. Two types of disordered carbon composites, namely, CB (made up of 15 wt. % carbon black dispersed in carbonized phenolic resin) and PAN (made up of 20 vol. % chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibre dispersed in carbonized phenolic resin matrix) have been irradiated with 145 MeV Ne6+ ions at three fluence levels of 1.0×1013, 5.0×1013 and 1.5×1014 Ne6+/cm2, respectively. The XRD patterns revealed that both the samples remained disordered even after irradiation. The maximum release of stored energy for CB was 212 J/g and that of PAN was 906 J/g. For CB, the release of stored energy was a first order reaction with activation energy of 2.79 eV and a frequency factor of 3.72×1028 per second. 13% of the defects got annealed by heating up to 700 °C. PAN showed a third-order release rate with activation energy of 1.69 eV and a frequency factor of 1.77×1014 per second. 56% of the total defects got annealed by heating it up to 700 °C. CB seems to be the better choice than PAN as it showed less energy release with a slower rate.

  14. Experiences of Users from Online Grocery Stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Mark

    Grocery shopping, traditionally considered as the pinnacle of the self-service industry, is used as the case study in this chapter. As the Internet has become widely used by many segments of the population, the opportunity to shop online for groceries has been presented to consumers. This chapter considers issues that need to be addressed to make online grocery shopping systems more usable for these consumers, based on feedback from individuals who participated in a study of user interactions with Australian online grocery stores.

  15. Mixing in thermally stratified energy stores

    SciTech Connect

    Berkle, J. van

    1996-10-01

    Two important aspects of short-term thermally stratified energy storage, thermocline mixing and thermocline thickness, are studied analytically, experimentally and numerically. The storage detrimental aspects are investigated for a simplified configuration, i.e., an adiabatic box containing a quasi-stationary thermocline. Numerical finite difference/volume simulations agree well with experiments. The dissipation-free 1D analytical model shows a large discrepancy. It appears that mixing inside thermally stratified stores is a two-state process. First fluid is withdrawn from the thermocline by viscous drag. Subsequent mixing takes place by stretching and folding of fluid particles, thereby enabling diffusion to become active. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  17. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  18. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  19. Aerobic capacity is correlated with the ranking of boxers.

    PubMed

    Bruzas, Vidas; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Cepulenas, Algirdas; Mockus, Pranas; Statkeviciene, Birute; Subacius, Vitalijus

    2014-08-01

    The goal was to assess the aerobic capacity of boxers and its relation with sport mastery. Participants were 12 boxers from the Lithuanian national team (VO₂max - 58.03 ± 3.00 ml/kg/min) of different weight classes. Their sport mastery ranking was established according to their achieved results during the last years of participation in amateur boxing contests. In a graduated treadmill running test, the boxers' aerobic capacity indices were established. Running speed at first and second ventilatory thresholds, VO₂max, and maximal oxygen pulse had moderate to strong correlations with the boxers' sport mastery ranking. Aerobic capacity is an important fitness component of boxers in all weight categories. Special attention should be paid to development of cardiac capacity in the boxers' training processes, as with aerobic power and anaerobic threshold training. PMID:25153738

  20. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  1. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  2. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  3. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  4. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  5. Personality, Metabolic Rate and Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Chan, Wayne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO2) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r =  −0.12) and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11), openness (r = 0.13), and conscientiousness (r = 0.09) had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity. PMID:23372763

  6. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  7. Effectiveness of Active Packaging on Control of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Total Aerobic Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2015-06-01

    Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables. PMID:25974213

  8. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  9. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  10. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  11. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  12. Maternal and fetal responses to low-impact aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Katz, V L; Poe, M P; Hackney, A C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiologic responses to low-impact aerobics using treadmill walking as a control. Ten pregnant women between 21 and 28 weeks of gestation completed 40 minutes of low-impact aerobic dance. The maternal and fetal responses were then compared to 40 minutes of walking at the same heart rate. The aerobics program consisted of a 10-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of high-intensity exercise, and 10 minutes of decreasing intensity. Heart rates were recorded every 5 minutes, and oxygen uptake (VO2) and fetal response (real-time ultrasound) were obtained every 10 minutes. The maternal heart rates were similar during both trials (overall, 133 +/- 6 beat/min). VO2 values during walking were about 4 mL/kg/min greater than during aerobic dance (p < or = 0.003). Minute ventilation (VE) was also greater during walking (28.7 +/- 6.4 versus 24.1 +/- 3.4 L/min, p < or = 0.001). Respiratory exchange ratios and the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen (VE/VO2) were similar for both trials. Aerobic dance caused greater fetal heart rates than walking (p < or = 0.001), differences being as high as 25 beat/min. The fetal rates had returned toward rest within 5 minutes following exercise. Low-impact aerobic dance, compared with walking at similar heart rates, results in a lower maternal metabolic rate and increases the transient stress on the fetus. PMID:7575837

  13. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    PubMed

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS. PMID:16216690

  14. Diffusion Dynamics in a Tevatron Store

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    A separator failure during a store in 2002 led to a drop in luminosity, to increased emittance growth and to a drop in beam lifetimes. We show that a simple diffusion model can be used to explain the changes in beam lifetimes. Emittance growth of beams when they are in collision occurs due to many sources: beam-beam interactions, magnetic nonlinearities, intra-beam scattering, scattering off the residual gas and possibly others. The dynamics of the emittance growth is complicated and it depends strongly on the tunes. It is not always clear that the dynamics can be described by a diffusion process at all particle amplitudes in each beam. However in one store early in Run II, there was a sudden drop in a separator voltage in the Tevatron and the subsequent enhanced emittance growth and intensity lifetime drop could be described by a simple diffusion model. In this report we analyze the luminosity drop, compare the measured value with the expected drop and analyze the change in beam lifetimes. We show how a simple model of diffusive emittance growth and a change in physical aperture provides a quantitative explanation for the change in lifetimes.

  15. Calcium store stability as an antiarrhythmic endpoint.

    PubMed

    Zaza, Antonio; Rocchetti, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are electrical phenomena; thus, sarcolemmal ion channels have long been considered as targets of antiarrhythmic therapy. The contribution of abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) handling to digitalis-induced arrhythmogenesis is an old concept; however, the role of abnormal Ca(2+) handling as a common cause of arrhythmia, i.e. relevant to all arrhythmogenic mechanisms, has been fully recognized in more recent times. Stability of the intracellular Ca(2+) store (sarcoplasmic reticulum, SR) is crucial to physiological Ca(2+) handling; when it is compromised, Ca(2+) may be released independently from excitation and lead to secondary perturbation of membrane potential. Ca(2+) store stability depends on the interplay between sarcolemmal and SR "effectors" (ion channels and transports), which are mutually linked by Ca(2+)-mediated feed-back control. While instrumental to cell homeostasis, such control makes any attempt to modulate SR stability dauntingly complex. This review discusses current knowledge on the factors leading to SR instability, the mechanisms by which SR instability translates into arrhythmias and which interventions may be best suited to prevent SR instability. Although still at an initial stage of development, such interventions might represent the future of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. PMID:25354186

  16. Using magnetic permeability bits to store information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerwilke, John; Petrie, J. R.; Wieland, K. A.; Mencia, Raymond; Liou, Sy-Hwang; Cress, C. D.; Newburgh, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Steps are described in the development of a new magnetic memory technology, based on states with different magnetic permeability, with the capability to reliably store large amounts of information in a high-density form for decades. The advantages of using the permeability to store information include an insensitivity to accidental exposure to magnetic fields or temperature changes, both of which are known to corrupt memory approaches that rely on remanent magnetization. The high permeability media investigated consists of either films of Metglas 2826 MB (Fe40Ni38Mo4B18) or bilayers of permalloy (Ni78Fe22)/Cu. Regions of films of the high permeability media were converted thermally to low permeability regions by laser or ohmic heating. The permeability of the bits was read by detecting changes of an external 32 Oe probe field using a magnetic tunnel junction 10 μm away from the media. Metglas bits were written with 100 μs laser pulses and arrays of 300 nm diameter bits were read. The high and low permeability bits written using bilayers of permalloy/Cu are not affected by 10 Mrad(Si) of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. An economical route for writing and reading bits as small at 20 nm using a variation of heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  17. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  18. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties.

    PubMed

    Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P < 0.05) irradiation-induced lipid oxidation during storage as determined by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values. Rosemary extracts had the same antioxidant effect (P > 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels. PMID:26904596

  19. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties

    PubMed Central

    Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T.; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K.; Keeton, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P < 0.05) irradiation-induced lipid oxidation during storage as determined by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values. Rosemary extracts had the same antioxidant effect (P > 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels. PMID:26904596

  20. Combined effect of gamma irradiation, ascorbic acid, and edible coating on the improvement of microbial and biochemical characteristics of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Blaise; Giroux, Martine; Smoragiewicz, Wanda; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2002-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and the incorporation of natural antimicrobial compounds in cross-linked films on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef. Medium-fat (23% fat) ground beef patties were divided into three separate treatment groups: (i) control samples without additives, (ii) ground beef samples containing 0.5% (wt/wt) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef samples containing 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based cross-linked film containing immobilized spice powders. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. Microbial growth (based on total aerobic plate counts [APCs] and total coliforms) was evaluated, as were the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and that of free sulfydryl groups. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (P < or = 0.05) reduced the APCs. Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate APC reductions of 2, 3, and 4 log units, respectively. An APC level of 6 log CFU/g was reached after 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria and B. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than were Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The TBARS and free sulfydryl contents were stabilized during postirradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based cross-linked film containing immobilized spice powders. PMID:12092732

  1. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Mendizabal, Jose A; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega-3, with CLA, or with omega-3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatments of beef were stored at 2 ± 1°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days under retail display conditions. Oxidation stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin formation, and sensory attributes (color and odor) were measured. Omega-3-enriched beef increased the oxidation level at day 6 as determined by TBARS (P < 0.05), but the instrumental color was not affected. The enrichment of CLA improved the coordinates of color (P < 0.05) until day 3 and decreased the oxidation at day 6 (P < 0.05). There were no differences in color and odor values among the types of beef during display, except at day 3, when CLA treatments had the highest scores. Addition of GSE decreased the oxidation level (P < 0.001) and did not affect the instrumental color or the sensory parameters. PMID:26788312

  2. Changes in the quality of superchilled rabbit meat stored at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yang; Shang, Yongbiao; Song, Ying; Dong, Quan

    2016-07-01

    This work studied the effects of a superchilling process at two different temperatures on the shelf life and selected quality parameters of rabbit meat. As the storage time increased, the rates at which the total aerobic count, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and pH value increased were significantly lower in superchilled rabbit meat stored at -4°C compared to those in rabbit meat stored at -2.5°C and 4°C. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the decrease in storage temperature could significantly reduce the degree of protein degradation. The lightness, redness, shear force, the integrity of muscle microstructure and water holding capacity decreased with increasing storage time. Compared with the samples frozen at -18°C, superchilled rabbit meat shows a marked reduction in microstructure deterioration. These results suggest that shelf life of good-quality rabbit meat was 20d under superchilling at -2.5°C and at least 36d under superchilling at -4°C, compared with less than 6d under traditional chilled storage. PMID:26990070

  3. Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in adult female northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Hassrick, J L; Crocker, D E; Teutschel, N M; McDonald, B I; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Costa, D P

    2010-02-15

    The range of foraging behaviors available to deep-diving, air-breathing marine vertebrates is constrained by their physiological capacity to breath-hold dive. We measured body oxygen stores (blood volume and muscle myoglobin) and diving behavior in adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, to investigate age-related effects on diving performance. Blood volume averaged 74.4+/-17.0 liters in female elephant seals or 20.2+/-2.0% of body mass. Plasma volume averaged 32.2+/-7.8 liters or 8.7+/-0.7% of body mass. Absolute plasma volume and blood volume increased independently with mass and age. Hematocrit decreased weakly with mass but did not vary with age. Muscle myoglobin concentration, while higher than previously reported (7.4+/-0.7 g%), did not vary with mass or age. Pregnancy status did not influence blood volume. Mean dive duration, a proxy for physiological demand, increased as a function of how long seals had been at sea, followed by mass and hematocrit. Strong effects of female body mass (range, 218-600 kg) on dive duration, which were independent of oxygen stores, suggest that larger females had lower diving metabolic rates. A tendency for dives to exceed calculated aerobic limits occurred more frequently later in the at-sea migration. Our data suggest that individual physiological state variables and condition interact to determine breath-hold ability and that both should be considered in life-history studies of foraging behavior. PMID:20118309

  4. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  5. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOEpatents

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  6. Enzyme activities support the use of liver lipid-derived ketone bodies as aerobic fuels in muscle tissues of active sharks.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Dickson, K A

    2001-01-01

    Few data exist to test the hypothesis that elasmobranchs utilize ketone bodies rather than fatty acids for aerobic metabolism in muscle, especially in continuously swimming, pelagic sharks, which are expected to be more reliant on lipid fuel stores during periods between feeding bouts and due to their high aerobic metabolic rates. Therefore, to provide support for this hypothesis, biochemical indices of lipid metabolism were measured in the slow-twitch, oxidative (red) myotomal muscle, heart, and liver of several active shark species, including the endothermic shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus. Tissues were assayed spectrophotometrically for indicator enzymes of fatty acid oxidation (3-hydroxy-o-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), ketone-body catabolism (3-oxoacid-CoA transferase), and ketogenesis (hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase). Red muscle and heart had high capacities for ketone utilization, low capacities for fatty acid oxidation, and undetectable levels of ketogenic enzymes. Liver demonstrated undetectable activities of ketone catabolic enzymes but high capacities for fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Serum concentrations of the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate varied interspecifically (means of 0.128-0.978 micromol mL(-1)) but were higher than levels previously reported for teleosts. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aerobic metabolism in muscle tissue of active sharks utilizes ketone bodies, and not fatty acids, derived from liver lipid stores. PMID:11247746

  7. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  8. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  9. Tolerance to organic loading rate by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Liu, Fu-biao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Sodium acetate as carbon source, tolerance to organic loading rate (OLR) by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor (CAGR) was investigated by gradually increasing the influent COD. AGS could maintain stability in the continuous flow reactor under OLR⩽15kg/m(3)d in the former 65 days, and SVI, granulation rate, average particle size and water content was 21 ml/g, 98%, 1.8mm and 97.2% on the 65th day. However, AGS gradually disintegrated after the 66 th day when OLR increased to 18 kg/m(3)d, and granules' properties deteriorated rapidly in a short time. High removal rates to pollutants were achieved by CAGR in the former 65 days, but the removal rates of pollutants dropped sharply from the 66 th day. With the increase of OLR and particle size, anaerobic cores inside the granules were formed by massive dead cells, while instability of anaerobic core eventually led to the collapse of the system. PMID:25710570

  10. 18. View of corner store, south side of Crystal Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of corner store, south side of Crystal Bridge, 1939/1940 addition, and 1951/1953 addition from south looking northeast. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, Ostheimer and Co.) from Everts, Ensign & Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Erie County, 1876 - Empire Stores, 501-505 State Street, Erie, Erie County, PA

  12. 7. West and south facades of the store's two outbuildings: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West and south facades of the store's two outbuildings: a fertilizer shed at the left of the view and the outhouse on the right - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  13. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  14. 7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. 2. General view of Bolton Store, looking northwest, showing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Bolton Store, looking northwest, showing south and east elevations at the intersection of Willamette Drive and Elliott Street - Bolton Store, 21420 Willamette Drive, West Linn, Clackamas County, OR

  16. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM SOUTHEAST FACING NORTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  17. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM NORTHEAST FACING SOUTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  18. STIM1 Protein Activates Store-Operated Calcium Channels in Cellular Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vigont, V. A.; Zimina, O. A.; Glushankova, L. N.; Kolobkova, J. A.; Ryazantseva, M. A.; Mozhayeva, G. N.; Kaznacheyeva, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that the expression of full-length mutated huntingtin in human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) leads to an abnormal increase in calcium entry through store-operated channels. In this paper, the expression of the N-terminal fragment of mutated huntingtin (Htt138Q-1exon) is shown to be enough to provide an actual model for Huntington’s disease. We have shown that Htt138Q-1exon expression causes increased store-operated calcium entry, which is mediated by at least two types of channels in SK-N-SH cells with different reversal potentials. Calcium sensor, STIM1, is required for activation of store-operated calcium entry in these cells. The results provide grounds for considering the proteins responsible for the activation and maintenance of the store-operated calcium entry as promising targets for developing novel therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25558393

  19. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  20. Polarimetry for Stored Polarized Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility studies using 0.97-GeV/c polarized deuterons to determine the suitability of storage rings in the search for intrinsic electric dipole moments have led to new developments in storage ring polarimeters. Efficiency has increased with the use of thick carbon targets. The calibration of the effects of geometric and rate-dependent errors has made possible the subtraction of these systematic errors, resulting in sensitivities at or below 10‑5 to polarization changes during the time of the store. Tagging polarimeter events with the clock time had made available the turn number for each event, making possible longitudinal profile and horizontal polarization measurements. These have been used to explore the correction of second-order contributions to decoherence using sextupole fields, yielding horizontal polarization lifetimes as long as 20 minutes. Such studies may be extended to protons and 3He.

  1. Common Data Format (CDF) to store images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreve, Loy W., II

    1988-01-01

    The original goal of this study was to allow free interchange of images between the HGS and other analytical tools available to NASA. Originally conceived as a collection of individual computer programs that could individually convert any format image to any other format and transfer images via several routes, NASA elected to adopt a Common Data Format (CDF) to store images. This allowed the storage of all images in one format on the NASA EADS. Most of the individual programs were then combined and placed in a user friendly menu-driven system that allows free interchange of image formats within EADS (Sun Workstation), HGS, and Omnicon systems. Additional software and hardware was supplied that allows physical transfer of the formatted images throughout these systems and to external systems.

  2. Use of hydrogen to store, transmit power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccanera, P.; Moriconi, A.; Naviglio, A.

    1980-02-01

    A mode of using hydrogen specifically as an energy storage component is discussed. A system is described in which electrical energy taken from the power distribution network during low-demand periods is used to produce H2 by electrolysis. The hydrogen energy potential produced is stored by absorption of the gas in iron-titanium hydrid beds, from which it is recovered (during energy peak demand periods) in the form of electrical energy through hydrogen-fueled fuel cells, that is, electric cells that use as a fuel the hydrogen previously absorbed by the FeTi hydride and subsequently dissociated from it through simple heating. The thermal energy developed during the formation of the metallic hydride and that which must be supplied to release hydrogen are respectively removed and transferred by a thermal-carrier liquid circulating in pipes inside the vessels containing the hydride.

  3. The Phonological Store of Working Memory: Is It Phonological and Is It a Store?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Macken, William J.; Nicholls, Alastair P.

    2004-01-01

    The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was…

  4. Competition among species of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the competition of stored-product psocid species, by conducting two series of laboratory experiments. In the first series, three Liposcelididae were used: Liposcelis bostrychophila, L. decolor and L. paeta. Five adult females of these species were placed in vials, either alone or in all...

  5. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  6. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  7. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  8. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  9. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  10. In-Store Experimental Approach to Pricing and Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Foxall, Gordon; Saevarsson, Hugi

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed how, and to what extent, it is possible to use behavioral experimentation and relative sales analysis to study the effects of price on consumers' brand choices in the store environment. An in-store experiment was performed in four stores to investigate the effects of different prices of a target brand on consumers' relative…

  11. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56.6100 Section 56.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56.6100 Section 56.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56.6100 Section 56.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56.6100 Section 56.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56.6100 Section 56.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored...

  16. 19 CFR 122.136 - Outgoing stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.136 Outgoing stores list. (a) Preparation. Two copies of a serially numbered outgoing stores list shall be prepared by the airline for all liquor and tobacco withdrawn from bonded or non-tax-paid stock and added to liquor kits. The outgoing stores...

  17. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-3 - Stores inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventories. 109....51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5108-3 Stores inventories. Perpetual inventory records are to be maintained for stores inventory items....

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventory... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual...

  19. 4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  20. Plutonium uptake by common soil aerobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Seth; Rugglero, Christy; Hersman, Larry; Neu, Mary

    2000-07-01

    Radionuclide contamination in soils and groundwater poses a risk to both human and environmental health. The DOE has identified 12 sites with significant U contamination in the soils and ground water, and 10 sites with Pu contamination.1 It is important to study the interactions of common soil microbes with these radionuclides both to understand the environmental fate of these contaminants and to evaluate the potential of biological techniques to remediate contaminated soils and water.

  1. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period. METHODS: Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients. RESULTS: From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and

  2. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  3. Effect of Storage Temperature on Cultured Epidermal Cell Sheets Stored in Xenobiotic-Free Medium

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Catherine; Aabel, Peder; Eidet, Jon R.; Messelt, Edward B.; Lyberg, Torstein; von Unge, Magnus; Utheim, Tor P.

    2014-01-01

    Cultured epidermal cell sheets (CECS) are used in regenerative medicine in patients with burns, and have potential to treat limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), as demonstrated in animal models. Despite widespread use, short-term storage options for CECS are limited. Advantages of storage include: flexibility in scheduling surgery, reserve sheets for repeat operations, more opportunity for quality control, and improved transportation to allow wider distribution. Studies on storage of CECS have thus far focused on cryopreservation, whereas refrigeration is a convenient method commonly used for whole skin graft storage in burns clinics. It has been shown that preservation of viable cells using these methods is variable. This study evaluated the effect of different temperatures spanning 4°C to 37°C, on the cell viability, morphology, proliferation and metabolic status of CECS stored over a two week period in a xenobiotic–free system. Compared to non-stored control, best cell viability was obtained at 24°C (95.2±9.9%); reduced cell viability, at approximately 60%, was demonstrated at several of the temperatures (12°C, 28°C, 32°C and 37°C). Metabolic activity was significantly higher between 24°C and 37°C, where glucose, lactate, lactate/glucose ratios, and oxygen tension indicated increased activation of the glycolytic pathway under aerobic conditions. Preservation of morphology as shown by phase contrast and scanning electron micrographs was best at 12°C and 16°C. PCNA immunocytochemistry indicated that only 12°C and 20°C allowed maintenance of proliferative function at a similar level to non-stored control. In conclusion, results indicate that 12°C and 24°C merit further investigation as the prospective optimum temperature for short-term storage of cultured epidermal cell sheets. PMID:25170754

  4. Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from outdoor-stored broiler litter using tunable-diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, William Harrison

    Handling and storage of a variety of types of agricultural wastes results in the formation and release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) gases to the atmosphere. These gases contribute to climate change through the greenhouse effect. Few studies have examined evolution of these gases from stored poultry litter in North America. Although N 2O is a by-product of nitrification, it is largely produced as an intermediate product of denitrification and is produced most intensely when both aerobic and anaerobic conditions are present. CH4 emissions, however, are typically associated with anaerobic reactions. Outdoor storage of broiler litter provides an excellent media for which both aerobic and anaerobic zones can coexist, particularly when the litter is of varying ages from multiple broiler flocks (cycles). It provides a large amount of nitrogen for bacterial nitrification/denitrification processes as well as Carbon to support anaerobic bacterial fermentation. The objective of the study was to quantify N 2O and CH4 emissions for broiler litter stored in an uncovered, outdoor bunker by conducting small-scale dynamic flux chamber studies and full-scale field experiments. The field experiments used a modified micrometeorological mass balance approach to monitor emissions from stored broiler litter in a three-walled concrete bunker. Atmospheric concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured using tunable-diode laser spectroscopy. Field experiments over the course of approximately four months yielded average emission rates of 14+/-17mug m-2 s -1 and 84+/-61 mug m-2 s-1 for N2O and CH4 respectively that agreed well with the trends of emission rates observed in the dynamic flux chamber experiments. The primary drivers of emissions of both CH4 and N2O appeared to be temperature and moisture content while organic carbon and organic nitrogen (loss on ignition, nitrate concentrations) contents were also important factors.

  5. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    PubMed

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. PMID:19961886

  6. Small Food Stores and Availability of Nutritious Foods: A Comparison of Database and In-Store Measures, Northern California, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara; Kelly, Maggi; Adler, Nancy; Yen, Irene H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Small food stores are prevalent in urban neighborhoods, but the availability of nutritious food at such stores is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether data from 3 sources would yield a single, homogenous, healthful food store category that can be used to accurately characterize community nutrition environments for public health research. Methods We conducted in-store surveys in 2009 on store type and the availability of nutritious food in a sample of nonchain food stores (n = 102) in 6 predominantly urban counties in Northern California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Santa Clara). We compared survey results with commercial database information and neighborhood sociodemographic data by using independent sample t tests and classification and regression trees. Results Sampled small food stores yielded a heterogeneous group of stores in terms of store type and nutritious food options. Most stores were identified as convenience (54%) or specialty stores (22%); others were small grocery stores (19%) and large grocery stores (5%). Convenience and specialty stores were smaller and carried fewer nutritious and fresh food items. The availability of nutritious food and produce was better in stores in neighborhoods that had a higher percentage of white residents and a lower population density but did not differ significantly by neighborhood income. Conclusion Commercial databases alone may not adequately categorize small food stores and the availability of nutritious foods. Alternative measures are needed to more accurately inform research and policies that seek to address disparities in diet-related health conditions. PMID:22789445

  7. Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane and vinyl chloride at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Gregory B.; Patterson, Bradley M.; Johnston, Colin D.

    2009-06-01

    Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane (1,2 DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) was evaluated at field scale in a layered, silty and fine-sand anaerobic aquifer. Maximum concentrations of 1,2 DCA (2 g/L) and VC (0.75 g/L) in groundwater were within 25% and 70% of pure compound solubility, respectively. Aerobic conditions were induced by injecting air into sparging wells screened 20.5-21.5 m below ground (17-18 m below the water table). Using a cycle of 23 h of air injection followed by three days of no air injection, fifty days of air injection were accumulated over a 12 month period which included some longer periods of operational shutdown. Oxygen and volatile organic compound probes, and multilevel samplers were used to determine changes of the primary contaminants and the associated inorganic chemistry at multiple locations and depths. Air (oxygen) was distributed laterally up to 25 m from the sparge points, with oxygen partial pressures up to 0.7 atmospheres (28-35 mg/L in groundwater) near to the sparge points. The dissolved mass of 1,2 DCA and VC was reduced by greater than 99% over the 590 m 2 trial plot. Significantly, pH declined from nearly 11 to less than 9, and sulfate concentrations increased dramatically, suggesting the occurrence of mineral sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation. Chloride and bicarbonate (aerobic biodegradation by-products) concentration increases were used to estimate that 300-1000 kg of chlorinated hydrocarbons were biodegraded, although the ratio of 1,2 DCA to VC that was biodegraded remained uncertain. The mass biodegraded was comparable but less than the 400-1400 kg of chlorinated compounds removed from the aqueous phase within a 10,000 m 3 volume of the aquifer. Due to the likely presence of non-aqueous phase liquid, the relative proportion of volatilisation compared to biodegradation could not be determined. The aerobic biodegradation rates were greater than those previously estimated from laboratory-based studies.

  8. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  9. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  10. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  11. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men. PMID:8457813

  12. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  13. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed. PMID:14629072

  14. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  15. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  16. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings. PMID:20003747

  17. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  18. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  19. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  20. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  1. Making Activated Carbon for Storing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Serio, Michael A.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid disks of microporous activated carbon, produced by a method that enables optimization of pore structure, have been investigated as means of storing gas (especially hydrogen for use as a fuel) at relatively low pressure through adsorption on pore surfaces. For hydrogen and other gases of practical interest, a narrow distribution of pore sizes <2 nm is preferable. The present method is a variant of a previously patented method of cyclic chemisorption and desorption in which a piece of carbon is alternately (1) heated to the lower of two elevated temperatures in air or other oxidizing gas, causing the formation of stable carbon/oxygen surface complexes; then (2) heated to the higher of the two elevated temperatures in flowing helium or other inert gas, causing the desorption of the surface complexes in the form of carbon monoxide. In the present method, pore structure is optimized partly by heating to a temperature of 1,100 C during carbonization. Another aspect of the method exploits the finding that for each gas-storage pressure, gas-storage capacity can be maximized by burning off a specific proportion (typically between 10 and 20 weight percent) of the carbon during the cyclic chemisorption/desorption process.

  2. The use and disposal of stored embryos.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    Claims that human embryos are "human beings" or "persons" cannot be agreed, because philosophies and approaches differ, awarding them statuses from full human to property. In 1984, the UK (Warnock) Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology made recommendations that still offer legal and ethical guidance. It is widely agreed, for instance, that embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) should not be transferred for reproductive purposes without relevant consent, whether for gamete donors' or others' family-building. A consequence of courts enforcing parties' IVF agreements on stored embryo use or balancing parties' competing interests is that one party-usually the male-can veto the other's use of the embryo for reproduction on termination of a partnership. The extent to which surplus IVF embryos can be donated for research ranges from prohibition to infertility treatment and more, but wider needs for embryology research are appearing that, despite prevailing bans, may require embryos for study created to genetic specifications. PMID:27177517

  3. System for storing cathodic protection measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    This paper describes a custom cathodic protection (CP) database, and discusses how this combination of data structure and software improves the ability to analyze cathodic protection. This may be a unique solution to the task of managing CP data, and may have value to others. This paper is primarily about the database design, and not about cathodic protection, per se. Every database project is a balancing act. A developer can create custom software that performs complex opcrafions requiring modest operator skills. On the other hand, custom software is expensive to both create and maintain. The Hanford CP data system will be used primarily by one person, the CP Engineer. It was concluded that this position could be trained to use off-the-shelf, general purpose database to store data, and spreadsheet software to perform analyses. The database product allows flexibility in data reporting, and enforces referential integrity. The spreadsheet allows many display options. Especially useful are the graphics. This solution entailed minimal computer coding and may lend itself to adoption by others. The data structure was designed by a database application developer, with close guidance from the CP engineer. The system will require modest amounts of attention from computer support staff, primarily for new query development. The data structures are provided in this report, and are available electronically.

  4. Keeping FIT, storing fat: Lipid droplet biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vineet; Golden, Andy; Prinz, William A

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotes store excess lipids in organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs), which play central roles in lipid metabolism. Understanding LD biogenesis and metabolism is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of lipid metabolic disorders like obesity and atherosclerosis. LDs are composed of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids that often contains coat proteins. Nascent LDs bud from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the mechanism is not known. In this commentary we discuss our recent finding that a conserved family of proteins called fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins is necessary for LDs budding from the ER. In cells lacking FIT proteins, LDs remain in the ER membrane. C. elegans has a single FIT protein (FITM-2), which we found is essential; almost all homozygous fitm-2 animals die as larvae and those that survive to adulthood give rise to embryos that die as L1 and L2 larvae. Homozygous fitm-2 animals have a number of abnormalities including a significant decrease in intestinal LDs and dramatic defects in muscle development. Understanding how FIT proteins mediate LD biogenesis and what roles they play in lipid metabolism and development are fascinating challenges for the future. PMID:27383728

  5. On persistence interfaces for scientific data stores

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, D.M.; May, E.N.

    1996-02-09

    A common dilemma among builders of large scientific data stores is whether to use a lightweight object persistence manager or a genuine object-oriented database. There are often good reasons to consider each of these strategies; a few are described in this paper. Too often, however, electing to use a lightweight approach has meant programming to an interface that is entirely different than that expected by commercial object-oriented databases. With the emergence of object database standards, it is possible to provide an interface to persistence managers that does not needlessly inhibit coexistence with (and, perhaps, eventual migration to) object-oriented databases. This paper describes an implementation of a substantial subset of the ODMG-93[1]C++ specification that allows clients to use many of today`s lightweight object persistence managers through an interface that conforms to the ODMG standard. We also describe a minimal interface that persistence software should support in order to provide persistence services for ODMG implementations.

  6. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions. PMID:26949396

  7. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  8. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands. PMID:27154570

  10. Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using food waste (UFW) and effluents from acidogenic biohydrogen production process (FFW) were studied employing aerobic mixed culture as biocatalyst. Anoxic microenvironment documented higher PHA production, while aerobic microenvironment showed higher substrate degradation. FFW showed higher PHA accumulation (39.6%) than UFW (35.6%) due to ready availability of precursors (fatty acids). Higher fraction of poly-3-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) was observed compared to poly-3-hydroxy valerate (PHV) in the accumulated PHA in the form of co-polymer [P3(HB-co-HV)]. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Integration with fermentative biohydrogen production yielded additional substrate degradation under both aerobic (78%) and anoxic (72%) microenvironments apart from PHA production. Microbial community analysis documented the presence of aerobic and facultative organisms capable of producing PHA. Integration strategy showed feasibility of producing hydrogen along with PHA by consuming fatty acids generated during acidogenic process in association with increased treatment efficiency. PMID:22055090

  11. Supplementary low-intensity aerobic training improves aerobic capacity and does not affect psychomotor performance in professional female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-03-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas' psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  12. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  13. Lipid Biomarkers Indicating Aerobic Methanotrophy at Ancient Marine Methane- Seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgel, D.; Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    The inventory of lipid biomarkers of a number of ancient methane-seep limestones has been studied over the last decade. The molecular fingerprints of the chemosynthesis-based microbial communities tend to be extremely well-preserved in these limestones. The key process at seeps is the anaerobic oxidation of methane, performed by consortia of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archaea. Compounds preserved within modern and ancient seep settings comprise C-13-depleted lipid biomarkers. Besides the occurrence of C-13- depleted isoprenoids (archaea) and n-alkyl-chains (bacteria), C-13-depleted hopanoids have been reported in seep limestones. Here, lipid biomarker data are presented from three ancient methane-seep limestones embedded in Miocene and Campanian strata. These examples provide strong evidence that methane was not solely oxidized by an anaerobic process. In a Miocene limestone, 3-beta-methylated hopanoids were found (delta C-13: -100 per mil). Most likely, 3-beta-methylated hopanepolyols, prevailing in aerobic methanotrophs were the precursor lipids. In another Miocene limestone, a series of C-13-depleted 4-methylated steranes (lanostanes; -80 to -70 per mil) is derived from aerobic methanotrophs. Lanosterol is the most likely precursor of lanostanes, known to be produced by aerobic methanotrophs, some of which are outstanding among bacteria in having the capacity to produce steroids. In a Campanian seep limestone a suite of conspicuous secohexahydrobenzohopanes (-110 to -107 per mil) is found. These hopanoids probably represent early degradation products of seep-endemic aerobic methanotrophs. This interpretation is supported by the presence of "regular" hopanoids that can be discriminated from the unusual secohexahydrobenzohopanes by only moderately low delta C-13 values (-49 to -42 per mil). Structural and carbon isotope data reveal that aerobic methanotrophy is more common at ancient methane- seeps than previously noticed. Our data indicate that

  14. Retail stores' compliance with a city no-smoking law.

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, N A; Stoto, M A; Bierer, M F; Rosen, A; Schelling, T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Laws restricting smoking in public places and workplaces can protect the public only if they are obeyed. We sought to assess compliance with a Cambridge, Mass, no-smoking ordinance. METHODS. We prospectively observed 174 retail stores 1 month before and 3, 11, and 24 months after the law took effect. At 24 months, we interviewed one employee per store. RESULTS. Full compliance with the law was low; at 24 months, only 4% of stores displayed the mandated sign and were free of smokers and smoke. Fewer than half the stores posted any no-smoking sign. Sign prevalence increased over 2 years (22% to 41%, P < .001), but the frequency of smoke or smokers (13% and 10%, respectively, at baseline) did not change. According to employees interviewed at 24 months, 38% of stores illegally permitted customers or employees to smoke. These stores had more smoke and fewer signs than did stores prohibiting smoking. Compliance was poor in liquor and convenience stores. Employees who had been told how to handle customers' smoking were more likely to enforce the law. CONCLUSIONS. Compliance with a no-smoking law is not guaranteed. For retail stores, compliance may improve if stores adopt no-smoking policies, post signs, and teach employees to enforce the law. PMID:8427328

  15. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  16. Advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite using stored polymers in a modified sequencing batch reactor treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lei; Wang, Shuying; Li, Baikun; Cao, Tianhao; Xue, Tonglai; Peng, Yongzhen

    2015-09-01

    A modified sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated at the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic mode was developed in this study to fully utilize the organics in landfill leachate (ammonia concentration of 1000 ± 50 mg N/L and COD/total nitrogen (TN) ratio of 1-4). The unique feature of modified SBR process was the addition of an anaerobic stage after feeding stage, so that microorganisms could store the organics during anaerobic stage and supply the carbon source for endogenous denitritation after aeration stage. The 70-day operational tests showed the effluent TN was below 10 mg N/L at C/N ratio of 4. The intracellular stored polymers were analyzed and the microorganisms were capable of storing the carbon source as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glycogen in anaerobic stage, which were the electron donors for endogenous denitritation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) account for 39.8% of microorganisms in SBR, and carried out advanced nitrogen removal. PMID:26056776

  17. Glycogen: the forgotten cerebral energy store.

    PubMed

    Gruetter, Rolf

    2003-10-15

    The brain contains a significant amount of glycogen that is an order of magnitude smaller than that in muscle, but several-fold higher than the cerebral glucose content. Although the precise role of brain glycogen to date is unknown, it seems affected by focal activation, neurotransmitters, and overall electrical activity and hormones. Based on its relatively low concentration, the role of brain glycogen as a significant energy store has been discounted. This work reviews recent experimental evidence that brain glycogen is an important reserve of glucose equivalents: (1) glial glycogen can provide the majority of the glucose supply deficit during hypoglycemia for more than 100 min, consistent with the proposal that glial lactate is a fuel for neurons; (2) glycogen concentrations may be as high as 10 micromol/g, substantially higher than was thought previously; (3) glucose cycling in and out of glycogen amounts to approximately 1% of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in human and rat brain, amounting to an effective stability of glycogen in the resting awake brain during euglycemia and hyperglycemia, (4) brain glycogen metabolism/concentrations are insulin/glucose sensitive; and (5) after a single episode of hypoglycemia, brain glycogen levels rebound to levels that exceed the pre-hypoglycemic concentrations (supercompensation). This experimental evidence supports the proposal that brain glycogen may be involved in the development of diabetes complications, specifically impaired glucose sensing (hypoglycemia unawareness) observed clinically in some diabetes patients under insulin treatment. It is proposed further that brain glycogen becomes important in any metabolic state where supply transiently cannot meet demand, such conditions that could occur during prolonged focal activation, sleep deprivation, seizures, and mild hypoxia. PMID:14515346

  18. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  19. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF AUTOHEATED THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION WITH AIR AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major disadvantage of aerobic digestion is that it requires long detention times, particularly in colder climates, to insure adequate stabilization. Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) offers the potential to decrease the required detention time. ATAD takes advanta...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Rich; Cunliffe, Michael; Scanlan, Julie; Moussard, Helene; Kits, K. Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Jetten, MSM; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Han, James; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Stein, Lisa Y.; Murrell, Collin

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  1. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  2. Food environment and childhood obesity: the effect of dollar stores.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Rouse, Heather L; Thomsen, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of dollar stores on children's Body Mass Index (BMI). We use a dataset compiled by the Arkansas Center for Health Improvement that reflects a BMI screening program for public school children in the state of Arkansas. We combine propensity score matching with difference-in-differences methods to deal with time-invariant as well time-varying unobserved factors. We find no evidence that the presence of dollar stores within a reasonably close proximity of the child's residence increases BMI. In fact, we see an increase in BMI when dollar stores leave a child's neighborhood. Given the proliferation of dollar stores in rural and low-income urban areas, the question of whether dollar stores are contributing to high rates of childhood obesity is policy relevant. However, our results provide some evidence that exposure to dollar stores is not a causal factor. PMID:26626186

  3. Remote pivot decoupler pylon: Wing/store flutter suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, J. M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A device for suspending a store from an aerodynamic support surface, such an an aircraft wing, and more specifically, for improving upon singlet pivot decoupler pylons by reducing both frequency of active store, alignment, and alignment system space and power requirements. Two links suspend a lower pylon/rack section and releasable attached store from an upper pylon section mounted under the wing. The links allow the lower pylon section to rotate in pitch about a remote pivot point. A leaf spring connected between the lower section and electrical alignment system servomechanism provides pitch alignment of the lower section/store combination. The servomechanism utilizes an electric servomotor to drive the gear train and reversibly move the leaf spring, thereby maintaining the pitch attitude of the store within acceptable limits. The damper strokes when the lower section rotates to damp large oscillations of store.

  4. A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G E; Lavelle, M J; Fischer, J W; White, J J; Wells, S J; Vercauteren, K C

    2012-11-01

    Where cattle (Bos taurus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) coexist, they frequently share space and resources, potentially resulting in damage to stores of livestock feed and risk of interspecies disease transmission. Preventing use of stored feed by deer can be an important objective in farm management, depending on amount of damage experienced and perceived risk of disease transmission. Woven wire fences (2.4 to 3.0 m high) are generally considered to be the most effective means for excluding deer. However, rapidly deployable temporary means of excluding deer could be useful, especially during late winter when deer are most physiologically stressed and motivated to consume feed meant for cattle. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate a novel 1.2-m-tall electric fence consisting of 4 strands of bipolar tape (not requiring separate ground wires or animal contact with ground) for excluding deer from artificially established feed piles during late winter 2008 in northwestern Minnesota. To induce deer to pause, investigate the fence, and receive negative stimuli before attempting to jump the fence, the bipolar tape was baited with a viscous fluid attractive to deer. The fence was estimated to be >80% effective at reducing deer presence at feed piles (10 treatment sites and 11 control sites) given the late winter to early spring conditions. Despite the efficacy, using the fence as a primary means of protecting stored feed from deer in areas with known disease transmission risk (e.g., presence of bovine tuberculosis) is not recommended because risk could remain unacceptably high if even low numbers of deer access stored feed. Yet, the fence could be effective as immediate protection of stored feed in winter before a more permanent and effective deterrence strategy, such as woven-wire fencing, could be installed during the subsequent summer. The fence would also be effective for reducing deer depredation of stored feed, as well as

  5. 1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE - Silverton Historic District, East Thirteenth & Green Streets (Commercial Building), East Thirteenh & Green Streets, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. Examination of long-stored uranium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, A.M.; Hambley, D.I.

    2013-07-01

    A small quantity of unirradiated uranium from Magnox fuel elements is currently held in archive storage. Some of these samples date back to the late fifties. This material has been stored, untreated, in unsealed containers in air at ambient temperature, humidity and pressure conditions. Such conditions are relevant to those that may exist in a passive storage facility. A sample of this material has been subject to optical, electron-optical and Raman spectroscopic examination to determine the extent of corrosion and the composition of corrosion product arising from long-term, low-temperature oxidation of uranium metal in air. The examinations have established that, even after a period in excess of 40 years, there was no observable spalling of uranium oxide from the sample during storage. The extent of oxidation of the metal, derived by SEM analysis, was slight and insignificant in relation to overall structural stability of the material. Raman spectroscopy data showed that the bulk of the oxide layer was comprised of hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2}, with U{sub 4}O{sub 9} being the dominant component. The oxygen/uranium ratio was observed to be decreased at the metal/oxide interface, with a very thin layer that consisted of mainly UO{sub 2} at the metal surface. At the oxide/air interface, a very thin U{sub 3}O{sub 8} layer was detected. U{sub 4}O{sub 9} is relatively mechanically stable, due to a significantly higher density than UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. It is likely that the lower internal stresses in the thick U{sub 4}O{sub 9} layer have resulted in less oxide film cracking than would be expected from UO{sub 2} or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and hence the low oxidation rate observed. These results suggest that storage of uranium metal in air over decades is a safe and credible option. (authors)

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.W.; Carpenter, C.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the biodegradation of {sup 14}C-labeled vinyl chloride in samples taken from a shallow aquifer. Under aerobic conditions, vinyl chloride was readily degraded, with greater than 99% of the labeled material being degraded after 108 days and approximately 65% being mineralized to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  8. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  9. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  10. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  11. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  12. AEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY AND TOXICITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetable oil spills are a widely known phenomenon, but are the least understood. These spills can be as devastating to the environment as petroleum oil spills. Previous laboratory research results have indicated that as vegetable oils degrade aerobically, the aqueous solutions b...

  13. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  14. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  15. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  16. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  17. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  19. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  20. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  1. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  2. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  3. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  4. Identification of serum analytes and metabolites associated with aerobic capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies aimed at identifying serum markers of cellular metabolism (biomarkers) that are associated at baseline with aerobic capacity (V02 max) in young, healthy individuals have yet to be reported. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to use the standard chemistry screen and untargeted mass ...

  5. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  6. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  7. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  8. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  9. Rats Bred for Low Aerobic Capacity Become Promptly Fatigued and Have Slow Metabolic Recovery after Stimulated, Maximal Muscle Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Piitulainen, Harri; Närväinen, Johanna; Tuunanen, Pasi; Gröhn, Olli; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    AIM Muscular fatigue is a complex phenomenon affected by muscle fiber type and several metabolic and ionic changes within myocytes. Mitochondria are the main determinants of muscle oxidative capacity which is also one determinant of muscle fatigability. By measuring the concentrations of intracellular stores of high-energy phosphates it is possible to estimate the energy production efficiency and metabolic recovery of the muscle. Low intrinsic aerobic capacity is known to be associated with reduced mitochondrial function. Whether low intrinsic aerobic capacity also results in slower metabolic recovery of skeletal muscle is not known. Here we studied the influence of intrinsic aerobic capacity on in vivo muscle metabolism during maximal, fatiguing electrical stimulation. METHODS Animal subjects were genetically heterogeneous rats selectively bred to differ for non–trained treadmill running endurance, low capacity runners (LCRs) and high capacity runners (HCRs) (n = 15–19). We measured the concentrations of major phosphorus compounds and force parameters in a contracting triceps surae muscle complex using 31P-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) combined with muscle force measurement from repeated isometric twitches. RESULTS Our results demonstrated that phosphocreatine re-synthesis after maximal muscle stimulation was significantly slower in LCRs (p<0.05). LCR rats also became promptly fatigued and maintained the intramuscular pH poorly compared to HCRs. Half relaxation time (HRT) of the triceps surae was significantly longer in LCRs throughout the stimulation protocol (p≤0.05) and maximal rate of torque development (MRTD) was significantly lower in LCRs compared to HCRs from 2 min 30 s onwards (p≤0.05). CONCLUSION We observed that LCRs are more sensitive to fatigue and have slower metabolic recovery compared to HCRs after maximal muscle contractions. These new findings are associated with reduced running capacity and with previously found lower

  10. Effects of dominant somatotype on aerobic capacity trainability

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K; Chtara, M; Feki, Y; Amri, M; Trudeau, F

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between dominant somatotype and the effect on aerobic capacity variables of individualised aerobic interval training. Methods: Forty one white North African subjects (age 21.4±1.3 years; V·o2max = 52.8±5.7 ml kg–1 min–1) performed three exercise tests 1 week apart (i) an incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine V·o2max and V·o2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2); (ii) a VAM-EVAL track test to determine maximal aerobic speed (vV·o2max); and (iii) an exhaustive constant velocity test to determine time limit performed at 100% vV·o2max (tlim100). Subjects were divided into four somatometric groups: endomorphs-mesomorphs (Endo-meso; n = 9), mesomorphs (Meso; n = 11), mesomorphs-ectomorphs (Meso-ecto; n = 12), and ectomorphs (Ecto; n = 9). Subjects followed a 12 week training program (two sessions/week). Each endurance training session consisted of the maximal number of successive fractions for each subject. Each fraction consisted of one period of exercise at 100% of vV·o2max and one of active recovery at 60% of vV·o2max. The duration of each period was equal to half the individual tlim100 duration (153.6±39.7 s). After the training program, all subjects were re-evaluated for comparison with pre-test results. Results: Pre- and post-training data were grouped by dominant somatotype. Two way ANOVA revealed significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction effects (p<0.001) for improvements in vV·o2max, V·o2max expressed classically and according to allometric scaling, and V·o2 at VT2. There were significant differences among groups post-training: the Meso-ecto and the Meso groups showed the greatest improvements in aerobic capacity. Conclusion: The significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction suggests different trainability with intermittent and individualised aerobic training according to somatotype. PMID:16306506

  11. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  12. Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Yan; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial strain F6 was isolated from a biological aerated filter that is used for purifying recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system and was identified as Marinobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain F6 showed efficient aerobic denitrifying ability. One hundred percent of nitrates and 73.10% of nitrites were removed, and the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates reached 50.08% and 33.03% under a high nitrate and nitrite concentration in the medium, respectively. N(2)O and (15)N(2), as revealed by GC-MS and GC-IRMS, were the products of aerobic denitrification. Factors affecting the growth and aerobic denitrifying performance of strain F6 were investigated. The results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain F6 were the presence of sodium succinate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 15, salinity ranging from 32-35 g/L of NaCl, incubation temperature of 30°C, an initial pH of 7.5, and rotation speed of 150 rpm [dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.75 mg/L]. In addition, strain F6 was confirmed to be a heterotrophic nitrifier through its NO(2)(-) generation and 25.96% TN removal when NH(4)(+) was used as the sole N source. Therefore, strain F6, the first reported member of genus Marinobacter with aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying ability, is an excellent candidate for facilitating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in industry and aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22578593

  13. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  14. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This...

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This...

  19. 78 FR 27984 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (78 FR 15031) on March 8, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303). This...

  20. 76 FR 13655 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 2403) on January 13, 2011, allowing for a 60-day comment... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303). This...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This...

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This...

  3. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from unauthorized removal or access licensed materials that...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from...

  6. STOCKROOM ("STORES") AT USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR, SHOWING TEST EQUIPMENT SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCKROOM ("STORES") AT USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR, SHOWING TEST EQUIPMENT SHELVES (R) "BLACK BOX" NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT ("ROTABLES'-L) IN ADDITION TO FURNISHING MECHANICS TEST EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS, ROTABLES AND REPAIRABLE OR EXPENDABLE PARTS, THE COMPUTERIZED STORES OPERATION ALSO PROVIDES IN-FLIGHT AND CABIN SUPPLIES. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  8. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  9. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  10. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  11. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  12. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  13. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-Day...'s Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...

  14. Department Store Problems. An In-Basket Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Sandy

    The in-basket simulation package was designed to help students learn about working in a department store. Various activities commonly occurring in retailing are simulated through the use of written memos and telephone messages. The learning activities were written for use in either a traditional classroom or a model store. The goal of the package…

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section 57.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section 57.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section 57.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section 57.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section 57.6100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a)...

  5. 18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north-northwest (90mm lens). Note the milled tongue-and-groove ceiling, and deterioration of bricks near floor level due to rising damp. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. 14 CFR § 1214.605 - Preflight packing and storing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preflight packing and storing. § 1214.605 Section § 1214.605 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.605 Preflight packing and storing. (a) Items intended...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.605 - Preflight packing and storing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preflight packing and storing. 1214.605 Section 1214.605 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.605 Preflight packing and storing. (a) Items intended for...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.605 - Preflight packing and storing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preflight packing and storing. 1214.605 Section 1214.605 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.605 Preflight packing and storing. (a) Items intended for...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.605 - Preflight packing and storing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Preflight packing and storing. 1214.605 Section 1214.605 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.605 Preflight packing and storing. (a) Items intended for...

  10. 14 CFR 1214.605 - Preflight packing and storing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preflight packing and storing. 1214.605 Section 1214.605 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.605 Preflight packing and storing. (a) Items intended for...

  11. 10. Interior detail, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior detail, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to east (90mm lens). Note the pin-connected roof truss system and built-up iron longitudinal roof girders. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 9. Interior, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the roof truss system and built-up iron longitudinal roof girders. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. 19 CFR 4.11 - Sealing of stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of stores. 4.11 Section 4.11 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.11 Sealing of stores. Upon the... land has been issued, shall be placed under seal, unless the Customs officer is of the opinion that...

  14. The School Store: Learning by Involvement--part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    If the school store carries suitable product lines, presents them attractively, accommodates the flow of customers, and brings in sufficient sales, it can offer many--if not more--of the learning experiences offered by a good cooperative work station as it relates store operations, merchandising, sales promotion, and financial control. (Author/AG)

  15. Comparison of Methods for Sampling Psocids in Stored Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psocids are an emerging problem in stored grain and in grain processing facilities in the United States. We compared several methods for sampling psocids in wheat stored in steel bins – grain trier samples, cardboard refuges on the surface of the grain and near the bin hatch, and automated sampling ...

  16. 2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the east; U.S. Highway 58 runs from left to right across the view, while Route 687 rices into the distance at the left - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  17. Store and Restaurant Advertising and Health of Public Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Li, Dongmei; Regan, Gail R.; Howard, Hugh H.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between food and beverage signs and health. Methods: In 12 public housing neighborhoods, food and alcohol signs were counted for stores and restaurants. Health and demographic data were from 373 adults. Results: Multilevel modeling showed higher BMI was related to more store and restaurant alcohol signs,…

  18. Biorational Approaches to Managing Stored-Product Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are estimated to cause up to 9% losses in stored products in developed countries and often more than 20% in developing countries. There is much interest in alternatives to conventional insecticides, reviewed herein, for controlling stored-product insects because of loss of insecticides due t...

  19. Method to predict external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Bruce S.

    1988-01-01

    Development of a computational method for prediction of external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds is described. The geometric flexibility required for treatment of pylon-mounted stores is achieved by computing finite difference solutions on a five-level embedded grid arrangement. A completely automated grid generation procedure facilitates applications. Store modeling capability consists of bodies of revolution with multiple fore and aft fins. A body-conforming grid improves the accuracy of the computed store body flow field. A nonlinear relaxation scheme developed specifically for modified transonic small disturbance flow equations enhances the method's numerical stability and accuracy. As a result, treatment of lower aspect ratio, more highly swept and tapered wings is possible. A limited supersonic freestream capability is also provided. Pressure, load distribution, and force/moment correlations show good agreement with experimental data for several test cases. A detailed computer program description for the Transonic Store Carriage Loads Prediction (TSCLP) Code is included.

  20. Regulation and roles of Ca2+ stores in human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Joao; Michelangeli, Francesco; Publicover, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    [Ca2 +]i signalling is a key regulatory mechanism in sperm function. In mammalian sperm the Ca2 +-permeable plasma membrane ion channel CatSper is central to [Ca2 +]i signalling, but there is good evidence that Ca2 + stored in intracellular organelles is also functionally important. Here we briefly review the current understanding of the diversity of Ca2 + stores and the mechanisms for the regulation of their activity. We then consider the evidence for the involvement of these stores in [Ca2 +]i signalling in mammalian (primarily human) sperm, the agonists that may activate these stores and their role in control of sperm function. Finally we consider the evidence that membrane Ca2 + channels and stored Ca2 + may play discrete roles in the regulation of sperm activities and propose a mechanism by which these different components of the sperm Ca2 +-signalling apparatus may interact to generate complex and spatially diverse [Ca2 +]i signals. PMID:25964382

  1. Wing/store flutter with nonlinear pylon stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.; Reed, W. H., III

    1980-01-01

    Recent wind tunnel tests and analytical studies show that a store mounted on a pylon with soft pitch stiffness provides substantial increase in flutter speed of fighter aircraft and reduces dependency of flutter on mass and inertia of the store. This concept, termed the decoupler pylon, utilizes a low frequency control system to maintain pitch alignment of the store during maneuvers and changing flight conditions. Under rapidly changing transient loads, however, the alignment control system may allow the store to momentarily bottom against a relatively stiff backup structure in which case the pylon stiffness acts as a hardening nonlinear spring. Such structural nonlinearities are known to affect not only the flutter speed but also the basic behavior of the instability. The influence of pylon stiffness nonlinearities or the flutter characteristics of wing mounted external stores is examined.

  2. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  3. System identification and trajectory optimization for guided store separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Ryan E.

    Combat aircraft utilize expendable stores such as missiles, bombs, flares, and external tanks to execute their missions. Safe and acceptable separation of these stores from the parent aircraft is essential for meeting the mission objectives. In many cases, the employed missile or bomb includes an onboard guidance and control system to enable precise engagement of the selected target. Due to potential interference, the guidance and control system is usually not activated until the store is sufficiently far away from the aircraft. This delay may result in large perturbations from the desired flight attitude caused by separation transients, significantly reducing the effectiveness of the store and jeopardizing mission objectives. The purpose of this research is to investigate the use of a transitional control system to guide the store during separation. The transitional control system, or "store separation autopilot", explicitly accounts for the nonuniform flow field through characterization of the spatially variant aerodynamics of the store during separation. This approach can be used to mitigate aircraft-store interference and leverage aerodynamic interaction to improve separation characteristics. This investigation proceeds in three phases. First, system identification is used to determine a parametric model for the spatially variant aerodynamics. Second, the store separation problem is recast into a trajectory optimization problem, and optimal control theory is used to establish a framework for designing a suitable reference trajectory with explicit dependence on the spatially variant aerodynamics. Third, neighboring optimal control is used to construct a linear-optimal feedback controller for correcting deviations from the nominal reference trajectory due varying initial conditions, modeling errors, and flowfield perturbations. An extended case study based on actual wind tunnel and flight test measurements is used throughout to illustrate the effectiveness of the

  4. Exercise Responses to Gravity-Independent Flywheel Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Cotter, Joshua A.; Haddad, Fadia; Yu, Alvin M.; Camilon, Marinelle L.; Hoang, Theresa; Jimenez, Daniel; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Tesch, Per A.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a number of exercise systems have been developed to mitigate the physiological deconditioning that occurs in microgravity, few have the capacity to positively impact multiple physiological systems and still meet the volume/mass requirements needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. The purpose of this study was to test the gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) for both resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) training stimuli. Methods Eight men and nine women (mean age 22.0±0.4 years) completed five weeks of training on the M-MED: RE 4×7 squats two days a week, and AE 4×4-min rowing bouts at ~90% VO2max three days a week. Pre- and post-training data collection included an aerobic capacity test, MR imaging, strength testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Results VO2max increased 8%, 3RM strength 18%, and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) 10%. Knee extensor strength increased at all isokinetic speeds tested. Subjects also demonstrated improved resistance to fatigue in knee extension. At the cellular and molecular level, the biopsy revealed increases in mixed myofiber CSA (13%), citrate synthase activity (26%), total RNA concentration (24%), IGF-I mRNA (77%), Type IIa Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) mRNA (8%), and concomitant decrease in Type IIx MHC mRNA (−23%). None of the changes were gender-specific. Discussion Both the functional outcomes and biomarker changes indicate that a very low volume of M-MED exercise results in robust adaptation in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The M-MED has the potential to provide a wide range of countermeasure exercises and should be considered for testing in ground-based spaceflight simulation. PMID:26802373

  5. The School Store...Making It Work. Second Edition. Selling, Buying, Promotion, Operation, Store Security, Management, Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Michigan Vocational Education Resource Center.

    This handbook is intended as a resource for individuals involved in the development, operation, and expansion of school store laboratories. The first of three sections covers facility/laboratory planning. It includes detailed guidelines for establishing a new school store operation and remodeling or relocating an existing operation. Section II…

  6. Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2007-01-01

    Corn stover is potentially an attractive biomass resource, but must be stored if used to supply a biorefinery year-round. Based on experience with successfully storing water-saturated large piles of bagasse for the pulping industry, Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) proposed that such a system can also be applied to corn stover. Regardless of the technical feasibility of this system, in this article we estimate the cost of harvesting corn stover in a single pass with corn grain, delivering the chopped biomass to a storage pile, storing the stover in a wet form in a large pile at 75% moisture in a 211,700-dry Mg facility within a radius of 24 km from the field, and transporting the stover 64 km to a biorefinery. Field-ground corn stover can be delivered to a biorefinery by rail for $55 to $61/dry Mg. Truck transport is more expensive, $71 to $77/dry Mg. To achieve a minimum cost in the system proposed by Atchison and Hettenhaus, it is necessary to field densify stover to 74 dry kg/m3, without losing combine field efficiency, have a large storage pile to spread fixed costs of storage over enough biomass, and use rail transportation. Compared to storage in an on-farm bunker silo at $60/dry Mg, there are limited circumstances in which large pile storage has a cost advantage.

  7. Competition among Species of Stored-Product Psocids (Psocoptera) in Stored Grain

    PubMed Central

    Athanassiou, Christos G.; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Throne, James E.; Nakas, Christos T.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the competition among stored-product psocid species by conducting two series of laboratory experiments. In the first series, three species of Liposcelididae were used: Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis decolor, and Liposcelis paeta. Five adult females of these species were placed in vials containing wheat, either alone or in all possible combinations of two species. The number of adults in the vials was counted after 35, 70, 105, 140, and 175 days. These tests were performed at 25 and 30°C. At 25°C, there were no differences in numbers of L. bostrychophila when this species was reared either alone or with each of the other two species. At 30°C, L. bostrychophila was the dominant species. The presence of L. bostrychophila had a negative effect on the growth of populations of L. decolor and L. paeta. The presence of L. paeta did not affect growth of populations of L. decolor, although the presence of L. decolor occasionally reduced growth of populations of L. paeta. In the second series of tests, L. bostrychophila adult females were placed in vials of wheat either alone or with adult females of Lepinotus reticulatus, at the ratios of (L. bostrychophila: L. reticulatus) 10∶0, 9∶1, 7∶3, 5∶5, 3∶7, 1∶9, and 0∶10. These tests were carried out only at 30°C, and the observation periods were the same as for the first series of tests. Liposcelis bostrychophila was the dominant species in this case as well, regardless of the ratio of the parental females. At the end of the experimental period, L. reticulatus was present only in vials that contained this species alone. Our results showed that L. bostrychophila outcompetes the other stored-product psocid species tested. PMID:25105507

  8. Competition among species of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) in stored grain.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Throne, James E; Nakas, Christos T

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the competition among stored-product psocid species by conducting two series of laboratory experiments. In the first series, three species of Liposcelididae were used: Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis decolor, and Liposcelis paeta. Five adult females of these species were placed in vials containing wheat, either alone or in all possible combinations of two species. The number of adults in the vials was counted after 35, 70, 105, 140, and 175 days. These tests were performed at 25 and 30°C. At 25°C, there were no differences in numbers of L. bostrychophila when this species was reared either alone or with each of the other two species. At 30°C, L. bostrychophila was the dominant species. The presence of L. bostrychophila had a negative effect on the growth of populations of L. decolor and L. paeta. The presence of L. paeta did not affect growth of populations of L. decolor, although the presence of L. decolor occasionally reduced growth of populations of L. paeta. In the second series of tests, L. bostrychophila adult females were placed in vials of wheat either alone or with adult females of Lepinotus reticulatus, at the ratios of (L. bostrychophila: L. reticulatus) 10∶0, 9∶1, 7∶3, 5∶5, 3∶7, 1∶9, and 0∶10. These tests were carried out only at 30°C, and the observation periods were the same as for the first series of tests. Liposcelis bostrychophila was the dominant species in this case as well, regardless of the ratio of the parental females. At the end of the experimental period, L. reticulatus was present only in vials that contained this species alone. Our results showed that L. bostrychophila outcompetes the other stored-product psocid species tested. PMID:25105507

  9. RESISTANCE TRAINING AS A PRECONDITIONING STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING OUTCOMES IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Margaret K.; Collins, Eileen G.; Reynertson, Sandra I.; Dilling, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic exercise training is a recognized approach for improving functional capacity in COPD. People with greater disease severity often have difficulty achieving higher aerobic exercise training intensity. The effects of resistance training prior to aerobic training were examined to determine if this sequential approach was associated with greater gains in functional status than aerobic training alone or concurrent aerobic and resistance training. Methods Patients were randomized to: 1) sequential resistance then aerobic training (RT-then-AT) (8 weeks resistance training followed by 8 weeks aerobic exercise training), 2) control group (CE-then-AT+RT) (8 weeks of ‘sham’ training followed by 8 weeks concurrent aerobic and resistance training), 3) control group (CE-then-AT) (8 weeks ‘sham’ training followed by 8 weeks aerobic training). Outcomes were assessed at study entry, after week 8, and after week 16: aerobic exercise performance; muscle strength and endurance. Results 75 patients completed training: FEV1 %pred 40±10, V̇O2peak %predicted, 71±22, fat-free mass index 19.5±3.1. RT-then-AT had greater acquisition of peripheral muscle endurance than CE-then-AT+RT and CE-then-AT, but improvements in aerobic exercise performance were similar. Improvements in muscle strength were similar between RT-then-AT and CE-then-AT+RT. Sarcopenia was associated with poorer attendance, and lower aerobic and resistance training volumes. Conclusion Although the sequential approach to resistance and aerobic training yielded a greater increase in muscle endurance and higher resistance training volume compared to concurrent resistance and aerobic training, other training outcomes were similar between the two groups, thus the sequential approach is not clearly superior to the concurrent approach in severe COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01058213. PMID:24958605

  10. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  11. Modeling the Growth of Epiphytic Bacteria on Kale Treated by Thermosonication Combined with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Stored under Dynamic Temperature Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of epiphytic bacteria (aerobic mesophilic bacteria or Pseudomonas spp.) on kale was modeled isothermally and validated under dynamic storage temperatures. Each bacterial count on kale stored at isothermal conditions (4 to 25 °C) was recorded. The results show that maximum growth rate (μmax ) of both epiphytic bacteria increased and lag time (λ) decreased with increasing temperature (P < 0.05). The maximum population density (Nmax ) of Pseudomonas spp. was significantly greater than that of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, particularly in treated samples and/or at 4 and 10 °C (P < 0.05). The relationship between μmax of both epiphytic bacteria and temperature was linear (R(2) > 0.97), whereas lower R(2) > 0.86 and R(2) > 0.87 was observed for the λ and Nmax , respectively. The overall predictions of both epiphytic bacterial growths under nonisothermal conditions with temperature abuse of 15 °C agreed with the observed data, whereas those with temperature abuse of 25 °C were greatly overestimated. The appropriate parameter q0 (physiological state of cells), therefore, was adjusted by a trial and error to fit the model. This study demonstrates that the developed model was able to predict accurately epiphytic bacterial growth on kale stored under nonisothermal conditions particularly those with low temperature abuse of 15 °C. PMID:27387251

  12. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam. PMID:27227418

  13. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Villamor, Eduardo; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in school-age children is emerging as a public heath concern. Food marketing influences preferences and increases children's requests for food. This study sought to describe the type of snack foods advertised to children in stores in and around public schools and assess if there is an association between child-oriented snack food advertising and proximity to schools. All food stores located inside and within a 200 square meter radius from two preschools and two primary schools were surveyed. We assessed store type, number and type of snack food advertisements including those child-oriented inside and outside stores. We surveyed 55 stores and found 321 snack food advertisements. Most were on sweetened beverages (37%) and soft drinks (30%). Ninety-two (29%) were child-oriented. Atoles (100.0%), cereals (94.1%), and ice cream and frozen desserts (71.4%) had the greatest proportion of child-oriented advertising. We found more child-oriented advertisements in stores that were closer (<170 m) to schools compared to those farther away. In conclusion, the food industry is flooding the market, taking advantage of the lack of strict regulation in Guatemala. Child-oriented advertisements are available in almost all stores within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to an obesogenic environment. PMID:25821350

  14. Field validation of listings of food stores and commercial physical activity establishments from secondary data

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Léger, Karine; Gauvin, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Background Food- and activity-related establishments are increasingly viewed as neighbourhood resources that potentially condition health-related behaviour. The primary objective of the current study was to establish, using ground truthing (on-site verification), the validity of measures of availability of food stores and physical activity establishments that were obtained from commercial database and Internet searches. A secondary objective was to examine differences in validity results according to neighbourhood characteristics and commercial establishment categories. Methods Lists of food stores and physical activity-related establishments in 12 census tracts within the Montreal metropolitan region were compiled using a commercial database (n = 171 establishments) and Internet search engines (n = 123 establishments). Ground truthing through field observations was performed to assess the presence of listed establishments and identify those absent. Percentage agreement, sensitivity (proportion of establishments found in the field that were listed), and positive predictive value (proportion of listed establishments found in the field) were calculated and contrasted according to data sources, census tracts characteristics, and establishment categories. Results Agreement with field observations was good (0.73) for the commercial list, and moderate (0.60) for the Internet-based list. The commercial list was superior to the Internet-based list for correctly listing establishments present in the field (sensitivity), but slightly inferior in terms of the likelihood that a listed establishment was present in the field (positive predictive value). Agreement was higher for food stores than for activity-related establishments. Conclusion Commercial data sources may provide a valid alternative to field observations and could prove a valuable tool in the evaluation of commercial environments relevant to eating behaviour. In contrast, this study did not find strong evidence in

  15. Axenic aerobic biofilms inhibit corrosion of copper and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, A; Ornek, D; Duarte, D A; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed copper and aluminum alloy 2024 in modified Baar's medium has been studied with continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An axenic aerobic biofilm of either Pseudomonas fragi K or Bacillus brevis 18 was able to lessen corrosion as evidenced by a consistent 20-fold increase in the low-frequency impedance value of copper as well as by a consistent four- to seven-fold increase in the polarization resistance of aluminum 2024 after six days exposure compared to sterile controls. This is the first report of axenic aerobic biofilms inhibiting generalized corrosion of copper and aluminum. Addition of the representative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris (to simulate consortia corrosion behavior) to either the P. fragi K or B. brevis 18 protective biofilm on copper increased the corrosion to that of the sterile control unless antibiotic (ampicillin) was added to inhibit the growth of SRB in the biofilm. PMID:10616712

  16. [Fluorescence fingerprint transformation of municipal wastewater caused by aerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Cui, Shuo; Xie, Chao-bo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Chen, Mao-fu; Lü, Yan-li

    2011-12-01

    The conventional parameters such as COD and BOD only could represent information about total organic content. Fluorescence spectrum can display organic composition and it is unique for each sample, so it is referred as "fluorescence fingerprint". In the present study transformation of excitation-emission matrix of municipal wastewater with sewage as major components after aerobic treatment was investigated and then the zones of biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters were figured out: the fluorescence at excitation wavelength/emission wavelength of about 280/340 nm and 225/240 nm derived from biodegradable organics and those of the zone of excitation wavelength above 300 nm and the zone of excitation wavelength below 300 nm and emission wavelength above 400 nm were mainly related with non-biodegradable organics. The above-mentioned results indicated that fluorescence fingerprint could be used to evaluate the performance and instruct design and operation of aerobic systems. PMID:22295782

  17. Aerobic scope explains individual variation in feeding capacity

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Sonya K.; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Links between metabolism and components of fitness such as growth, reproduction and survival can depend on food availability. A high standard metabolic rate (SMR; baseline energy expenditure) or aerobic scope (AS; the difference between an individual's maximum and SMR) is often beneficial when food is abundant or easily accessible but can be less important or even disadvantageous when food levels decline. While the mechanisms underlying these context-dependent associations are not well understood, they suggest that individuals with a higher SMR or AS are better able to take advantage of high food abundance. Here we show that juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) with a higher AS were able to consume more food per day relative to individuals with a lower AS. These results help explain why a high aerobic capacity can improve performance measures such as growth rate at high but not low levels of food availability. PMID:26556902

  18. Aerobic scope explains individual variation in feeding capacity.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-11-01

    Links between metabolism and components of fitness such as growth, reproduction and survival can depend on food availability. A high standard metabolic rate (SMR; baseline energy expenditure) or aerobic scope (AS; the difference between an individual's maximum and SMR) is often beneficial when food is abundant or easily accessible but can be less important or even disadvantageous when food levels decline. While the mechanisms underlying these context-dependent associations are not well understood, they suggest that individuals with a higher SMR or AS are better able to take advantage of high food abundance. Here we show that juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) with a higher AS were able to consume more food per day relative to individuals with a lower AS. These results help explain why a high aerobic capacity can improve performance measures such as growth rate at high but not low levels of food availability. PMID:26556902

  19. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  20. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties sold at local (Virginia) and Internet (U.S.) retail markets. A total of 152 ground beef products, consisting of locally purchased raw ground beef (LRG) and frozen beef patties (LFP) and Internet-procured frozen ground beef (IFG) and frozen beef patties (IFP), were tested. Results showed that LFP had significantly lower levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms than LRG, IFG, and IFP. Furthermore, IFG had greater numbers of Escherichia coli than LRG and LFP. No sample was contaminated with E. coli 0157: H7, but one duplicate set of summer LFP samples contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 25 and 29% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. About 5.0, 11.1, 10.5, and 7.9% of LRG, LFP, IFG, and IFP samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This study identified differences in microbial quality between local and Internet products. Careful handling and thorough cooking of ground beef products, regardless of market source, are recommended to prevent foodborne illness. PMID:19722408

  1. Metabolic effects of cold storage on livers from euthermic and hibernating Columbian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Churchill, T A; Simpkin, S; Wang, L C; Green, C J; Williams, S R; Busza, A L; Fuller, B J

    1996-02-01

    The current study was undertaken to investigate energy metabolism during hypoxia in the cold in livers from euthermic and hibernating Columbian ground squirrels. We hypothesized that the hibernating Columbian ground squirrel would be able to maintain liver energetics for a considerably longer time than euthermic animals. Particular reference was made to the function of glycolysis, which is the only mechanism for energy production under hypothermic ischemia. The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism was apparent in both euthermic and hibernating animals as lactate levels rose within 1-3 h; total lactate accumulation was 2.5 micromol/g in both groups. In euthermic squirrels, liver ATP and ADP decreased considerably over the first 3-h storage; values dropped by 55% and 34%, respectively. Conversely, as the drain on high energy phosphate pools progressed, there was an increase in low energy adenylate, AMP. Between 10 and 24 h of storage, increases in AMP accounted for approximately 25-30% of total ATP + ADP decrease. The remainder of the drop in adenylates was accounted for by considerable decreases in total adenylate (TA) contents; by 24 h TA contents had decreased by 2.0 micromol/g. Livers from hibernating squirrels exhibited similar patterns of adenylate change and were not significantly higher than their euthermic counterparts. With respect to regulatory control of glycolysis, livers from euthermic squirrels exhibited no regulatory control at phosphofructokinase (PFK) or pyruvate kinase (PK). Livers from hibernating animals, however, showed an activation at PFK by 10 h of cold storage; levels of hexose phosphates, glucose-6-phosphate + fructose 6-phosphate (G6P + F6P), dropped and fructose 1, 6-biphosphate (F1,6P2), increased. Changes in metabolite levels (phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate) associated with another key suspect regulatory enzyme, PK, indicated no role in regulatory control of glycolysis during the 24-h period. The apparent increase in PFK

  2. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  3. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  4. Manipulating stored images with phase imprinting at low light levels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Yang, Guojian; Duan, Wenhui

    2012-07-15

    Coherent manipulation of stored images is performed at low light levels based on enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity in a four-level N-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system. Using intensity masks in the signal pulse, quadratic phase shifts with low nonlinear absorption can be efficiently imprinted on the Fraunhofer diffraction patterns already stored in the EIT system. Fast-Fourier-transform-based numerical simulations clearly demonstrate that the far-field images of the retrieved probe light can be flexibly modulated by applying different signal fields. Our studies could help advance the goals of nonlinear all-optical processing for spatial information coherently stored in EIT systems. PMID:22825156

  5. Using of simulation for comparison of technologies for pallets storing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříž, Pavel; Chramcov, Bronislav; Jemelka, Milan

    2016-06-01

    The paper highlights the problem oftechnology for pallet storing. The aim is to compare selected technologies and to find efficient warehouse solution for the real company, which produces a plastic parts for automotive and needs to solve storing in the new hall. The work describes differences between two pallet storing technologies - static racking system and powered mobile racking system. Comparison contains description, advantages and disadvantages of the both systems. Real data from real project are used for the evaluation of necessary parameters. The result presents proposal of solution which can meet all initial conditions.

  6. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  7. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  8. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  9. Intensity Thresholds for Aerobic Exercise–Induced Hypoalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Samuels, Brian; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating exercise-induced hypoalgesia, there is limited understanding of the optimal intensity of aerobic exercise in producing hypoalgesic effects across different types of pain stimuli. Given that not all individuals are willing or capable of engaging in high intensity aerobic exercise, whether moderate intensity aerobic exercise is associated with a hypoalgesic response and whether this response generalizes to multiple pain induction techniques needs to be substantiated. Purpose This study’s purpose is to test for differences in the magnitude of pressure and heat pain modulation induced by moderate (MAE) and vigorous (VAE) intensity aerobic exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young males and 15 females completed one training session and three testing sessions consisting of 25 minutes of either 1) stationary cycling at 70% heart rate reserve (HRR), 2) stationary cycling at 50% HRR, or 3) quiet rest (control). Pain testing was conducted on both forearms prior to and immediately following each condition and included the following tests: pressure pain thresholds (PPT), suprathreshold pressure pain test, static continuous heat test, and repetitive pulse heat pain test. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on each pain measure. Results VAE and MAE reduced pain ratings during static continuous heat stimuli and repetitive heat pulse stimuli, with VAE producing larger effects. VAE also increased PPTs, while neither exercise influenced suprathreshold pressure pain ratings. Conclusion These results suggest that MAE is capable of producing a hypoalgesic effect using continuous and repetitive pulse heat stimuli. However, a dose-response effect was evident as VAE produced larger effects than MAE. PMID:24002342

  10. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A

    1987-10-01

    Many human responses to the weightless environment have been documented from actual spaceflights. These include physiological effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and fluid balance, and the musculoskeletal system, as well as psychological effects. Simulations on Earth have added to our knowledge about the physiology of weightlessness. Early data on orthostatic intolerance after real and simulated spaceflight led some scientists to discourage a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts. They believed it was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth. However, most of the data available today do not support this contention. Furthermore, aerobic fitness is beneficial to cardiovascular function and mental performance. Therefore, it may be important in performing extra-vehicular activities during flight. Some astronauts claim exercise enhances their feeling of well-being and self image. And, although the cardiovascular system and exercise performance may recover more slowly after flight to preflight levels when fitness level prior to flight is high, the musculoskeletal system may recover more rapidly. Research is needed to determine optimal levels of aerobic training for performing tasks in flight, maintaining health and well-being during flight, and assuring satisfactory recovery on return to Earth. PMID:3314852

  11. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    PubMed

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  13. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  14. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25 years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise. PMID:26180300

  15. Obesity promotes aerobic glycolysis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, David A; deGraffenried, Matthew J; Apte, Shruti A; Bowers, Laura W; Whelan, Kaitlin A; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the leading preventable comorbidity associated with increased prostate cancer-related recurrence and mortality. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that a body mass index >30 is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage within the prostate gland and increased prostate cancer-related mortality. Here we provide evidence that obesity promotes worse clinical outcome through induction of metabolic abnormalities known to promote genotoxic stress. We have previously reported that blood serum derived from obese mice may enhance the proliferative and invasive potential of human prostate cancer cell lines ex vivo. Here we show that a 1-h exposure of LNCaP or PacMetUT1 prostate cancer cell lines and nonmalignant RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells to 2% serum from obese mice induces markers of aerobic glycolysis relative to those exposed to serum from nonobese mice. This metabolic change was correlated with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased frequency of DNA double-strand breaks. Interestingly, N-tert-Butylhydroxylamine, an antioxidant, significantly suppressed markers of aerobic glycolysis in the cells exposed to the blood serum of obese mice, suggesting that ROS contributes to a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. Here we describe obesity-induced changes in key metabolic markers that impact prostate cancer cell progression and explore the role of antioxidants in ameliorating these effects. PMID:25264717

  16. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  17. Posttranscriptional Control of T Cell Effector Function by Aerobic Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Faubert, Brandon; Villarino, Alejandro V.; O’Sullivan, David; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Blagih, Julianna; Qiu, Jing; Weber, Jason D.; Pearce, Edward J.; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A “switch” from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that aerobic glycolysis is specifically required for effector function in T cells but that this pathway is not necessary for proliferation or survival. When activated T cells are provided with costimulation and growth factors but are blocked from engaging glycolysis, their ability to produce IFN-γ is markedly compromised. This defect is translational and is regulated by the binding of the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH to AU-rich elements within the 3′ UTR of IFN-γ mRNA. GAPDH, by engaging/disengaging glycolysis and through fluctuations in its expression, controls effector cytokine production. Thus, aerobic glycolysis is a metabolically regulated signaling mechanism needed to control cellular function. PMID:23746840

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  19. Soil and sediment bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J P; Hsaio, Y H; Spiro, S; Richardson, D J

    1995-01-01

    Several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen, although the physiological advantage gained from this process is not entirely clear. The contribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. As a first step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been developed. Twenty-nine such strains have been isolated from three soils and a freshwater sediment and shown to comprise members of three genera (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Moraxella). All of these strains expressed a nitrate reductase with an active site located in the periplasmic compartment. Twenty-two of the strains showed significant rates of nitrate respiration in the presence of oxygen when assayed with physiological electron donors. Also isolated was one member of the gram-positive genus Arthrobacter, which was likewise able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen but appeared to express a different type of nitrate reductase. In the four environments studied, culturable bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration were isolated in significant numbers (10(4) to 10(7) per g of soil or sediment) and in three cases were as abundant as, or more abundant than, culturable bacteria capable of denitrification. Thus, it seems likely that the corespiration of nitrate and oxygen may indeed make a significant contribution to the flux of nitrate to nitrite in the environment. PMID:7487017

  20. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration in Profiles of Polesie Lubelskie Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Anna; Stêpniewska, Zofia

    2014-04-01

    Soil respiration is a very important factor influencing carbon deposition in peat and reflecting the intensity of soil organic matter decomposition, root respiration, and the ease of transporting gases to the surface. Carbon dioxide release from three different peat soil profiles (0-80 cm) of the Polesie Lubelskie Region (Eastern Poland) was analyzed under laboratory conditions. Peat samples were incubated at 5, 10, and 20°C in aerobic and anaerobic environments, and their CO2-evolution was analyzed up to 14 days. The respiration activity was found to be in the range of 0.013-0.497 g CO2 kg-1 DW d-1. The respiratory quotient was estimated to be in the range of 0.51-1.51, and the difference in respiration rates over 10°C ranged between 4.15 and 8.72 in aerobic and from 1.15 to 6.53 in anaerobic conditions. A strong influence of temperature, depth, the degree of peat decomposition, pH, and nitrate content on respiration activity was found. Lack of oxygen at low temperature caused higher respiration activity than under aerobic conditions. These results should be taken into account when the management of Polish peatlands is considered in the context of climate and carbon storage, and physicochemical properties of soil in relation to soil respiration activity are considered.

  1. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  2. Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Santen, Heike; Wallmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers selected efficiency rates and process data of aerobic and anaerobic procedures for the treatment of municipal solid waste and residual waste. Data are exclusively related to mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) procedures for generating waste appropriate for landfilling. The following aspects are regarded: general framework conditions for the application of MBT, efficiency of decomposition and of stabilisation, air and water emissions and energy balances. The presented data can be used for more efficient planning. In comparison to aerobic processes, anaerobic digestion can be ecologically advantageous, particularly with regard to exhaust emissions and energy balances. On the other hand, the wastewater emissions and the wastewater treatment required must be regarded as disadvantageous. Due to the relatively short period of operational history of most anaerobic processes for mechanical-biological waste treatment and thus limited experiences, operational reliability of anaerobic processes is slightly lower. Extensive biological stability of the treated waste for low-emission disposal cannot be reached by anaerobic digestion alone, but only in combination with additional aerobic post-treatment. In connection with the utilisation of renewable energies and the rising relevancy of climate protection, it can be affirmed that anaerobic digestion for the treatment of municipal solid waste has a high potential for further development. PMID:16125060

  3. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  4. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

  5. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  6. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  7. Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    PubMed

    Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P < 0.05), and left ventricular mass was 51% and 32% greater (P < 0.05) in canoeists than in the sedentary and moderately trained participants, respectively. There were no differences in left ventricular chamber dimension, suggesting that the kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals. PMID:15513280

  8. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  9. Growth parameters of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and aerobic mesophilic bacteria of apple cider amended with nisin-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Zhang, Howard; Huang, Lihan

    2009-05-01

    The effect of nisin (0 or 300 IU/mL), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 20 mM), and nisin (300 IU)-EDTA (20 mM) on growth parameters, including lag period (LP) and generation time, of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. in the presence or absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria of apple cider during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 16 days or 23 degrees C for 16 h was investigated. The growth data were analyzed and fitted to the modified Gompertz model. The LP values for aerobic mesophilic bacteria of apple cider (control) and those amended with EDTA and nisin during storage at 5 degrees C were 1.61, 1.76, and 5.45 days, respectively. In apple cider stored at 23 degrees C for 16 h, the LP values for the same bacteria and treatment were 3.24, 3.56, and 5.85 h, respectively. The LP values for E. coli O157:H7 determined in the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria of apple cider stored at 23 degrees C for 16 h was 1.48 h, while populations for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella in the same cider declined. In sterile apple cider left at 23 degrees C for 16 h, the LP values for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes averaged 2.74, 2.37, and 3.16 h, respectively. The generation time for these pathogens were 0.402, 0.260, and 0.187 log (CFU/mL)/h, respectively. Addition of nisin and EDTA combination caused a decline in lag phase duration and the populations for all pathogens tested, suggesting possible addition of this additive to freshly prepared apple cider to enhance its microbial safety and prevent costly recalls. PMID:19415973

  10. Ground truth versus no ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    The area of study was the southeastern Arizona test site and three areas within the site were studied in detail: Safford, Point of Pines, and Fort Apache-White River. These areas have terrain contrast ranging from flat arid regions to high alpine mountains. Data were obtained from the Apollo 9 photographic missions, high altitude aerial photography, and simulated ERTS-A data from high altitude aircraft. Various monoscopic and steroscopic devices were used to analyze the features, and film density variations were studied. No ground-based data were permitted. Thematic maps were prepared for geology, geomorphology, vegetation, hydrology, and soils. Interpreted boundaries were delineated, with no collaborative data used in the interpretation. Ground-based data were gathered during the overflight of high altitude aerial photography. A further study was made using the ground truth, and the data gathered on the ground were compared with original mapping. 80% to 85% of the interpretations in the areas checked were correct. It was proved that it is possible to monitor gross features of the vigor of crop lands and vegetative cover, to type soils and classify geologic features, and to determine hydrologic conditions.

  11. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m{sup 3}/min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 {micro}g/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented.

  12. 76 FR 2403 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration... and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Ship's... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Ship's...

  13. 3. View of Double Creole 'T' house with general store ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Double Creole 'T' house with general store appearing in background, looking W. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Double Creole Quarters, 2 Miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  14. Scalable Object Store v. 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-23

    SOS is software that stores data values in a set of structured flat files. The data is organized in the files based upon functions specified by the user in order to enable fast insertion and retrieval of data.

  15. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.; Winsche, W.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  16. On applications of chimera grid schemes to store separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A finite difference scheme which uses multiple overset meshes to simulate the aerodynamics of aircraft/store interaction and store separation is described. In this chimera, or multiple mesh, scheme, a complex configuration is mapped using a major grid about the main component of the configuration, and minor overset meshes are used to map each additional component such as a store. As a first step in modeling the aerodynamics of store separation, two dimensional inviscid flow calculations were carried out in which one of the minor meshes is allowed to move with respect to the major grid. Solutions of calibrated two dimensional problems indicate that allowing one mesh to move with respect to another does not adversely affect the time accuracy of an unsteady solution. Steady, inviscid three dimensional computations demonstrate the capability to simulate complex configurations, including closely packed multiple bodies.

  17. 39. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, STAIRS UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, STAIRS UP TO WINCH ROOM, SEWAGE TANK IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 38. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD WITH SEWAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD WITH SEWAGE TANK IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Sastre, Cesar; Winsche, Warren

    1981-01-01

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  20. 4. VIEW FROM WEST END OF STORE AND ADMINISTRATION BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW FROM WEST END OF STORE AND ADMINISTRATION BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS INTERSECTION OF TECHWOOD DRIVE AND MERRITTS AVENUE. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA